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Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791964/ultrasound-guided-treatment-of-peripheral-nerve-pathology
#1
Nathan Dettori, Hema Choudur, Avneesh Chhabra
High-resolution ultrasound serves as a fast, accessible, reliable, and radiation-free tool for anatomical and dynamic evaluation of various peripheral nerves. It can be used not only to identify and diagnose peripheral nerve and perineural pathology accurately but also to guide various nerve and perineural interventions. We describe the normal and pathologic appearances of peripheral nerves, the pathologies commonly affecting the individual peripheral nerves, and the current ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve interventions and techniques...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791963/nerve-entrapment-in-ankle-and-foot-ultrasound-imaging
#2
Basavaraj Chari, Eugene McNally
Peripheral nerve entrapment of the ankle and foot is relatively uncommon and often underdiagnosed because electrophysiologic studies may not contribute to the diagnosis. Anatomy of the peripheral nerves is variable and complex, and along with a comprehensive physical examination, a thorough understanding of the applied anatomy is essential. Several studies have helped identify specific areas in which nerves are commonly compressed. Identified secondary causes of nerve compression include previous trauma, osteophytes, ganglion cysts, edema, accessory muscles, tenosynovitis, vascular lesions, and a primary nerve tumor...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791962/nerve-entrapment-syndromes-at-the-wrist-and-elbow-by-sonography
#3
Andrea S Klauser, Tommaso Buzzegoli, Mihra S Taljanovic, Sylvia Strobl, Stefan Rauch, James Teh, Julia Wanschitz, Wolfgang Löscher, Carlo Martinoli
Nerve entrapment syndromes of the upper extremity are associated with structural abnormalities or by an intrinsic abnormality of the nerve. Nerve entrapment syndromes generally have a typical clinical presentation, and findings on physical examination and in conjunction with electrodiagnostic studies imaging is used to evaluate the cause, severity, and etiology of the entrapment. With the development of high-frequency linear array transducers (12-24 MHz), ultrasound (US) is incomparable in terms of spatial resolution to depict morphological aspects and changes in nerves...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791961/getting-started-with-magnetic-resonance-neurography
#4
Gustav Andreisek, Nicolae V Bolog
This article provides a review of magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) and how to get started. It explains step by step how to establish MRN at an institution: how to set up MRN protocols, how to train technicians, what a report needs to contain, and how relevant findings should be communicated to the referring physician. Advanced imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging are only briefly discussed at the end of the article because most of those techniques are difficult for beginners and are still not considered standard in the clinical routine...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791960/ultrasound-of-the-brachial-plexus
#5
James F Griffith
Examination of the brachial plexus with ultrasound is efficient because it allows many parts of the brachial plexus as well as the surrounding soft tissues to be assessed with high spatial resolution. The key to performing good ultrasound of the brachial plexus is being familiar with the anatomy and the common variants. That makes it possible to concentrate solely on the ultrasound appearances free of simultaneously wondering about the anatomy. Ultrasound of the brachial plexus is particularly good for assessing nerve sheath tumor, perineural fibrosis, metastases, some inflammatory neuropathies, neuralgic amyotrophy, and posttraumatic sequalae...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791959/sarcopenia-beyond-muscle-atrophy-and-into-the-new-frontiers-of-opportunistic-imaging-precision-medicine-and-machine-learning
#6
Leon Lenchik, Robert D Boutin
As populations continue to age worldwide, the impact of sarcopenia on public health will continue to grow. The clinically relevant and increasingly common diagnosis of sarcopenia is at the confluence of three tectonic shifts in medicine: opportunistic imaging, precision medicine, and machine learning. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art imaging of sarcopenia and provides context for such imaging by discussing the epidemiology, pathophysiology, consequences, and future directions in the field of sarcopenia...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791958/imaging-patterns-of-muscle-atrophy
#7
Marc-André Weber, Marcel Wolf, Mike P Wattjes
The role of muscle imaging in the diagnosis of inherited and acquired muscle diseases has gained clinical relevance. In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used for diagnostic purposes, especially with its capability of whole-body musculature assessment. The assessment and quantification of muscle involvement in muscle diseases can be of diagnostic value by identifying a certain involvement pattern and thus narrowing the differential diagnosis and supporting the clinical diagnosis...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791957/myositis-and-fasciitis-role-of-imaging
#8
Yoshimi Endo, Theodore T Miller
Imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of patients presenting with possible myositis, with magnetic resonance imaging the most appropriate modality but ultrasound also playing a complementary role. This article reviews the imaging appearance of the inflammatory myopathies, other forms of myositis, and mimickers of myositis, with a discussion of distinguishing features for each entity. The fascia and disease processes that preferentially involve the fascia are also reviewed.
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791956/accessory-muscles-of-the-extremities
#9
Filip M Vanhoenacker, Julie Desimpel, Marc Mespreuve, Alberto Tagliafico
Accessory muscles and variations are not uncommon at the upper and lower extremity. They are often overlooked because they are asymptomatic and present as incidental findings on imaging. However, they may present as a soft tissue swelling, thereby mimicking soft tissue tumors. Other symptoms are attributed to impingement on neurovascular structures and to exercise-related pain. Thorough knowledge of the anatomy, systematic imaging analysis, and the awareness of it are the clues to correct identification. On ultrasound, accessory muscles have a similar echotexture as other muscles, whereas the signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is similar to muscle...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791955/muscle-tendon-enthesis-unit
#10
Anthony S Tadros, Brady K Huang, Mini N Pathria
Injuries to the muscle-tendon-enthesis unit are common and a significant source of pain and loss of function. This article focuses on the important anatomical and biomechanical considerations for each component of the muscle-tendon-enthesis unit. We review normal and pathologic conditions affecting this unit, illustrating the imaging appearance of common disorders on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. Knowledge of the anatomy and biomechanics of these structures is crucial for the radiologist to make accurate diagnoses and provide clinically relevant assessments...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791954/muscle-and-nerve-imaging
#11
Monique Reijnierse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672812/cartilage-imaging-techniques-and-developments
#12
Edwin H G Oei, Marius C Wick, Anja Müller-Lutz, Christoph Schleich, Falk R Miese
Cartilage degeneration is one of the most common chronic age-related joint disorders leading to pain and reduced joint motion. The increasing prevalence of osteoarthritis requires accurate cartilage imaging, both clinically and in research. Detailed cartilage imaging is also necessary for traumatic cartilage lesions and for pre- and postoperative assessment of cartilage repair procedures. Although still widely used, conventional radiography bears significant limitations because it assesses cartilage indirectly by joint space width...
April 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672811/novel-imaging-techniques-in-rheumatic-diseases
#13
Robert Hemke, Vasco Mascarenhas, Mario Maas
Since the introduction of new MR imaging techniques within the past two decades, the imaging assessment of joints in rheumatic diseases has changed considerably. MRI enables to evaluate both the inflamed synovial membrane as well as early structural damage. In the last few years, several new functional/metabolic MR imaging techniques have applied in rheumatic diseases, making it possible to evaluate the pathophysiology of the disease in greater detail. Moreover, they permit a more quantitative approach for the evaluation of disease activity and damage...
April 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672810/advanced-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-gout-and-other-crystal-arthropathies
#14
James Teh, Fiona McQueen, Iris Eshed, Athena Plagou, Andrea Klauser
In recent years significant advances have been made in imaging techniques. Dual-energy computed tomography has revolutionized the ability to detect and quantify gout. The key ultrasound features of gout have been defined. Magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent modality for demonstrating the extent and severity of crystal arthropathies, but the findings may be nonspecific. This article summarizes the use of advanced imaging techniques in the diagnosis and assessment of gout and other crystal arthropathies...
April 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672809/sapho-and-crmo-the-value-of-imaging
#15
Anne Grethe Jurik, Rikke Fuglsang Klicman, Paolo Simoni, Philip Robinson, James Teh
The syndromes synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) constitute a group of chronic relapsing inflammatory osteoarticular disorders with frequently associated skin eruptions such as palmoplantar pustulosis and acne conglobata and rather characteristic imaging features in the form of osteitis and/or hyperostosis. CRMO predominantly occurs in children/adolescents and SAPHO in adults. Any skeletal site can be involved, and the imaging appearances vary, depending on the patient's age and the stage/age of the lesion...
April 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672808/anterior-chest-wall-in-axial-spondyloarthritis-imaging-interpretation-and-differential-diagnosis
#16
Winston J Rennie, Lennart Jans, Anne Grethe Jurik, Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska, Claudia Schueller-Weidekamm, Iris Eshed
Anterior chest wall (ACW) inflammation is not an uncommon finding in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (ax-SpA) and reportedly occurs in 26% of these patients. Radiologists may only be familiar with spinal and peripheral joint imaging, possibly due to the inherent challenges of ACW imaging on some cross-sectional imaging modalities. Knowledge of relevant joint anatomy and the location of sites of inflammation allows the interpreting radiologist to better plan appropriate imaging tests and imaging planes...
April 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672807/imaging-to-differentiate-the-various-forms-of-seronegative-arthritis
#17
Iris Eshed, Kay-Geert A Hermann, Anna Zejden, Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska
Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a group of diseases characterized by back pain, spinal inflammation, human leukocyte antigen-B27 positivity, and peripheral findings such as dactylitis, enthesitis, and uveitis. It includes ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease, and undifferentiated SpA. The role of imaging in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients with SpA has become dramatically more important with the introduction of new therapies such as tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors...
April 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672806/sacroiliitis-in-axial-spondyloarthritis-assessing-morphology-and-activity
#18
Lennart Jans, Niels Egund, Iris Eshed, Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska, Anne Grethe Jurik
OBJECTIVE:  To review the strengths, limitations, and new insights in the anatomy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of active and structural lesions of sacroiliitis in spondyloarthritis. DISCUSSION:  MRI plays a key role in the diagnosis and follow-up of sacroiliitis in spondyloarthritis. MRI of the sacroiliac joints in affected patients may show active lesions such as bone marrow edema, capsulitis, enthesitis, or synovitis as well as structural changes such as erosion, fat infiltration, sclerosis, backfill, and ankylosis...
April 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672805/musculoskeletal-manifestations-of-non-ra-connective-tissue-diseases-scleroderma-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-still-s-disease-dermatomyositis-polymyositis-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-and-mixed-connective-tissue-disease
#19
Thibaut Jacques, Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska, Neal Larkman, Phil O'Connor, Anne Cotten
The most common systemic rheumatologic conditions are connective tissue diseases (including rheumatoid arthritis [RA]) followed by spondyloarthropathy. With the advent of biotherapies and imaging biomarkers, development in the imaging of RA and spondyloarthropathies has received substantial attention in the literature. This article details the various musculoskeletal imaging features of the other connective tissue diseases such as scleroderma and progressive systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Still's disease, dermatomyositis and polymyositis, Sjögren's syndrome, and mixed connective tissue disease...
April 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672804/imaging-features-of-the-juvenile-inflammatory-arthropathies
#20
Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska, Lennart Jans, Anne Grethe Jurik, Robert Hemke, Iris Eshed, Nathalie Boutry
We discuss the imaging of several juvenile inflammatory arthropathies including juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile scleroderma, juvenile dermatomyositis, and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune chronic systemic disease of connective tissue in children. The remaining systemic juvenile connective tissue diseases are rare. However, they require early diagnosis and initiation of treatment to prevent injury, not only to the musculoskeletal system but also to the internal organs, and even death...
April 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
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