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Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation

Stacey S Huppert, Kathleen M Campbell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the liver possesses a unique, innate ability to regenerate through mass compensation, transplantation remains the only therapy when damage outpaces regeneration, or liver metabolic capacity is irreversibly impacted. Recent insight from developmental biology has greatly influenced the advancement of alternative options to transplantation in these settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Factors known to direct liver cell specification, expansion, and differentiation have been used to generate hepatocyte-like cells from stem and somatic cells for developing cell therapies...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Cees van Kooten, Ton J Rabelink, Johan W de Fijter, Marlies E J Reinders
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Progress in the improvement of short-term and long-term outcomes of kidney transplantation seems to have reached a plateau, partially due to consequences of very efficient, but nonspecific immunosuppressive drugs. In recent years, various forms of cell therapy, including the use of mesenchymal stromal cells, have been put forward as an alternative strategy for more defined therapy. It is thought that these therapies will not only allow controlled tapering of immunosuppressive medication, but might bring us also closer to the ambition of generating donor-specific immune regulation and tolerance...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Liu Liu, Ienglam Lei, Zhong Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the world today, and the death rate has remained virtually unchanged in the last 20 years (American Heart Association). This severe life-threatening disease underscores a critical need for developing novel therapeutic strategies to effectively treat this devastating disease. Cell-based therapy represents an extremely promising approach. Generation of induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) directly from fibroblasts offers an attractive novel strategy for in-situ heart regeneration...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Christian L Johnson, Yorick Soeder, Marc H Dahlke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review presents an update on the existing preclinical and human experience of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapies for post-transplant immunomodulation. RECENT FINDINGS: Although results from early clinical studies have demonstrated that the application of autologous and allogeneic MSC to be both safe and feasible in a solid organ transplantation setting, for example in liver, the efficacy of MSC immunotherapy demonstrated in preclinical models has yet to be replicated in human clinical trials...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Philip J O'Connell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
D Jane Holmes-Walker, Thomas W H Kay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Islet transplantation has made great progress in recent years. This is a remarkable technical feat but raises the question of what the long-term benefits and risks are for type I diabetes recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Graft survival continues to improve, and recent multicenter studies show that islet transplantation is particularly effective to prevent hypoglycemic events even in those who do not become insulin-independent and to achieve excellent glycemic control...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Marta Vadori, Luca Denaro, Domenico D'Avella, Emanuele Cozzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The replacement of damaged cells in the central nervous system (CNS) affected by degenerative disorders represents an attractive therapeutic strategy. The advent of stem cell technology may offer the possibility of generating a large number of renewable, specifically differentiated cells to potentially cure large cohorts of patients. In this review, we discuss current knowledge and issues involved in neural cell transplantation. The most important preclinical and clinical results of cellular transplantation applied to Parkinson's, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis will be summarized...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Sepehr Hashemi, Mehran Armand, Chad R Gordon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the development and refinement of the computer-assisted planning and execution (CAPE) system for use in face-jaw-teeth transplants (FJTTs). RECENT FINDINGS: Although successful, some maxillofacial transplants result in suboptimal hybrid occlusion and may require subsequent surgical orthognathic revisions. Unfortunately, the use of traditional dental casts and splints pose several compromising shortcomings in the context of FJTT and hybrid occlusion...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Zhilian Yue, Xiao Liu, Patrick T Coates, Gordon G Wallace
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rapid advances in bioprinting have attracted the attention of the clinical world. The advent of printable, cytocompatible materials and appropriate hardware provides an unprecedented ability to design and create 3D structures throughout which living cells and bioactive components are strategically distributed. Here, we review those advances and present how they can be used to create new structures for more effective islet cell transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a need for improvements in the delivery vehicle for transplantable islet cells...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Antoine Sicard, Jean Kanitakis, Valérie Dubois, Palmina Petruzzo, Lionel Badet, Olivier Thaunat, Emmanuel Morelon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) has several immunological peculiarities that imply a specific immune monitoring. Here, we provide an integrated view of current procedures of immune monitoring in VCA and potential complementary approaches learned from organ transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Because the skin is highly immunogenic and is the main target of the alloimmune response, immune monitoring in VCA essentially relies on visual inspection and pathological examination of for-causes and protocol skin biopsies...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Annemarie Weissenbacher, Alexandre Loupy, Anil Chandraker, Stefan Schneeberger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) increases the risk of graft failure. Although DSA characteristics, human leukocyte antigen class specificity, mean fluorescence intensity and immunoglobulin G subclasses, and their impact on the graft are quite well studied in solid organ transplants, very little information is known about their impact on vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA). The aim of this review is to highlight recent publications regarding occurrence and effects of DSA, their follow-up and treatment in the field of VCA...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Peter J Cowan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, I will summarize recent developments in the use of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) genome editing system for cell transplant applications, ranging from transplantation of corrected autologous patient stem cells to treat inherited diseases, to the tailoring of donor pigs for cell xenotransplantation. Rational engineering of the Cas9 nuclease to improve its specificity will also be discussed...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Sheila Jowsey-Gregoire, Martin Kumnig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) encompasses hand, face, uterus, penile and lower extremity transplantation. Psychosocial factors are recognized as important, but no standard approach to the evaluation, selection or posttransplant care has been described and thus, the development of a standardized approach is needed. RECENT FINDINGS: Various psychosocial assessment tools have been reported. Body image and the functional impact of hand versus face transplantation are notable issues...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Shahnaz Khan, Sandy Shen-Chi Hung, Raymond Ching-Bong Wong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review aims to provide an update of applications of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for disease modeling, cell/gene therapy, and drug screening for optic neuropathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a characteristic of optic neuropathies. Human iPSCs can serve as a model to investigate disease pathology and potential repair mechanisms. In recent years, significant progress has been made in generating RGCs from iPSCs...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Wayne J Hawthorne, Andrew M Lew, Helen E Thomas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the benefits of islet and pancreas allotransplantation, their widespread use in type 1 diabetes is limited because of the paucity of suitable donors. Porcine xenotransplantation offers an alternative, and advances in genetic modification of pigs have opened up new potential for its clinical use. This review outlines the barriers to successful islet xenotransplantation, and genetic modifications that have been tested to overcome these. RECENT FINDINGS: Islets from pigs lacking α1,3-galactosyltransferase, to prevent hyperacute rejection, are now used as a background strain for further genetic modifications...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
James Barnes, Fadi Issa, Georgios Vrakas, Peter Friend, Henk Giele
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Abdominal wall transplantation is a technique used to achieve abdominal closure after intestinal and multivisceral transplantation. This review focuses on whether there are additional benefits for the skin component as an immune-monitoring tool. RECENT FINDINGS: The largest series of abdominal wall transplants has recently been published. Alongside the physiological advantage gained in abdominal closure, the authors describe the immunological insight that the skin component can provide and how this contributes to the management of patients...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Franka Messner, Johanna Grahammer, Theresa Hautz, Gerald Brandacher, Stefan Schneeberger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) in vascularized tissue allotransplantation (VCA) remain largely undefined. Because VCA is comprised of different tissues, the sensitivity towards IRI may not be uniform. We, herein, attempt to address mechanistic aspects of IRI in VCA and provide a summary on potential technologies and targets for amelioration or treatment of IRI in this novel field. RECENT FINDINGS: IRI results in a loosened architecture of musculature, hypertrophic, centrally located cell nuclei as well as a high degree of neovascularization...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Nancy L Reinsmoen, Xiaohai Zhang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Development of donor human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-specific antibodies is associated with graft loss, yet the role of non-HLA antibodies in solid organ transplant needs to be further defined. It is suggested that HLA antibodies and non-HLA antibodies collaborate together to impact graft outcome. This review focuses on the latest findings on antibodies against these non-HLA antigens in thoracic organ transplant. RECENT FINDINGS: These non-HLA antigens include signaling proteins expressed on the cell surface, such as angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), endothelin type A receptor, and structure proteins, such as myosin, vimentin, and Kα1 tubulin, and extracellular matrix protein collagen...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
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