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Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898465/the-intragraft-microenvironment-as-a-central-determinant-of-chronic-rejection-or-local-immunoregulation-tolerance
#1
Johannes Wedel, Hironao Nakayama, Nora M Kochupurakkal, Josephine Koch, Michael Klagsbrun, Diane R Bielenberg, David M Briscoe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic rejection is associated with persistent mononuclear cell recruitment, endothelial activation and proliferation, local tissue hypoxia and related biology that enhance effector immune responses. In contrast, the tumor microenvironment elicits signals/factors that inhibit effector T cell responses and rather promote immunoregulation locally within the tissue itself. The identification of immunoregulatory check points and/or secreted factors that are deficient within allografts is of great importance in the understanding and prevention of chronic rejection...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898464/donor-derived-exosomes-the-trick-behind-the-semidirect-pathway-of-allorecognition
#2
Adrian E Morelli, William Bracamonte-Baran, William J Burlingham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The passenger leukocyte hypothesis predicts that after transplantation, donor antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from the graft present donor MHC molecules to directly alloreactive T cells in lymphoid organs. However, in certain transplantation models, recent evidence contradicts this long-standing concept. New findings demonstrate that host, instead of donor, APCs play a prominent role in allosensitization against donor MHC molecules via the semidirect pathway. A similar mechanism operates in development of T-cell split tolerance to noninherited maternal antigens...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898463/transplantation-tolerance-after-allograft-rejection
#3
Michelle L Miller, Maria-Luisa Alegre, Anita S Chong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although elusive for many decades, transplantation tolerance can now be achieved in the clinic. This has prompted follow-up investigations into its stability and longevity, as well as into barriers to its induction, which include memory T and B cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical observations reveal that transplantation tolerance can be induced in adult recipients and that even episodes of acute rejection do not preclude successful weaning from immunosuppression to reveal tolerance...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898462/recent-advances-in-allograft-vasculopathy
#4
Jonathan Merola, Daniel D Jane-Wit, Jordan S Pober
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite considerable advances in controlling acute rejection, the longevity of cardiac and renal allografts remains significantly limited by chronic rejection in the form of allograft vasculopathy. This review discusses recently reported mechanistic insights of allograft vasculopathy pathogenesis as well as recent clinical evaluations of new therapeutic approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Although adaptive immunity is the major driver of allograft vasculopathy, natural killer cells mediate vasculopathic changes in a transplanted mouse heart following treatment with donor-specific antibody (DSA)...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861263/mechanisms-of-graft-rejection-after-lung-transplantation
#5
Hsi-Min Hsiao, Davide Scozzi, Jason M Gauthier, Daniel Kreisel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To date, outcomes after lung transplantation are far worse than after transplantation of other solid organs. New insights into mechanisms that contribute to graft rejection and tolerance after lung transplantation remain of great interest. This review examines the recent literature on the role of innate and adaptive immunity in shaping the fate of lung grafts. RECENT FINDINGS: Innate and adaptive immune cells orchestrate allograft rejection after transplantation...
November 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755169/emerging-advancements-in-liver-regeneration-and-organogenesis-as-tools-for-liver-replacement
#6
Stacey S Huppert, Kathleen M Campbell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the liver possesses a unique, innate ability to regenerate through mass compensation, transplantation remains the only therapy when damage outpaces regeneration, or liver metabolic capacity is irreversibly impacted. Recent insight from developmental biology has greatly influenced the advancement of alternative options to transplantation in these settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Factors known to direct liver cell specification, expansion, and differentiation have been used to generate hepatocyte-like cells from stem and somatic cells for developing cell therapies...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755168/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-clinical-kidney-transplantation-how-tolerant-can-it-be
#7
Cees van Kooten, Ton J Rabelink, Johan W de Fijter, Marlies E J Reinders
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Progress in the improvement of short-term and long-term outcomes of kidney transplantation seems to have reached a plateau, partially due to consequences of very efficient, but nonspecific immunosuppressive drugs. In recent years, various forms of cell therapy, including the use of mesenchymal stromal cells, have been put forward as an alternative strategy for more defined therapy. It is thought that these therapies will not only allow controlled tapering of immunosuppressive medication, but might bring us also closer to the ambition of generating donor-specific immune regulation and tolerance...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755167/improving-cardiac-reprogramming-for-heart-regeneration
#8
Liu Liu, Ienglam Lei, Zhong Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the world today, and the death rate has remained virtually unchanged in the last 20 years (American Heart Association). This severe life-threatening disease underscores a critical need for developing novel therapeutic strategies to effectively treat this devastating disease. Cell-based therapy represents an extremely promising approach. Generation of induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) directly from fibroblasts offers an attractive novel strategy for in-situ heart regeneration...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805947/bone-marrow-chimerism-as-a-strategy-to-produce-tolerance-in-solid-organ-allotransplantation
#9
Min Hu, Stephen I Alexander, Shounan Yi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinical transplant tolerance has been most successfully achieved combining hematopoietic chimerism with kidney transplantation. This review outlines this strategy in animal models and human transplantation, and possible clinical challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: Kidney transplant tolerance has been achieved through chimerism in several centers beginning with Massachusetts General Hospital's success with mixed chimerism in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched patients and the Stanford group with HLA-matched patients, and the more recent success of the Northwestern protocol achieving full chimerism...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805946/making-new-kidneys-on-the-road-from-science-fiction-to-science-fact
#10
Oded Volovelsky, Raphael Kopan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allogenic kidney transplantation use is limited because of a shortage of kidney organ donors and the risks associated with a long-term immunosuppression. An emerging treatment prospect is autologous transplants of ex vivo produced human kidneys. Here we will review the research advances in this area. RECENT FINDINGS: The creation of human induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells and the emergence of several differentiation protocols that are able to convert iPSCs cells into self-organizing kidney organoids are two large steps toward assembling a human kidney in vitro...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805945/mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-promote-islet-transplant-survival
#11
Karen English
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are adult stromal cells with therapeutic potential in allogeneic islet transplantation for type 1 diabetes patients. The process of islet isolation alone has been shown to negatively impact islet survival and function in vivo. In addition, insults mediated by the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction, hypoxia, ischemia and immune response significantly impact the islet allograft post transplantation. MSCs are known to exert cytoprotective and immune modulatory properties and thus are an attractive therapeutic in this context...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805944/editorial-introduction
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801687/mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-to-promote-corneal-allograft-survival-current-status-and-pathway-to-clinical-translation
#13
Nick Murphy, Kevin Lynch, Paul Lohan, Oliver Treacy, Thomas Ritter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the literature on the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to prolong corneal allograft survival. RECENT FINDINGS: To date, only small numbers studies have investigated the MSC ability to modulate corneal allograft survival. Most reports have shown positive results, which is encouraging, however as different MSC-application strategies (time point of injection, cell number/number of injections, route of injection, MSC source, MSC licensing) have been employed in various animal models it is difficult to compare and validate the results...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750256/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-for-immunoregulation-after-liver-transplantation-the-scene-in-2016
#14
Christian L Johnson, Yorick Soeder, Marc H Dahlke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review presents an update on the existing preclinical and human experience of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapies for post-transplant immunomodulation. RECENT FINDINGS: Although results from early clinical studies have demonstrated that the application of autologous and allogeneic MSC to be both safe and feasible in a solid organ transplantation setting, for example in liver, the efficacy of MSC immunotherapy demonstrated in preclinical models has yet to be replicated in human clinical trials...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579609/editorial-introductions
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517511/new-solutions-to-old-problems-in-cell-transplantation
#16
Philip J O'Connell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517510/long-term-effects-of-islet-transplantation
#17
D Jane Holmes-Walker, Thomas W H Kay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Islet transplantation has made great progress in recent years. This is a remarkable technical feat but raises the question of what the long-term benefits and risks are for type I diabetes recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Graft survival continues to improve, and recent multicenter studies show that islet transplantation is particularly effective to prevent hypoglycemic events even in those who do not become insulin-independent and to achieve excellent glycemic control...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517509/indications-and-prospects-of-neural-transplantation-for-chronic-neurological-diseases
#18
Marta Vadori, Luca Denaro, Domenico D'Avella, Emanuele Cozzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The replacement of damaged cells in the central nervous system (CNS) affected by degenerative disorders represents an attractive therapeutic strategy. The advent of stem cell technology may offer the possibility of generating a large number of renewable, specifically differentiated cells to potentially cure large cohorts of patients. In this review, we discuss current knowledge and issues involved in neural cell transplantation. The most important preclinical and clinical results of cellular transplantation applied to Parkinson's, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis will be summarized...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517508/development-and-refinement-of-computer-assisted-planning-and-execution-system-for-use-in-face-jaw-teeth-transplantation-to-improve-skeletal-and-dento-occlusal-outcomes
#19
Sepehr Hashemi, Mehran Armand, Chad R Gordon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the development and refinement of the computer-assisted planning and execution (CAPE) system for use in face-jaw-teeth transplants (FJTTs). RECENT FINDINGS: Although successful, some maxillofacial transplants result in suboptimal hybrid occlusion and may require subsequent surgical orthognathic revisions. Unfortunately, the use of traditional dental casts and splints pose several compromising shortcomings in the context of FJTT and hybrid occlusion...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517507/advances-in-printing-biomaterials-and-living-cells-implications-for-islet-cell-transplantation
#20
Zhilian Yue, Xiao Liu, Patrick T Coates, Gordon G Wallace
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rapid advances in bioprinting have attracted the attention of the clinical world. The advent of printable, cytocompatible materials and appropriate hardware provides an unprecedented ability to design and create 3D structures throughout which living cells and bioactive components are strategically distributed. Here, we review those advances and present how they can be used to create new structures for more effective islet cell transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a need for improvements in the delivery vehicle for transplantable islet cells...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
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