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Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation

Anat R Tambur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A renaissance for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing emerged with the understanding that donor-specific HLA antibodies play a significant role in long-term allograft survival. This renewed focus on donor/recipient histocompatibility led to a recent quest to decipher antibody responses or, as introduced into the transplantation lexicon, 'HLA-epitope matching'. RECENT FINDINGS: Whether matching is at the antigen or the epitope level, in-depth understanding of how histo-incompatibility leads to activation of an immune response is required...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Erik B Finger, John C Bischof
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to describe the physical and biological barriers to organ cryopreservation, historic approaches for conventional cryopreservation and evolving techniques for ice-free cryopreservation by vitrification. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitrification is a process whereby a biologic substance is cooled to cryogenic temperatures without the destructive phase transition of liquid to solid ice. Recent advances in cryoprotective solutions, organ perfusion techniques and novel heating technologies have demonstrated the potential for vitrification and rewarming organs on a scale applicable for human transplantation...
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Abbas Ardehali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Matyas Hamar, Markus Selzner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Machine perfusion is a novel strategy to decrease preservation injury, improve graft assessment, and increase organ acceptance for transplantation. This review summarizes the current advances in ex-vivo machine-based kidney preservation technologies over the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: Ex-vivo perfusion technologies, such as hypothermic and normothermic machine perfusion and controlled oxygenated rewarming, have gained high interest in the field of organ preservation...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Barry Fuller, Farid Froghi, Brian Davidson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an understanding of the scientific principles, which underpinned the development of organ preservation solutions, and to bring into context new strategies and challenges for solution development against the background of changing preservation technologies and expanded criteria donor access. RECENT FINDINGS: Improvements in organ preservation solutions continue to be made with new pharmacological approaches. New solutions have been developed for dynamic perfusion preservation and are now in clinical application...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Hannah Copeland, Jack Copeland, J W Awori Hayanga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Within the United States, donor heart and lung procurement varies between institutions and among surgeons within the same institution sometimes. The purpose of this article is to review the history of donor heart and lung procurement, the surgical techniques, and pitfalls. RECENT FINDINGS: The current article covers the important intraoperative evaluation of the donor heart and lungs at the procurement hospital and the surgical pitfalls that can be prevented to ensure good procurement of donor heart and lungs...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Alyssa Ward, David K Klassen, Kate M Franz, Sebastian Giwa, Jedediah K Lewis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite over 60 years of progress in the field of since the first organ transplant, insufficient organ preservation capabilities still place profound constraints on transplantation. These constraints play multiple and compounding roles in the predominant limitations of the field: the severe shortages of transplant organs, short-term and long-term posttransplant outcomes and complications, the unmet global need for development of transplant infrastructures, and economic burdens that limit patient access to transplantation and contribute to increasing global healthcare costs...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Catherine G Min, Klearchos K Papas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize current literature and recent findings on the potential of humidified oxygenated gas perfusion (persufflation) as an alternative method for improved organ preservation. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there are some conflicting data, the majority of the evidence suggests that persufflation, by enhancing oxygenation, can improve preservation and even rescue organs, including organs with prior exposure to warm ischemia. In some cases, persufflation produced better results than hypothermic machine perfusion...
April 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Danielle Detelich, James F Markmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) is an emerging technology for liver preservation. Early clinical results demonstrate beneficial effects in reconditioning high-risk grafts. This review discusses the role of normothermic perfusion as a tool to assess graft viability and as a platform for graft intervention and modification. RECENT FINDINGS: The potential benefits of NMP extend far beyond organ reconditioning. Recent pilot studies have identified clinically relevant viability criteria, which now require validation in large randomized control trials prior to implementation...
April 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Shambhu Aryal, Steven D Nathan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lung transplantation is a life-saving treatment for several end stage lung diseases. Over the last two decades, the number of lung transplantation performed worldwide has steadily increased but several thousand people still die every year waiting for lung transplantation. However, the optimal procedure for lung transplantation in non-septic lung conditions remains debatable. RECENT FINDINGS: In pulmonary fibrosis and COPD, many recent studies suggest superiority of bilateral lung transplantation over single lung transplantation when long-term survival is evaluated; consequently, bilateral lung transplantation has been favored by many lung transplantation centers...
April 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Neel K Ranganath, Deane E Smith, Nader Moazami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many patients suffer from either persistent right ventricular failure (RVF) at the time of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) or have ongoing symptoms consistent with RVF during chronic mechanical circulatory support. The lack of long-term right ventricular assist devices (RVADs) has limited the impact that mechanical circulatory support can provide to patients with biventricular failure. We aim to review the entire spectrum of RVF in patients receiving LVADs and reflect on why this entity remains the Achilles' heel of LVAD therapy...
April 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Rade Tomic, Marshall I Hertz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to review recent literature related to mechanisms and treatment options for 'secondary' (i.e., WHO Groups 3 and 5) pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). RECENT FINDINGS: Published randomized controlled trials, in general, do not support the use of approved therapies for 'primary' (i.e., WHO Group 1) PAH patients in patients with Group 3 PAH because of the small numbers of patients and inconsistent benefit. Therefore, we currently recommend against the use of these medications for Group 3 PAH...
April 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Martin Schweiger, Angela Lorts, Jennifer Conway
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increased miniaturization of ventricular assist devices (VADs) and new mechanical support strategies (MCS) has increased the use of MCS in the pediatric and congenital heart disease (CHD) population. This comes with the need for care providers specialized in this field to determine optimal patient and device selection, and to improve outcomes and decrease complication rates for new innovative strategies. A review of the published literature in this field is timely and relevant...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Amanda L Hulbert, Elizabeth N Pavlisko, Scott M Palmer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is increasing recognition of the importance of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) after lung transplantation. The development of donor-specific antibodies, a key feature of AMR, occurs in approximately 30% of lung transplant recipients and is associated with poor posttransplant outcomes. This review highlights recently developed AMR diagnostic criteria in lung transplantation, potential mechanisms that mediate the development of AMR, and discusses current and emerging treatment strategies for this significant, graft-limiting complication...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Eugene C DePasquale, Abbas Ardehali
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is common early postheart transplantation; however, use of standardized definitions remains inconsistent. This review focuses on understanding the incidence, classification, risk factors, and management of PGD. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence and mortality of PGD in heart transplant varies considerably in the published literature ranging from 1.0% to 31% and 3% to 75%, respectively. There is also considerable variation in management strategies with current data favoring early intervention...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
R Mark Ghobrial
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Keisha Bonner, Julie K Heimbach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The epidemic of obesity is having a marked impact on liver transplant candidates and recipients, and optimal approach for the obese liver transplant patient is not yet defined. The current review summarizes the role of bariatric surgery in obese liver transplant patients. RECENT FINDINGS: NASH is now the second most common indication for listing for liver transplantation and is the third most common reason for patients undergoing liver transplantation...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Armando Ganoza, Neslihan Celik, George V Mazariegos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The field of intestinal transplantation has shown significant growth and has become the gold standard therapy for patients that suffer from the complications of total parenteral nutrition due to irreversible intestinal failure. In the early years of intestinal transplant, retransplantation was associated with extremely high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent encouraging reports, showing significant improvement in outcomes after intestinal retransplantation...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Constance M Mobley, Ashish Saharia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with liver failure and liver-related diseases are often critically ill. Here, we review advances in donor organ management, tools for patient selection and highlight ICU management of liver transplant (LT) recipients. A focused discussion on the impact each of these factors have on critical care management of liver failure patients is presented. RECENT FINDINGS: Artificial liver assist devices to increase donor organ utilization are broadening the potential for transplantation of critically ill patients...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
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