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Current Protocols in Pharmacology

Katy Phelan, Kristin M May
Cultured tissues and cells are used extensively in physiological and pharmacological studies. In vitro cultures provide a means of examining cells and tissues without the complex interactions that would be present if the whole organism were studied. A number of special skills are required in order to preserve the structure, function, behavior, and biology of cells in culture. This unit describes the basic skills required to maintain and preserve cell cultures: maintaining aseptic technique, preparing media with the appropriate characteristics, passaging, freezing and storage, recovering frozen stocks, and counting viable cells...
June 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Fuyi Chen, Albert Becker, Joseph LoTurco
Many animal models have been developed to investigate the sources of central nervous system (CNS) tumor heterogeneity. Reviewed in this unit is a recently developed CNS tumor model using the piggyBac transposon system delivered by in utero electroporation, in which sources of tumor heterogeneity can be conveniently studied. Their applications for studying CNS tumors and drug discovery are also reviewed. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
March 18, 2016: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Andrew Alt
Allosteric ligands modulate the activity of receptor targets by binding to sites that are distinct from the orthosteric (native agonist) binding site. Allosteric modulators have potential therapeutic advantages over orthosteric agonists and antagonists, including improved selectivity, and maintenance of the spatial and temporal fidelity of native signaling patterns. The identification of allosteric ligands presents unique challenges because of the requirement for screening in the presence of an orthosteric agonist, the small signal window that is produced by many allosteric modulators, the proclivity of allosteric modulators to exhibit activity switching within a chemotype (e...
2016: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Kathleen M Knights, David M Stresser, John O Miners, Charles L Crespi
Knowledge of the metabolic stability of newly discovered drug candidates eliminated by metabolism is essential for predicting the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters that underpin dosing and dosage frequency. Further, characterization of the enzyme(s) responsible for metabolism (reaction phenotyping) allows prediction, at least at the qualitative level, of factors (including metabolic drug-drug interactions) likely to alter the clearance of both new chemical entities (NCEs) and established drugs. Microsomes are typically used as the enzyme source for the measurement of metabolic stability and for reaction phenotyping because they express the major drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), along with others that contribute to drug metabolism...
2016: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Michael S Saporito, Eva Zuvich, Amy DiCamillo
Detailed in this unit is a mouse model of overactive bladder and urinary incontinence based on diuretic stress-induced urination. The procedure involves the use of a unique, highly sensitive, and automated urine capturing method to measure urinary latency, frequency, and void volume. Although this method was first described and validated using an anti-muscarinic drug used for treating overactive bladder, subsequent work has shown that effective non-cholinergic agents can be detected. These findings indicate good predictive value for this model regarding the possible clinical utility of test agents as treatments for overactive bladder, regardless of their site of action...
2016: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Terry Kenakin
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are often pleiotropically linked to numerous cellular signaling mechanisms in cells, and it is now known that many agonists differentially activate some signaling pathways at the expense of others. The mechanism for this effect is the stabilization of different active receptor states by different agonists, and it leads to varying qualities of efficacy for different agonists. Agonist bias is a powerful mechanism to amplify beneficial signals and diminish harmful signals, and thus improve the overall profile of agonist ligands...
2016: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Bradley J S C Olson
Biochemical analysis of proteins relies on accurate quantification of protein concentration. Detailed in this appendix are some commonly used methods for protein analysis, e.g., Lowry, Bradford, bicinchoninic acid (BCA), UV spectroscopic, and 3-(4-carboxybenzoyl)quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (CBQCA) assays. The primary focus of this report is assay selection, emphasizing sample and buffer compatibility. The fundamentals of generating protein assay standard curves and of data processing are considered, as are high-throughput adaptations of the more commonly used protein assays...
2016: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Jae W Lee, Chad A Komar, Fee Bengsch, Kathleen Graham, Gregory L Beatty
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) ranks fourth among cancer-related deaths in the United States. For patients with unresectable disease, treatment options are limited and lack curative potential. Preclinical mouse models of PDAC that recapitulate the biology of human pancreatic cancer offer an opportunity for the rational development of novel treatment approaches that may improve patient outcomes. With the recent success of immunotherapy for subsets of patients with solid malignancies, interest is mounting in the possible use of immunotherapy for the treatment of PDAC...
2016: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Ronald J Tallarida
Described in this unit are experimental and computational methods to detect and classify drug interactions. In most cases, this relates to two drugs or compounds with overtly similar effects, e.g., two analgesics or two anti-hypertensives. From the dose-response data of the individual drugs, it is possible to generate a curve, the isobole, which defines all dose combinations that are expected to yield a specified effect. The theory underlying the isobole involves the calculation of doses of drug A that are effectively equivalent to doses of drug B with that equivalence determining whether the isobole is linear or nonlinear...
2016: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Djane B Duarte, Michael R Vasko, Jill C Fehrenbacher
The subcutaneous air pouch is an in vivo model that can be used to study the components of acute and chronic inflammation, the resolution of the inflammatory response, the oxidative stress response, and potential therapeutic targets for treating inflammation. Injection of irritants into an air pouch in rats or mice induces an inflammatory response that can be quantified by the volume of exudate produced, the infiltration of cells, and the release of inflammatory mediators. The model presented in this unit has been extensively used to identify potential anti-inflammatory drugs...
2016: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Byoungwook Bang, Lenard M Lichtenberger
Animal models of experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are useful for understanding more about the mechanistic basis of the disease, identifying new targets for therapeutic intervention, and testing novel therapeutics. This unit provides detailed protocols for five widely used mouse models of experimentally induced intestinal inflammation: chemical induction of colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), hapten-induced colitis via 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), Helicobacter-induced colitis in mdr1a(-/-) mice, the CD4(+) CD45RB(hi) SCID transfer colitis model, and the IL-10(-/-) colitis model...
2016: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Jerry Usary, David Brian Darr, Adam D Pfefferle, Charles M Perou
Advances in the screening of new therapeutic options have significantly reduced the breast cancer death rate over the last decade. Despite these advances, breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death among women. This is due in part to the complexity of the disease, which is characterized by multiple subtypes that are driven by different genetic mechanisms and that likely arise from different cell types of origin. Because these differences often drive treatment options and outcomes, it is important to select relevant preclinical model systems to study new therapeutic interventions and tumor biology...
2016: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Norio Yamamoto, Manabu Ueda-Wakagi, Takuya Sato, Kengo Kawasaki, Keisuke Sawada, Kyuichi Kawabata, Mitsugu Akagawa, Hitoshi Ashida
Facilitative glucose uptake transport systems are ubiquitous in animal cells and are responsible for transporting glucose across cell surface membranes. Evaluation of glucose uptake is crucial in the study of numerous diseases and metabolic disorders such as myocardial ischemia, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Detailed in this unit are laboratory methods for assessing glucose uptake into mammalian cells. The unit is divided into five sections: (1) a brief overview of glucose uptake assays in cultured cells; (2) a method for measuring glucose uptake using radiolabeled 3-O-methylglucose; (3) a method for measuring glucose uptake using radiolabeled 2-deoxyglucose (2DG); (4) a microplate method for measuring 2DG-uptake using an enzymatic, fluorometric assay; and (5) a microplate-based method using a fluorescent analog of 2DG...
December 8, 2015: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Kate Harris
Cardiotoxicity is a leading cause of compound attrition during drug development. Preclinical models used to assess the risk for compound-induced effects on cardiac electrophysiology largely rely on animals that can differ in terms of sensitivity and specificity to the targeted clinical response. There is currently no in vitro human cardiomyocyte model for routine preclinical compound screening, as adult human cardiac tissue is unsuitable for such screening. The commercial availability of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) makes possible the development of assays for assessing compound-induced effects on cardiac function in a human cardiomyocyte-like model...
December 8, 2015: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Arnaud Dupuis, Véronique Heim, Philippe Ohlmann, Christian Gachet
The P2Y₁₂/ADP receptor plays a central role in platelet activation. Characterization of this receptor is mandatory for studying disorders associated with a P2Y₁₂ receptor defect and for evaluating P2Y₁₂ receptor agonists and antagonists. In the absence of suitable anti-P2Y₁₂ antibodies, radioligand binding assays are the only way to conduct such studies. While various radioligands were employed in the past for this purpose, none were found to be suitable for routine use. Described in this unit are protocols for quantitatively and qualitatively assessing P2Y₁₂ receptors with [³H]PSB-0413, a selective antagonist for this site...
December 8, 2015: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Uyen B Chu, Arnold E Ruoho
Sigma receptors, both Sigma-1(S1R) and Sigma-2 (S2R), are small molecule-regulated, primarily endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-associated sites. A number of drugs bind to sigma receptors, including the antipsychotic haloperidol and (+)-pentazocine, an opioid analgesic. Sigma receptors are implicated in many central nervous system disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease and conditions associated with motor control, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Described in this unit are radioligand binding assays used for the pharmacological characterization of S1R and S2R...
December 8, 2015: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Thomas Philips, Jeffrey D Rothstein
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease affecting upper and lower motor neurons in the central nervous system. Patients with ALS develop extensive muscle wasting and atrophy leading to paralysis and death 3 to 5 years after disease onset. The condition may be familial (fALS 10%) or sporadic ALS (sALS, 90%). The large majority of fALS cases are due to genetic mutations in the Superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1, 15% of fALS) and repeat nucleotide expansions in the gene encoding C9ORF72 (∼ 40% to 50% of fALS and ∼ 10% of sALS)...
June 1, 2015: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Carrie A Duckworth, Michael D Burkitt, Jonathan M Williams, Bryony N Parsons, Joseph M F Tang, D Mark Pritchard
Gastric adenocarcinoma is the fifth most common cancer and third most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The majority of these cancers develop in genetically susceptible individuals who are chronically infected with the Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Often these individuals have also been exposed to certain environmental factors that increase susceptibility, such as dietary components. Murine models of Helicobacter-induced gastric cancer are valuable tools for investigating the mechanisms responsible for the stepwise pathological changes of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma...
June 1, 2015: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Xuanzhi Zhan, Seunghyi Kook, Tamer S Kaoud, Kevin N Dalby, Eugenia V Gurevich, Vsevolod V Gurevich
Only one out of four mammalian arrestin subtypes, arrestin-3, facilitates the activation of JNK family kinases. Here we describe two different protocols used for elucidating the mechanisms involved. One is based on reconstitution of signaling modules from purified proteins: arrestin-3, MKK4, MKK7, JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3. The main advantage of this method is that it unambiguously establishes which effects are direct because only intended purified proteins are present in these assays. The key drawback is that the upstream-most kinases of these cascades, ASK1 or other MAPKKKs, are not available in purified form, limiting reconstitution to incomplete two-kinase modules...
March 2, 2015: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Rudi Prihandoko, Sophie J Bradley, Andrew B Tobin, Adrian J Butcher
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are rapidly phosphorylated following agonist occupation in a process that mediates receptor uncoupling from its cognate G protein, a process referred to as desensitization. In addition, this process provides a mechanism by which receptors can engage with arrestin adaptor molecules and couple to downstream signaling pathways. The importance of this regulatory process has been highlighted recently by the understanding that ligands can direct receptor signaling along one pathway in preference to another, the phenomenon of signaling bias that is partly mediated by the phosphorylation status or phosphorylation barcode of the receptor...
2015: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
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