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Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology

Andrea B Pizzo, Renê O Beleboni, Ruither O Gomes Carolino, Luciana de Oliveira, Antonio Miranda, Joaquim Coutinho-Netto, Andréia C K Fontana, Wagner Ferreira Dos Santos
Arthropod venoms are sources of molecules that may be useful tools to investigate molecular mechanisms of putative new medicines and laboratory drugs. Here we show the effects of the compound agelaiatoxin-8 (AVTx8), isolated from Agelaia vicina venom, on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission in rat brain synaptosomes. Analysis reveals that AvTx8 is composed by 14 amino acid residues with a molecular weight (MW) of 1567 Da. AvTx8 increased GABA release and inhibited GABA uptake in synaptosomes from rat cerebral cortex...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Maryam S Abunnaja, Katsuhisa Kurogi, Yasir I Mohammed, Yoichi Sakakibara, Masahito Suiko, Ezdihar A Hassoun, Ming-Cheh Liu
Zebrafish has in recent years emerged as a popular vertebrate model for use in pharmacological and toxicological studies. While there have been sporadic studies on the zebrafish glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), the zebrafish GST gene superfamily still awaits to be fully elucidated. We report here the identification of 15 zebrafish cytosolic GST genes in NCBI GenBank database and the expression, purification, and enzymatic characterization of the zebrafish cytosolic GST Pi-1 (GSTP1). The cDNA encoding the zebrafish GSTP1 was cloned from a 3-month-old female zebrafish, expressed in Eschelichia coli host cells, and purified...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Emmanuel González-Barbosa, Alejandro Mejía-García, Elizabeth Bautista, Frank J Gonzalez, José Segovia, Guillermo Elizondo
UbcH7 is an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that interacts with parkin, an E3 ligase. The UbcH7-parkin complex promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of several proteins via the 26S proteasome. Cellular accumulation of the UbcH7-parkin targets alpha-synuclein, and synphilin-1 has been associated with Parkinson disease. In mouse liver, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand, induces UbcH7 expression. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induces Ubch7 mRNA and UbcH7 protein expression in the mouse brain, to characterize the molecular mechanism, and the effect on synphilin-1 half-life...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Umit M Kocyigit, Parham Taslimi, Hayreddin Gezegen, İlhami Gulçin, Mustafa Ceylan
Carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC is used for remedial purposes for several years, as there is significant focus on expanding more new activators (CAAs) and high affinity inhibitors. Alzheimer's disease and other similar ailments such as dementia and vascular dementia with Lewy bodies reduce cholinergic activity in the important areas involved in cognition and memory. Prevalent drugs for the symptomatic therapy of dementia are significant in increasing the associated cholinergic deficiency by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Tong Li, Minglu Hao, Jie Pan, Wansong Zong, Rutao Liu
The mechanisms of the toxicity of Sudan dyes to the key antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) were investigated by spectroscopic methods, calorimetry techniques, enzyme activity assay, and molecular docking. Results showed that Sudan dyes bound to CAT through hydrophobic force, which changed the microenvironment of tryptophan and tyrosine residues, leading to a conformational alteration and shrinkage of the protein. Enzyme activity assay and molecular docking revealed that the activity of CAT was slightly inhibited in the presence of Sudan dyes...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Wentao Fan, Tongtong Shen, Qiaoqi Ding, Yanan Lv, Li Li, Kehe Huang, Liping Yan, Suquan Song
In this study, the mitochondrial damage effect and mechanism of zearalenone (ZEA) in swine small intestine IPEC-J2 cells in vitro were comprehensively characterized. The analyses revealed that ZEA at high doses (8 and 7 μg/mL) can significantly increase P < 0.05 the malondialdehyde levels and decrease antioxidant enzymes activities after 48 h of exposure. Meanwhile, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation increased in high dose ZEA-treated groups after 2 h treatment, but decreased due to the ROS-induced mitochondrial damage and the caused cell apoptosis after 48 h of high does ZEA treatment...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Archana Deka, Maitreyee Sharma, Manoj Sharma, Rupak Mukhopadhyay, Robin Doley
The present study describes the purification and partial characterization of a basic anticoagulant PLA2 enzyme named as Rv(i) PLA2 from the venom of Indian Daboia russelii. The molecular mass of the protein was found to be 13,659.65 Da, and peptide mass fingerprinting revealed that it belongs to group II PLA2 family. The peptide sequence showed similarity to uncharacterized basic PLA2 enzyme having an accession no. of P86368 reported from Sri Lankan D. russelii. Rv(i) PLA2 exhibited strong phospholipase A2 and anticoagulant activity...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
El-Sayed M El-Sayed, Ahmed M Mansour, Waleed S El-Sawy
This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. A single dose of DOX (7.5 mg/kg i.v.) induced nephrotoxicity evidenced by significant elevations in kidney weight, kidney/body weight ratio, serum urea, creatinine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and renal contents of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase-2, and caspase-3. Also, it causes significant reduction in final body weight, serum albumin, renal contents of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Mina Yoshida, Naoki Cho, Hidetaka Akita, Kaoru Kobayashi
Treatment with benzbromarone can be associated with liver injury, but the detailed mechanism remains unknown. Our recent studies demonstrated that benzbromarone was metabolized to 1',6-dihydroxybenzbromarone and followed by formation of reactive intermediates that were trapped by glutathione, suggesting that the reactive intermediates may be responsible for the liver injury. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the reactive intermediates derived from 1',6-dihydroxybenzbromarone is a risk factor of liver injury in mice...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Zeynep Köksal, Ramazan Kalın, Serpil Gerni, İlhami Gülçin, Hasan Özdemir
In this study, inhibition profiles of some natural products, which are digoxin, L-Dopa, dopamine, isoliquiritigenin, and 1,1,2,2-tetrakis(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane (Tetrakis), were investigated against bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) enzyme. Digoxin, L-Dopa, and dopamine are active ingredients of some drugs, which have important functions in our body, especially in cases of heart failure. Isoliquiritigenin and tetrakis are types of natural phenolic compounds, which play an important role in cancer prevention and treatment...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Sukanya Phungphong, Anusak Kijtawornrat, Pieter P de Tombe, Jonggonnee Wattanapermpool, Tepmanas Bupha-Intr, Sunit Suksamrarn
The benefits of α-mangostin for various tissues have been reported, but its effect on the heart has not been clarified. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of α-mangostin on cardiac function. Using a cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane preparation, α-mangostin inhibited SR Ca(2+) -ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 of 6.47 ± 0.7 μM). Its suppressive effect was specific to SR Ca(2+) -ATPase but not to myofibrillar Ca(2+) -ATPase. Using isolated cardiomyocytes, 50 μM of α-mangostin significantly increased the duration of cell relengthening and increased the duration of Ca(2+) transient decay, suggesting altered myocyte relaxation...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Xue Wang, Zhuo Chen, Xiao Li, Zheng-Kui Jiang, Yan-Qiu Zhao, Feng-Feng Ping
This study investigated the anticancer effects of geraniin on ovarian cancer cells and the signaling pathways involved. Ovarian cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of geraniin for 48 h and examined for viability, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and gene expression. Xenograft tumor studies were performed to determine the anticancer activity of geraniin in vivo. Geraniin significantly decreased cancer cell viability in a concentration-dependent fashion. Geraniin significantly triggered apoptosis, which was accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased cytochrome c release and caspsase-3 activity...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Gehan S Georgy, Omar W Maher
The anticancer drug doxorubicin causes testicular toxicity as an undesirable effect. The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protection of ellagic acid and rosmarinic acid during doxorubicin administration. For this purpose eight groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used (n = 10), one group received vehicle served as control, and other groups received 5 mg/kg doxorubicin twice a week for 2 weeks for a cumulative dose of 20 mg/kg, ellagic acid (10 mg/kg/day, 14 consecutive days p...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Lorena Dos Santos Castro, Lívia Bracht, Jurandir Fernando Comar, Rosane Marina Peralta, Adelar Bracht
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was investigated for its metabolic actions in the perfused rat liver. Contrary to what is expected from an uncoupler, BHT up to 500 μM did not stimulate oxygen uptake nor did it inhibit gluconeogenesis from lactate. Transformation of fructose into glucose was also not affected by BHT; only lactate production was slightly increased at the concentration of 100 μM. The uncoupling effect of BHT in isolated mitochondria was confirmed, but only at concentrations above 10 μM; uncoupling at lower concentrations, 10(-9) to 10(-6)  M, could not be confirmed...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Marwa M Mahfouz, Rania M Abdelsalam, Marwa A Masoud, Hanaa A Mansour, Omar A Ahmed-Farid, Sanaa A Kenawy
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune demyelinating neurodegenerative central nervous system disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prophylactic effect exerted by the one-time intraperitoneal injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) 1 × 10(6) and 14-day intraperitoneal injection of methylprednisolone (MP) 40 mg/kg in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced by intradermal injection of rat spinal cord homogenate with complete Freund's adjuvant in Swiss mice...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Yeliz Demir, Mesut Işık, İlhami Gülçin, Şükrü Beydemir
Aldose reductase (AR) is the key enzyme for the polyol pathway and responsible for sorbitol accumulation during the hyperglycemia. The present article focuses on the role of phenol, pyrogallol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, catechol, and phloroglucinol in in vitro inhibition of AR. For this purpose, AR was purified from the sheep kidney with 5.33 EU mg(-1) specific activity and 0.64% yield using several chromatographic methods. Various concentrations of the compounds were tested on in vitro AR activity. IC50 values were found for phenol, pyrogallol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, catechol, and phloroglucinol as 6...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Yusuf Temel, Umit M Kocyigit
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the first enzyme on which the pentose phosphate pathway was checked. In this study, purification of a G6PD enzyme was carried out by using rat erythrocytes with a specific activity of 13.7 EU/mg and a yield of 67.7 and 155.6-fold by using 2',5'-ADP Sepharose-4B affinity column chromatography. For the purpose of identifying the purity of enzyme and molecular mass of the subunit, a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out. The molecular mass of subunit was calculated 56...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Zhiyong Zhang, Minchao Zhao, Wenxuan Zheng, Yonghong Liu
This work was undertaken to explore the effects of platycodin D, a triterpenoid saponin from Platycodon grandiflorum, on the growth and invasiveness of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Platycodin D caused a significant, concentration-dependent inhibition of cell viability and induced significant apoptosis in OSCC cells. Moreover, platycodin D significantly inhibited OSCC cell invasion. At the molecular level, platycodin D increased the amounts of IκBα protein and reduced the expression of phosphorylated NF-κB p65, MMP-2, and MMP-9...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Xiaolin Zheng, Xiaoyan Hu, Tangdong Ge, Mengdi Li, Minxia Shi, Jincheng Luo, Hehuan Lai, Tingting Nie, Fenglan Li, Hui Li
Oxidative stress induces apoptosis in cardiac cells, and antioxidants attenuate the injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are also involved in cell death; therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of miRNAs in the effect of selenium on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. The effects of sodium selenite were analyzed via cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate cell apoptosis. Fura-2AM was used to calculate intracellular Ca(2+) concentration...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Zhen Li, Yan Li, Ya Li, Kewei Ren, Xin Li, Xinwei Han, Jiaxiang Wang
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) H19 in tumors played important roles in various biological processes. However, the biological role and molecular mechanism of H19 in breast cancer are unclear. Here, we found that H19 was aberrantly upregulated in human breast tumor tissues and cells. A negative correlation between H19 and miR-152 and positive correlation between H19 and DNMT1 mRNA were observed. Downregulation of H19 and DNMT1 significantly retarded breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. H19 act as an endogenous sponge by directly binding to miR-152...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
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