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Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225195/protective-effect-of-hydroxytyrosol-in-arsenic-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-rat-brain
#1
Manisha Soni, Chandra Prakash, Sfurti Sehwag, Vijay Kumar
The present study was planned to investigate the protective effect of hydroxytyrosol (HT) against arsenic (As)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rat brain. Rats exposed to sodium arsenite (25 ppm for 8 weeks) showed decreased mitochondrial complexes (I, II, IV) activities, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and catalase activities in brain mitochondria. As-treated rats showed reduced mRNA expression of complex I (ND-1, ND-2), IV (COX-1, COX-4) subunits, and uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). In addition to this, As exposure downregulated the protein expression of MnSOD...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225154/human-butyrylcholinesterase-efficacy-against-nerve-agent-exposure
#2
Beth A Reed, Carol L Sabourin, David E Lenz
Acetylcholinesterase is vital for normal operation of many processes in the body. Following exposure to organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents, death can ensue without immediate medical intervention. Current therapies mitigate the cholinergic crisis caused by nerve agents but do not fully prevent long-term health concerns, for example, brain damage following seizures. Human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChE) is a stoichiometric bioscavenger being investigated as an antidote for OP nerve agent poisoning. HuBChE sequesters OP nerve agent in the bloodstream preventing the nerve agent from reaching critical target organ systems...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217947/mechanism-of-capsaicin-inhibition-of-aldose-reductase-activity
#3
Zuhal Alim, Namık Kilinc, Bulent Sengul, Sukru Beydemir
Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors play a vital importance as a potential therapeutic and preventive medicine when it comes to hyperglycemia associated diabetic complications. Additionally, capsaicin is used as a food additive and a drug in a number of diverse clinical trials. The aim of this study is to determine the in vitro inhibition behavior of capsaicin on AR enzyme activity, which was obtained from different rat tissues (heart, kidney, liver, and brain). We showed that AR was inhibited by capsaicin in the micromolar range and noncompetitive manner in all of the tissues...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186389/the-role-of-5-ht2c-receptor-on-corticosterone-mediated-food-intake
#4
Tongtong Ge, Zhuo Zhang, Jiayin Lv, Yunong Song, Jie Fan, Wei Liu, Xuefeng Wang, F Scott Hall, Bingjin Li, Ranji Cui
Corticosterone plays an important role in feeding behavior. However, its mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of corticosterone on feeding behavior. In this study, cumulative food intake was increased by acute corticosterone administration in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of the 5-HT2c receptor agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazin (mCPP) reversed the effect of corticosterone on food intake. The anorectic effects of mCPP were also blocked by the 5-HT2c receptor antagonist RS102221 in corticosterone-treated mice...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151580/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-growth-and-plasma-membrane-h-atpase-inhibitory-activity-of-ebselen-and-structurally-related-selenium-and-sulfur-containing-compounds-in-candida-albicans
#5
Natalie N Orie, Andrew R Warren, Jovana Basaric, Cesar Lau-Cam, Magdalena Piętka-Ottlik, Jacek Młochowski, Blase Billack
Ebselen (EB, compound 1) is an investigational organoselenium compound that reduces fungal growth, in part, through inhibition of the fungal plasma membrane H(+) -ATPase (Pma1p). In the present study, the growth inhibitory activity of EB and of five structural analogs was assessed in a fluconazole (FLU)-resistant strain of Candida albicans (S2). While none of the compounds were more effective than EB at inhibiting fungal growth (IC50  ∼ 18 μM), two compounds, compounds 5 and 6, were similar in potency...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150434/microrna-577-suppresses-tumor-growth-and-enhances-chemosensitivity-in-colorectal-cancer
#6
Haiping Jiang, Hui Ju, Lin Zhang, Haijun Lu, Kan Jie
In this work, we aimed to determine the expression and biological functions of microRNA (miR)-577 in colorectal cancer (CRC). The results showed that miR-577 was downregulated in CRC specimens and cell lines. Restoration of miR-577 significantly suppressed the proliferation and colony formation and induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in CRC cells. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-resistant SW480 cells (SW480/5-FU) were found to have elevated levels of miR-577. Ectopic expression of miR-577 enhanced 5-FU sensitivity in SW480/5-FU cells...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117934/synthesis-of-new-cyclic-thioureas-and-evaluation-of-their-metal-chelating-activity-acetylcholinesterase-butyrylcholinesterase-and-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibition-profiles
#7
Parham Taslimi, Afsun Sujayev, Emin Garibov, Nazar Nazarov, Zubeyir Huyut, Saleh H Alwasel, İlhami Gulçin
In the presence of trifluoracetic acid (TFAA), an efficient method for the synthesis of tetra(hexa)hydropyrimidinethione-carboxylates has been used on the basis of three-component condensation of thiourea with its different aldehydes and β-diketones. Some novel cyclic thioureas were synthesized, and their hCA I, hCA II, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors and metal-chelating properties were evaluated. Ki values of novel synthesized compounds for AChE and BChE are in the range of 51...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117932/methylglyoxal-induces-inhibition-of-growth-accumulation-of-anthocyanin-and-activation-of-glyoxalase-i-and-ii-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
Tahsina Sharmin Hoque, Misugi Uraji, Md Anamul Hoque, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Murata
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive stress-related α-ketoaldehyde and a physiological metabolite of glycolysis, which is accumulated in ample amount under stressful conditions. In the present study, the effect of different doses of MG on growth, anthocyanin production, MG contents, and activities of two types of glyoxalases (glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II) were examined in Arabidopsis seedlings. MG at 0.1 mM dose did not affect seedling growth, anthocyanin accumulation, MG contents, or activities of glyoxalases, whereas MG at 0...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117929/downregulation-of-lncrna-anril-represses-tumorigenicity-and-enhances-cisplatin-induced-cytotoxicity-via-regulating-microrna-let-7a-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#9
Yandan Wang, Nan Cheng, Junpeng Luo
Many studies have demonstrated that upregulation of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) plays an oncogenic role in various tumors, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The aim of this study is to explore the effect of ANRIL in NPC progression and cisplatin (DDP)-induced cytotoxicity. The results showed that ANRIL was highly expressed and let-7a was downregulated in NPC tissues and cells. Luciferase assay revealed that ANRIL could negatively regulate miR-let-7a expression...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111842/detoxification-of-benzo-a-pyrene-primarily-depends-on-cytochrome-p450-while-bioactivation-involves-additional-oxidoreductases-including-5-lipoxygenase-cyclooxygenase-and-aldo-keto-reductase-in-the-liver
#10
Liupeng Wang, Wenwei Xu, Leilei Ma, Suxing Zhang, Kezhi Zhang, Peizhen Ye, Guozhen Xing, Xuefeng Zhang, Yiyi Cao, Jing Xi, Jun Gu, Yang Luan
Cytochrome P450s are involved in detoxification and activation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) with unclear balance and unknown contribution of other oxidoreductases. Here, we investigated the BaP and BaP-induced mutagenicity in hepatic and extra-hepatic tissues using hepatic P450 reductase null (HRN) gpt mice. After 2-week treatment (50 mg/kg, i.p. 4 days), BaP in the liver and lung of HRN-gpt mice were increased. BaP promoted gpt mutant frequency (MF) in HRN-gpt mice liver. MF of gpt in the lung and Pig-a in hematopoietic cells induced by BaP in HRN-gpt mice were increased than in gpt mice...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059470/levels-of-heavy-metals-and-their-binding-protein-metallothionein-in-type-2-diabetics-with-kidney-disease
#11
Martina Raudenska, Veronika Dvorakova, Lukas Pacal, Katarina Chalasova, Monika Kratochvilova, Jaromir Gumulec, Branislav Ruttkay-Nedecky, Ondrej Zitka, Katerina Kankova, Vojtech Adam, Michal Masarik
Hyperglycemia, a major metabolic disturbance present in diabetes, promotes oxidative stress. Activation of antioxidant defense is an important mechanism to prevent cell damage. Levels of heavy metals and their binding proteins can contribute to oxidative stress. Antiradical capacity and levels of metallothionein (MT), metals (zinc and copper), and selected antioxidants (bilirubin, cysteine, and glutathione) were determined in 70 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects and 80 healthy subjects of Caucasian origin...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032682/antiepileptic-drugs-impacts-on-human-serum-paraoxonase-1
#12
Şükrü Beydemir, Yeliz Demir
Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is a key enzyme related to high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol particle. It can prevent the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL. The present article focuses on the in vitro inhibition role of some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as valproic acid, gabapentin, primidone, phenytoin, and levetiracetam on human paraoxonase (hPON1). Therefore, PON1 was purified from human serum with a specific activity of 3976.36 EU/mg and 13.96% yield by using simple chromatographic methods...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004443/amyloid-%C3%AE-induces-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-via-nadph-oxidase-and-mitochondria-dependent-ros-production
#13
Ke Wang, Yong Yao, Xue Zhu, Kai Zhang, Fanfan Zhou, Ling Zhu
Amyloid β (Aβ)-induced chronic inflammation is believed to be a key pathogenic process in early-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation triggered by Aβ is responsible for retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) dysfunction in the onset of AMD; however, the detailed molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the involvement of NADPH oxidase- and mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the process of Aβ1-40 -induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in LPS-primed ARPE-19 cells...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000380/quercetin-inhibits-sodium-nitrite-induced-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-different-rats-organs-by-suppressing-bax-hif1-%C3%AE-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-2-and-akt-pathways
#14
Nouf Mohamed Al-Rasheed, Laila Mohamed Fadda, Hala A Attia, Hanaa Mahmoud Ali, Nawal Mohamed Al-Rasheed
The objective of this work is to study the protective effects of Quercetin against sodium nitrite-induced hypoxia on liver, lung, kidney and cardiac tissues, also to explore novel mechanism of this compound. Male albino rats were injected with sodium nitrite (75 mg/kg). Quercetin (200 mg kg(-1) ,- i.p.) was administrated 24 and 1 h respectively prior to sodium nitrite intoxication, hypoxia significantly decreased hemoglobin concentration, while increased expressions of HIF, Bax, Smad-2, TGF-β, and AKT...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925690/purification-and-characterization-of-a-platelet-aggregation-inhibitor-and-anticoagulant-cc-5_ntase-cd-73-like-from-cerastes-cerastes-venom
#15
Samah Saoud, Fatah Chérifi, Traki Benhassine, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
The present study is the first attempt to report the characterization of a nucleotidase from Cerastes cerastes venom. A 70 kDa 5'-nucleotidase (Cc-5'NTase) was purified to homogeneity. The amino acid sequence of Cc-5'NTase displayed high homology with many nucleotidases. Its activity was optimal at pH 7 with a specific hydrolytic activity toward mono-, di-, and triphosphate adenylated nucleotides. Cc-5'NTase preferentially hydrolyzed ADP and obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Among the metals and inhibitors tested, Ni(2+) and Mg(2+) completely potentiated enzyme activity, whereas EGTA, PMSF, iodoacetamide, vanillic acid, vanillyl mandelic acid, and 1,10-phenanthroline partially abolished its activity...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918128/mulberroside-a-suppresses-pxr-mediated-transactivation-and-gene-expression-of-p-gp-in-ls174t-cells
#16
Yuhua Li, Ling Huang, Jiahong Sun, Xiaohua Wei, Jinhua Wen, Guoping Zhong, Min Huang, Huichang Bi
Mulberroside A (Mul A) is the main bioactive constituents of Sangbaipi, which is officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The pregnane X receptor (PXR) has been recognized as the critical mediator of human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) gene transactivation. In this study, the effect of Mul A on PXR-mediated transactivation and gene expression of P-gp was investigated. It was found that Mul A significantly suppressed PXR-mediated P-gp luciferase activity induced by rifampicin (Rif). Furthermore, Rif induced an elevation of P-gp expression and transport activity, which was apparently suppressed by Mul A...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902864/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-metabolic-activation-of-berbamine-to-quinone-methide-intermediate
#17
Yao Sun, Tong Yao, Hui Li, Ying Peng, Jiang Zheng
Berbamine (BBM) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from herbal medicine Berberis amurensis. BBM has been widely used for the treatment of leukemia. Recent studies demonstrated that exposure to BBM can give rise to cytotoxicity. The major objective of this study was to explore the metabolic activation of BBM in vitro and in vivo. Two oxidative metabolites (M1 and M2) and an N-acetylcysteine (NAC) conjugate (M3) were detected in human liver microsomal incubations of BBM supplemented with NAC, and the formation of all metabolites was NADPH dependent...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900820/investigation-of-the-effects-of-kisspeptin-10-in-methionine-induced-lipid-peroxidation-in-testicle-tissue-of-young-rats
#18
Hatice Akkaya, Signem Eyuboglu, Gozde Erkanlı Senturk, Bayram Yilmaz
Disruption of the balance oxidants, antioxidants cause various pathophysiological conditions such as lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, or DNA damage. We have examined possible effects of kisspeptin-10 on the structural damage produced by methionine-induced lipid peroxidation in testicle tissue of young rats. Kisspeptin-10 did not significantly affect spermatogenic cells in seminiferous tubules. Testosterone levels decreased in the methionine group as compared with the control group but without statistical significance...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900814/effects-of-intratracheal-exposure-of-2-chloroethyl-ethyl-sulfide-cees-on-the-activation-of-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-c-ebp-and-its-protection-by-antioxidant-liposome
#19
Somdutta Sinha Roy, Shyamali Mukherjee, Salil K Das
Exposure of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) to guinea pigs causes lung injury by infiltration of neutrophils in interstitial lung spaces. A unique MAPK-regulated transcription factor, C/EBP (CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein), regulates the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), involved in recruiting neutrophils in lung. The present study was to determine if CEES exposure causes activation of C/EBP, in particular the predominant β-isoform and if so whether it can be prevented by intratracheal delivery of an antioxidant liposome containing N-acetyl cysteine and tocopherols...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900802/therapeutic-potential-of-carfilzomib-an-irreversible-proteasome-inhibitor-against-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice
#20
Abdulrazaq Alanazi, Saleh G Algfeley, Khaled A Al-Hosaini, Hesham M Korashy, Faisal Imam, Mahmoud N Nagi
Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) is often associated with hepatotoxicity. Carfilzomib (CFZ) shows multiple pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory potential. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of CFZ against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administration of APAP (350 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Mice were given CFZ (0.125, 0.25, or 0.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 1.5 h after APAP administration. Animals were sacrificed on 6 h and blood and liver tissue samples were collected for analysis...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
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