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Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology

Omar Issa, Ezdihar A Hassoun, Frederick E Williams
To assess the developmental toxicity of trichloroacetate (TCA), zebrafish embryos were exposed to 8 to 48 mM of TCA and evaluated for developmental milestones from 8- to 144-hour postfertilization (hpf). All developmental toxicities are reported in this paper. Embryos were found to have developed edema in response to 16 to 48 mM of TCA exposure at 32- to 80-hpf, experienced delay in hatching success in response to 24 to 48 mM at 80-hpf. Lordosis was observed in developing embryos exposed to 40 to 48 mM at 55- to 144-hpf...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Sogand Assarnia, Sima Ardalan Khales, Mohammad Mahdi Forghanifard
SALL4, as a stemness marker, plays a key role in the maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal of cancer stem cells. To elucidate probable linkage between SALL4 stemness marker and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cell signaling pathway, we aimed to analyze the expression levels of the related genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Tumoral and corresponding margin normal tissues from 50 treatment-naive ESCC patients were subjected for expression analysis using relative comparative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Akif Evren Parlak, Haluk Cakmak, Suleyman Sandal, Bayram Yılmaz, Memet Sekerci, Zuhal Karagöz Genc, Mehmet Tuzcu, Mustafa Karatepe
In this study, the effects of the two Schiff base derivatives and their metal complexes were tested for MDA concentration, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin C levels in cell culture. A comparison was performed among the groups and it was observed that MDA, vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin C concentrations were statistically changed. According to the results, all compounds caused a significant oxidative stress without Zn complexes. Moreover, Mn(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Ni(II) complexes of Schiff bases derived from a condensation of 1,2-bis (p-aminophenoxy) ethane with naphthaldehydes and 4-methoxy benzaldehyde were examined in terms of antitumor activity against MCF-7 human breast cancer and L1210 murine leukemia cells...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Tuğba Kul Köprülü, Salih Ökten, Şaban Tekin, Osman Çakmak
Due to a great deal of biological activities, quinoline derivatives have drawn attention for synthesis and biological activities in the search for new anticancer drug development. In this work, a variety of substituted (phenyl, nitro, cyano, N-oxide, and methoxy) quinoline derivatives (3-13) were tested in vitro for their biological activity against cancer cell lines, including rat glioblastoma (C6), human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), and human adenocarcinoma (HT29). 6-Bromo-5-nitroquinoline (4), and 6,8-diphenylquinoline (compound 13) showed the greatest antiproliferative activity as compared with the reference drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), while the other compounds showed low antiproliferative activity...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Gang Guo, Wenjie Zhang, Minyan Dang, Mingzhu Yan, Zheng Chen
Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is observed in breast cancer. The major snag faced by the human population is the development of chemoresistance to HER2 inhibitors by advanced stage breast cancer cells. Moreover, recent researchers focussed on fisetin as an antiproliferative and chemotherapeutic agent. Therefore, this study was intended to analyze the effects of fisetin on HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines. Our results depicted that fisetin induced apoptosis of these cells by various mechanisms, such as inactivation of the receptor, induction of proteasomal degradation, decreasing its half-life, decreasing enolase phosphorylation, and alteration of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Nashia Stellenboom
Chalcones and chalcone epoxides are important synthetic intermediates in organic and medicinal chemistry. Chalcones possess a broad spectrum of biological activities; however, 1,3-diphenyl-2-propenone or chalcone has not been given the attention it deserve as its substituted derivatives. In this study, the inhibition effects of chalcone and its epoxidated derivative chalcone epoxide against human carbonic anhydrase isozymes I and II (hCA I and hCA II), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were evaluated...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Ai-Hua Tong, Juan Tan, Jin-Hua Zhang, Fang-Jiang Xu, Fu-Yuan Li, Chun-Yu Cao
Ring1 and YY1 binding protein (RYBP), a new member of the polycomb group protein family, has been reported to play an important role in various biological processes. Recently, more and more studies have demonstrated an implication of RYBP in cancer development. However, the specific role of RYBP in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated for the first time the expression pattern and biological functions of RYBP in ATC. We showed that RYBP was lowly expressed in ATC tissues and cell lines...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Jinghui Zhai, Xiaoyu Qu, Yueming Zhang, Huan Gao, Lina Tao, Yanqing Song, Sixi Zhang
Salvianolic acid (SA) is known for improving blood circulation, scavenging hydroxyl radicals, and preventing platelet aggregation. The research explored whether SA can protect against cardiovascular disease induced by high glucose conditions. Our results indicate that SA significantly increases cells viability and nitric oxide levels while decreasing reactive oxygen species generation. SA upregulated the expression levels of Bcl-2 and decreased the levels of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9. Furthermore, the expression levels of Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and p-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were markedly increased in response to SA treatment...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Bshayer Alharbi, Laila Fadda, Hanaa M Ali
The aim of this study was to compare the potential renoprotective effects of turmeric (TM) and nano turmeric (NTM) with those of desferrioxamine (DSM) against copper sulfate (CS)-induced toxicity. Rats were administered a toxic dose of CS with TM, NTM, and DSM for 1 week. Next, serum-urea creatinine, uric acid, interleukin (IL)-10, c-reactive protein (CRP), and caspase-3 levels; renal nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) protein expression; and nuclear factor (NF)-κB and B-cell lymphoma -2 (Bcl-2) messenger RNA expression levels were estimated...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Xudong Luo, Wen Zhu, Li Ding, Xiangdong Ye, Huanhuan Gao, Xuejiao Tai, Zheng Wu, Yi Qian, Xuzhi Ruan, Jian Li, Shan Li, Zongyun Chen
Fungus defensin is a kind of important natural peptide resource, such as plectasin from the soil fungus Pseudoplectania nigrella with potential application in the antimicrobial peptide lead drug discovery. Here, a fungus defensin named Bldesin with Kv1.3 channel and serine protease inhibitory activities was first explored. By GST-Bldesin fusion expression and enterokinase cleaving strategy, recombinant Bldesin was obtained successfully. Antimicrobial assays showed that Bldesin had potent activity against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, but had no effect on Gram-negative Escherichia coli...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Rania A A Salama, Rania M Abdelsalam, O M E Abdel-Salam, Mahmoud M Khattab, Neveen A Salem, Zakaria A El-Khyat, Fatma A Morsy, Ezz-El Din S Eldenshary
The current study aimed to evaluate the role of cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of gastric acid secretion and oxidative stress in gastric mucosa. To fulfill this aim, gastric acid secretion stimulated with histamine (5 mg/kg, subcutaneous [SC]), 2-deoxy- d-glucose (D-G) (200 mg/kg, intravenous) or -carbachol (4 μg/kg, SC) in the 4-hour pylorus-ligated rats. The CB1R agonist ( N-arachidonoyl dopamine, 1 mg/kg, SC) inhibited gastric acid secretion stimulated by D-G and carbachol but not in histamine, reduced pepsin content, and increased mucin secretion...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Zhaoguang Liang, Zengxiang Dong, Meihua Guo, Zhaoqian Shen, Dechun Yin, Shuang Hu, Xin Hai
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to explore the relation between TMAO and ischemic stroke (IS) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). A total of 68 patients with AF with IS and 111 ones without IS were enrolled. The plasma levels of TMAO remarkably increased in IS-AF patients (8.25 ± 1.58 µM) compared with patients with AF (2.22 ± 0.09 µM, P < 0.01). The receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the best cutoff value of TMAO to predict IS in patients with AF was 3...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Yuyang Liu, Tiantian Cui, Ying Peng, Mingshan Ji, Jiang Zheng
Chelidonine (CHE) is a major bioactive constituent of greater celandine, a plant used in traditional herbal medicines. CHE has widely been used as an analgesic in clinical settings. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of CHE on human cytochrome P450 enzymes. CHE produced time-, concentration-, and NADPH-dependent inhibition of CYP2D6, with K I and k inact values of 20.49 μM and 11.05 min -1 , respectively. Approximately 76% of CYP2D6 activity was suppressed after 9 minute incubation with CHE (50 μM)...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Xue Chen, Pengfei Qin, Xiuwen Zheng, Zunfu Hu, Wansong Zong, Dongsheng Zhang, Baochan Yang
Tartrazine is a stable water-soluble azo dye widely used as a food additive, which could pose potential threats to humans and the environment. In this paper, we evaluated the response mechanism between tartrazine and lysozyme under simulated conditions by means of biophysical methods, including multiple spectroscopic techniques, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and molecular docking studies. From the multispectroscopic analysis, we found that tartrazine could effectively quench the intrinsic fluorescence of lysozyme to form a complex and lead to the conformational and microenvironmental changes of the enzyme...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Hebatalla I Ahmed, Eman A Mohamed
This study pointed to estimate the possible protective impacts of candesartan and/or epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. The current work revealed that gentamicin significantly elevated relative kidney weight and the serum level of creatinine and urea. Also, renal level of malondialdehyde was significantly increased with a concurrent decrease in renal glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities. Moreover, renal levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) were increased together with the elevation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels after gentamicin treatment...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Juan Yi, Yan Yuan, Jifang Zheng, Tingting Zhao
As a gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) plays a crucial role in regulating the signaling pathway mediated by oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of H 2 S on uranium-induced rat hepatocyte cytotoxicity. Primary hepatocytes were isolated and cultured from Sprague Dawley rat liver tissues. After pretreating with sodium hydrosulfide (an H 2 S donor) for 1 hour (or GKT-136901 for 30 minutes), hepatocytes were treated by uranyl acetate for 24 hours. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) phosphorylation were respectively determined...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Hanaa H Gaballah, Heba B Ghanem, Nahid M Tahoon, Darin A Mohamed, Abla M Ebeid
Alcohol consumption is a major global risk factor for mortality and morbidity. We aimed to delineate the mechanisms underlying the potential ameliorative effects of hesperidin against chronically ethanol-induced cardiotoxicity. Sixty male albino rats were divided into normal control group, hesperidin-treated control group, untreated alcoholic group, and hesperidin-treated alcoholic group. Transcription factor-EB (TFEB) expression levels were estimated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Jit Chatterjee, Jaldeep Langhnoja, Prakash P Pillai, Mohammed S Mustak
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in the regulation and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. However, unresolved ER stress leads to deleterious effects by inducing the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the cell. Here we have demonstrated the protective aspects of quercetin against radiation-induced ER stress and against inflammation in primary cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The mature DRG neurons were pretreated with different concentrations of quercetin (5-100 μM) for 24 hours before 2 Gy gamma radiation exposure and then subjected to a cytotoxicity assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Xinshuai Li, Shu Song, Mengting Xu, Yuyun Hua, Yun Ding, Xiaoyu Shan, Guoliang Meng, Yuqin Wang
Sirtuin3 (SIRT3) plays an important role in maintaining normal mitochondrial function and alleviating oxidative stress. After carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) administration, the expression of SIRT3 decreased in the liver of mice, which indicated that the SIRT3 might play a crucial role during chemical-induced acute hepatic injury. To verify the hypothesis, CCl 4 was given to induce acute hepatic injury in SIRT3 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. CCl 4 -induced liver injury was more severe in SIRT3 KO mice compared with the WT mice...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Jing Wang, Xiaolin Zheng, Weichao Wang, Hongli Guo, Rutao Liu, Wansong Zong
Because cadmium might interact with proteins and, thus, exert toxicity in organisms, it is vital to understand the molecular mechanism of the interaction between cadmium and biologically relevant proteins as well as the structural and functional changes in these proteins. In this study, the interaction between α-chymotrypsin (α-ChT) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) was investigated by performing enzyme activity determinations, multispectroscopic measurements, isothermal titration calorimetry, and molecular docking studies...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
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