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Public Health Reports

Eleanor E Friedman, Awal Khan, Wayne A Duffus
OBJECTIVES: In the United States, universal screening for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection among people with HIV is recommended, but the percentage receiving screening is unknown. This study assessed screening for latent TB infection among people with HIV enrolled in Medicaid during 2006-2010. METHODS: We used nationwide fee-for-service Medicaid records to identify people with HIV, measure screening for latent TB infection, and examine associated demographic, social, and clinical factors...
July 2018: Public Health Reports
Titilola Falasinnu, Marios Rossides, Yashaar Chaichian, Julia F Simard
OBJECTIVES: Mortality due to rare diseases, which are substantial sources of premature mortality, is underreported in mortality studies. The objective of this study was to determine the completeness of reporting systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as a cause of death. METHODS: In 2017, we linked data on a Swedish population-based cohort (the Swedish Lupus Linkage, 2001-2013) comprising people with SLE (n = 8560) and their matched general population comparators (n = 37 717) to data from the Cause of Death Register...
July 2018: Public Health Reports
Micah L Berman, Patricia J Zettler, David L Ashley
The US Food and Drug Administration has announced that it is considering lowering nicotine levels in cigarettes to "minimally addictive or nonaddictive levels." This could be a transformative public health measure, but the tobacco industry is likely to challenge such an action in court. This article reviews some of the key legal arguments that industry is likely to advance and considers possible responses. As we demonstrate, there are strong arguments that the US Food and Drug Administration has the authority to implement a policy to reduce nicotine in cigarettes to nonaddictive levels...
July 2018: Public Health Reports
Philip A Chan, Madeline C Montgomery, Jennifer Rose, Alec Tributino, Christina Crowley, Martha M Medina, Rupa Patel, Kenneth Mayer, Rami Kantor, Amy S Nunn
OBJECTIVES: Patterns of HIV transmission vary widely across demographic groups. Identifying and engaging these groups are necessary to prevent new infections and diagnose disease among people who are unaware of their infection. The objective of this study was to determine characteristics of newly diagnosed individuals across an entire state to determine patterns of HIV transmission. METHODS: We evaluated data on people with new HIV diagnoses in Rhode Island from 2013 through 2015...
July 2018: Public Health Reports
Eleanor E Friedman, Hazel D Dean, Wayne A Duffus
OBJECTIVES: Social determinants of health (SDHs) are the complex, structural, and societal factors that are responsible for most health inequities. Since 2003, the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) has researched how SDHs place communities at risk for communicable diseases and poor adolescent health. We described the frequency and types of SDHs discussed in articles authored by NCHHSTP. METHODS: We used the MEDLINE/PubMed search engine to systematically review the frequency and type of SDHs that appeared in peer-reviewed publications available in PubMed from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2014, with a NCHHSTP affiliation...
July 2018: Public Health Reports
Monica Schoch-Spana, Emily Brunson, Hannah Chandler, Gigi Kwik Gronvall, Sanjana Ravi, Tara Kirk Sell, Matthew P Shearer
National investments to facilitate prompt access to safe and effective medical countermeasures (MCMs) (ie, products used to diagnose, prevent, protect from, or treat conditions associated with chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear threats, or emerging infectious diseases) have little merit if people are not willing to take a recommended MCM during an emergency or inadvertently misuse or miss out on a recommended MCM during an emergency. Informed by the Expert Working Group on MCM Emergency Communication, the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security developed recommendations for achieving desired public health outcomes through improved MCM communication based on a review of model practices in risk communication, crisis communication, and public warnings; detailed analysis of recent health crises involving MCMs; and development of a scenario depicting future MCM communication dilemmas...
July 2018: Public Health Reports
Amy Hagopian, Kathleen McGlone West, India J Ornelas, Ariel N Hart, Jenn Hagedorn, Clarence Spigner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Public Health Reports
Grace X Ma, Steven E Shive, Guo Zhang, Jennifer Aquilante, Yin Tan, Meagan Pharis, Cheryl Bettigole, Hannah Lawman, Amanda Wagner, Lin Zhu, Qiaoling Zeng, Min Qi Wang
OBJECTIVES: Sodium reduction in restaurant foods is important because 77% of sodium in the United States is consumed by eating prepared and restaurant foods. We evaluated a sodium-reduction intervention, Healthy Chinese Take-Out Initiative, among Chinese take-out restaurants in low-income neighborhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Our objectives were to (1) analyze changes in the sodium content of food samples and (2) collect data on changes in chefs' and owners' knowledge about the health risks of sodium overconsumption, perceptions of the need for sodium reduction, self-efficacy for lowering sodium use, and perceptions of training needs for sodium-reduction strategies...
July 2018: Public Health Reports
Yingning Wang, Hai-Yen Sung, Tingting Yao, James Lightwood, Wendy Max
OBJECTIVES: Cigar use in the United States is a growing public health concern because of its increasing popularity. We estimated health care utilization and expenditures attributable to cigar smoking among US adults aged ≥35. METHODS: We analyzed data on 84 178 adults using the 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 National Health Interview Surveys. We estimated zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression models on hospital nights, emergency department (ED) visits, physician visits, and home-care visits as a function of tobacco use status-current sole cigar smokers (ie, smoke cigars only), current poly cigar smokers (smoke cigars and smoke cigarettes or use smokeless tobacco), former sole cigar smokers (used to smoke cigars only), former poly cigar smokers (used to smoke cigars and smoke cigarettes or use smokeless tobacco), other tobacco users (ever smoked cigarettes and used smokeless tobacco but not cigars), and never tobacco users (never smoked cigars, smoked cigarettes, or used smokeless tobacco)-and other covariates...
May 2018: Public Health Reports
Jerome M Adams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Public Health Reports
Laura E Tomedi, Jim Roeber, Michael Landen
OBJECTIVE: Current chronic liver disease (CLD) mortality surveillance methods may not adequately capture data on all causes of CLD mortality. The objective of this study was to calculate and compare CLD death rates in New Mexico and the United States by using both an expanded definition of CLD and estimates of the fractional impact of alcohol on CLD deaths. METHODS: We defined CLD mortality as deaths due to alcoholic liver disease, cirrhosis, viral hepatitis, and other liver conditions...
May 2018: Public Health Reports
Allyna Steinberg, Marybec Griffin-Tomas, Desiree Abu-Odeh, Alzen Whitten
The New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene released the Teens in NYC mobile phone application (app) in 2013 as part of a program to promote sexual and reproductive health among adolescents aged 12-19 in NYC. The app featured a locator that allowed users to search for health service providers by sexual health services, contraceptive methods, and geographic locations. We analyzed data on searches from the Where to Go section of the app to understand the patterns of use of the app's search functionality...
May 2018: Public Health Reports
Eric W Hall, Eli S Rosenberg, Monica Trigg, Noele Nelson, Sarah Schillie
OBJECTIVES: Infants born to mothers who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive are at risk for perinatal hepatitis B infection. As prevention, these infants receive a series of 3 or 4 doses of hepatitis B vaccine starting at birth and postvaccination serologic testing. Infants with antibody levels <10 mIU/mL are considered vaccine nonresponders and should be revaccinated. The objective of this cost analysis was to assess a single-dose revaccination strategy among infant nonresponders...
May 2018: Public Health Reports
Sarah M Bartsch, Lindsey Asti, Sindiso Nyathi, Marie L Spiker, Bruce Y Lee
OBJECTIVES: Although outbreaks of restaurant-associated foodborne illness occur periodically and make the news, a restaurant may not be aware of the cost of an outbreak. We estimated this cost under varying circumstances. METHODS: We developed a computational simulation model; scenarios varied outbreak size (5 to 250 people affected), pathogen (n = 15), type of dining establishment (fast food, fast casual, casual dining, and fine dining), lost revenue (ie, meals lost per illness), cost of lawsuits and legal fees, fines, and insurance premium increases...
May 2018: Public Health Reports
Carla L DeSisto, Jill A McDonald
OBJECTIVES: Despite knowledge that the Hispanic population is growing in the United States and that birth outcomes may vary by maternal country of birth, data on birth outcomes by maternal country of birth among Hispanic women are scant. We compared the rates of 3 birth outcomes for infants born in the United States-preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age-between foreign-born Hispanic women and US-born Hispanic women, and then we examined these birth outcomes by mother's country of birth for foreign-born Hispanic women...
May 2018: Public Health Reports
Li-Wu Chen, Abbey Gregg, David Palm
OBJECTIVES: Public health accreditation is intended to improve the performance of public health departments, and quality improvement (QI) is an important component of the Public Health Accreditation Board process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the QI maturity and accreditation readiness of local health departments (LHDs) in Nebraska during a 6-year period that included several statewide initiatives to progress readiness, including funding and technical assistance. METHODS: We used a mixed-methods approach that consisted of both online surveys and key informant interviews to assess QI maturity and accreditation readiness...
May 2018: Public Health Reports
Melinda Kelley, Brigette Ulin, Lisa C McGuire
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Public Health Reports
Elizabeth G Marshall, Shou-En Lu, Abimbola O Williams, Daniel Lefkowitz, Marija Borjan
OBJECTIVES: Extreme weather events require extensive tree removal and disposal, tasks associated with severe injury risks among workers and residents. To help understand the risks of such activities, we evaluated the impact of a large and destructive storm (Hurricane Sandy in 2012) on the incidence of tree-related injuries. METHODS: We searched chief-complaint text fields for patients aged 18-65 from 2011-2014 emergency department visit records submitted by New Jersey hospitals through the state-based syndromic surveillance system...
May 2018: Public Health Reports
Clare C Brown, J Mick Tilford, T Mac Bird
OBJECTIVES: The high concentration of smokers among subgroups targeted by the Affordable Care Act and the historically worse health and lower access to health care among smokers warrants an evaluation of how Medicaid expansion affects smokers. We evaluated the impact of Medicaid expansion on smoking behavior, access to health care, and health of low-income adults, and we compared outcomes of all low-income people with outcomes of low-income current smokers by states' Medicaid expansion status...
May 2018: Public Health Reports
Jason L Salemi, Rachel E Rutkowski, Jean Paul Tanner, Jennifer L Matas, Russell S Kirby
OBJECTIVES: We identified algorithms to improve the accuracy of passive surveillance programs for birth defects that rely on administrative diagnosis codes for case ascertainment and in situations where case confirmation via medical record review is not possible or is resource prohibitive. METHODS: We linked data from the 2009-2011 Florida Birth Defects Registry, a statewide, multisource, passive surveillance program, to an enhanced surveillance database with selected cases confirmed through medical record review...
May 2018: Public Health Reports
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