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Brain Tumor Pathology

Masaki Hirano, Fumiharu Ohka, Sachi Maeda, Lushun Chalise, Akane Yamamichi, Kosuke Aoki, Akira Kato, Kuniaki Tanahashi, Kazuya Motomura, Yusuke Nishimura, Masahito Hara, Keiko Shinjo, Yutaka Kondo, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Atsushi Natsume
Detection of mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene is useful for accurate diagnosis of lower grade gliomas, as described in the 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system. Conventional analysis tools, including Sanger DNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry, might fail to detect a small fraction of mutant IDH1 owing to their limited sensitivity. Considering that lower grade gliomas are infiltrative in nature, a highly sensitive detection assay for IDH1 mutation is required for their accurate diagnosis...
February 19, 2018: Brain Tumor Pathology
Kurt A Grahnke, Daniel M Heiferman, Ewa Borys, Edward Melian, Kevin P Barton, Rimas V Lukas, Nawal Shaikh, John P Leonetti, Douglas E Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2018: Brain Tumor Pathology
Hiroshi Nishioka, Naoko Inoshita
WHO classification of pituitary adenomas was revised in 2017. The two major and significant changes are discussed. (1) The new classification focuses on adenohypophysial-cell lineage for the designation of adenomas, and thus, assessment of pituitary transcription factors is recommended. Its appropriate use has a complementary role in obtaining an accurate diagnosis, particularly in hormone-negative adenomas. Subclassification of nonfunctioning adenomas was revised accordingly and, consequently, null cell adenomas became quite rare...
January 9, 2018: Brain Tumor Pathology
Nobuaki Funata, Sumihito Nobusawa, Satoshi Nakata, Tatsuya Yamazaki, Kazuhiko Takabagake, Tsukasa Koike, Tatsuya Maegawa, Ryoji Yamada, Nobusada Shinoura, Yutaka Mine
Diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M mutant, is newly recognized as a distinct category, which usually arises in the brain stem, thalamus or spinal cord of children, and young adults. The oncogenic H3 K27M mutation involves H3.3 (encoded by H3F3A) or H3.1 (encoded by HIST1H3B/HIST1H3C), and the incidence of each mutation differs among the primary sites. Recently, several papers have reported that cerebellar high-grade gliomas in both children and adults also harbor H3 K27 mutation. With the exception of one pediatric case, all of the cases carried the mutation in H3...
December 20, 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
Jintao He, Xiang Li, Wanchun Zhu, Yaxiong Yu, Jian Gong
Glioma is the most common intracranial malignant tumor. Low-grade gliomas (LGG) occupy almost 80% in all of the gliomas. The prognosis of LGG in children is much better than in adult, however, the molecular mechanism is still unclear. In our investigation, it was first found that the level of soluble IL1RAP (sIL1RAP) was significantly higher in the LGG from children than that from adult. We also revealed that sIL1RAP could induce the apoptosis of U251. In cells with overexpression of sIL-1RAP, the cell proliferation promoted by IL-1 was significantly inhibited...
December 13, 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
Takamune Achiha, Hideyuki Arita, Naoki Kagawa, Tsuyoshi Murase, Jun-Ichiro Ikeda, Eiichi Morii, Yonehiro Kanemura, Yasunori Fujimoto, Haruhiko Kishima
Enchondromatosis is a rare skeletal disorder characterized by the development of multiple enchondromas, which can also manifest non-cartilage tumors including gliomas. Here, we describe a genetic analysis of a low-grade glioma that developed in an enchondromatosis case. A 32-year-old man with a long history of enchondromatosis developed a left frontal tumor. The histopathological findings of his surgical specimen revealed characteristics of a low-grade glioma with an IDH1 c.395G>A (R132H) mutation and 1p/19q codeletion, which led to a definitive diagnosis of oligodendroglioma...
January 2018: Brain Tumor Pathology
Ichiyo Shibahara, Yukihiko Sonoda, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Akifumi Mayama, Masayuki Kanamori, Ryuta Saito, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Shoji Mashiyama, Hiroshi Uenohara, Mika Watanabe, Toshihiro Kumabe, Teiji Tominaga
Pilocytic astrocytomas and low-grade gliomas are more common compared with glioblastomas in patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). A recent genome-wide analysis has shown frequent NF1 gene alterations in the mesenchymal subtype of a glioblastoma; however, little is known about clinicopathological features of glioblastomas in NF1 patients (NF1 glioblastomas). We analyzed four NF1 glioblastomas. Radiographical and intraoperative findings showed well-circumscribed tumors from surrounding brain. Pathological analysis presented a paucity of processes with an eosinophilic cytoplasm, bizarre nuclei, xanthomatous-like appearance, multinucleated giant cells, and histiocytoid appearance...
November 14, 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
Shumpei Onishi, Fumiyuki Yamasaki, Yoshiko Nakano, Takeshi Takayasu, Vishwa Jeet Amatya, Manish Kolakshyapati, Yukio Takeshima, Takanori Hirose, Koichi Ichimura, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Kaoru Kurisu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
Takashi Komori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
Yukitomo Ishi, Kanako C Hatanaka, Shigeru Yamaguchi, Hiromi Fujita, Hiroaki Motegi, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Shunsuke Terasaka, Kiyohiro Houkin
A 5-year-old boy underwent biopsy of an intra-axial calcified tumor in the hypothalamus, which was incidentally found. Based on the presence of ganglion-like cells combined with glial cell element, the pathological diagnosis was ganglioglioma. Because the tumor grew gradually in size over the next 2 years, he underwent chemotherapy with temozolomide. However, at 8 years of age, the boy developed hydrocephalus and the cystic lesion had re-grown. Endoscopic cyst fenestration and tumor biopsy was performed, and pathological diagnosis was tentatively oligodendroglioma based on the presence of tumor cells with a perinuclear halo...
October 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
Taishi Nakamura, Kohei Fukuoka, Junji Ikeda, Masahiro Yoshitomi, Naoko Udaka, Reo Tanoshima, Kensuke Tateishi, Shoji Yamanaka, Koichi Ichimura, Tetsuya Yamamoto
Ependymomas are primary neuroepithelial malignancies that mainly occur during childhood, and arise from ependymal cells along the ventricular systems of the CNS. Recently, it was elucidated that two-thirds of supratentorial (ST) ependymomas harbor oncogenic fusions of RELA, whose protein product is the principal effector of canonical NF-κB signaling. RELA fusion proteins activate signaling for tumor proliferation and malignant progression, resulting in poorer prognoses in these patients compared to those in patients with other ST ependymomas...
October 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
Prit Benny Malgulwar, Pankaj Pathak, Manmohan Singh, Shashank Sharad Kale, Vaishali Suri, Chitra Sarkar, Mehar Chand Sharma
Loss of SMARCB1/INI1 expression is considered to be a hallmark for childhood chordomas (CCs). Although mutation/loss of 22q has strongly established the loss of SMARCB1/INI1 in cancers, the cause in CCs remains elusive. Recent studies suggest role of miRNAs in regulation of SMARCB1/INI1 expressions. We examined 5 reported/target predicted miRNAs to SMARCB1/INI1 in SMARCB1/INI1 immunonegative and immunopositive cases, and found upregulation of miR-671-5p and miR-193a-5p in SMARCB1/INI1-immunonegative cases. Notably, these two miRNAs were significantly predicted to target TGF-β signaling, suggestive of dysregulation of developmental and osteoblast regulation pathway in CCs...
October 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
Akane Suzuki, Takashi Maruyama, Masayuki Nitta, Takashi Komori, Soko Ikuta, Takakazu Kawamata, Yoshihiro Muragaki
Rapid immunohistochemistry (R-IHC) has been developing mainly as a support technique in the rapid diagnosis of central nervous system tumors; however, there have been problems regarding instability in specimen preparation and immunostaining. To overcome the weakness of this technology, the instability of immunostaining, we developed a modified R-IHC. This was achieved by switching to 4% paraformaldehyde as the fixative solution and utilizing a commercially available Polymer Refine Detection Kit, as a high-sensitivity kit, in place of the secondary antibodies...
October 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
Francesco Cicone, Giuseppe Minniti, Maria Antonietta Oliva, Luciano Carideo, John O Prior, Francesco Scopinaro, Felice Giangaspero, Antonietta Arcella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
Yoon Jin Cha, Dong-Seok Kim, Seung-Koo Lee, Hoon-Chul Kang, Se Hoon Kim
The term "long-term epilepsy-associated tumor (LEAT)" encompasses brain lesions associated with drug-resistant epilepsy over a long duration (≥2 years). Notably, some LEATs do not fit into any of the classifications of the World Health Organization (WHO). Herein, we report a LEAT that occurred in the left amygdala of a 16-year-old patient with intractable epilepsy. Histological examination of the resected amygdala revealed diffusely infiltrating tumor cells in the cortex. Perineuronal satellitosis and perivascular aggregation of tumor cells were apparent, along with mild nuclear enlargement and cytologic atypia...
October 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
Tsunehito Nakao, Yasuo Sasagawa, Sumihito Nobusawa, Yasushi Takabatake, Hemragul Sabit, Masashi Kinoshita, Katsuyoshi Miyashita, Yasuhiko Hayashi, Hideaki Yokoo, Mitsutoshi Nakada
Radiation-induced glioma (RIG) is a rare secondary glioma. The tumors morphologically resemble their sporadically arising counterparts. Recently, the WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system was revised to incorporate molecular biomarkers together with classic histological features. The status of molecular biomarkers in RIG, however, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate if commonly accepted glioma-specific biomarkers are relevant in RIGs. Among 269 gliomas diagnosed as WHO grade 2, 3 and 4 in our institution, four were diagnosed as RIGs...
October 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
Lawrance K Chung, Panayiotis E Pelargos, Ann M Chan, Joanna V Demos, Carlito Lagman, John P Sheppard, Thien Nguyen, Yu-Ling Chang, Seyed A Hojat, Robert M Prins, Linda M Liau, Leia Nghiemphu, Albert Lai, Timothy F Cloughesy, William H Yong, Lynn K Gordon, Madhuri Wadehra, Isaac Yang
Epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2) expression is noted in many human cancers. We evaluated EMP2 as a biomarker in gliomas. A large tissue microarray of lower grade glioma (WHO grades II-III, n = 19 patients) and glioblastoma (GBM) (WHO grade IV, n = 50 patients) was stained for EMP2. EMP2 expression was dichotomized to low or high expression scores and correlated with clinical data. The mean EMP2 expression was 1.68 in lower grade gliomas versus 2.20 in GBMs (P = 0.01). The percentage of samples with high EMP2 expression was greater in GBMs than lower grade gliomas (90...
September 8, 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
Junji Hosono, Shunichi Morikawa, Taichi Ezaki, Takakazu Kawamata, Yoshikazu Okada
In glioma angiogenesis, tumor vessels cause morphological and functional abnormalities associated with malignancy and tumor progression. We hypothesized that certain structural changes or scantiness of functional pericytes may be involved in the formation of dysfunctional blood vessels in gliomas. In this study, we performed morphological examinations to elucidate the possible involvement of pericytes in brain tumor vessel abnormalities using a rat RG2 glioma model. After implantation of RG2 glioma cells in the syngeneic rat brain, gliomas were formed as early as day 7...
July 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
Yohei Miyake, Kazuhiko Mishima, Tomonari Suzuki, Jun-Ichi Adachi, Atsushi Sasaki, Ryo Nishikawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
Sumit Das, Navjot Chaudhary, Lee-Cyn Ang, Joseph S Megyesi
Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is a relatively uncommon entity, whereby the so-called 'recipient' tumor is involved by another biologically unrelated 'donor' tumor. Intracranially, meningioma (WHO grade 1) is the most common recipient tumor, while breast and lung cancers are the most common donor tumors. We present an unusual case of intracranial tumor-to-tumor metastasis involving papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) believed to have metastasized to an anaplastic meningioma (WHO grade 3). The patient is a 64-year-old female with a history of PTC, whose neuroimaging, performed as part of her staging workup, revealed a right parietal scalp lesion...
July 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
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