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Brain Tumor Pathology

Lien Bekaert, Evelyne Emery, Guénaëlle Levallet, Emmanuèle Lechapt-Zalcman
Confronted with brain metastases (BM), pathologists aim to rule out a primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor and to identify or verify the primary tumor site to guide the clinician to specific therapies. Apart from morphological features, ancillary immunohistochemical analysis is the most effective tool for characterizing a metastatic neoplasm of unknown origin. A limited array of antibodies is used, taking into account relevant clinical information and the known brain tropism of lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma...
November 22, 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Shilpa Rao, Palavalasa Sravya, Chitra Chandran, Jitender Saini, Sampath Somanna, Vani Santosh
Oligodendrogliomas are diffuse gliomas characterised by IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion. Classical oligodendrocytes, minigemistocytes, gliofibrillary oligodendrocytes, granular cells, and mucocytes are morphologic cell types described in oligodendroglioma. Even though the occurrence of granular cells in oligodendroglioma is known, exact nature of these cells and their molecular characteristics remain undetermined. We describe a case of oligodendroglioma with granular cells, in which we have attempted to molecularly characterise the granular cells...
October 13, 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Jung-Soo Pyo, Nae Yu Kim, Roy Hyun Jai Kim, Guhyun Kang
The study investigated isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) positive rate and concordance rate between IDH1 IHC and molecular test in glioblastoma. The current study included 1360 glioblastoma cases from sixteen eligible studies. Meta-analysis, including subgroup analysis by antibody clones and cut-off values, for IDH1 IHC positive rate was conducted. In addition, we performed a concordance analysis and diagnostic test accuracy review between IDH1 IHC and molecular tests. The estimated rates of IDH1 IHC were 0...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Sayaka Yuzawa, Hiroshi Nishihara, Shinya Tanaka
Meningioma is the most common intracranial tumor, arising from arachnoid cells of the meninges. Monosomy 22 and inactivating mutations of NF2 are well-known genetic alterations of meningiomas. More recently, mutations in TRAF7, AKT1, KLF4, SMO, and PIK3CA were identified by next-generation sequencing. We here reviewed 553 meningiomas for the mutational patterns of the six genes. NF2 aberration was observed in 55 % of meningiomas. Mutations of TRAF7, AKT1, KLF4, PIK3CA, and SMO were identified in 20, 9, 9, 4...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Dai Kamamoto, Hikaru Sasaki, Kentaro Ohara, Katsuhiro Mizutani, Kazunari Yoshida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Metin Dogan, İsmail Okan Yildirim, Derya Gumus Dogan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Arie Perry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Kenta Masui, Webster K Cavenee, Paul S Mischel
The recent identification of distinct genetic and epigenetic features in each glioma entity is leading to a multilayered, integrated diagnostic approach combining histologic features with molecular genetic information. Somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways are key oncogenic events in diffuse gliomas, including lower grade (grade II and III) gliomas (LGG) and the highly lethal brain tumor glioblastoma (GBM), respectively, where they reprogram the epigenome, transcriptome, and metabolome to drive tumor growth...
July 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Satoko Nakada, Hiroshi Minato, Takayuki Nojima
Investigations on the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene in solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) and hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) have increased since its discovery in 2013. Although several SFTs reported without NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene analysis, we reviewed 546 SFTs/HPCs with NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene analysis in this study and investigated differences between the gene variants. In total, 452 cases tested positive for the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene, with more than 40 variants being detected. The most frequent of these were NAB2 exon 6-STAT6 exon 16/17/18 and NAB2 exon 4-STAT6 exon 2/3, with the former occurring most frequently in SFTs in meninges, soft tissues, and head and neck; the latter predominated in SFTs in the pleura and lung...
July 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Kavita Gaur, Poonam Narang, Vineeta Vijay Batra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Tanner M Johanns, Yujie Fu, Dale K Kobayashi, Yu Mei, Ian F Dunn, Diane D Mao, Albert H Kim, Gavin P Dunn
TERT promoter gene mutations are highly recurrent in malignant glioma. However, little information exists regarding their presence in experimental brain tumor models. To better characterize systems in which TERT mutation studies could be appropriately modeled experimentally, the TERT promoter was examined by conventional sequencing in primary brain tumor initiating cells (BTIC), two matched recurrent BTIC lines, a panel of established malignant glioma cell lines, and two meningioma cell lines. Telomerase gene expression was examined by quantitative PCR...
July 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Daniela Pierscianek, Anna Michel, Nicolai El Hindy, Kathy Keyvani, Philipp Dammann, Neriman Oezkan, Oliver Mueller, Ulrich Sure, Yuan Zhu
Hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a highly vascularized mesenchymal tumor. Local recurrence and distant metastasis are common features of HPC. Considering the remarkable hyper-vasculature phenotype of HPC, we assumed that dysregulated angiogenic signaling pathways were involved in HPC. The key components of angiogenic signaling pathways including VEGF-VEGF-R2, EphrinB2-EphB4 and DLL4-Notch were examined by real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunostaining in 17 surgical specimens of HPC patients and in 6 controls...
July 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Shinjiro Fukami, Markus J Riemenschneider, Michihiro Kohno, Hans Jakob Steiger
The aim of our study was to clarify the expression and gene copy number levels of protein phosphatase 1D magnesium-dependent, delta isoform (PPM1D), which is thought to be a regulator of the p53 protein in meningiomas of all three different WHO grades. Genomic DNA and mRNA were extracted from frozen tissues of meningiomas (WHO grade I, 20 cases; grade II, 17 cases; grade III, 20 cases). For analysis of the mRNA expression and gene dosage level of PPM1D, semiquantitative duplex RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR, and semiquantitative duplex PCR were performed...
July 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Kavita Gaur, Vineeta V Batra, Rakesh Gupta, M C Sharma, Poonam Narang, P N Pandey
We report the case of a 13-year-old girl presenting with left-sided hemiparesis, altered sensorium and episodic headache with bouts of projectile vomiting. Imaging revealed a large heterodense intraventricular mass lesion displaying focal calcification and hyperintensity on T1- and T2- weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance images suggesting the presence of intratumoral fat. Histologically, the tumour showed sheets of glial cells, focal perithelial rosettes and individual cells showing fat vacuoles...
July 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Yoon Jin Cha, Seung-Koo Lee, Jong-Hee Chang, Se Hoon Kim
A lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma (LPRM) is an extremely rare variant of meningioma. Here, we report a case of atypical LPRM with increased mitosis in a 55-year-old man. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging suggested meningioma with brain invasion in the left tentorium cerebelli. Histological examination revealed sclerotic fibrosis and dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration; based on these findings, the differential diagnosis included LPRM and fibroinflammatory lesions of the dura, such as idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis (IHP), IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), and Rosai-Dorfman disease...
July 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Aanchal Kakkar, Saphalta Baghmar, Ajay Garg, Vaishali Suri, Vinod Raina, Chitra Sarkar, Mehar Chand Sharma
Rhabdoid meningioma is a rare meningioma variant, classified as WHO grade III. Although this tumor is known for its aggressive behavior and poor prognosis, extracranial metastasis is rare. We report the rare case of a 31-year-old patient with rhabdoid meningioma which recurred several times despite gross total resection, radiation therapy, and gamma knife radiosurgery, and the last recurrence was associated with metastases to lungs, lymph node and bone. The patient showed no response to paclitaxel-carboplatin, or vincristine-cyclophosphamide-adriamycin chemotherapy, and succumbed to the disease...
July 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Suvendu Purkait, Supriya Mallick, Vikas Sharma, Anupam Kumar, Pankaj Pathak, Prerana Jha, Ahitagni Biswas, Pramod Kumar Julka, Deepak Gupta, Ashish Suri, Ashish Datt Upadhyay, Vaishali Suri, Mehar C Sharma, Chitra Sarkar
This study aims to establish a simplified molecular classification of glioblastomas (GBMs) based on molecular genetic alterations. GBM cases (n-114) were evaluated for IDH-1 and TP53 mutation by Sanger sequencing, PDGFRA and EGFR amplification by FISH, NF1 and YKL40 expression by qRT-PCR. Subsequently they were classified into four subgroups: classical like (CL), proneural like (PN), mesenchymal like (MES) and neural like (NEU). CL subtype was most frequent (39 %), followed by PN (32 %) and MES (20 %) subtypes...
July 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Taiichi Saito, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takashi Maruyama, Takashi Komori, Manabu Tamura, Masayuki Nitta, Shunsuke Tsuzuki, Takakazu Kawamata
Gliomas with 1p/19q loss of heterozygosity (LOH) are known to be associated with longer patient survival and higher sensitivity to treatment than tumors without 1p/19q LOH. This study was designed to clarify whether the preoperative finding of calcification on CT was correlated with 1p/19q LOH in patients with suspected WHO grade II and III gliomas. This study included 250 adult patients who underwent resection for primary supratentorial tumors at Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital. The tumors were suspected, based on MRI findings, to be WHO grade II or III gliomas...
July 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Takuhiro Shoji, Ryuta Saito, Masayuki Kanamori, Yukihiko Sonoda, Mika Watanabe, Teiji Tominaga
We present a case of sarcoma occurring at a site of resected oligodendroglioma without preceding radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Oligosarcoma occurring at sites of resected oligodendroglioma or anaplastic oligodendroglioma with sarcomatous components are rare. Although meningioma or sarcoma-like lesions are sometimes reported after glioma-targeted radiotherapy, those without preceding radiotherapy are quite rare. Moreover, cases of sarcoma without oligodendroglial components occurring at a site of resected oligodendroglioma have never been reported...
June 22, 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Junmei Wang, Zhaoxia Liu, Jingyi Fang, Jiang Du, Yun Cui, Li Xu, Guilin Li
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare, highly malignant tumor of the central nervous system (CNS) that typically occurs during infancy. These tumors exhibit morphologic heterogeneity and differentiate along multiple lineages, thus posing a diagnostic challenge. Here, we present two cases of AT/RT with a primitive neuroectodermal component and histological pattern resembling an embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes (ETMR), a rare but distinctive embryonal entity with different therapeutic implications...
June 15, 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
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