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Experimental and Clinical Cardiology

Jinfeng Teng, Steve Loukin, Ching Kung
EC coupling is subjected to a mechanical feedback, which originates from physical force-sensing ion channels in the pericardium and elsewhere. Reviewed here are the most recent developments that greatly advanced our understanding of these mechanosensitive (MS) channels, including TRPs and K2p's. Patch clamp has continued to demonstrate the direct channel activation by membrane stretch. Crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy have revealed the structures of several MS channels at atomic resolution. Some have been purified to homogeneity, reconstituted into lipid bilayer, and still retain their ability to respond to stretch force...
2014: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Serkan Ozturk, Selim Ayhan, Yusuf Aslantas, Alim Erdem, Mehmet Fatih Ozlu, Ismail Ekınozu, Mehmet Yazıcı
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate left ventricular (LV) systolic asynchrony and its relationship with the Tei index using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI); and to evaluate the relationship of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count (TFC) and Tei index with LV asynchrony in patients with coronary artery ectasia (CAE). METHODS: A total of 50 CAE patients and 40 control subjects were evaluated. Diagnosis of CAE was made angiographically and TFC was calculated. LV systolic and diastolic function was assessed by conventional echocardiography and TDI...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Nobuyuki Hiruta, Yuko Maezawa, Yasuto Uchida, Yoshiro Maezawa, Yasumi Uchida
BACKGROUND: Coronary intimal hyperplasia occurs at the site of spasm in patients with vasospastic angina. The migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the media has been proposed as a potential mechanism; however, this has not been confirmed with supportive evidence. OBJECTIVE: To determine which cell types participate in spasm-induced coronary intimal hyperplasia. METHODS: Morphological changes in spastic coronary artery segments in beagles were examined using electron microscopy and immunohistochemical staining of cell markers at 1 h, 3 h and 6 h, and two and four weeks after spasm provocation...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Olga Panasiuk, Angela Shysh, Alexander Bondarenko, Oleksiy Moibenko
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) confer protection against myocardial injury after ischemia-reperfusion. There are two subfractions of mitochondria located in different regions of the cell: subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM). The present study explored possible differences between Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling in rat SSM and IFM fractions under control conditions (control group [CG]) and after dietary supplementation with omega-3 PUFA (experimental group [EG])...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Morhaf Ibrahim, Reham Hasan, Mustafa Awan
Cocaine is the most commonly abused drug in patients presenting to emergency rooms. Compliance with medical instructions and medications is poor in patients who use cocaine. A case involving a 41-year-old cocaine user who developed subacute stent thrombosis is described. The patient underwent bare metal stent implantation three days before presentation and had confirmed compliance with dual antiplatelet therapy. The stent thrombosis was treated with a manual and mechanical thrombectomy, in addition to percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Alyssa Camille Browning, Saul Schaefer
A 66-year-old man with a history of coronary artery disease, stage V chronic kidney disease, peripheral arterial disease and a dual-chamber pacemaker experienced persistent chest and shoulder discomfort following his daily hemodialysis treatment. Treatment with clopidogrel had been discontinued three days previously due to impending vascular surgery. Electrocardiography revealed a right ventricular-paced rhythm with ST abnormalities indicative of posterior ST elevation myocardial infarction. The patient underwent urgent cardiac catheterization and required percutaneous coronary intervention for an acutely occluded coronary artery...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Rajeev Fernando, Ketan Koranne, Pranav Loyalka, Biswajit Kar, Igor Gregoric
The ductus arteriosus originates from the persistence of the distal portion of the left sixth aortic arch. It connects the descending aorta (immediately distal to the left subclavian artery) to the roof of the main pulmonary artery, near the origin of the left pulmonary artery. Persistence of the duct beyond 48 h after birth is abnormal and results in patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). PDA is rare in adults because it is usually discovered and treated in childhood. Mechanical closure remains the definitive therapy because the patency of ductus arteriosus may lead to multiple complications, depending on the size and flow through the ductus...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Radhakrishnan Ramaraj, Coraly Manrique, Mehrnoosh Hashemzadeh, Mohammad Reza Movahed
BACKGROUND: Mitral annulus calcification (MAC) is an important echocardiographic finding that is significantly associated with valvular abnormalities. However, the effect of documented MAC on all-cause mortality is not known. Using a large database, associations between MAC and long-term all-cause mortality were evaluated. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 3169 echocardiograms, which were performed for clinical reasons in southern California between 1983 and 1998 in patients between 16 and 99 years of age, was performed...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Xue-Wei He, Ze-Zhou Song
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease with an autosomal-dominant pattern of inheritance associated with a variety of disease courses, age of onset, symptom severity, left ventricular outflow obstruction and risk for sudden cardiac death. Left ventricular systolic function is typically normal in most HCM patients using conventional echocardiographic indexes; however, myocardial systolic and diastolic function are reduced, and the mechanism of myocardial dysfunction remains unclear. Echocardiography is an invaluable tool for the diagnosis and assessment of hemodynamic condition, evaluation of therapy and outcome, and follow-up of patients with HCM...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Marcelo Utrera-Lagunas, Arturo Orea-Tejeda, Lilia Castillo-Martínez, Karla Balderas-Muñoz, Candace Keirns-Davis, Sarahi Espinoza-Rosas, Néstor Alonso Sánchez-Ortíz, Gabriela Olvera-Mayorga
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a major risk factor for heart failure (HF), although the pathophysiological processes have not been clarified. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HF and of abnormal myocardial perfusion in diabetic patients evaluated using technetium (99m) sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted that included patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent echocardiography to diagnose HF and a pharmacological stress test with intravenous dipyridamole to examine cardiac scintigraphic perfusion abnormalities...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Hai-Feng Liu, Xue-Wen Qi, Long-le Ma, Dao-Kuo Yao, Lexin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of atorvastatin on the migration and adhesion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and on pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease. METHODS: A total of 68 patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease were randomly assigned to either a control group (n=35) or a treatment group (n=33). In addition, 30 healthy volunteers (17 male, 13 female) were enrolled as healthy controls. Atorvastatin (20 mg per day) was administered to the treatment group...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Chun-Yan Zhang, Long-Le Ma, Le-Xin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between serum uric acid levels and pulmonary hypertension in patients with idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH). METHODS: Serum uric acid levels were measured in 86 patients (mean [± SD] age 35.2±12.3 years; 36 men) with IPAH. Pulmonary arterial pressure and ventricular function were assessed using echocardiography. Serum uric acid levels were also measured in 40 healthy subjects (35.9±11.6 years of age; 15 men)...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
David Colquhoun, Diana Chirovsky, Valsilisa Sazonov, Yadong A Cui, Baishali Ambegaonkar
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the prevalence of mixed dyslipidemia (MD) and the effectiveness of lipid-modifying therapy (LMT) for the treatment of abnormal levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in Australian clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of MD in Australian patients undergoing LMT. METHODS: Patients 35 years of age and older undergoing LMT for ≥1 year were enrolled from nine general practice and cardiologist/endocrinologist outpatient clinics in Australia between April 2007 and May 2008...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Giovanni Cioffi, Giorgio Faganello, Stefania De Feo, Nicola Berlinghieri, Luigi Tarantini, Andrea Di Lenarda, Bruno Pinamonti, Riccardo Candido, Pompilio Faggiano
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Left ventricular (LV) circumferential or longitudinal shortening may be impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In the present study, patients with type 2 DM without myocardial ischemia and combined impairment of circumferential and longitudinal (C+L) shortening were studied to assess the prevalence and factors associated with this condition. METHODS: Data from 386 patients with type 2 DM enrolled in the SHORTening of midWall and longitudinAl left Ventricular fibers in diabEtes study were analyzed...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Neil A Smart
BACKGROUND: Peak oxygen consumption (VO2) is the gold standard measure of cardiorespiratory fitness and a reliable predictor of survival in chronic heart failure patients. Furthermore, any form of physical training usually improves cardiorespiratory fitness, although the magnitude of improvement in peak VO2 may vary across different training prescriptions. OBJECTIVE: To quantify, and subsequently rank, the magnitude of improvement in peak VO2 for different physical training prescriptions using data from published meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Jinqian Wang, Xiuyun Ma, Shuying Qu, Yingzheng Li, Lihui Han, Xun Sun, Peimei Li, Xue Liu, Jinhua Xu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of subclinical thyroid dysfunction and the relationship between thyrotropin levels and cardiovascular risk factors in residents of the coastal area of China. METHODS: Atotalof4256individuals(mean[±SD]age50.51±14.24years; 2079 males, 2177 females,) were enrolled in the present study. Sex, blood pressure, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, serum levels of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid and smoking status were measured...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Selim Ayhan, Serkan Ozturk, Alim Erdem, Mehmet Fatih Ozlu, Tolga Memioglu, Mehmet Ozyasar, Mehmet Yazici
BACKGROUND: Although hematological parameters have been associated with prognosis in patients with various cardiovascular diseases, their relationship with coronary collateral (CC) circulation in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between hematological parameters and CC vessel development in patients with stable CAD. METHODS: A total of 96 patients who underwent coronary angiography were retrospectively enrolled...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Mehmet Demir
BACKGROUND: The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) represents the most common cardiac congenital malformation in adults. It is frequently associated with dilation, aneurysm and dissection of the ascending aorta. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in subjects with BAVs. METHODS: Thirty-five subjects with BAV (mean [± SD] age 25.9±5.7 years [range 17 to 36 years]; 18 male, 17 female) with either no valvular impairment or mild valvular impairment were recruited along with 30 control subjects (24...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Shengyang Jiang, Donglin Jiang, Yijia Tao
Cardiovascular diseases are threatening human health with rising morbidity and mortality rates. Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease, and the prognosis of cardiovascular disease may be predicted by increasing GGT levels. GGT levels are related to cardiovascular emergencies of chronic heart failure, and an elevated GGT level has been shown to be an independent predictive maker for cardiac death and cardiac transplantation...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
Ji Hoon You, Sung-Gwon Kang, Bong Man Kim
BACKGROUND: Stent graft placement is an acceptable treatment option for aortic disease, particularly for abdominal aortic aneurysm. At present, the use of stent grafts is expanding beyond current indications for use. Fenestrated stent grafts are used in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms whose aortic anatomy is unsuitable for repair using standard devices. The success of fenestrated stent graft placement is largely dependent on planning, including obtaining measurements and designing the stent...
2013: Experimental and Clinical Cardiology
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