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Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Masanori Yokoba, Tsuyoshi Ichikawa, Akira Takakura, Naohito Ishii, Yoshifumi Kurosaki, Yuya Yamada, Tomoaki Tsukushi, Noriyuki Masuda, Paul A Easton, Masato Katagiri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Jatinder Singh, Ramanpreet Shah, Dhandeep Singh
Asthma is inveterate inflammatory disorder, delineated by airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and airway wall remodeling. Although, asthma is a vague term, and is recognized as heterogenous entity encompassing different phenotypes. Targeting single mediator or receptor did not prove much clinical significant, as asthma is complex disease involving myriad inflammatory mediators. Asthma may probably involve a large number of different types of molecular and cellular components interacting through complex pathophysiological pathways...
September 22, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Zhou-Gui Ling, Yan-Bin Wu, Jin-Liang Kong, Zhen-Ming Tang, Wei Liu, Yi-Qiang Chen
BACKGROUND: Nebulized magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has been used to treat asthma, but the efficacy remains controversial. We aimed to comprehensively review the efficacy of nebulized MgSO4 in treating adult patients with asthma. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant studies published up to July 18, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included if adult patients with acute or stable asthma had been treated with nebulized MgSO4 compared with placebo or another bronchodilator...
September 17, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Roberto W Dal Negro, Maria Visconti
BACKGROUND: Erdosteine (ER), a multimechanism, mucoactive agent with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, has been shown to improve lung function, decrease plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS), and 8-isoprostane levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). AIM: To assess vs. placebo the effect of ER on the exercise-induced oxidative stress by measuring and comparing the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in severe COPD patients...
September 17, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Kanchan Pyasi, Ellen Tufvesson, Subhabrata Moitra
Leukotrienes (LTs) initiate a cascade of reactions that cause bronchoconstriction and inflammation in asthma. LT-modifying drugs have been proved very effective to reduce inflammation and associated exacerbation however despite some illustrious clinical trials the usage of these drugs remains overlooked because the evidence to support their utility in asthma management has been mixed and varied between studies. Although, there are plenty of evidences which suggest that the leukotriene-modifying drugs provide consistent improvement even after just the first oral dose and reduce asthma exacerbations, the beneficial effect of these drugs has remained sparse and widely debated...
September 17, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Candice M Todd, Brittany M Salter, Desmond M Murphy, Richard M Watson, Karen J Howie, Joanne Milot, Jonathan Sadeh, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Paul M O'Byrne, Gail M Gauvreau
BACKGROUND: Neutrophils are effector cells recruited to airways in patients with asthma. Migration of neutrophils occurs predominantly through activation of the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors by CXC chemokines, including IL-8 and Gro-α. The dual CXCR1/CXCR2 antagonist SCH 527123 has been developed to target neutrophil migration to alleviate airway neutrophilia. This study investigated the effects of SCH 527123 on neutrophil levels within the bone marrow, peripheral blood and airways, and on isolated bone marrow and peripheral blood neutrophil migration from mild allergic asthmatics...
September 14, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Janiana Raíza Jentsch Matias de Oliveira, Michel Fleith Otuki, Daniela Almeida Cabrini, Indiara Brusco, Sara Marchesan Oliveira, Juliano Ferreira, Eunice André
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are widely used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure and renal disease, and are considered relatively safe and generally well-tolerated drugs. However, adverse effects of ACEIs have been reported, including non-productive cough and angioedema, which can lead to poor adherence to therapy. The mechanisms by which ACEIs promote adverse effects are not fully elucidated, although increased bradykinin plasma levels following ACEI therapy seem to play an important role...
September 7, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Vítor S Fernandes, Paz Recio, Elvira López-Oliva, María Pilar Martínez, Ana Sofía Ribeiro, María Victoria Barahona, Ana Cristina Martínez, Sara Benedito, Ángel Agis-Torres, Alberto Cabañero, Gemma M Muñoz, Albino García-Sacristán, Luis M Orensanz, Medardo Hernández
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gasotransmitter employed for intra- and inter-cellular communication in almost all organ systems. This study investigates the role of endogenous H2S in nerve-evoked relaxation of pig terminal bronchioles with 260 μm medium internal lumen diameter. High expression of the H2S synthesis enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the bronchiolar muscle layer and strong CSE-immunoreactivity within nerve fibers distributed along smooth muscle bundles were observed. Further, endogenous H2S generated in bronchiolar membranes was reduced by CSE inhibition...
September 4, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Robert Chan, Ana R Sousa, Stephen Mallett, Peter Hynds, Farshid Homayoun-Valiani, Maggie Tabberer, Rashmi Mehta
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, there is a need for access to affordable inhaled respiratory medicines. This study tested the clinical non-inferiority of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol combination (FSC) 50/250 μg Rotacaps(®)/Rotahaler(®) compared with FSC 50/250 μg Diskus(®). METHODS: A multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy study evaluated 12 weeks, twice daily treatment of FSC 50/250 μg administered using Rotacaps/Rotahaler or Diskus inhaler in a crossover design in patients with asthma (pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) 40%-85% of predicted, FEV1 reversibility ≥12%, prior stable dose with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) or ICS/long acting beta-agonist)...
September 3, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Emanuel Kennedy-Feitosa, Renata Tiemi Okuro, Vanessa Pinho Ribeiro, Manuella Lanzetti, Marina Valente Barroso, Walter Araújo Zin, Luís Cristóvão Porto, Lycia Brito-Gittirana, Samuel Santos Valenca
Short-term cigarette smoke (CS) exposure does not cause emphysema; however, some pathogenesis hallmarks are maintained, such as oxidative stress and inflammation. This study aimed to test the efficacy of eucalyptol against short-term CS exposure in mice. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 12 cigarettes per day for 5 days (CS group). The control group was exposed to sham smoking. Three groups of mice exposed to CS were treated to different concentrations of eucalyptol (1, 3, 10 mg/mL) via inhalation (15 min/daily) for 5 days (CS + 1 mg, CS+3 mg and CS+10 mg groups)...
September 3, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Federico Lavorini, Domenico Spina, Michael J Walker, Lui Franciosi, Clive P Page, Giovanni A Fontana
BACKGROUND: Cough is a common presenting symptom in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP); it is often disabling, and lacks effective treatment. Studies in animals suggest that carcainium chloride, a quaternary derivative of the local anesthetic lidocaine, is able to inhibit experimentally induced cough by a mechanism of action distinct from that of lidocaine. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of aerosolised carcainium chloride (VRP700) in controlling cough in patients with IIP...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Zhao Ma, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Systemic glucocorticoid has been shown to improve the outcome of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the optimal duration remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a short-term (seven days or fewer) systemic glucocorticoid treatment in patients with COPD exacerbation is non inferior to longer duration (more than seven days) treatment in clinical outcome. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL databases, China Clinical Trials, CNKI, The Chinese biomedical literature database (CBM) and wanfang database to identify randomized controlled trials using systemic glucocorticoid in COPD...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Paola Rogliani, Luigino Calzetta, Francesco Cavalli, Maria Gabriella Matera, Mario Cazzola
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is increasing every year. Pirfenidone and nintedanib were approved for treatment of IPF in 2014, but they received only a conditional recommendation for use and, thus, to date no drugs are strongly recommended for IPF. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of the currently approved drugs for IPF and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the most debated drug in the last update of guidelines for IPF treatment...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Donato Lacedonia, Ersilia Nigro, Maria Gabriella Matera, Olga Scudiero, Maria Ludovica Monaco, Rita Polito, Giovanna Elisiana Carpagnano, Maria Pia Foschino Barbaro, Gennaro Mazzarella, Andrea Bianco, Aurora Daniele
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common breathing disorder; obesity represents a major risk factor for the development and progression of OSAS although obese patients do not necessarily suffer from OSAS. Adipose tissue communicates with lung in both physiologic and pathologic conditions through the production of adipokines, hormones active in metabolic and inflammatory processes. To explore the extent to which Acrp30 impacts on pathophysiology of OSAS and whether these proteins could be considered as targets for both diagnosis and therapy through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blotting analysis and fast protein liquid chromatography we have analyzed total levels as well as oligomer distribution in OSAS patients...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Balaji Laxminarayanshetty Bellam, Deba Prasad Dhibar, Vikas Suri, Navneet Sharma, Subhash Chander Varma, Samir Malhotra, Ashish Bhalla
BACK GROUND: Haemoptysis is a life threatening condition irrespective of aetiology. Tranexamic acid (TA), a potent anti-fibrinolytic agent, has been shown to control bleeding, decrease transfusion requirement in knee & hip arthroplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting and heavy menstrual bleeding. TA also has mortality benefit in bleeding from surgical and trauma patients. But the studies, regarding efficacy and safety of TA in controlling haemoptysis are conflicting. METHOD: In this single blinded, prospective study, total 66 patients with sub-massive haemoptysis were randomized into treatment (T) and placebo control (C) groups...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ali Ataya, Angelina Somoracki, Jessica Cope, Hassan Alnuaimat
BACKGROUND: Parenteral prostacyclin therapy for PAH has allowed for improvements in functional status, quality of life and mortality. Parenteral therapies however carry an increased risk of line-associated complications. Inhaled prostacyclins are an attractive alternative therapy; however, limited data exists supporting the safety and outcomes after transition. METHODS: We describe a retrospective observational analysis of adults with PAH who were transitioned from a parenteral prostacyclin to inhaled treprostinil at our institution...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Gurleen Kour, Anil Kumar, Parvinder Pal Singh, Sumit Sharma, Asha Bhagat, Ram A Vishwakarma, Zabeer Ahmed
New compounds against tuberculosis are urgently needed to combat the crisis of drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB). We have identified a nitrodihydroimidazooxazole analog, IIIM-019 as a new anti-tubercular agent with a MIC of 0.23 μM against H37Rv. Physicochemical properties, in-vitro pharmacokinetics and in-vivo multiple-doses pharmacokinetics were studied for the compound. In silico physicochemical parameters and Lipinski's violations were determined for drug like properties. Lipophilicity was determined experimentally as Octanol-PBS partition coefficient (log P)...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ibrahim Sulaiman, Jonathan Chee Woei Lim, Hon Liong Soo, Johnson Stanslas
Extensive research into the therapeutics of asthma has yielded numerous effective interventions over the past few decades. However, adverse effects and ineffectiveness of most of these medications especially in the management of steroid resistant severe asthma necessitate the development of better medications. Numerous drug targets with inherent airway smooth muscle tone modulatory role have been identified for asthma therapy. This article reviews the latest understanding of underlying molecular aetiology of asthma towards design and development of better antiasthma drugs...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Maliheh Ghadiri, Mariam Mamlouk, Patrick Spicer, Wolfgang Jarolimek, Georges E R Grau, Paul M Young, Daniela Traini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Chang-Hoon Lee, Seongmi Choi, Eun Jin Jang, Dong-Wook Kim, Ho Il Yoon, Yun Jung Kim, Jimin Kim, Jae-Joon Yim, Deog Kyeom Kim
Although there have been concerns that inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonists increase the risk of stroke, controversies exist. We investigated whether respiratory drugs including long-acting muscarinic antagonists are associated with the risk of stroke. A nested case-control study using the nationwide insurance claims database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (Seoul, Republic of Korea) was conducted. Overall, 16,354 stroke cases and 74,451 matched (up to 1:5) controls were identified from 809,684 subjects without acute major cardiovascular events in the past year between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2011...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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