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Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323056/fty720-promotes-pulmonary-fibrosis-when-administered-during-the-remodelling-phase-following-a-bleomycin-induced-lung-injury
#1
David R Gendron, Anne-Marie Lemay, Pascale Blais Lecours, Valérie Perreault-Vallières, Carole-Ann Huppé, Ynuk Bossé, Marie-Renée Blanchet, Geneviève Dion, David Marsolais
Fibrosis complicates numerous pathologies including interstitial lung diseases. Sphingosine analogs such as FTY720 can alleviate lung injury-induced fibrosis in murine models. Contradictorily, FTY720 also promotes in vitro processes normally leading to fibrosis and high doses in vivo foster lung fibrosis by enhancing vascular leakage into the lung. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of low doses of FTY720 on lung fibrosis triggered by an acute injury in mice. We first defined the time-boundaries delimiting the inflammatory and remodelling phases of an injury elicited by bleomycin based on neutrophil counts, total lung capacity and lung stiffness...
March 16, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323055/a-6-alkylsalicylate-histone-acetyltransferase-inhibitor-inhibits-histone-acetylation-and-pro-inflammatory-gene-expression-in-murine-precision-cut-lung-slices
#2
Thea van den Bosch, Niek G J Leus, Hannah Wapenaar, Alexander Boichenko, Jos Hermans, Rainer Bischoff, Hidde J Haisma, Frank J Dekker
Lysine acetylations are post-translational modifications of cellular proteins, that are crucial in the regulation of many cellular processes. Lysine acetylations on histone proteins are part of the epigenetic code regulating gene transcription and are installed by histone acetyltransferases. Observations that inflammatory lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are characterized by increased histone acetyltransferase activity indicate that development of small molecule inhibitors for these enzymes might be a valuable approach towards new therapies for these diseases...
March 16, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315789/involvement-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-afforded-by-activation-of-lox-1-tgf-%C3%AE-1-klf6-signaling-pathway-in-diabetic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#3
Xiao-Zhou Zou, Zhi-Cheng Gong, Ting Liu, Fang He, Tian-Tian Zhu, Dai Li, Wei-Fang Zhang, Jun-Lin Jiang, Chang-Ping Hu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetic pulmonary fibrosis is a severe disease that increases mortality risk of diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to pulmonary fibrosis in diabetes are poorly understood. This study investigated the roles of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the associated molecular mechanisms in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: The rat model of diabetic pulmonary fibrosis was established by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of STZ (35 mg/kg)...
March 15, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315490/neutralization-of-both-il-1%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE-plays-a-major-role-in-suppressing-combined-cigarette-smoke-virus-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-in-mice
#4
Hannes Bucher, Samuel Mang, Martina Keck, Michèl Przibilla, David Lamb, Felix Schiele, Mareike Wittenbrink, Klaus Fuchs, Birgit Jung, Klaus J Erb, Daniel Peter
Smoking is an important risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and viral infections are believed to be major triggers of exacerbations, which periodically lead to a worsening of symptoms. The pro-inflammatory IL-1 family members IL-1α and IL-1β are increased in COPD patients and might contribute to disease pathology. We investigated whether individual or combined inhibition of these cytokines reduced lung inflammation in cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed and H1N1-infected BALB/c mice...
March 15, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315491/vibrating-mesh-nebulizer-maintenance-by-cf-patients-results-from-a-french-survey
#5
Melisande Baravalle-Einaudi, Nadine Dufeu, Christian Dupont, Laurent Vecellio, Bertrand Delaisi, Ania Carsin, Jean-Christophe Dubus
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Vibrating-mesh nebulizers are widely used at home for cystic fibrosis (CF) treatment, with a therapeutic efficiency closely linked to the mesh performance. This national study looks at the maintenance at home by CF patients and their families of the mesh of the eFlow(®)rapid nebulizer. Ninety-two patients from 34 French CF centers, treated at home with inhaled drugs delivered with a vibrating-mesh nebulizer, answered to a phone standardized questionnaire specifying the different techniques of maintenance of the nebulizer...
March 14, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315489/effect-of-angiotensin-2-receptor-blockers-on-chronic-obstructive-lung-disease-mortality-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Pilar Paulin, Joaquin Maritano Furcada, Catalina M Ungaro, Gisela Bendelman, Gabriel D Waisman, Matias H Castro, Diego H Giunta, Bruno L Ferreyro
INTRODUCTION: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the fifth cause of mortality worldwide. Systemic inflammation is a crucial element in its physiopathology. As Renin-Angiotensin System is one of the main components of this inflammatory neurohumoral cascade, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) might have an effect on mortality in COPD patients. GOAL: To evaluate the association between ARBs treatment and mortality in COPD patients. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of patients with diagnosis of COPD from 2003 to 2013...
March 14, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315488/sorafenib-as-a-potential-strategy-for-refractory-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#7
Gou Kimura, Masaharu Kataoka, Takumi Inami, Keiichi Fukuda, Hideaki Yoshino, Toru Satoh
Sorafenib is an inhibitor of multi-kinases including tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sorafenib for the treatment of patients with refractory pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Sorafenib was started in 9 patients (7 with idiopathic PAH, 2 with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease) who had severe PAH and right heart failure, in spite of treatment with vasodilators specific for PAH. Sorafenib was started as an add-on therapy at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/day, and increased to 100-400 mg/day...
March 14, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315487/xpln-is-modulated-by-hdac-inhibitors-and-negatively-regulates-sparc-expression-by-targeting-mtorc2-in-human-lung-fibroblasts
#8
Koichiro Kamio, Arata Azuma, Jiro Usuki, Kuniko Matsuda, Minoru Inomata, Nobuhiko Nishijima, Shioto Itakura, Hiroki Hayashi, Takeru Kashiwada, Nariaki Kokuho, Kenichiro Atsumi, Tomoyoshi Yamaguchi, Kazue Fujita, Yoshinobu Saito, Shinji Abe, Kaoru Kubota, Akihiko Gemma
Pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains unclear. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that participates in the assembly and turnover of the extracellular matrix, whose expression is regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 through activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2). Exchange factor found in platelets, leukemic, and neuronal tissues (XPLN) is an endogenous inhibitor of mTORC2. However, whether XPLN modulates SPARC expression remains unknown...
March 14, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302544/can-the-response-to-omalizumab-be-influenced-by-treatment-duration-a-real-life-study
#9
Bruno Sposato, Marco Scalese, Manuela Latorre, Federica Novelli, Nicola Scichilone, Manlio Milanese, Carmela Olivieri, Antonio Perrella, Pierluigi Paggiaro
OBJECTIVE: It is unknown whether Omalizumab effectiveness changes over the course of time. Our retrospective real-life study tried to analyze whether Omalizumab response may be influenced by treatment duration. METHODS: 340 severe asthmatics treated with Omalizumab for different periods of time were recruited. They were subdivided into 4 groups according to the Omalizumab treatment length: <12, between 12 and 24, between 24 and 60 and >60 months. Omalizumab treatment results (FEV1, exacerbations, ACT, SABA use, asthma control levels, medications used e and ICS doses) were compared...
March 13, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302543/immunomodulatory-effects-of-pidotimod-in-adults-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-undergoing-standard-antibiotic-therapy
#10
D Trabattoni, M Clerici, S Centanni, M Mantero, M Garziano, F Blasi
The morbidity and mortality of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are still elevated and two aspects seem to contribute to a worse outcome: an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction and an inadequate immune response. Adjuvants, including corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins, have been proposed to counterbalance these effects but their efficacy is only partial. We examined the immunomodulatory activity of Pidotimod (PDT), a synthetic dipeptide molecule in adult patients hospitalized for CAP. Sixteen patients with a diagnosis of CAP and a PSI score III or IV and/or a CURB-65 0-2 were randomized to receive either levofloxacin 500 mg b...
March 13, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286047/effects-of-early-administration-of-acetazolamide-on-the-duration-of-mechanical-ventilation-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-or-obesity-hypoventilation-syndrome-with-metabolic-alkalosis-a-randomized-trial
#11
G Rialp Cervera, J M Raurich Puigdevall, I Morán Chorro, M C Martín Delgado, G Heras la Calle, A Mas Serra, I Vallverdú Perapoch
BACKGROUND: Metabolic alkalosis (MA) inhibits respiratory drive and may delay weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV). MA is common in CO2-retainer patients that need MV. Acetazolamide (ACTZ) decreases serum bicarbonate concentration and stimulates respiratory drive. This study evaluated the effects of ACTZ on the duration of MV in patients with MA and COPD or obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) intubated with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: Multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind study, with COPD or OHS patients with MV < 72 h and initial bicarbonate >28 mmol/L and pH > 7...
March 7, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263812/prognostic-effects-of-rosuvastatin-in-patients-with-co-existing-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-chronic-heart-failure-a-sub-analysis-of-gissi-hf-trial
#12
Andrea Rossi, Riccardo M Inciardi, Andrea Rossi, Pier Luigi Temporelli, Donata Lucci, Lucio Gonzini, Roberto Marchioli, Gian Luigi Nicolosi, Luigi Tavazzi
OBJECTIVES: Rising evidences showed a possible protective role of statins in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to evaluate in a post-hoc analysis of the GISSI-HF trial the prognostic effect of the use of rosuvastatin in patients with co-existing COPD and HF, assuming that the anti-inflammatory properties of these drugs may imply a potential beneficial effect in these associated chronic inflammatory conditions. METHODS: We analyzed patients with chronic HF and history of COPD deriving from the GISSI-HF study...
March 2, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257817/the-earlier-the-better-impact-of-early-diagnosis-on-clinical-outcome-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#13
REVIEW
Marina Aiello, Giuseppina Bertorelli, Marialuisa Bocchino, Alfredo Chetta, Alfeo Fiore-Donati, Alessandro Fois, Stefano Marinari, Tiberio Oggionni, Biagio Polla, Elisabetta Rosi, Anna Stanziola, Francesco Varone, Alessandro Sanduzzi
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex disease with a highly variable clinical course and generally poor prognosis. Classified as a rare disease, significant increases in incidence have been recorded worldwide in recent years. Left untreated IPF is extremely debilitating with substantial personal, social and economic implications. OBJECTIVES: To discuss how IPF is diagnosed and managed in real life clinical practice with particular reference to Italy and to determine how new and effective therapies can be incorporated into a patient-centred management approach in order to improve the lives of patients with IPF...
February 28, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232118/methacholine-challenge-tests-to-demonstrate-therapeutic-equivalence-of-terbutaline-sulfate-via-different-turbuhaler-%C3%A2-devices-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-asthma-appraisal-of-a-four-way-crossover-design
#14
Leif Bjermer, Gail M Gauvreau, Dirkje S Postma, Paul M O'Byrne, Maarten van den Berge, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Ola Beckman, Tore Persson, Jonas Román, Marie Carlholm, Kajs-Marie Schützer, Göran Eckerwall
BACKGROUND: /Objective: To demonstrate therapeutic equivalence of terbutaline via two different Turbuhaler(®) devices by evaluating its protective effect against methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in stable asthma. METHODS: In this double-blind, double-dummy, multicentre, single-dose, 4-way crossover study, patients with stable mild-to-moderate asthma (FEV1 ≥80% predicted) were randomised to 0.5 or 1.5 mg terbutaline via either Turbuhaler(®) M2 or Turbuhaler(®) M3 followed by a methacholine challenge test...
February 20, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219728/do-cystic-fibrosis-patients-on-azithromycin-need-electrocardiogram-monitoring
#15
LETTER
Rachel Sharpton, Mario Cazzola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216389/mastery-of-pmdi-technique-asthma-control-and-quality-of-life-of-children-with-asthma-a-randomized-controlled-study-comparing-two-inhaler-technique-training-approaches
#16
Wesam G Ammari, Nussaibah Al-Hyari, Nathir Obeidat, Mona Khater, Amal Sabouba, Mark Sanders
OBJECTIVE: Verbal counselling (VC) is the clinical standard for training patients on correct inhaler use. Patients fail to recall their VC with time. Ethical approval was obtained to compare the pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) VC with Trainhaler (TH), a novel pMDI inhalation flow and technique training device, in children with asthma. METHODS: At visit 1, 7-17 year-old children with a pMDI hand-lung coordination problem including a fast peak inhalation flow (PIF) through pMDI >60 L/min were randomized into either VC group that received verbal pMDI training; or into TH group that were trained on- and given TH to practice at home...
February 16, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216388/advances-in-mechanisms-and-management-of-chronic-cough-the-ninth-london-international-cough-symposium-2016
#17
REVIEW
Kian Fan Chung
At the Ninth London International Cough Symposium held in June 2016, advances in chronic cough were presented. Chronic cough has been labelled as a cough hypersensitivity syndrome (CHS) with neuroinflammatory mechanisms likely to be the underlying mechanisms. The concept is that there is a stage of peripheral sensitisation induced by inflammatory factors setting up the scene for a central component that can be visualised by functional magnetic resonance imaging. There has also been progress in assessing CHS patients in the clinic in terms of measuring cough, with an increasing interest in assessing different types of cough associated with respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, bronchiectasis and pulmonary fibrosis...
February 16, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185897/effect-of-tobacco-and-electronic-cigarette-use-on-cough-reflex-sensitivity
#18
REVIEW
Peter V Dicpinigaitis
Multiple previous studies have shown that otherwise healthy tobacco cigarette smokers have suppressed cough reflex sensitivity compared with nonsmokers and furthermore, that smoking cessation, even after years of tobacco use, leads to prompt enhancement of cough reflex sensitivity. Thus, cough reflex sensitivity is demonstrated to be a dynamic phenomenon, responding to the presence or absence of influences such as tobacco smoke. These studies, however, were unable to identify whether it was the influence of nicotine, or one or more of the numerous components of tobacco cigarette smoke, that were responsible for this effect...
February 6, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159512/effect-of-calcium-channel-blockers-evaluated-by-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-responding-to-acute-pulmonary-vasoreactivity-testing
#19
Yi Tang, Lei Yao, Zhihong Liu, Xiuping Ma, Qin Luo, Zhihui Zhao, Zhiwei Huang, Laura Tu, Liu Gao, Qi Jin, Xinhai Ni, Changming Xiong
BACKGROUND: The baseline exercise capacity evaluated by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and the change after administration of calcium channel blockers (CCB) therapy in patients with vasodilator-responsive idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (VR-IPAH)are unknown. METHODS: 25 patients with newly diagnosed VR-IPAH from 1 January 2012 to 16 November 2015 were prospectively enrolled, and 28 age, sex and pulmonary vascular resistance matched newly diagnosed patients with vasodilator-nonresponsive idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (VNR-IPAH) were enrolled...
January 31, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159511/reslizumab-in-patients-with-inadequately-controlled-late-onset-asthma-and-elevated-blood-eosinophils
#20
Guy Brusselle, Matthew Germinaro, Sivan Weiss, James Zangrilli
INTRODUCTION: Asthma with adult onset and elevated blood eosinophils is a difficult-to-treat subgroup. This post hoc analysis evaluated reslizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody, in patients with late-onset eosinophilic asthma. METHODS: Data from two 52-week placebo-controlled trials of reslizumab IV 3 mg/kg every 4 weeks in patients aged 12-75 years with inadequately controlled asthma, ≥1 asthma exacerbation within 12 months, and screening blood eosinophils ≥400/μL (NCT01287039/NCT01285323) were stratified by age of asthma onset (<40 or ≥40 years)...
January 31, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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