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Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435031/clinical-outcome-associated-with-the-use-of-different-inhalation-method-with-and-without-humidification-in-asthmatic-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#1
Islam O F Moustafa, Muhammad H E ElHansy, Moataz Al Hallag, James B Fink, Patricia Dailey, Hoda Rabea, Mohamed E A Abdelrahim
BACKGROUND: Inhaled-medication delivered during mechanical-ventilation is affected by type of aerosol-generator and humidity-condition. Despite many in-vitro studies related to aerosol-delivery to mechanically-ventilated patients, little has been reported on clinical effects of these variables. The aim of this study was to determine effect of humidification and type of aerosol-generator on clinical status of mechanically ventilated asthmatics. METHOD: 72 (36 females) asthmatic subjects receiving invasive mechanical ventilation were enrolled and assigned randomly to 6 treatment groups of 12 (6 females) subjects each received, as possible, all inhaled medication using their assigned aerosol generator and humidity condition during delivery...
April 20, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414142/doxofylline-does-not-increase-formoterol-induced-camp-nor-mkp-1-expression-in-asm-cells-resulting-in-lack-of-anti-inflammatory-effect
#2
Brijeshkumar S Patel, Michael J Kugel, Gina Baehring, Alaina J Ammit
The xanthine doxofylline has been examined in clinical trials and shown to have efficacy and greater tolerability than theophylline in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The 'novofylline' doxofylline has demonstrated bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory actions in in vivo and ex vivo experimental models of respiratory disease. However, there are limited studies in vitro. We address this herein and examine whether doxofylline has anti-inflammatory impact on primary cultures of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells...
April 13, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412479/cough-in-exercise-and-athletes
#3
REVIEW
J H Hull, J W Dickinson, A R Jackson
Cough is the most common respiratory symptom reported by athletes and can significantly impact on health status, ability to train and athletic performance. The presence of cough in an athlete is typically taken to indicate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), yet in many athletes with chronic cough there is no objective evidence of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) or heightened airway inflammation. Moreover, cough in athletes often fails to respond to a therapeutic asthma strategy, thus further work is urgently needed to progress our understanding of the pathophysiology of exercise-associated cough in this unique population...
April 12, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392320/contrasting-effects-of-atp-and-adenosine-on-capsaicin-challenge-in-asthmatic-patients
#4
Ozen K Basoglu, Amir Pelleg, Sergei A Kharitonov, Peter J Barnes
BACKGROUND: Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) stimulates pulmonary vagal slow conducting C-fibres and fast conducting Aδ-fibres with rapidly adapting receptors (RARs). Pulmonary C-fibres but not RARs are also sensitive to capsaicin, a potent tussigenic agent in humans. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of ATP and its metabolite adenosine (given as adenosine 5'-monophosphate, AMP) on capsaicin challenge in asthmatic patients. METHODS: Cough (quantified as visual analogue scale, VAS), dyspnoea (quantified as Borg score), and FEV1 were quantified following bronchoprovocation using capsaicin, adenosine and ATP in healthy non-smokers (age 40±4y, 6 males), smokers (45±4y, 5 males) and asthmatic patients (37±3y, 5 males); n = 10 in each group...
April 6, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389260/response-to-the-article-sorafenib-as-a-potential-strategy-for-refractory-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#5
LETTER
Jason Weatherald, Marc Humbert, Christophe Guignabert, David Montani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389259/autophagy-induction-by-celastrol-augments-protection-against-bleomycin-induced-experimental-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-rats-role-of-adaptor-protein-p62-sqstm1
#6
Thomas Divya, Anandasadagopan Sureshkumar, Ganapasam Sudhandiran
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic pulmonary disease of unknown cause with high mortality. Autophagy is an important homeostatic process that decides the fate of cells under stress conditions. This study is aimed to investigate whether impaired autophagic activity leads to fibrosis and pharmacological induction of autophagy provides protection against bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF. A single dose of BLM (3 U/kg body weight) was administered intratracheally to induce fibrosis in rats. Celastrol, a triterpenoid (5 mg/kg/body weight, intraperitoneally) was given in every 81 h for a period of 28 days...
April 4, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389258/role-of-dual-bronchodilators-in-copd-a-review-of-the-current-evidence-for-indacaterol-glycopyrronium
#7
REVIEW
Joachim H Ficker, Klaus F Rabe, Tobias Welte
In this review, we summarize the rationale for combining long-acting bronchodilators in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the evidence for the long-acting bronchodilator combination indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY). Clinical practice guidelines generally recommend the use of long-acting bronchodilators in the treatment of patients with all severities of COPD, either as a first-choice or alternative-choice therapy. Combining classes of long-acting bronchodilators can result in superior improvements in lung function and clinical outcomes compared with bronchodilator monotherapy, as observed in studies of free combinations of long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs)...
April 4, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389257/physiotherapy-and-speech-and-language-therapy-intervention-for-chronic-cough
#8
REVIEW
Surinder S Birring, Sarah Floyd, Charles C Reilly, Peter Siu Pan Cho
There are few effective pharmacological therapies available to treat refractory chronic cough. Functional MRI studies of the brain have recently shown that patients with chronic cough have dysfunctional inhibitory control of cough. Self-management therapies delivered by physiotherapists or speech therapists are effective at suppressing cough. They enable patients to consciously suppress the urge to cough. The intervention consists of education, laryngeal hygiene, cough suppression and distraction measures and behaviour modification...
April 4, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377145/lung-cancer-in-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#9
REVIEW
Theodoros Karampitsakos, Vasilios Tzilas, Rodoula Tringidou, Paschalis Steiropoulos, Vasilis Aidinis, Spyros A Papiris, Demosthenes Bouros, Argyris Tzouvelekis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown etiology. With a gradually increasing worldwide prevalence and a mortality rate exceeding that of many cancers, IPF diagnosis and management are critically important and require a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach. This approach also involves assessment of comorbid conditions, such as lung cancer, that exerts a dramatic impact on disease survival. Emerging evidence suggests that progressive lung scarring in the context of IPF represents a risk factor for lung carcinogenesis...
April 1, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363798/how-to-unveil-chronic-respiratory-diseases-in-clinical-practice-a-model-of-alliance-between-general-practitioners-and-pulmonologists
#10
Alida Benfante, Riccardo Messina, Vito Milazzo, Nicola Scichilone
INTRODUCTION: Asthma and COPD are under-diagnosed and undertreated in adult populations, mainly due to the discrepancy between guideline recommendations and clinicians' practices. One of the reasons of this discrepancy is the difficulty encountered in real life in sharing the management of chronic respiratory diseases between general practitioners (GPs) and respiratory physicians. METHODS: An explorative, population-based investigation was performed to test whether, and to what extent, an active collaboration between GPs and pulmonologists increases the diagnosis and proper treatment of chronic obstructive airway diseases...
March 28, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347799/ursolic-acid-attenuates-cigarette-smoke-induced-emphysema-in-rats-by-regulating-perk-and-nrf2-pathways
#11
Lin Li, Yan Yin, Gang Hou, Dan Han, Jian Kang, Qiuyue Wang
OBJECTIVE: Ursolic acid (UA) is widely distributed in natural plants to against oxidation, virus, inflammation, tumor, and has been widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics. However, its effect on emphysema of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown. Unfolded protein response is involved in pathogenesis of COPD through PERK pathway. Nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates antioxidant defensive mechanism in COPD. This study was to explore effect and mechanism of UA on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced rat emphysema...
March 24, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341462/asthma-management-in-a-specialist-setting-results-of-an-italian-respiratory-society-survey
#12
Fulvio Braido, Baiardini Ilaria, Pietro Alleri, Elena Bacci, Carlo Barbetta, Michela Bellocchia, Alida Benfante, Francesco Blasi, Caterina Bucca, Maria Teresa Busceti, Stefano Centanni, Maria Cristina Colanardi, Marco Contoli, Angelo Corsico, Maria D 'Amato, Fabiano Di Marco, Dottorini Marco, Marta Ferrari, Giovanni Florio, Alessandro Giuseppe Fois, Maria Pia Foschino Barbaro, Garuti Silvia, Giuseppe Girbino, Amelia Grosso, Manuela Latorre, Sara Maniscalco, Francesco Mazza, Carlo Mereu, Giorgia Molinengo, Josuel Ora, Pierluigi Paggiaro, Vincenzo Patella, Girolamo Pelaia, Pietro Pirina, Alfio Proietto, Paola Rogliani, Pierachille Santus, Nicola Scichilone, Francesca Simioli, Paolo Solidoro, Silvia Terraneo, Umberto Zuccon, Giorgio Walter Canonica
BACKGROUND: Asthma considerably impairs patients' quality of life and increases healthcare costs. Severity, morbidity, and degree of disease control are the major drivers of its clinical and economic impact. National scientific societies are required to monitor the application of international guidelines and to adopt strategies to improve disease control and better allocate resources. AIM: to provide a detailed picture of the characteristics of asthma patients and modalities of asthma management by specialists in Italy and to develop recommendations for the daily management of asthma in a specialist setting...
March 21, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323056/fty720-promotes-pulmonary-fibrosis-when-administered-during-the-remodelling-phase-following-a-bleomycin-induced-lung-injury
#13
David R Gendron, Anne-Marie Lemay, Pascale Blais Lecours, Valérie Perreault-Vallières, Carole-Ann Huppé, Ynuk Bossé, Marie-Renée Blanchet, Geneviève Dion, David Marsolais
Fibrosis complicates numerous pathologies including interstitial lung diseases. Sphingosine analogs such as FTY720 can alleviate lung injury-induced fibrosis in murine models. Contradictorily, FTY720 also promotes in vitro processes normally leading to fibrosis and high doses in vivo foster lung fibrosis by enhancing vascular leakage into the lung. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of low doses of FTY720 on lung fibrosis triggered by an acute injury in mice. We first defined the time-boundaries delimiting the inflammatory and remodelling phases of an injury elicited by bleomycin based on neutrophil counts, total lung capacity and lung stiffness...
March 16, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323055/a-6-alkylsalicylate-histone-acetyltransferase-inhibitor-inhibits-histone-acetylation-and-pro-inflammatory-gene-expression-in-murine-precision-cut-lung-slices
#14
Thea van den Bosch, Niek G J Leus, Hannah Wapenaar, Alexander Boichenko, Jos Hermans, Rainer Bischoff, Hidde J Haisma, Frank J Dekker
Lysine acetylations are post-translational modifications of cellular proteins, that are crucial in the regulation of many cellular processes. Lysine acetylations on histone proteins are part of the epigenetic code regulating gene transcription and are installed by histone acetyltransferases. Observations that inflammatory lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are characterized by increased histone acetyltransferase activity indicate that development of small molecule inhibitors for these enzymes might be a valuable approach towards new therapies for these diseases...
March 16, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315789/involvement-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-afforded-by-activation-of-lox-1-tgf-%C3%AE-1-klf6-signaling-pathway-in-diabetic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#15
Xiao-Zhou Zou, Zhi-Cheng Gong, Ting Liu, Fang He, Tian-Tian Zhu, Dai Li, Wei-Fang Zhang, Jun-Lin Jiang, Chang-Ping Hu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetic pulmonary fibrosis is a severe disease that increases mortality risk of diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to pulmonary fibrosis in diabetes are poorly understood. This study investigated the roles of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the associated molecular mechanisms in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: The rat model of diabetic pulmonary fibrosis was established by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of STZ (35 mg/kg)...
March 15, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315490/neutralization-of-both-il-1%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE-plays-a-major-role-in-suppressing-combined-cigarette-smoke-virus-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-in-mice
#16
Hannes Bucher, Samuel Mang, Martina Keck, Michèl Przibilla, David Lamb, Felix Schiele, Mareike Wittenbrink, Klaus Fuchs, Birgit Jung, Klaus J Erb, Daniel Peter
Smoking is an important risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and viral infections are believed to be major triggers of exacerbations, which periodically lead to a worsening of symptoms. The pro-inflammatory IL-1 family members IL-1α and IL-1β are increased in COPD patients and might contribute to disease pathology. We investigated whether individual or combined inhibition of these cytokines reduced lung inflammation in cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed and H1N1-infected BALB/c mice...
March 15, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315491/vibrating-mesh-nebulizer-maintenance-by-cf-patients-results-from-a-french-survey
#17
Melisande Baravalle-Einaudi, Nadine Dufeu, Christian Dupont, Laurent Vecellio, Bertrand Delaisi, Ania Carsin, Jean-Christophe Dubus
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Vibrating-mesh nebulizers are widely used at home for cystic fibrosis (CF) treatment, with a therapeutic efficiency closely linked to the mesh performance. This national study looks at the maintenance at home by CF patients and their families of the mesh of the eFlow(®)rapid nebulizer. Ninety-two patients from 34 French CF centers, treated at home with inhaled drugs delivered with a vibrating-mesh nebulizer, answered to a phone standardized questionnaire specifying the different techniques of maintenance of the nebulizer...
March 14, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315489/effect-of-angiotensin-2-receptor-blockers-on-chronic-obstructive-lung-disease-mortality-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Pilar Paulin, Joaquin Maritano Furcada, Catalina M Ungaro, Gisela Bendelman, Gabriel D Waisman, Matias H Castro, Diego H Giunta, Bruno L Ferreyro
INTRODUCTION: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the fifth cause of mortality worldwide. Systemic inflammation is a crucial element in its physiopathology. As Renin-Angiotensin System is one of the main components of this inflammatory neurohumoral cascade, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) might have an effect on mortality in COPD patients. GOAL: To evaluate the association between ARBs treatment and mortality in COPD patients. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of patients with diagnosis of COPD from 2003 to 2013...
March 14, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315488/sorafenib-as-a-potential-strategy-for-refractory-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#19
Gou Kimura, Masaharu Kataoka, Takumi Inami, Keiichi Fukuda, Hideaki Yoshino, Toru Satoh
Sorafenib is an inhibitor of multi-kinases including tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sorafenib for the treatment of patients with refractory pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Sorafenib was started in 9 patients (7 with idiopathic PAH, 2 with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease) who had severe PAH and right heart failure, in spite of treatment with vasodilators specific for PAH. Sorafenib was started as an add-on therapy at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/day, and increased to 100-400 mg/day...
March 14, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315487/xpln-is-modulated-by-hdac-inhibitors-and-negatively-regulates-sparc-expression-by-targeting-mtorc2-in-human-lung-fibroblasts
#20
Koichiro Kamio, Arata Azuma, Jiro Usuki, Kuniko Matsuda, Minoru Inomata, Nobuhiko Nishijima, Shioto Itakura, Hiroki Hayashi, Takeru Kashiwada, Nariaki Kokuho, Kenichiro Atsumi, Tomoyoshi Yamaguchi, Kazue Fujita, Yoshinobu Saito, Shinji Abe, Kaoru Kubota, Akihiko Gemma
Pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains unclear. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that participates in the assembly and turnover of the extracellular matrix, whose expression is regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 through activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2). Exchange factor found in platelets, leukemic, and neuronal tissues (XPLN) is an endogenous inhibitor of mTORC2. However, whether XPLN modulates SPARC expression remains unknown...
March 14, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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