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Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337267/acute-lung-injury-induced-by-intestinal-ischemia-and-reperfusion-is-altered-in-obese-female-mice
#1
Evelyn Thais Fantozzi, Sara Garbin, Fernanda Yamamoto-Ricardo-da-Silva, Ricardo Martins Oliveira-Filho, Domenico Spina, Wothan Tavares-de-Lima, Yanira Riffo-Vasquez
RATIONAL: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury that can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We have previously demonstrated that females are protected against lung damage induced by intestinal I/R through an estrogen mediated mechanism. OBJECTIVES: to investigate the effect of obesity on ALI induced by intestinal I/R in female mice. METHODS: C57Bl/6 female mice were fed with a standard low-fat diet (SD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks...
January 11, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337266/comparison-of-the-in-vitro-pharmacological-profiles-of-long-acting-muscarinic-antagonists-in-human-bronchus
#2
Emmanuel Naline, Stanislas Grassin Delyle, Hélène Salvator, Marion Brollo, Christophe Faisy, Tatiana Victoni, Charlotte Abrial, Philippe Devillier
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) have been recommended for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and (more recently) asthma. However, the in vitro pharmacological profiles of the four LAMAs currently marketed (tiotropium, umeclidinium, aclidinium and glycopyrronium) have not yet been compared (relative to ipratropium) by using the same experimental approach. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: With a total of 560 human bronchial rings, we investigated the antagonists' potency, onset and duration of action for inhibition of the contractile response evoked by electrical field stimulation...
January 11, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337265/99mtc-vinorelbine-tartrate-loaded-spherulites-lung-disposition-study-in-sprague-dawley-rats-by-gamma-scintigraphy
#3
Rahul Dhande, Amit Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Hetal Thakkar
Vinorelbine Tartrate (VLB) is the first line chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, whose non-specific distribution causes unwanted side effects. The aim of the present investigation was to formulate VLB loaded spherulites intended for targeting the lung. Spherulites were composed of Soyabean Phosphatidylcholine (SPC), Cholesterol (Chol), Potassium oleate and Mannitol. Lipid film prepared using SPC, Chol and Potassium oleate, was dispersed in aqueous phase comprising Mannitol and VLB, followed by controlled shearing and extrusion...
January 11, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331645/realising-the-potential-of-various-inhaled-airway-challenge-agents-through-improved-delivery-to-the-lungs
#4
REVIEW
Anne J Lexmond, Dave Singh, Henderik W Frijlink, Graham W Clarke, Clive P Page, Ben Forbes, Maarten van den Berge
Inhaled airway challenges provoke bronchoconstriction in susceptible subjects and are a pivotal tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of obstructive lung diseases, both in the clinic and in the development of new respiratory medicines. This article reviews the main challenge agents that are in use today (methacholine, mannitol, adenosine, allergens, endotoxin) and emphasises the importance of controlling how these agents are administered. There is a danger that the optimal value of these challenge agents may not be realised due to suboptimal inhaled delivery; thus considerations for effective and reproducible challenge delivery are provided...
January 10, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309890/a-comment-on-ability-of-using-different-dry-powder-inhalers-during-copd-exacerbations
#5
LETTER
Jaya Muneswarao, Ashutosh Kumar Verma, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294360/effect-of-adding-roflumilast-or-ciclesonide-to-glycopyrronium-on-lung-volumes-and-exercise-tolerance-in-patients-with-severe-copd-a-pilot-study
#6
Paola Rogliani, Josuel Ora, Ermanno Puxeddu, Luigino Calzetta, Francesco Cavalli, Maria Gabriella Matera, Mario Cazzola
COPD is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by partially reversible airflow limitation. Currently, phosphodiesterase4 inhibitors and inhaled corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory agents that can be used in patients with severe COPD, always added to at least one bronchodilator. In this prospective interventional pilot study, we investigated the effect of adding oral roflumilast 500 μg once-daily or inhaled ciclesonide 160 μg once-daily to glycopyrronium 44 μg once-daily on lung volumes and exercise tolerance in 16 patients with severe COPD, of which 8 received roflumilast and 8 ciclesonide for 8 weeks...
December 30, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289563/global-initiative-for-chronic-obstructive-lung-disease-gold-2018-report-highlighting-an-incorrect-information
#7
LETTER
Jaya Muneswarao, Ashutosh Kumar Verma, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288742/the-research-of-the-possible-mechanism-and-the-treatment-for-capsaicin-induced-cough
#8
Li Zhang, Tieying Sun, Longteng Liu, Lifang Wang
Unexplained chronic cough (UCC) affects millions of patients worldwide. New therapeutic approaches to this condition are urgently needed, since current treatment options provide only symptomatic relief. Cough reflex hypersensitivity has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of UCC. The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is present on peripheral terminals of airway sensory nerves and modulation of its activity represents a potential target for the pharmacological treatment of UCC...
December 27, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277690/correlations-between-fev1-and-patient-reported-outcomes-a-pooled-analysis-of-23-clinical-trials-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
REVIEW
James F Donohue, Paul W Jones, Christian Bartels, Jessica Marvel, Peter D'Andrea, Donald Banerji, David G Morris, Francesco Patalano, Robert Fogel
BACKGROUND: In clinical trials of inhaled bronchodilators, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) guidelines recommend that patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are assessed alongside lung function. How these endpoints are related is unclear. METHODS: Pooled longitudinal data from 23 randomised controlled COPD studies were analyzed (N = 23,213). Treatments included long-acting β2 agonists, long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LABAs or LAMAs) and the LABA/LAMA combination QVA149...
December 19, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277689/aerosol-delivery-during-spontaneous-breathing-with-different-types-of-nebulizers-in-vitro-ex-vivo-models-evaluation
#10
Hui-Ling Lin, Tien-Pei Fang, Hui-Sun Cho, Gwo-Hwa Wan, Meng-Jer Hsieh, James B Fink
BACKGROUND: Nebulizers for spontaneous breathing have been evaluated through different study designs. There are limitations in simulated bench models related to patient and nebulizer factors. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of inhaled drug mass between in vitro and ex vivo studies by testing aerosol deposition of various types of nebulizers. METHODS: Ten healthy subjects were recruited to receive aerosol therapy with five nebulizers in random order: 1) a jet nebulizer (JN); 2) a breath-enhanced nebulizer (BEN); 3) a manually triggered nebulizer (MTN), 4) a breath-actuated nebulizer (BAN), and 5) a vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN) with valved-adapter...
December 19, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277688/ability-of-using-different-dry-powder-inhalers-during-copd-exacerbations
#11
Andriana I Papaioannou, Yiolanda Herodotou, Ioannis Tomos, Vasiliki Apollonatou, Galateia Verykokou, Evgenia Papathanasiou, Effrosyni D Manali, Stelios Loukides, Spyros A Papiris
BACKGROUND: Guidelines suggest that patients hospitalized for acute COPD exacerbations (AECOPD) are treated with short acting bronchodilators. Long acting bronchodilators, offer longer symptom relief but since they are usually administered via Dry Powder Inhalers (DPIs) it is considered that during AECOPD patients would not be able to achieve appropriate inspiratory flow (IF) to receive appropriate drug doses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether patients admitted to the hospital for AECOPD, are able to achieve the necessary IF using different DPIs...
December 19, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247703/effects-of-tiotropium-bromide-on-airway-hyperresponsiveness-and-inflammation-in-mice-exposed-to-organic-dust
#12
Joshua A Gregory, Cecilia Kemi, Jie Ji, Jakob Karén, Ingrid Delin, Per Gerde, Michael P Pieper, Mikael Adner, Kjell Larsson
INTRODUCTION: Acute exposure to organic dust (OD) in pig barns induces intense airway inflammation with neutrophilia and hyperresponsiveness. This reaction is likely associated with increased cholinergic activity. Therefore, the involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in the reaction to acute exposure of OD was investigated in mice using the long-acting muscarinic antagonist tiotropium. METHODS: BALB/c mice received tiotropium (2-200 ng) intranasally on day 1 of the study...
December 13, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246840/hypoxic-challenge-of-hyperoxic-pulmonary-artery-myocytes-increases-oxidative-stress-due-to-impaired-mitochondrial-superoxide-dismutase-activity
#13
Iram Musharaf, Martha Hinton, Man Yi, Shyamala Dakshinamurti
Infants with lung disease may be exposed to high O2 concentrations, and may have transient hypoxic episodes due to worsening lung pathophysiology, aggravating pulmonary arterial (PA) oxidative stress. NADPH oxidase (NOX) converts O2 to superoxide. Mitochondrial antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) are sensitive to O2 tension. We previously reported decreased SOD2 activity in hypoxic PA myocytes due to nitration. In this study, we examined whether a transient hypoxic episode exposes antioxidant defense defects in hyperoxic PA myocytes...
December 12, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233650/impact-of-erdosteine-on-chronic-bronchitis-and-copd-a-meta-analysis
#14
Mario Cazzola, Luigino Calzetta, Clive Page, Paola Rogliani, Maria Gabriella Matera
A previous meta-analysis suggested that the treatment with erdosteine was associated with significant amelioration of the cumulative global efficacy index and symptoms in comparison to placebo or other mucolytics. However, this conclusion was criticized because the meta-analysis, as it had been done, made it impossible to preclude the potential operation of selection biases within and across trials, and identify any realised benefits of an individual patient data approach. Taking into consideration these criticisms and also the publication of two further recent articles focused on the prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations with erdosteine, we have carried out a quantitative synthesis via meta-analysis of the currently available data on the use of this drug...
December 9, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223509/neuropeptides-and-breathing-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Katarzyna Kaczyńska, Dominika Zając, Piotr Wojciechowski, Ewelina Kogut, Małgorzata Szereda-Przestaszewska
Regulatory neuropeptides control and regulate breathing in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. While they have been identified in the neurons of major respiratory areas, they can be active not only at the central level, but also at the periphery via chemoreceptors, vagal afferents, or locally within lungs and airways. Some neuropeptides, such as leptin or substance P, are respiratory stimulants; others, such as neurotensin, produce variable effects on respiration depending on the site of application...
December 6, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223508/on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-two-inhaled-budesonide-formoterol-combinations-in-asthma-patients-using-modeling-approaches
#16
K Soulele, P Macheras, V Karalis
Dry powder inhalers containing the budesonide/formoterol combination have currently a well-established position among other inhaled products. Even though their efficacy mainly depends on the local concentrations of the drug they deliver within the lungs, their safety profile is directly related to their total systemic exposure. The aim of the present investigation was to explore the absorption and disposition kinetics of the budesonide/formoterol combination delivered via two different dry powder inhalers in asthma patients...
December 6, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174840/physicochemical-pharmacokinetic-efficacy-and-toxicity-profiling-of-a-potential-nitrofuranyl-methyl-piperazine-derivative-iiim-mcd-211-for-oral-tuberculosis-therapy-via-in-silico-in-vitro-in-vivo-approach
#17
Asmita Magotra, Anjna Sharma, Samsher Singh, Probir Kumar Ojha, Sunil Kumar, Naveen Bokolia, Priya Wazir, Shweta Sharma, Inshad Ali Khan, Parvinder Pal Singh, Ram A Vishwakarma, Gurdarshan Singh, Utpal Nandi
Recent tuberculosis (TB) drug discovery programme involve continuous pursuit for new chemical entity (NCE) which can be not only effective against both susceptible and resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) but also safe and faster acting with the target, thereby shortening the prolonged TB treatments. We have identified a potential nitrofuranyl methyl piperazine derivative, IIIM-MCD-211 as new antitubercular agent with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.0072 μM against H37Rv strain...
November 21, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158154/tiotropium-inhibits-mucin-production-stimulated-by-neutrophil-elastase-but-not-by-il-13
#18
Kosaku Komiya, Shuichi Kawano, Isao Suzaki, Tomohiro Akaba, Jun-Ichi Kadota, Bruce K Rubin
Tiotropium, a muscarinic antagonist, is approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and poorly controlled asthma. Because mucus hypersecretion is characteristic of both of these diseases, and muscarinic agonists stimulate mucus secretion, we hypothesized that tiotropium would attenuate airway MUC5AC expression. We grew normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells to a goblet cell phenotype with 1 or 5 ng/mL of IL-13 and exposed these cells to 10 nM tiotropium or excipient for the full 14 days...
November 17, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158153/m3-receptor-is-involved-in-the-effect-of-penehyclidine-hydrochloride-reduced-endothelial-injury-in-lps-stimulated-human-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cell
#19
Qinghong Yuan, Fei Xiao, Qiangsheng Liu, Fei Zheng, Shiwen Shen, Qianwen He, Kai Chen, Yanlin Wang, Zongze Zhang, Jia Zhan
LPS has been recently shown to induce muscarinic acetylcholine 3 receptor (M3 receptor) expression and penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) is an anticholinergic drug which could block the expression of M3 receptor. PHC has been demonstrated to perform protective effect on cell injury. This study is to investigate whether the effect of PHC on microvascular endothelial injury is related to its inhibition of M3 receptor or not. HPMVECs were treated with specific M3 receptor shRNA or PBS, and randomly divided into LPS group (A group), LPS+PHC group (B group), LPS + M3 shRNA group (C group) and LPS + PHC + M3 shRNA group (D group)...
November 17, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133080/population-pharmacokinetics-of-nintedanib-in-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#20
Ulrike Schmid, Christiane Doege, Claudia Dallinger, Matthias Freiwald
BACKGROUND: Nintedanib is a potent intracellular inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, including the receptor kinases vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor and fibroblast growth factor. A previous model assessed the population pharmacokinetics of nintedanib and its main metabolite BIBF 1202 in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The objective of this analysis was to further characterise the population pharmacokinetics of nintedanib in patients with IPF by including data from the Phase III trials...
November 10, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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