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Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Takashi Nojiri, Hiroshi Hosoda, Takeshi Tokudome, Koichi Miura, Shin Ishikane, Toru Kimura, Yasushi Shintani, Masayoshi Inoue, Noriyoshi Sawabata, Mikiya Miyazato, Meinoshin Okumura, Kenji Kangawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
R Carrington, S Jordan, S C Pitchford, C P Page
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal interstitial lung disease with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Many compounds have shown efficacy in pre-clinical models of this condition, but only Pirfenidone and Nintedanib have been approved for clinical use. It is widely accepted that the current animal models of IPF need to be improved and in this review we have critically evaluated the current state of play of preclinical models of IPF and discuss the challenges facing this field. The popular model of a single I...
July 5, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Julia Budde, Gwen S Skloot
The aging population is growing at an unparalleled rate. Asthma is common in the elderly (age over 65 years) and can be more severe with little chance for remission. Asthma in older individuals is often under-diagnosed, misdiagnosed and frequently under-treated. Concomitant medical and psychosocial conditions are more prevalent in the elderly and can obfuscate the presentation of asthma and make it more difficult to assess and manage. While these comorbidities are important in understanding elderly asthma, aging itself can be considered a "comorbidity" since it impacts structural and functional changes in the lung...
July 4, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Dave Hassall, Noushin Brealey, Wayne Wright, Steve Hughes, Andy West, Ramiya Ravindranath, Francis Warren, Peter Daley-Yates
BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to inhaled drug therapy in individuals with asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be associated with suboptimal therapeutic outcomes. Measurement of drug residues in hair samples has been employed to assess oral medication use over time. Here we test the feasibility of analyzing hair samples from patients with asthma and/or COPD for assessing adherence to prescribed inhaled medication. METHODS: In total, 200 male and female subjects, ≥ 18 years of age, with stable asthma and/or COPD who were receiving an acceptable standard of care daily inhaled product consistently, were recruited...
July 4, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Umberto Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Claudio Pedone, Moises Muley-Vilamu, Raffaele Antonelli-Incalzi
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is commonly associated with other chronic diseases, which poses several diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Indeed, important comorbidities frequently remain unrecognized and, then, untreated, whereas respiratory drugs may have non respiratory side effects, and selected non respiratory drugs may variably affect the respiratory function. OBJECTIVE: to describe: how COPD affects the presentation and contributes to the diagnostic challenges of its most common comorbidities; how coexisting COPD impacts the therapeutic approach to selected comorbidities and viceversa...
June 29, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Katarzyna Luczak-Wozniak, Marta Dabrowska, Izabela Domagala, Marta Miszczuk, Wojciech Lubanski, Andrzej Leszczynski, Rafal Krenke
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is based mainly on inhaled medications. There is a continuous need to examine and train patients in their inhalation technique. The objective of the presented study is to determine whether the errors which patients made during inhalations are repetitive, and therefore easier to eradicate, or rather accidental, hence require more attention and effort from the health care professionals. METHODS: It was a prospective, cohort study which included adults with asthma or COPD, who have used at least one inhaler daily on a regular basis...
June 28, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Sachin Karkale, Amit Khurana, Mohd Aslam Saifi, Chandraiah Godugu, Venu Talla
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a lethal end stage of interstitial lung disease with increasing prevalence. The disease burden of PF has seen a sharp surge in the past two decades owing to entry of heavy amount of particulate matter due to industrialization and urbanization. In this work, we developed an oropharyngeal aspiration model of silica (1.5 mg/mice) induced pulmonary fibrosis as a homogeneous, reproducible, simple and alternative strategy in Swiss albino mice. Various BALF (protein, albumin, cell count), biochemical parameters (MDA, GSH, hydroxyproline), cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and TGF-β1), histological (H&E and PSR staining) and protein expression (N-cadherin, vimentin, α-SMA, CTGF, collagen-1) studies were conducted to validate the model...
June 28, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Lin Pan, Thomas Gelzleichter, Yuan Chen, Cindy Burg, Susan L Limb, Linda Nguyen
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs) are commonly reported in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who are treated with pirfenidone. Taking pirfenidone with a substantial amount of food or dividing the dose over the course of a meal has been reported to reduce the frequency of GI AEs in clinical practice. In humans, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) of pirfenidone was reduced when the drug was taken with food compared with the fasting state, and the lower Cmax was associated with a reduction in GI AE rates...
June 23, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Anmol Shrestha, V Rajesh, Sneha Shamrao Dessai, Sharon Mary Stanly, Uday Venkat Mateti
INTRODUCTION: Patient education is of paramount importance with regard to the condition of the disease and the treatment given besides lifestyle remodelling in order to get the desired therapeutic outcome. When verbal information is provided to the patients, they often tend to forget it. Pictorial aids or pictograms, as they are commonly known, are tools that are widely used for imparting knowledge to the patients. The aim of the study is to prepare and validate a Pictogram-based Patient Information Leaflet (P-PILs) on Tuberculosis (TB)...
May 25, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Paul Dorinsky, Paolo DePetrillo, Shahid Siddiqui, Andrea Maes, Colin Reisner
INTRODUCTION: BGF MDI, a budesonide, glycopyrronium, and formoterol fumarate dihydrate triple fixed-dose combination metered dose inhaler formulated using co-suspension delivery technology, is currently in Phase III global development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose, crossover study to assess the safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of two doses of BGF MDI in healthy adult subjects of Japanese descent (NCT02197975)...
May 12, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mario Cazzola, Luigino Calzetta, Paola Rogliani, Clive Page, Maria Gabriella Matera
Doxofylline is an effective bronchodilator for relieving airway obstruction in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and displays a better safety profile with respect to theophylline. Herein, we performed a pair-wise meta-analysis of the currently available data to provide consistent and homogeneous findings on the impact of this xanthine in COPD patients. Results obtained from 820 patients were selected from 20 clinical trials. Meta-regression was performed to examine the source of heterogeneity between-studies and identify potential confounder covariates...
April 26, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Jan Seibel, Kirill Kryshen, Judit E Pongrácz, Martin D Lehner
Hypersecretion of viscous mucus is one of the hallmark symptoms of acute and chronic bronchitis and typically develops secondary to an inflammation of the airway epithelium. Bronchipret® TP film-coated tablets (BRO), an herbal medicinal product containing a fixed combination of thyme herb and primula root extracts, has been successfully used clinically for the treatment of acute bronchitis for more than two decades. However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of action have not been fully understood so far...
April 23, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Renata Tiemi Okuro, Mariana Nascimento Machado, Natália Vasconcelos Casquilho, Alcendino Jardim-Neto, Alysson Roncally-Carvalho, Georgia Correa Atella, Walter Araujo Zin
AIM: This study assessed pulmonary outcomes generated by inhibiting key enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism pathways related to ceramide synthesis in a murine model of lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS: C57BL/6 male adult mice received LPS intratracheally and the expressions of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), neutral sphingomyelinase (NSM), serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT) and dihydroceramide synthase (DS) were assessed at 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h after LPS instillation in lung homogenate (n = 30)...
June 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Jayesh A Dhanani, Patrician Tang, Steven C Wallis, Suzanne L Parker, Preeti Pandey, John F Fraser, Jeremy Cohen, Adrian Barnett, Jason R Roberts, Hak-Kim Chan
BACKGROUND: Preservative-free tobramycin is commonly used as aerosolized therapy for ventilator associated pneumonia. The comparative delivery profile of the formulations of two different concentrations (100 mg/ml and 40 mg/ml) is unknown. This study aims to evaluate the aerosol characteristics of these tobramycin formulations in a simulated adult mechanical ventilation model. METHODS: Simulated adult mechanical ventilation set up and optimal settings were used in the study...
June 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Cheng Li, Ping-Ping Liu, Dou-Dou Tang, Rong Song, Yi-Qing Zhang, Si Lei, Shang-Jie Wu
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a crippling disease with limited therapeutic methods. The imbalance of T helper 17 cell (Th17)/regulatory T cell (Treg) plays an important role in the development of Hypoxic PAH. However, whether targeting the ras homolog family member A-Rho kinase (RhoA-ROCK) pathway (activation and inhibition) by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and fasudil (FSD) regulate T-cell homeostasis in Hypoxic PAH remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of LPA and FSD on hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling and homeostasis of Th17/Treg cells in Hypoxic PAH...
June 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
G Spoletini, M Kennedy, L Flint, T Graham, C Etherington, N Shaw, P Whitaker, M Denton, I Clifton, D Peckham
BACKGROUND: The increased prevalence of multi-drug resistant strains of P.aeruginosa and allergic reactions among adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) limits the number of antibiotics available to treat pulmonary exacerbations. Fosfomycin, a unique broad spectrum bactericidal antibiotic, might offer an alternative therapeutic option in such cases. AIM: To describe the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of intravenous fosfomycin in combination with a second anti-pseudomonal antibiotic to treat pulmonary exacerbations in adult patients with CF...
June 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Luis J Nannini
In this brief communication, it was described the overreliance link generated between a young asthmatic subject and Short Acting Beta agonist (SABA) bronchodilator. It was an attempt to delineate the stages of this conflicting link where predominated the overreliance on SABA that might be one of the main circumstances surrounding near fatal asthma attack. New approach is needed from international guidelines to avoid development of such a problematic link between asthmatic subjects and SABA.
June 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Haitham Saeed, Ahmed M A Ali, Ahmed A Elberry, Abeer Salah Eldin, Hoda Rabea, Mohamed E A Abdelrahim
BACKGROUNDS: Substituting nebulisers by another, especially in non-invasive ventilation (NIV), involves many process-variables, e.g. nebulizer-type and fill-volume of respirable-dose, which might affect patient optimum-therapy. The aim of the present work was to use neural-networks and genetic-algorithms to develop performance-models for two different nebulizers. METHODS: In-vitro, ex-vivo and in-vivo models were developed using input-variables including nebulizer-type [jet nebulizer (JN) and vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN)] fill-volumes of respirable dose placed in the nebulization chamber with an output-variable e...
June 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
M van den Berge, M R Jonker, A Miller-Larsson, D S Postma, I H Heijink
BACKGROUND: COPD patients have increased risk of pneumonia when treated with fluticasone propionate (FP), whereas this is generally not the case with budesonide (BUD) treatment. We hypothesized that BUD and FP differentially affect the expression of immune defense genes. METHODS: Human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells and air-liquid interface (ALI)-cultured primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) were pre-treated with clinically equipotent concentrations of BUD or FP (0...
June 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Kenji Momo, Akiko Takagi, Atsuko Miyaji, Masayoshi Koinuma
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the frequency and risk factors for statin-induced interstitial pneumonia (IP). METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a large Japanese health insurance claims database. We determined the statin-induced IP incidence in patients treated with statins for hyperlipidemia (n = 194,814) with 12-month screening and 3-month observation periods. Statin-induced IP was defined as: (1) diagnosis with IP (ICD-10 codes: J70...
June 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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