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Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Corrado Pelaia, Cecilia Calabrese, Sarah Barbuto, Maria Teresa Busceti, Mariaimmacolata Preianò, Luca Gallelli, Rocco Savino, Alessandro Vatrella, Girolamo Pelaia
Omalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody which binds to human immunoglobulins E (IgE), thus preventing their interactions with both high affinity and low affinity IgE receptors. Therefore, omalizumab is currently recommended for add-on biological therapy of uncontrolled allergic asthma, mainly characterized by type 2 airway eosinophilic inflammation. Because omalizumab has been the first, and for a long time the only available monoclonal antibody for add-on treatment of type 2 asthma, some long-term studies have been published which provide a clear evidence of the therapeutic effectiveness of the anti-IgE pharmacological strategy...
November 7, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Rafael J Hernández Zenteno, Danitza Fernández Lara, Alejandra Ramírez Venegas, Raúl H Sansores, Justino Regalado Pineda, Fernando Flores Trujillo, José Rogelio Pérez Padilla, Maria Gabriela Matera, Mario Cazzola
BACKGROUND: Quitting smoking is key for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Standard recommendations for quitting smoking are implemented for COPD as well. Varenicline Tartrate (VT) is the most effective drug to help quit smoking, but few studies have analyszed its effectiveness. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the Abstinence Rate (AR) at 12 months, in COPD and non-COPD smokers. METHODS: Observational study in 31 COPD (post bronchodilator-BD FEV1 /FVC <0...
November 3, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Zhen Ma, Cungang Zhao, Qi Chen, Chenhuan Yu, Huanhuan Zhang, Zhimin Zhang, Wenhai Huang, Zhengrong Shen
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a lethal fibrosing interstitial pneumonia characterized by progressive worsening of dyspnea and lung function with poor prognosis. Since pirfenidone was approved for IPF treatment, the search for more effective candidates has been greatly intensified. METHODS: In this study, the antifibrotic effects and mechanisms of compound PBD-617, the ideal candidate discovered in our previous work, were investigated on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELF) and on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrotic rats...
October 27, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Paulette W Andreotta, Steve Arold, Jennifer Kenyon, Diane Spicer, Paul Woodman, Elizabeth Berry, Tim Brogan, Sophanna Kong, Pamela Okerholm, Vince Russell, Robert W Clarke, David L Hava
Tobacco smoke-induced lung inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) worsens with disease progression and acute exacerbations caused by respiratory infections. Chronic therapies to manage COPD center on bronchodilators to improve lung function and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) to help reduce the risk of exacerbations. Novel therapies are needed that reduce the underlying inflammation associated with COPD and the inflammation resulting from respiratory infections that worsen disease...
October 22, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Roberto Dal Negro, Edoardo Pozzi, Silvano G Cella
Mucoactive drugs are commonly used in the treatment of acute respiratory tract diseases, such as lower and acute respiratory infection and chronic bronchitis (CB) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in which an increased mucus secretion is one of main clinical features. Indeed these drugs are designed to promote secretion clearance and to specifically alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus, restoring an effective mucociliary clearance and reducing broncho-obstructive symptoms. In association with mucolytics, these patients frequently also receive antibiotics to reduce the bacterial load, thus decreasing the release of infectious and pro-inflammatory products...
October 20, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Raffaella Mormile
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Raffaella Mormile
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Sneha Dhapare, Masahiro Sakagami
Emphysema causes progressive and life-threatening alveolar structural destruction/loss, yet remains irreversible and incurable to date. Impaired vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling has been proposed as a new pathogenic mechanism, and if so, VEGF recovery may enable reversal of emphysema. Thus, we hypothesized that salvianolic acid B (Sal-B), a polyphenol in traditional Chinese herbal danshen, is an alveolar structural recovery agent for emphysema by virtue of VEGF stimulation/elevation via activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), as stimulating lung cell proliferation and migration, and protecting against lung cell death...
October 3, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Giovanni Corrao, Anna Cantarutti
National healthcare systems of advanced countries, including Italy, widely agree on the approach whereby public healthcare decisions should be driven by available evidence on effectiveness and safety of therapeutics. It is equally accepted that randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs), although universally recognised as the most robust "evidence generators", are insufficient for guiding the decision-making process since they are intrinsically unsuited to capture the impact of treatments in routine clinical practice...
September 22, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ibrahim Sulaiman, Khaishin Tan, Norhafizah Mohtarrudin, Jonathan Chee Woei Lim, Johnson Stanslas
Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a major cause of chemical-induced occupational asthma, which contributes about 15% of global asthma burden. Resistance and compounded side effects associated with the use of corticosteroid in asthma necessitate the search for alternative drugs. Andrographolide (AGP), a naturally occurring diterpene lactone is known to exhibit various bioactivities. Its ability to ameliorate cardinal features of allergic asthma was previously suggested in an eosinophilic asthma endotype. However, its potential antiasthma activity and mechanism of action in a neutrophilic occupational asthma model, as well as its effect on epithelial dysfunction remain unknown...
September 20, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Luigino Calzetta, Nicola A Hanania, Frank L Dini, Marc F Goldstein, William R Fairweather, William W Howard, Mario Cazzola
This pooled analysis of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials aimed to investigate the Impact of DOxofylline compaRed tO THEOphylline (DOROTHEO 1 and DOROTHEO 2 studies) on functional and clinical outcomes in asthma. Patients with asthma ≥16 years of age with (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1 ] ≥50% and <80% and with ≥15% post-bronchodilator increase in FEV1 ) were randomized in a 1:1:1:1 ratio in DOROTHEO 1 to receive doxofylline 200 mg, doxofylline 400 mg, theophylline 250 mg, or placebo; in DOROTHEO 2 patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive doxofylline 400 mg, theophylline 250 mg, or placebo...
September 13, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Colin Reisner, Joel Miller, Paolo DePetrillo, Andrea Maes, Shahid Siddiqui, Ubaldo J Martin
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes significant mortality in Japan. GFF MDI is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist/long-acting β2 -agonist fixed-dose combination of glycopyrronium (GP) and formoterol fumarate dihydrate (FF), delivered by a metered dose inhaler (MDI) using co-suspension delivery technology, for the long-term maintenance treatment of COPD. METHODS: This randomized, Phase I, single-dose, four-treatment, four-period, crossover study (NCT02196714) examined the pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety profile of two doses of GFF MDI (28...
September 12, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Corrado Pelaia, Maria Teresa Busceti, Sabina Solinas, Rosa Terracciano, Girolamo Pelaia
Mepolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody which targets interleukin-5 (IL-5) and is nowadays available in many countries for add-on biological therapy of severe eosinophilic asthma. Although the approval of mepolizumab use in clinical practice has been made possible by several successful pre-marketing controlled trials, so far only a very few studies have been performed in a real-life setting. Within such a context, our present observational investigation refers to 14 patients with refractory eosinophilic asthma, currently treated with mepolizumab at the Respiratory Unit of "Magna Græcia" University Hospital located in Catanzaro, Italy, whose anti-IL-5 treatment began between June 2017 and January 2018...
September 11, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mariam Ba, Shanti Rawat, Ronna Lao, Marilyn Grous, Michael Salmon, Andrew J Halayko, William T Gerthoffer, Cherie A Singer
BACKGROUND: Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contributes to local inflammation and plays an immunomodulatory role in airway diseases. This is partially regulated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which further activates two closely related isoforms of the MAPK-activated protein kinases (MKs), MK2 and MK3. The MKs have similar substrate specificities but less is known about differences in their functional responses. This study was undertaken to identify differential downstream inflammatory targets of MK2 and MK3 signaling and assess cross-talk between the MAPK pathway and NF-κB signaling relevant to ASM function...
September 8, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Steven Kesten, Elliot Israel, Guangxi Li, Jolyon Mitchell, Robert Wise, Tom Stern
BACKGROUND: Delivery of inhaled respiratory medications have been associated with variable delivery of drug due to errors in device operations and have not been designed to monitor true delivery of medication. A fully digital breath-activated inhaled (DBAI) delivery platform has been developed with integrated firmware and software to address these limitations. METHODS: the device was designed to produce similar aerosol particle output to a marketed albuterol MDI and to the albuterol/ipratropium combination in a soft mist inhaler (SMI)...
September 7, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Sebastiano Emanuele Torrisi, Ada Vancheri, Mauro Pavone, Gianluca Sambataro, Stefano Palmucci, Carlo Vancheri
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a severe parenchymal lung disease characterized by an intense deposition of collagen in the interstitial spaces. The introduction of anti-fibrotic drugs increased patients' life expectancy highlighting the role of comorbidities in patients' management and prognosis. IPF is frequently associated with other diseases mainly because of its onset during middle age and sometimes because of the presence of common pathogenic pathways such as in the case of lung cancer. Comorbidities may differently influence prognosis of IPF patients...
September 4, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Gino Scalone, Stefano Nava, Francesco Ventrella, Guglielmo Bussoli, Giosuè Angelo Catapano, Alfio Pennisi, Francesco Dadduzio, Pietro Schino, Riccardo Pela, Marta Bartezaghi, Paolo Morini, Alberto Porpiglia, Elisa Muscianisi
Several documents and guidelines provide recommendations for effective management of COPD patients. However, there is often a significant imbalance between recommended treatment of COPD patients and the actual care provided both in primary care and specialty setting. This imbalance could result in a significant negative impact on patients' health status and quality of life, leading to increased hospitalisations and health resource utilisation in COPD patients METHODS: MISTRAL was an observational, longitudinal, prospective cohort study, designed to assess the overall pharmacological approach of COPD in routine clinical practice in Italy...
September 4, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Sneha Dhapare, Hua Li, Masahiro Sakagami
Emphysema progressively destroys alveolar structures, leading to disability and death, yet remains irreversible and incurable to date. Impaired vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling is an emerging pathogenic mechanism, thereby proposing a hypothesis that VEGF stimulation/elevation enables recovery from alveolar structural destruction and loss of emphysema. Our previous in vitro study identified that salvianolic acid B (Sal-B), a polyphenol of traditional Chinese herbal danshen, stimulated lung cell proliferation and migration, and protected against induced lung cell death, by virtue of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation and VEGF stimulation/elevation...
September 4, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ioanna Ninou, Eleanna Kaffe, Stefan Müller, David C Budd, Christopher S Stevenson, Christoph Ullmer, Vassilis Aidinis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrosing lung disease with a dismal prognosis and a largely unknown etiology. Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted lysophospholipase D, largely responsible for extracellular production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid. LPA has numerous effects in most cell types, signaling through at least 6 receptors (LPAR) exhibiting wide spread distribution and overlapping specificities. The ATX/LPA axis has been suggested as a therapeutic target in different chronic inflammatory and fibroproliferative disorders, including pulmonary fibrosis...
October 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Diego Jose Maselli, Nicola Alexander Hanania
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common chronic pulmonary conditions worldwide which often coexist. Patients with asthma COPD overlap (ACO) may have worse outcomes than those with either disease alone, for example, more respiratory symptoms and frequent exacerbations, and worse lung function. Additionally, there is a growing interest in factors that affect the disease including comorbid conditions. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated higher rates of comorbid conditions in the ACO population, but the mechanisms behind these observations remain unclear...
October 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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