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Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527922/bronchodilator-therapy-for-chronic-cough
#1
REVIEW
Maria Gabriella Matera, Paola Rogliani, Alessandro Zanasi, Mario Cazzola
Experimental studies indicate that airway calibre increases the sensitivity of the afferents involved in the cough reflex but it has proved difficult to demonstrate that airway calibre increases the sensitivity of the afferents involved in the cough reflex. Therefore, bronchodilators might have a role, although rather minor, in the treatment of cough. However, although bronchodilators represent the standard of care in the treatment of airway obstruction associated with asthma or COPD, controversy persists regarding the mechanism(s) by which these agents alleviate cough...
May 17, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522215/blocking-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-as-a-strategy-to-suppress-pathological-cough
#2
REVIEW
Hui Sun, Marian Kollarik, Bradley J Undem
Pathological cough is thought to be secondary to inappropriate activation of vagal sensory nerves. Sensory nerves can be activated by a large number of disparate stimuli. The most relevant stimuli to block for effective anti-tussive therapy likely depend on the specific underlying pathology that is leading to the coughing. Blocking voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) will prevent action potential initiation and conduction and therefore prevent sensory communication between the airways and brainstem. In so doing, they would be expected to inhibit evoked cough independently of the nature of the stimulus and underlying pathology...
May 15, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506663/cough-associated-with-gastro-oesophageal-reflux-disease-gord-japanese-experience
#3
REVIEW
Akio Niimi
Differences in the aetiology as well as patient background of chronic cough have been recognised among US, UK, and Japan. One of the marked differences has been the prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), which has been one of the top three causes in Western countries. It was indeed uncommon or rare in Japan, but, with the increasing prevalence of GOR itself, chronic cough associated with GORD seems to have become more common. In this article, cough associated with GORD will be reviewed based on literature and our Japanese experience...
May 12, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506662/adiponectin-down-regulates-creb-and-inhibits-proliferation-of-a549-lung-cancer-cells
#4
Michela Illiano, Ersilia Nigro, Luigi Sapio, Ilaria Caiafa, Annamaria Spina, Olga Scudiero, Andrea Bianco, Sabrina Esposito, Filomena Mazzeo, Paolo Vincenzo Pedone, Aurora Daniele, Silvio Naviglio
INTRODUCTION: Adipokines are known to play a relevant role in a number of cancer related molecular pathways. Adiponectin is a major adipokine with anti-inflammatory and beneficial metabolic actions. Furthermore, it has been shown to exert anti-carcinogenic effects in various tumor models and some clinical studies suggested an inverse relationship between circulating levels of adiponectin and an increased risk for development of malignancies. On the other hand, the cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) transcription factor has been clearly linked to lung cancer...
May 12, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506661/trpa1-receptors-in-chronic-cough
#5
REVIEW
Alyn H Morice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502841/use-of-airway-epithelial-cell-culture-to-unravel-the-pathogenesis-and-study-treatment-in-obstructive-airway-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Tinne C J Mertens, Harry Karmouty-Quintana, Christian Taube, Pieter S Hiemstra
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are considered as two distinct obstructive diseases. Both chronic diseases share a component of airway epithelial dysfunction. The airway epithelium is localized to deal with inhaled substances, and functions as a barrier preventing penetration of such substances into the body. In addition, the epithelium is involved in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses following inhalation of particles, allergens and pathogens. Through triggering and inducing immune responses, airway epithelial cells contribute to the pathogenesis of both asthma and COPD...
May 11, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501346/il-13-and-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-possible-links-and-new-therapeutic-strategies
#7
REVIEW
Giovanni Passalacqua, Marcello Mincarini, Daniele Colombo, Giuseppe Troisi, Marta Ferrari, Diego Bagnasco, Francesco Balbi, Annamaria Riccio, Giorgio Walter Canonica
The recent advances in the knowledge of immunological aspects of many pulmonary diseases, allowed to identify cells, biological functions, cytokines, and receptors that are preferentially involved in each disease. This is the case of asthma, where IL-13 (together with IL-4) is recognized as a central mediator. The role of IL-13 is strictly related, via complex signaling pathways, to eosinophil recruitment and activation, to mucus secretion, periostin generation and to fibrogenic processes (which are part of the remodeling process)...
May 10, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499635/adenosine-a2a-receptors-are-up-regulated-and-control-the-activation-of-human-alveolar-macrophages
#8
Tiago Manuel Alfaro, Diana Isabel Rodrigues, Ângelo Ribeiro Tomé, Rodrigo Antunes Cunha, Carlos Robalo Cordeiro
Chronic inflammatory lung diseases remain a health concern and new anti-inflammatory treatments are needed. Targeting adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) affords robust anti-inflammatory effects in animal models, but the translation of this promising strategy to humans has been challenging, possibly due to interspecies differences in receptor distribution and effects. Thus, we now assessed the efficiency of a selective A2AR agonist to control the activation of fresh human alveolar inflammatory cells. We collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with interstitial lung disease and loaded alveolar cells with the intracellular free calcium probe FURA-2/AM...
May 9, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487256/lipopolysaccharide-lps-induced-pulmonary-neutrophil-recruitment-and-platelet-activation-is-mediated-via-the-p2y1-and-p2y14-receptors-in-mice
#9
R T Amison, S Arnold, B G O'Shaughnessy, S J Cleary, J Ofoedu, M Idzko, C P Page, S C Pitchford
Platelet activation occurs during host defence and in various inflammatory disorders. In animal models of infection and inflammation, experimental depletion of platelets leads to significantly reduced leukocyte recruitment and impaired clearance of pathogens from the lung. It is now appreciated that purinergic receptor activation is required for leukocyte activation, motility and adhesion, and platelet interactions with leukocytes can be modulated by purinergic stimulation of platelets. Here, we have investigated the role of platelet P2Y1, P2Y12, P2Y14, and P2X1 receptors on leukocyte recruitment and chemotaxis...
May 6, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483563/losartan-a-selective-antagonist-of-at1-receptor-attenuates-seawater-inhalation-induced-lung-injury-via-modulating-jak2-stats-and-apoptosis-in-rat
#10
Congcong Li, Liyan Bo, Pengcheng Li, Xi Lu, Wangping Li, Lei Pan, Yani Sun, Deguang Mu, Wei Liu, Faguang Jin
Losartan is a selective antagonist of AngⅠ type (AT1) receptor of Angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ), which is widely used as a clinical medicine for the hypertension. Recent studies have shown that losartan was shown to protect from acute lung injury (ALI). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this research was to clarify whether Ang Ⅱ participated in the inflammatory response of ALI induced by seawater inhalation, and whether losartan had the protective effects on ALI by blocking the combination of Ang Ⅱ and AT1 receptor...
May 5, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483562/the-role-of-inkt-cells-on-the-phenotypes-of-allergic-airways-in-a-mouse-model
#11
Lennart K A Lundblad, Nazey Gülec, Matthew E Poynter, Victoria L DeVault, Oliver Dienz, Jonathan E Boyson, Nirav Daphtary, Minara Aliyeva, Jennifer L Ather, Felix Scheuplein, Robert Schaub
iNKT cells and mast cells have both been implicated in the syndrome of allergic asthma through their activation-induced release of Th2 type cytokines and secretion of histamine and other mediators, respectively, which can promote airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to agents such as methacholine. However, a mechanistic link between iNKT cells and mast cell recruitment or activation has never been explored. Our objective was to determine whether iNKT cells are necessary for the recruitment of mast cells and if iNKT cells can influence the acute allergen induced bronchoconstriction (AIB) caused by mast cell mediator release...
May 5, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476638/cough-management-in-primary-secondary-and-tertiary-settings
#12
REVIEW
Kay Wang, Nikki Milojevic, Bryan Sheinman, Omar S Usmani
This review reflects upon the management of cough in primary, secondary and tertiary care settings. It reviews the burden of cough, the diagnostic tools employed to investigate the cause of cough and pragmatic treatment strategies. A clinical case vignette presenting in primary care highlights the challenges of managing cough by family practitioners. An approach to establishing a persistent cough clinic service in secondary care is described. Finally, the entity of idiopathic cough in tertiary care and the specialist approaches to treating recalcitrant cough are addressed...
May 2, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450200/aerosolized-tobramycin-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#13
Yohei Migiyama, Susumu Hirosako, Kentaro Tokunaga, Emi Migiyama, Takahiro Tashiro, Katsuyuki Sagishima, Hidenobu Kamohara, Yoshihiro Kinoshita, Hirotsugu Kohrogi
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa has a high mortality and recurrence rate, especially in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, new therapeutic strategies against severe pneumonia are needed. This study evaluated the efficacy of aerosolized tobramycin for P. aeruginosa VAP in ARDS patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients who developed VAP caused by P. aeruginosa during the course of ARDS at the intensive care unit (ICU) of Kumamoto University Hospital...
April 24, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435031/clinical-outcome-associated-with-the-use-of-different-inhalation-method-with-and-without-humidification-in-asthmatic-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#14
Islam O F Moustafa, Muhammad H E ElHansy, Moataz Al Hallag, James B Fink, Patricia Dailey, Hoda Rabea, Mohamed E A Abdelrahim
BACKGROUND: Inhaled-medication delivered during mechanical-ventilation is affected by type of aerosol-generator and humidity-condition. Despite many in-vitro studies related to aerosol-delivery to mechanically-ventilated patients, little has been reported on clinical effects of these variables. The aim of this study was to determine effect of humidification and type of aerosol-generator on clinical status of mechanically ventilated asthmatics. METHOD: 72 (36 females) asthmatic subjects receiving invasive mechanical ventilation were enrolled and assigned randomly to 6 treatment groups of 12 (6 females) subjects each received, as possible, all inhaled medication using their assigned aerosol generator and humidity condition during delivery...
April 20, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414142/doxofylline-does-not-increase-formoterol-induced-camp-nor-mkp-1-expression-in-asm-cells-resulting-in-lack-of-anti-inflammatory-effect
#15
Brijeshkumar S Patel, Michael J Kugel, Gina Baehring, Alaina J Ammit
The xanthine doxofylline has been examined in clinical trials and shown to have efficacy and greater tolerability than theophylline in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The 'novofylline' doxofylline has demonstrated bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory actions in in vivo and ex vivo experimental models of respiratory disease. However, there are limited studies in vitro. We address this herein and examine whether doxofylline has anti-inflammatory impact on primary cultures of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells...
April 13, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412479/cough-in-exercise-and-athletes
#16
REVIEW
J H Hull, J W Dickinson, A R Jackson
Cough is the most common respiratory symptom reported by athletes and can significantly impact on health status, ability to train and athletic performance. The presence of cough in an athlete is typically taken to indicate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), yet in many athletes with chronic cough there is no objective evidence of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) or heightened airway inflammation. Moreover, cough in athletes often fails to respond to a therapeutic asthma strategy, thus further work is urgently needed to progress our understanding of the pathophysiology of exercise-associated cough in this unique population...
April 12, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392320/contrasting-effects-of-atp-and-adenosine-on-capsaicin-challenge-in-asthmatic-patients
#17
Ozen K Basoglu, Amir Pelleg, Sergei A Kharitonov, Peter J Barnes
BACKGROUND: Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) stimulates pulmonary vagal slow conducting C-fibres and fast conducting Aδ-fibres with rapidly adapting receptors (RARs). Pulmonary C-fibres but not RARs are also sensitive to capsaicin, a potent tussigenic agent in humans. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of ATP and its metabolite adenosine (given as adenosine 5'-monophosphate, AMP) on capsaicin challenge in asthmatic patients. METHODS: Cough (quantified as visual analogue scale, VAS), dyspnoea (quantified as Borg score), and FEV1 were quantified following bronchoprovocation using capsaicin, adenosine and ATP in healthy non-smokers (age 40±4y, 6 males), smokers (45±4y, 5 males) and asthmatic patients (37±3y, 5 males); n = 10 in each group...
April 6, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389260/response-to-the-article-sorafenib-as-a-potential-strategy-for-refractory-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#18
LETTER
Jason Weatherald, Marc Humbert, Christophe Guignabert, David Montani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389259/autophagy-induction-by-celastrol-augments-protection-against-bleomycin-induced-experimental-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-rats-role-of-adaptor-protein-p62-sqstm1
#19
Thomas Divya, Anandasadagopan Sureshkumar, Ganapasam Sudhandiran
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic pulmonary disease of unknown cause with high mortality. Autophagy is an important homeostatic process that decides the fate of cells under stress conditions. This study is aimed to investigate whether impaired autophagic activity leads to fibrosis and pharmacological induction of autophagy provides protection against bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF. A single dose of BLM (3 U/kg body weight) was administered intratracheally to induce fibrosis in rats. Celastrol, a triterpenoid (5 mg/kg/body weight, intraperitoneally) was given in every 81 h for a period of 28 days...
April 4, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389258/role-of-dual-bronchodilators-in-copd-a-review-of-the-current-evidence-for-indacaterol-glycopyrronium
#20
REVIEW
Joachim H Ficker, Klaus F Rabe, Tobias Welte
In this review, we summarize the rationale for combining long-acting bronchodilators in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the evidence for the long-acting bronchodilator combination indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY). Clinical practice guidelines generally recommend the use of long-acting bronchodilators in the treatment of patients with all severities of COPD, either as a first-choice or alternative-choice therapy. Combining classes of long-acting bronchodilators can result in superior improvements in lung function and clinical outcomes compared with bronchodilator monotherapy, as observed in studies of free combinations of long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs)...
April 4, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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