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Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Makoto Yoshida, Yasuko Kaneko, Akiko Ishimatsu, Masashi Komori, Tomoaki Iwanaga, Hiromasa Inoue
The effects of tiotropium, an inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist, on lung function were investigated in current smokers and nonsmokers with asthma treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and other asthma controllers: inhaled long-acting β2 agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and/or theophylline. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of an inhaled single dose of tiotropium in 9 asthmatics currently smoking and 9 asthmatics who have never smoked in a crossover manner. Lung function was measured before and 1, 3, and 24 h after inhalation of 18 μg of tiotropium or a placebo...
November 22, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Gustavo J Rodrigo, Hugo Neffen
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend the use of inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting beta2-agonists as first-line therapy for COPD patients at risk for acute exacerbations and/or severe airflow limitation. This systematic review assesses available evidence on the efficacy and safety of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (FF/VI) combination versus each alone, for the treatment of patients with severe to very severe stable COPD. METHODS: Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of >8 weeks of duration were included...
November 15, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Lineu Baldissera, Dalize M Squebola-Cola, Marina C Calixto, Ana P Lima-Barbosa, André L Rennó, Gabriel F Anhê, Antonio Condino-Neto, Gilberto De Nucci, Edson Antunes
OBJECTIVES: Activators of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) act preferentially in conditions of enzyme oxidation or haem group removal. This study was designed to investigate the effects of the sGC activator BAY 60-2770 in murine airways inflammation and human eosinophil chemotaxis. METHODS: C57Bl/6 mice treated or not with BAY 60-2770 (1 mg/kg/day, 14 days) were intranasally challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). At 48 h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was performed, and circulating blood, bone marrow and lungs were obtained...
November 2, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Rebecca Lever, Amir Smailbegovic, Yanira Riffo-Vasquez, Elaine Gray, John Hogwood, Stephen M Francis, Neville V Richardson, Clive P Page, Barbara Mulloy
The properties of commercially prepared heparin as an anticoagulant and antithrombotic agent in medicine are better understood than is the physiological role of heparin in its native form, where it is uniquely found in the secretory granules of mast cells. In the present study we have isolated and characterised the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) released from degranulating rat peritoneal mast cells. Analysis of the GAGs by NMR spectroscopy showed the presence of both heparin and the galactosaminoglycan dermatan sulphate; heparinase digestion profiles and measurements of anticoagulant activity were consistent with this finding...
November 2, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Masanori Yokoba, Tsuyoshi Ichikawa, Akira Takakura, Naohito Ishii, Yoshifumi Kurosaki, Yuya Yamada, Tomoaki Tsukushi, Noriyuki Masuda, Paul A Easton, Masato Katagiri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Jatinder Singh, Ramanpreet Shah, Dhandeep Singh
Asthma is inveterate inflammatory disorder, delineated by airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and airway wall remodeling. Although, asthma is a vague term, and is recognized as heterogenous entity encompassing different phenotypes. Targeting single mediator or receptor did not prove much clinical significant, as asthma is complex disease involving myriad inflammatory mediators. Asthma may probably involve a large number of different types of molecular and cellular components interacting through complex pathophysiological pathways...
September 22, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Zhou-Gui Ling, Yan-Bin Wu, Jin-Liang Kong, Zhen-Ming Tang, Wei Liu, Yi-Qiang Chen
BACKGROUND: Nebulized magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has been used to treat asthma, but the efficacy remains controversial. We aimed to comprehensively review the efficacy of nebulized MgSO4 in treating adult patients with asthma. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant studies published up to July 18, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included if adult patients with acute or stable asthma had been treated with nebulized MgSO4 compared with placebo or another bronchodilator...
September 17, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Roberto W Dal Negro, Maria Visconti
BACKGROUND: Erdosteine (ER), a multimechanism, mucoactive agent with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, has been shown to improve lung function, decrease plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS), and 8-isoprostane levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). AIM: To assess vs. placebo the effect of ER on the exercise-induced oxidative stress by measuring and comparing the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in severe COPD patients...
September 17, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Kanchan Pyasi, Ellen Tufvesson, Subhabrata Moitra
Leukotrienes (LTs) initiate a cascade of reactions that cause bronchoconstriction and inflammation in asthma. LT-modifying drugs have been proved very effective to reduce inflammation and associated exacerbation however despite some illustrious clinical trials the usage of these drugs remains overlooked because the evidence to support their utility in asthma management has been mixed and varied between studies. Although, there are plenty of evidences which suggest that the leukotriene-modifying drugs provide consistent improvement even after just the first oral dose and reduce asthma exacerbations, the beneficial effect of these drugs has remained sparse and widely debated...
September 17, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Candice M Todd, Brittany M Salter, Desmond M Murphy, Richard M Watson, Karen J Howie, Joanne Milot, Jonathan Sadeh, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Paul M O'Byrne, Gail M Gauvreau
BACKGROUND: Neutrophils are effector cells recruited to airways in patients with asthma. Migration of neutrophils occurs predominantly through activation of the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors by CXC chemokines, including IL-8 and Gro-α. The dual CXCR1/CXCR2 antagonist SCH 527123 has been developed to target neutrophil migration to alleviate airway neutrophilia. This study investigated the effects of SCH 527123 on neutrophil levels within the bone marrow, peripheral blood and airways, and on isolated bone marrow and peripheral blood neutrophil migration from mild allergic asthmatics...
September 14, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Federico Lavorini, Domenico Spina, Michael J Walker, Lui Franciosi, Clive P Page, Giovanni A Fontana
BACKGROUND: Cough is a common presenting symptom in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP); it is often disabling, and lacks effective treatment. Studies in animals suggest that carcainium chloride, a quaternary derivative of the local anesthetic lidocaine, is able to inhibit experimentally induced cough by a mechanism of action distinct from that of lidocaine. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of aerosolised carcainium chloride (VRP700) in controlling cough in patients with IIP...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Zhao Ma, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Systemic glucocorticoid has been shown to improve the outcome of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the optimal duration remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a short-term (seven days or fewer) systemic glucocorticoid treatment in patients with COPD exacerbation is non inferior to longer duration (more than seven days) treatment in clinical outcome. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL databases, China Clinical Trials, CNKI, The Chinese biomedical literature database (CBM) and wanfang database to identify randomized controlled trials using systemic glucocorticoid in COPD...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Paola Rogliani, Luigino Calzetta, Francesco Cavalli, Maria Gabriella Matera, Mario Cazzola
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is increasing every year. Pirfenidone and nintedanib were approved for treatment of IPF in 2014, but they received only a conditional recommendation for use and, thus, to date no drugs are strongly recommended for IPF. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of the currently approved drugs for IPF and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the most debated drug in the last update of guidelines for IPF treatment...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Donato Lacedonia, Ersilia Nigro, Maria Gabriella Matera, Olga Scudiero, Maria Ludovica Monaco, Rita Polito, Giovanna Elisiana Carpagnano, Maria Pia Foschino Barbaro, Gennaro Mazzarella, Andrea Bianco, Aurora Daniele
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common breathing disorder; obesity represents a major risk factor for the development and progression of OSAS although obese patients do not necessarily suffer from OSAS. Adipose tissue communicates with lung in both physiologic and pathologic conditions through the production of adipokines, hormones active in metabolic and inflammatory processes. To explore the extent to which Acrp30 impacts on pathophysiology of OSAS and whether these proteins could be considered as targets for both diagnosis and therapy through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blotting analysis and fast protein liquid chromatography we have analyzed total levels as well as oligomer distribution in OSAS patients...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Balaji Laxminarayanshetty Bellam, Deba Prasad Dhibar, Vikas Suri, Navneet Sharma, Subhash Chander Varma, Samir Malhotra, Ashish Bhalla
BACK GROUND: Haemoptysis is a life threatening condition irrespective of aetiology. Tranexamic acid (TA), a potent anti-fibrinolytic agent, has been shown to control bleeding, decrease transfusion requirement in knee & hip arthroplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting and heavy menstrual bleeding. TA also has mortality benefit in bleeding from surgical and trauma patients. But the studies, regarding efficacy and safety of TA in controlling haemoptysis are conflicting. METHOD: In this single blinded, prospective study, total 66 patients with sub-massive haemoptysis were randomized into treatment (T) and placebo control (C) groups...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ali Ataya, Angelina Somoracki, Jessica Cope, Hassan Alnuaimat
BACKGROUND: Parenteral prostacyclin therapy for PAH has allowed for improvements in functional status, quality of life and mortality. Parenteral therapies however carry an increased risk of line-associated complications. Inhaled prostacyclins are an attractive alternative therapy; however, limited data exists supporting the safety and outcomes after transition. METHODS: We describe a retrospective observational analysis of adults with PAH who were transitioned from a parenteral prostacyclin to inhaled treprostinil at our institution...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Gurleen Kour, Anil Kumar, Parvinder Pal Singh, Sumit Sharma, Asha Bhagat, Ram A Vishwakarma, Zabeer Ahmed
New compounds against tuberculosis are urgently needed to combat the crisis of drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB). We have identified a nitrodihydroimidazooxazole analog, IIIM-019 as a new anti-tubercular agent with a MIC of 0.23 μM against H37Rv. Physicochemical properties, in-vitro pharmacokinetics and in-vivo multiple-doses pharmacokinetics were studied for the compound. In silico physicochemical parameters and Lipinski's violations were determined for drug like properties. Lipophilicity was determined experimentally as Octanol-PBS partition coefficient (log P)...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ibrahim Sulaiman, Jonathan Chee Woei Lim, Hon Liong Soo, Johnson Stanslas
Extensive research into the therapeutics of asthma has yielded numerous effective interventions over the past few decades. However, adverse effects and ineffectiveness of most of these medications especially in the management of steroid resistant severe asthma necessitate the development of better medications. Numerous drug targets with inherent airway smooth muscle tone modulatory role have been identified for asthma therapy. This article reviews the latest understanding of underlying molecular aetiology of asthma towards design and development of better antiasthma drugs...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Maliheh Ghadiri, Mariam Mamlouk, Patrick Spicer, Wolfgang Jarolimek, Georges E R Grau, Paul M Young, Daniela Traini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Chang-Hoon Lee, Seongmi Choi, Eun Jin Jang, Dong-Wook Kim, Ho Il Yoon, Yun Jung Kim, Jimin Kim, Jae-Joon Yim, Deog Kyeom Kim
Although there have been concerns that inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonists increase the risk of stroke, controversies exist. We investigated whether respiratory drugs including long-acting muscarinic antagonists are associated with the risk of stroke. A nested case-control study using the nationwide insurance claims database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (Seoul, Republic of Korea) was conducted. Overall, 16,354 stroke cases and 74,451 matched (up to 1:5) controls were identified from 809,684 subjects without acute major cardiovascular events in the past year between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2011...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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