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Cognitive Neuropsychiatry

Jens Egeland, Tom Langerud Holmen, Gry Bang-Kittilsen, Therese Torgersen Bigseth, Anja Vaskinn, John Abel Engh
INTRODUCTION: Although considered a promising design for testing social cognition, it is not clear to what extent the EmoBio test of emotion recognition actually predicts community functioning. It is also not clear whether the test measures something unique or different from nonsocial cognition. The present study tests whether EmoBio accounts for GAF function score and two operationalised community outcome measures. The study also analyses cognitive predictors of EmoBio performance, testing whether stimulus modality affects prediction...
January 17, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Anthony S David, Vaughan Bell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Sophia E R Bogaty, Jacob J Crouse, Ian B Hickie, Daniel F Hermens
INTRODUCTION: Evidence suggests that patients with psychosis who have a history of cannabis use, but currently abstain, demonstrate superior cognitive performance than patients who have never used cannabis. The present study aimed to determine the neurocognitive profiles of patients who are in adolescence or early adulthood, when both illness- and drug-onset typically occur. METHODS: Subjects were 24 cannabis-using and 79 cannabis-naïve psychosis patients between 16 and 25 years of age...
January 9, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Juliet Silberstein, Philip D Harvey
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with schizophrenia present across a spectrum of symptomatology. Disability remains a debilitating reality across varying disease presentations and remains pervasive despite psychiatric medications. Cognition (neuro/social cognition) and negative symptoms have emerged as the strongest predictors of real-world disability, but account for <50% of the variance in outcomes. METHODS: Our attempts to determine what accounts for the remaining 50% of variance has shown that poor introspective accuracy (IA) may be the most potent predictor of functional outcomes 25% of individuals with schizophrenia...
November 26, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Giampaolo Perna, Paolo Cavedini, Alice Riva, Nunzia Valentina Di Chiaro, Mara Bellotti, Giuseppina Diaferia, Daniela Caldirola
INTRODUCTION: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) showed impaired spatial working memory (SWM). We evaluated whether patients and healthy controls (HCs) differed in spatial store capacity, and whether they differed in the relative weight of spatial store capacity and/or executive strategy in SWM. METHODS: Thirty inpatients with OCD and 31 age- and education-matched HCs underwent the CANTAB SWM, SRM (a measure of spatial store). The severity of OC symptoms was assessed using the Y-BOCS...
November 21, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Mariia Kaliuzhna, Robyn Langdon
INTRODUCTION: Patients with schizophrenia present clinically with difficulties in manipulating contradictory information in the form of loose associations, surface contradictions and delusional beliefs. It is to date unclear whether patients can detect and process information that contradicts their beliefs and prior knowledge and whether this capacity is related to their symptoms and the nature of contradictory stimuli (e.g., personally significant information, emotional information)...
November 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Romina Rinaldi, Laurent Lefebvre, Wivine Blekic, Frank Laroi, Julien Laloyaux
INTRODUCTION: Impairment in Theory of mind (TOM) has frequently been associated with schizophrenia and with schizotypy. Studies have found that a tendency to over-attribute intentions and special meaning to events and to people is related to positive psychotic symptoms. Further, it has been suggested that this intentionality bias may be due to a broader deficit in context processing (CP). The aim of the present study was thus to investigate the relationship between positive schizotypy and both over-attribution of intentions and contextual processing...
November 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Julien Laloyaux, Clara Della Libera, Frank Larøi
INTRODUCTION: One important aspect of human cognition relies on the ability to bias attention towards stimulus-independent and stimulus-oriented thoughts and to switch between these states - or source flexibility. This mechanism has received very little attention in the literature, and in particular in schizophrenia. Moreover, there is good reason to believe that this mechanism could also be implicated in hallucinations, but this hypothesis has never been examined. Thus, the aim of the present study was, for the first time in the literature, to explore source flexibility abilities in schizophrenia and their potential relations with auditory hallucinations...
November 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Lu-Lu Liu, Ming-Yuan Gan, Ji-Fang Cui, Tao Chen, Shu-Ping Tan, David L Neumann, David H K Shum, Ya Wang, Raymond C K Chan
INTRODUCTION: Prospective memory (PM) refers to remembering to execute a planned intention in the future. It can be divided into event- and time-based, according to the nature of the PM cue. Event-based PM cues can be classified as focal or non-focal. Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) have been found to be impaired in both event- and time-based PM. PM has been found to be improved by implementation intentions, which is an encoding strategy in the format of "if X then Y". This study examined the effect of implementation intentions on a non-focal event-based and a time-based PM task in patients with SCZ...
November 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Luiz Augusto Rosa
INTRODUCTION: According to the High-order Theory of Emotional Consciousness (HOTEC), every emotional process is a conscious and high-order state of mind carried out by the General Networks of Cognition (GNC), which consists mainly of prefrontal mechanisms. This means that anxiety is also an emotional state of mind carried out by the GNC (positive correlation). However, numerous studies have suggested what is commonly called "hypofrontality" during states of anxiety (negative correlation), which seems to give rise to a theoretical and empirical contraction...
November 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Dejan Stevanovic, Gil Zalsman
INTRODUCTION: It is supposed that both antidepressants and psychotherapies work in a manner consistent with cognitive theories of depression when changing negative affective and cognitive distortions. This study evaluated changes in cognitive distortions (i.e. systematic misinterpretations of new information) and affectivity in adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) after acute phase treatment with fluoxetine. METHODS: Twenty-five adolescents (mean age 15.10 years (SD = 1...
October 11, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Erik Oudman, Mirjam van Dam, Albert Postma
INTRODUCTION: Loneliness is the subjective negative evaluation of social participation and isolation. Emotional loneliness reflects the absence of close relationships, and social loneliness the absence of a social network. Although loneliness is a growing problem in modern society, studies about loneliness in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) in need of chronic care are currently missing. METHODS: Sixty-three KS patients in long-term care and their primary caregivers reported loneliness of the patients on the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale...
September 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Paula O Guimarães-da-Silva, Diego L Rovaris, Katiane L Silva, Rafael G Karam, Luis A Rohde, Eugenio H Grevet, Claiton H D Bau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Suzanne Ho-Wai So, Anson K C Chau, Emmanuelle R Peters, Joel Swendsen, Philippa A Garety, Shitij Kapur
INTRODUCTION: There is an ongoing debate about whether negative affect are consequences or triggers of paranoid thinking. It has also been suggested that aberrant salience is central to the development of delusions. This study modelled the moment-to-moment relationships between negative affect, aberrant salience, and paranoia in acute inpatients with psychosis. METHODS: Participants with active paranoid delusions were assessed using clinical rating scales and experience sampling method (ESM) over 14 days...
September 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Lena Palaniyappan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Daniel D Kurylo, Richard Waxman, Steven M Silverstein, Batya Weinstein, Jacob Kader, Ioannis Michalopoulos
Introduction Impaired perceptual organisation in schizophrenia has been repeatedly described in clinical and research literatures. It has also been associated with problems in more complex aspects of visual function, including visuospatial and visual cognitive test performance. Two therapeutic interventions were developed here that target perceptual organisation: (1) Computer-based training, which emphasized stimulus-driven processing (bottom-up approach), and (2) Instrumental Enrichment therapy, which is a therapist-guided interactive learning method (top-down approach)...
September 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
George Van Doorn, Alexander De Foe, Alle Wood, Danielle Wagstaff, Jakob Hohwy
INTRODUCTION: "Body swapping" illusions have been used to explore factors contributing to the experience of "owning" an artificial body. Preliminary research indicated that those people diagnosed with schizophrenia experience more vivid illusions of this kind than do "normal" individuals. OBJECTIVES: Here, we explored whether participants who rated themselves "high" on the cognitive-perceptual factor of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) experienced a more compelling sense of immersion in a variation of the body swapping illusion: The Barbie Doll Illusion...
September 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Lisa Conlan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 29, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Luigi Russo, Francesco Craig, Marta Ruggiero, Claudio Mancuso, Rita Galluzzi, Alessandro Lorenzo, Isabella Fanizza, Antonio Trabacca
INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence suggests that impairments in social cognition are associated to the cognitive abilities needed to take several viewpoints in perceptual situations and body awareness. The aim of the current study was to investigate Visual Perspective Taking (VPT) and Body awareness performance in a group of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) compared with a group of children with Intellectual Disability (ID) and typically developing (TD) children. METHODS: Our groups were administered an IQ test and a VPT task, and body awareness tests...
July 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
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