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Cognitive Neuropsychiatry

Tor Ekstrom, Stephen Maher, Yue Chen
INTRODUCTION: Identifying individual identities from faces is crucial for social functioning. In schizophrenia, previous studies showed mixed results as to whether face identity discrimination is compromised. How a social category factor (such as gender and race) affects schizophrenia patients' facial identity discrimination is unclear. METHODS: Using psychophysics, we examined perceptual performance on within- and between- category face identity discrimination tasks in patients (n = 51) and controls (n = 31)...
October 13, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Ryan P Balzan, Todd S Woodward, Paul Delfabbro, Steffen Moritz
INTRODUCTION: An 'overconfidence in errors' bias has been consistently observed in people with schizophrenia relative to healthy controls, however, the bias is seldom found to be associated with delusional ideation. Using a more precise confidence-accuracy calibration measure of overconfidence, the present study aimed to explore whether the overconfidence bias is greater in people with higher delusional ideation. METHODS: A sample of 25 participants with schizophrenia and 50 non-clinical controls (25 high- and 25 low-delusion-prone) completed 30 difficult trivia questions (accuracy <75%); 15 'half-scale' items required participants to indicate their level of confidence for accuracy, and the remaining 'confidence-range' items asked participants to provide lower/upper bounds in which they were 80% confident the true answer lay within...
October 6, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Isabelle Blanchette, Serge Caparos
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to examine how working memory (WM) may be related to exposure to potentially traumatic events and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: In four studies, we measured WM function using adaptations of the running span and the reading span tasks. We compared the performance of women reporting experiences of sexual abuse to control participants (total n = 144 controls and 84 victims). We measured severity of the sexual abuse experiences as well as exposure to general life stress...
October 6, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Jason J Braithwaite, Anthony S David
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Mariabernarda Pitzianti, Elisa D'Agati, Livia Casarelli, Marco Pontis, Ivo Kaunzinger, Klaus W Lange, Oliver Tucha, Paolo Curatolo, Augusto Pasini
INTRODUCTION: Inattention is one of the core symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most of patients with ADHD show motor impairment, consisting in the persistence of neurological soft signs (NSS). Our aim was to evaluate attentional and motor functioning in an ADHD sample and healthy children (HC) and possible link between attentional dysfunction and motor impairment in ADHD. METHOD: Twenty-seven drug-naive patients with ADHD and 23 HC were tested with a test battery, measuring different aspects of attention...
October 1, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Karin Pos, Lindy Lou Boyette, Carin J Meijer, Maarten Koeter, Lydia Krabbendam, Lieuwe de Haan
INTRODUCTION: Recent life events are associated with transition to and outcome in psychosis. Childhood trauma and personality characteristics play a role in proneness to adult life events. However, little is known about the relative contribution and interrelatedness of these characteristics in psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated whether Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and childhood trauma (abuse and neglect) predict adult life events, and whether the effect of childhood trauma on life events is mediated by personality traits...
September 28, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Natasha Ratcliffe, Roger Newport
INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that abnormal perceptual processing and somatosensory amplification may be contributory factors to somatoform symptom reporting. A key source of somatosensory information is proprioception, yet the perception and integration of this sense has not been sufficiently investigated in those prone to somatoform disorders. METHODS: Subclinical groups of high- and low-scorers on the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire made judgements about the location of their unseen hand following congruent or incongruent visuo-proprioceptive feedback, which was manipulated using a MIRAGE-mediated reality system...
September 23, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Klaus Kessler, Jason J Braithwaite
INTRODUCTION: Hallucinations that involve shifts in the subjectively experienced location of the self, have been termed "out-of-body experiences" (OBEs). Early psychiatric accounts cast OBEs as a specific instance of depersonalisation and derealisation disorder (DPD-DR). However, during feelings of alienation and lack of body realism in DPD-DR the self is experienced within the physical body. Deliberate forms of "disembodiment" enable humans to imagine another's visuo-spatial perspective taking (VPT), thus, if a strong relationship between deliberate and spontaneous forms of disembodiment could be revealed, then uncontrolled OBEs could be "the other side of the coin" of a uniquely human capacity...
August 10, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Hayley Dewe, Derrick G Watson, Jason J Braithwaite
INTRODUCTION: Depersonalisation and derealisation disorders refer to feelings of detachment and dissociation from one's "self" or surroundings. A reduced sense of self (or "presence") and emotional "numbness" is thought to be mediated by aberrant emotional processing due to biases in self-referent multi-sensory integration. This emotional "numbing" is often accompanied by suppressed autonomic arousal to emotionally salient stimuli. METHODS: 118 participants completed the Cambridge Depersonalisation scale [Sierra, & Berrios, 2000...
July 28, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
A Abu-Akel, R L E P Reniers, S J Wood
INTRODUCTION: Patients with schizophrenia show impairments in working-memory and visual-spatial processing, but little is known about the dynamic interplay between the two. To provide insight into this important question, we examined the effect of positive and negative symptom expressions in healthy adults on perceptual processing while concurrently performing a working-memory task that requires the allocations of various degrees of cognitive resources. METHODS: The effect of positive and negative symptom expressions in healthy adults (N = 91) on perceptual processing was examined in a dual-task paradigm of visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) under three conditions of cognitive load: a baseline condition (with no concurrent working-memory demand), a low VSWM load condition, and a high VSWM load condition...
July 20, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Beatriz López-Luengo, José A Muela-Martínez
INTRODUCTION: Despite the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment, residual hallucinations do not completely resolve in some medicated patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of attention training for reducing hallucinations in individuals with psychosis. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial was performed in which 20 individuals suffering auditory hallucinations received auditory stimulation similar to their internal voices, which was integrated into the RehaCom program of attention training...
July 18, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
David E J Linden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Kyran T Graham-Schmidt, Mathew T Martin-Iverson, Nicholas P Holmes, Flavie Waters
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with schizophrenia, particularly those with passivity symptoms, often feel that their actions and thoughts are controlled by an external agent. Recent evidence has elucidated the role of body representations in the aetiology of passivity symptoms, yet one representation - body structural description - has not yet been examined. Additionally, body image has rarely been examined outside of bodily illusions (e.g., rubber hand experiments) and external validation is required...
July 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Ana P Pinheiro, Neguine Rezaii, Andréia Rauber, Margaret Niznikiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Impairments in self-other voice discrimination have been consistently reported in schizophrenia, and associated with the severity of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). This study probed the interactions between voice identity, voice acoustic quality, and semantic valence in a self-other voice discrimination task in schizophrenia patients compared with healthy subjects. The relationship between voice identity discrimination and AVH severity was also explored. METHODS: Seventeen chronic schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy controls were asked to read aloud a list of adjectives characterised by emotional or neutral content...
July 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Robert M Ross, Gordon Pennycook, Ryan McKay, Will M Gervais, Robyn Langdon, Max Coltheart
INTRODUCTION: It has been proposed that deluded and delusion-prone individuals gather less evidence before forming beliefs than those who are not deluded or delusion-prone. The primary source of evidence for this "jumping to conclusions" (JTC) bias is provided by research that utilises the "beads task" data-gathering paradigm. However, the cognitive mechanisms subserving data gathering in this task are poorly understood. METHODS: In the largest published beads task study to date (n = 558), we examined data gathering in the context of influential dual-process theories of reasoning...
June 24, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Wolfram Hinzen, Joana Rosselló, Peter McKenna
Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The "un-Cartesian" cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where "thinking" takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic...
June 20, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Anthony S David
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Lucy J Robinson, John M Gray, I Nicol Ferrier, Peter Gallagher
OBJECTIVES: Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) show executive impairment. Assisting cognitive function with non-pharmacological strategies has not been widely explored in BD. In schizophrenia, concomitant verbalisation (self-monitoring) during executive tests improved performance. The present pilot study assesses the effects of self-monitoring whilst completing the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in BD patients. METHODS: Thirty-six euthymic BD patients and 42 healthy controls participated...
May 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Sindre Rolstad, Carl Sellgren Majkowitz, Erik Joas, Carl Johan Ekman, Erik Pålsson, Mikael Landén
INTRODUCTION: The cause of cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder (BD) is not well understood. BDNF and CACNA1C are two susceptibility genes for the disorder that have also been reported to be associated with cognitive deficits in the disorder, but the studies have been small and with conflicting results. We therefore attempted to replicate an association between cognitive dysfunction with the most commonly studied single nucleotide polymorphisms rs6265 and rs1006737. METHODS: Regression models with five aggregated cognitive domains derived from a comprehensive test battery and IQ score were run using directly genotyped risk variants of SNPs rs6265 and rs1006737 as predictors with covariates as appropriate...
May 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
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