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Cognitive Neuropsychiatry

Dejan Stevanovic, Gil Zalsman
INTRODUCTION: It is supposed that both antidepressants and psychotherapies work in a manner consistent with cognitive theories of depression when changing negative affective and cognitive distortions. This study evaluated changes in cognitive distortions (i.e. systematic misinterpretations of new information) and affectivity in adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) after acute phase treatment with fluoxetine. METHODS: Twenty-five adolescents (mean age 15.10 years (SD = 1...
October 11, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Mariia Kaliuzhna, Robyn Langdon
INTRODUCTION: Patients with schizophrenia present clinically with difficulties in manipulating contradictory information in the form of loose associations, surface contradictions and delusional beliefs. It is to date unclear whether patients can detect and process information that contradicts their beliefs and prior knowledge and whether this capacity is related to their symptoms and the nature of contradictory stimuli (e.g., personally significant information, emotional information)...
November 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Romina Rinaldi, Laurent Lefebvre, Wivine Blekic, Frank Laroi, Julien Laloyaux
INTRODUCTION: Impairment in Theory of mind (TOM) has frequently been associated with schizophrenia and with schizotypy. Studies have found that a tendency to over-attribute intentions and special meaning to events and to people is related to positive psychotic symptoms. Further, it has been suggested that this intentionality bias may be due to a broader deficit in context processing (CP). The aim of the present study was thus to investigate the relationship between positive schizotypy and both over-attribution of intentions and contextual processing...
November 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Julien Laloyaux, Clara Della Libera, Frank Larøi
INTRODUCTION: One important aspect of human cognition relies on the ability to bias attention towards stimulus-independent and stimulus-oriented thoughts and to switch between these states - or source flexibility. This mechanism has received very little attention in the literature, and in particular in schizophrenia. Moreover, there is good reason to believe that this mechanism could also be implicated in hallucinations, but this hypothesis has never been examined. Thus, the aim of the present study was, for the first time in the literature, to explore source flexibility abilities in schizophrenia and their potential relations with auditory hallucinations...
November 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Lu-Lu Liu, Ming-Yuan Gan, Ji-Fang Cui, Tao Chen, Shu-Ping Tan, David L Neumann, David H K Shum, Ya Wang, Raymond C K Chan
INTRODUCTION: Prospective memory (PM) refers to remembering to execute a planned intention in the future. It can be divided into event- and time-based, according to the nature of the PM cue. Event-based PM cues can be classified as focal or non-focal. Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) have been found to be impaired in both event- and time-based PM. PM has been found to be improved by implementation intentions, which is an encoding strategy in the format of "if X then Y". This study examined the effect of implementation intentions on a non-focal event-based and a time-based PM task in patients with SCZ...
November 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Luiz Augusto Rosa
INTRODUCTION: According to the High-order Theory of Emotional Consciousness (HOTEC), every emotional process is a conscious and high-order state of mind carried out by the General Networks of Cognition (GNC), which consists mainly of prefrontal mechanisms. This means that anxiety is also an emotional state of mind carried out by the GNC (positive correlation). However, numerous studies have suggested what is commonly called "hypofrontality" during states of anxiety (negative correlation), which seems to give rise to a theoretical and empirical contraction...
November 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Erik Oudman, Mirjam van Dam, Albert Postma
INTRODUCTION: Loneliness is the subjective negative evaluation of social participation and isolation. Emotional loneliness reflects the absence of close relationships, and social loneliness the absence of a social network. Although loneliness is a growing problem in modern society, studies about loneliness in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) in need of chronic care are currently missing. METHODS: Sixty-three KS patients in long-term care and their primary caregivers reported loneliness of the patients on the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale...
September 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Paula O Guimarães-da-Silva, Diego L Rovaris, Katiane L Silva, Rafael G Karam, Luis A Rohde, Eugenio H Grevet, Claiton H D Bau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Suzanne Ho-Wai So, Anson K C Chau, Emmanuelle R Peters, Joel Swendsen, Philippa A Garety, Shitij Kapur
INTRODUCTION: There is an ongoing debate about whether negative affect are consequences or triggers of paranoid thinking. It has also been suggested that aberrant salience is central to the development of delusions. This study modelled the moment-to-moment relationships between negative affect, aberrant salience, and paranoia in acute inpatients with psychosis. METHODS: Participants with active paranoid delusions were assessed using clinical rating scales and experience sampling method (ESM) over 14 days...
September 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Lena Palaniyappan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Daniel D Kurylo, Richard Waxman, Steven M Silverstein, Batya Weinstein, Jacob Kader, Ioannis Michalopoulos
Introduction Impaired perceptual organisation in schizophrenia has been repeatedly described in clinical and research literatures. It has also been associated with problems in more complex aspects of visual function, including visuospatial and visual cognitive test performance. Two therapeutic interventions were developed here that target perceptual organisation: (1) Computer-based training, which emphasized stimulus-driven processing (bottom-up approach), and (2) Instrumental Enrichment therapy, which is a therapist-guided interactive learning method (top-down approach)...
September 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
George Van Doorn, Alexander De Foe, Alle Wood, Danielle Wagstaff, Jakob Hohwy
INTRODUCTION: "Body swapping" illusions have been used to explore factors contributing to the experience of "owning" an artificial body. Preliminary research indicated that those people diagnosed with schizophrenia experience more vivid illusions of this kind than do "normal" individuals. OBJECTIVES: Here, we explored whether participants who rated themselves "high" on the cognitive-perceptual factor of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) experienced a more compelling sense of immersion in a variation of the body swapping illusion: The Barbie Doll Illusion...
September 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Lisa Conlan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 29, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Luigi Russo, Francesco Craig, Marta Ruggiero, Claudio Mancuso, Rita Galluzzi, Alessandro Lorenzo, Isabella Fanizza, Antonio Trabacca
INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence suggests that impairments in social cognition are associated to the cognitive abilities needed to take several viewpoints in perceptual situations and body awareness. The aim of the current study was to investigate Visual Perspective Taking (VPT) and Body awareness performance in a group of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) compared with a group of children with Intellectual Disability (ID) and typically developing (TD) children. METHODS: Our groups were administered an IQ test and a VPT task, and body awareness tests...
July 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
G Chatzidamianos, R A McCarthy, M Du Feu, J Rosselló, P J McKenna
INTRODUCTION: Although there is evidence for language abnormality in schizophrenia, few studies have examined sign language in deaf patients with the disorder. This is of potential interest because a hallmark of sign languages is their use of classifiers (semantic or entity classifiers), a reference-tracking device with few if any parallels in spoken languages. This study aimed to examine classifier production and comprehension in deaf signing adults with schizophrenia. METHOD: Fourteen profoundly deaf signing adults with schizophrenia and 35 age- and IQ-matched deaf healthy controls completed a battery of tests assessing classifier and noun comprehension and production...
July 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Todd A Girard, Leanne K Wilkins, Kathleen M Lyons, Lixia Yang, Bruce K Christensen
Introduction Working-memory (WM) is a core cognitive deficit among individuals with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD). However, the underlying cognitive mechanisms of this deficit are less known. This study applies a modified version of the Corsi Block Test to investigate the role of proactive interference in visuospatial WM (VSWM) impairment in SSD. Methods Healthy and SSD participants completed a modified version of the Corsi Block Test involving both high (typical ascending set size from 4 to 7 items) and low (descending set size from 7 to 4 items) proactive interference conditions...
July 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Iratxe Redondo, David Herrero-Fernández
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to build a Spanish version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) including limited time of response and an integrated glossary, and to test its validity. METHODS: A total of 433 university students (121 men and 350 women) and 38 anorexic women completed the RMET and other related measures of empathy and alexithymia. The results of the Parallel Analysis suggested a unidimensional structure for 19 items, which was verified through a Confirmatory Factor Analysis...
July 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Kang-Seob Oh, Woo Hyung Lee, Sunyoung Kim, Dong-Won Shin, Young-Chul Shin, Se-Won Lim
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate whether social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients have low emotion recognition accuracy, take longer for emotion recognition and tended to interpret a stimulus more negatively than controls. METHODS: Fifty-six SAD patients and 56 healthy controls were participated in this study. We evaluated facial emotion recognition using a computer program in which participants chose one of seven emotions as displayed in each of 55 photographs of faces...
July 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
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