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Cognitive Neuropsychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226782/patterns-of-source-monitoring-bias-in-incarcerated-youths-with-and-without-conduct-problems
#1
Larisa Morosan, Deborah Badoud, George Salaminios, Stephan Eliez, Martial Van der Linden, Patrick Heller, Martin Debbané
INTRODUCTION: Antisocial individuals present behaviours that violate the social norms and the rights of others. In the present study, we examine whether biases in monitoring the self-generated cognitive material might be linked to antisocial manifestations during adolescence. We further examine the association with psychopathic traits and conduct problems (CPs). METHODS: Sixty-five incarcerated adolescents (IAs; M age = 15.85, SD = 1.30) and 88 community adolescents (CAs; M age = 15...
December 10, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199507/asymmetric-oculomotor-apraxia-optic-ataxia-and-simultanagnosia-with-right-hemispatial-neglect-from-a-predominantly-left-sided-lesion-of-the-parieto-occipital-area
#2
Yasuhisa Sakurai, Masanori Fujimoto, Kensuke Hamada, Izumi Sugimoto
INTRODUCTION: Bálint's syndrome involves bilateral damage to the parieto-occipital area. The extent of the effect of unilateral damage on the Bálint's triad (oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia) remains unknown. METHODS: We examined a 63-year-old, right-handed woman who developed right hemianopia, oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, simultanagnosia, and hemispatial neglect (HSN) for the right after a cerebral infarction, with detailed neuropsychological tests, magnetic resonance imaging, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
December 2, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157137/taxonomising-delusions-content-or-aetiology
#3
Peter Clutton, Stephen Gadsby, Colin Klein
INTRODUCTION: Many theoretical treatments assume (often implicitly) that delusions ought to be taxonomised by the content of aberrant beliefs. A theoretically sound, and comparatively under-explored, alternative would split and combine delusions according to their underlying cognitive aetiology. METHODS: We give a theoretical review of several cases, focusing on monothematic delusions of misidentification and on somatoparaphrenia. RESULTS: We show that a purely content-based taxonomy is empirically problematic...
November 20, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113547/self-reference-in-suicidal-behaviour
#4
Fabrice Jollant, Cédric Lemogne, Philippe Fossati
INTRODUCTION: Several lines of evidence suggest a perturbed sense of self in people who attempt suicide, but it has rarely been experimentally studied. Here, we aimed to explore in this population the narrative self through explicit self-perception and the self-reference effect in memory. METHODS: Forty-seven patients with a mood disorder, including 20 with a personal history of suicide attempt, completed a self-referential task. During the encoding phase, they were presented with personality traits and had to successively judge whether each trait described themselves ("self condition") or was a desirable trait, in general ("general condition")...
November 7, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057720/predictive-coding-and-hallucinations-a-question-of-balance
#5
Paul C Fletcher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023198/exploration-of-trauma-dissociation-maladaptive-schemas-and-auditory-hallucinations-in-a-french-sample
#6
Catherine Bortolon, Jade Seillé, Stéphane Raffard
OBJECTIVES: The main goal of the present study was to explore the associations between several key variables that have been shown to partially mediate the link between specific trauma exposure and auditory hallucinations (AH), that is, maladaptive schemas and dissociation in the general population. METHODS: In total, 425 voluntary participants were recruited from the general population and completed online the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Young schema questionnaire, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, and the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale...
October 12, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974159/impaired-facial-and-vocal-emotion-decoding-in-schizophrenia-is-underpinned-by-basic-perceptivo-motor-deficits
#7
C Mangelinckx, J B Belge, P Maurage, E Constant
INTRODUCTION: Emotional decoding impairments have been largely demonstrated in schizophrenia for facial and prosodic stimuli, when presented separately. Nevertheless, the exploration of crossmodal integration has been far less considered, despite its omnipresence in daily social interactions. Moreover, the role played by basic visuo-motor impairments in unimodal and crossmodal decoding remains unexplored. METHODS: Thirty-two patients were compared with 32 matched controls in an emotional decoding task including unimodal (visual and auditory) and crossmodal (congruent and incongruent) conditions...
October 3, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120270/explaining-body-size-beliefs-in-anorexia
#8
Stephen Gadsby
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive neuropsychiatry has had much success in providing theoretical models for the causal origins of many delusional beliefs. Recently, it has been suggested that some anorexia nervosa patients' beliefs about their own body size should be considered delusions. As such, it seems high time the methods of cognitive neuropsychiatry were turned to modelling the false body size beliefs of anorexics. METHODS: In this paper, I adopt an empiricist approach to modelling the causal origins of false body size beliefs in anorexia...
November 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885888/crossmodal-processing-of-emotions-in-alcohol-dependence-and-korsakoff-syndrome
#9
Mélanie Brion, Fabien D'Hondt, Séverine Lannoy, Anne-Lise Pitel, Donald A Davidoff, Pierre Maurage
INTRODUCTION: Decoding emotional information from faces and voices is crucial for efficient interpersonal communication. Emotional decoding deficits have been found in alcohol-dependence (ALC), particularly in crossmodal situations (with simultaneous stimulations from different modalities), but are still underexplored in Korsakoff syndrome (KS). The aim of this study is to determine whether the continuity hypothesis, postulating a gradual worsening of cognitive and brain impairments from ALC to KS, is valid for emotional crossmodal processing...
September 8, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789589/classification-of-cognitive-performance-in-bipolar-disorder
#10
Timea Sparding, Katja Silander, Erik Pålsson, Josefin Östlind, Carl Johan Ekman, Carl M Sellgren, Erik Joas, Stefan Hansen, Mikael Landén
OBJECTIVE: To understand the etiology of cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, we need to clarify potential heterogeneity in cognitive functioning. To this end, we used multivariate techniques to study if the correlation structure of cognitive abilities differs between persons with bipolar disorder and controls. METHOD: Clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and healthy controls (n = 86) were assessed with a wide range of cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed, memory, and verbal skills...
September 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697644/evidence-of-absence-no-relationship-between-behaviourally-measured-prediction-error-response-and-schizotypy
#11
Clara S Humpston, Lisa H Evans, Christoph Teufel, Niklas Ihssen, David E J Linden
INTRODUCTION: The predictive processing framework has attracted much interest in the field of schizophrenia research in recent years, with an increasing number of studies also carried out in healthy individuals with nonclinical psychosis-like experiences. The current research adopted a continuum approach to psychosis and aimed to investigate different types of prediction error responses in relation to psychometrically defined schizotypy. METHODS: One hundred and two healthy volunteers underwent a battery of behavioural tasks including (a) a force-matching task, (b) a Kamin blocking task, and (c) a reversal learning task together with three questionnaires measuring domains of schizotypy from different approaches...
September 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853332/cognitive-functioning-in-schizotypy-through-the-lens-of-the-accessibility-model
#12
Kyle R Mitchell, Alex S Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with schizotypy self-report subjective cognitive complaints commensurate with deficits reported by individuals with schizophrenia. In contrast to schizophrenia, objective deficits in memory are modest in individuals with schizotypy, as compared to their self-reported cognitive complaints. It has been proposed that abnormalities in semantic memory systems may underlie this dysjunction. METHODS: This study employed a modified verbal memory paradigm in a sample of 87 individuals with psychometrically defined schizotypy...
August 30, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745121/ineffective-initiation-contributes-to-deficient-verbal-and-non-verbal-fluency-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#13
Paweł Krukow, Michał Harciarek, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Kamil Jonak
AIMS: Patients with schizophrenia (SCH) show impaired verbal and non-verbal fluency. However, these individuals' fluctuations in words or designs generation efficiency over time, a phenomenon that may significantly affect fluency, have never been studied. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate if individuals with SCH may present with alternations in the dynamics of the information production and its control as well as to test if the potential abnormalities in this regard might affect these patients' overall performance on both verbal and non-verbal fluency tasks...
July 26, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566003/memory-and-executive-functions-correlates-of-self-awareness-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Nicolle Zimmermann, Daniel C Mograbi, Andressa Hermes-Pereira, Rochele P Fonseca, George P Prigatano
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of executive functions (EF) components and episodic and working memory variables, as well as clinical and demographic factors, to awareness of cognitive ability in traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Sixty-five TBI patients (mild: n = 26; moderate/severe: n = 39) took part in the study. Independent stepwise regression models were calculated for EF and memory predictors, with awareness being measured by patient/informant discrepancy in the Patient Competency Rating Scale...
July 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545341/interidentity-amnesia-in-dissociative-identity-disorder
#15
John Morton
INTRODUCTION: Patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder (DID) usually present with alternative personality states (alters) who take separate control of consciousness. Commonly, one alter will claim they have no awareness of events which took place when another alter was in control. However, some kinds of material are transferred across the alter boundary. Huntjens et al. devised an objective method of demonstrating such transfer. METHODS: In the main study, following Huntjens et al...
July 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537109/facial-and-prosodic-emotion-recognition-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#16
Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Yu-Lien Huang, Jian-Ting Chen, Kuei-Yu Liang, Chao-Cheng Lin, Sue-Huei Chen
INTRODUCTION: Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have a cognitive preference to negatively evaluate emotional information. In particular, the preferential biases in prosodic emotion recognition in SAD have been much less explored. The present study aims to investigate whether SAD patients retain negative evaluation biases across visual and auditory modalities when given sufficient response time to recognise emotions. METHODS: Thirty-one SAD patients and 31 age- and gender-matched healthy participants completed a culturally suitable non-verbal emotion recognition task and received clinical assessments for social anxiety and depressive symptoms...
July 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490234/are-self-rated-and-behavioural-measures-of-impulsivity-in-bipolar-disorder-mainly-related-to-comorbid-substance-use-problems
#17
Isabelle E Bauer, Thomas D Meyer, Marsal Sanches, Danielle Spiker, Giovana Zunta-Soares, Jair C Soares
INTRODUCTION: Impulsivity is a multidimensional feature observed in bipolar disorder (BD) and substance use disorder (SUD). We previously found a relationship between SUD and risk taking in BD. It is still unclear whether self-rated and behavioral impulsivity measures differ between BD with and without comorbid SUD, or are specific to BD. METHODS: 93 adults with BD with comorbid SUD, 91 BD without SUD, and 93 healthy controls (HC) were administered the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS), the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS), and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery...
July 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470106/associations-of-neurod2-polymorphisms-and-change-of-cognitive-dysfunctions-in-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-disorder-after-eight-weeks-of-antipsychotic-treatment
#18
Ilja Spellmann, Michael Riedel, Julia Städtler, Peter Zill, Michael Obermeier, Anja Cerovecki, Sandra Dehning, Rebecca Schennach, Maria Epple, Markus Opgen-Rhein, Norbert Müller, Brigitta Bondy, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Richard Musil
INTRODUCTION: NEUROD2 is a neurospecific helix-loop-helix transcription factor which has an impact on the regulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic genes. We investigated an association of NEUROD2 with neurocognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patients before and during treatment with different second-generation antipsychotics. METHODS: Patients were genotyped for four different polymorphisms of the NEUROD2 gene ((rs9889354(A/G), rs1877032(C/T), rs12453682(C/T) and rs11078918(C/G))...
July 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421867/symptom-related-attributional-biases-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#19
Nicole Sanford, Todd S Woodward
INTRODUCTION: Biases in causal attributions and evidence integration have been implicated in delusions, but have not been investigated simultaneously to examine additive or multiplicative effects. It was hypothesised that paranoid delusions would correlate with self-serving and personalising biases ("defence" model of paranoia), particularly when these biases were disconfirmed. METHODS: Constrained principal component analysis was used to investigate differences between schizophrenia patients (paranoid vs...
July 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578638/temporal-processing-deficit-leads-to-impaired-multisensory-binding-in-schizophrenia
#20
Mikhail Zvyagintsev, Carmen Parisi, Klaus Mathiak
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia has been characterised by neurodevelopmental dysconnectivity resulting in cognitive and perceptual dysmetria. Hence patients with schizophrenia may be impaired to detect the temporal relationship between stimuli in different sensory modalities. However, only a few studies described deficit in perception of temporally asynchronous multisensory stimuli in schizophrenia. METHODS: We examined the perceptual bias and the processing time of synchronous and delayed sounds in the streaming-bouncing illusion in 16 patients with schizophrenia and a matched control group of 18 participants...
June 3, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
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