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Cognitive Neuropsychiatry

María Rosa Peña-Falcón, Claudia Pascualena-Nagore, Salvador Perona-Garcelán
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of sleep quality to proneness to hallucinations and the mediating role of dissociation and unusual sleep experiences in a nonclinical sample. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-seven participants completed a questionnaire on sleep quality, a dissociative experiences scale, an unusual sleep experiences scale and a hallucination proneness scale. RESULTS: The results showed a significant positive association between quality of sleep and hallucination proneness, dissociation and unusual sleep experiences, and that dissociation and unusual sleep experiences fully mediated between sleep quality and hallucination proneness...
February 15, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Evangelos Ntouros, Evangelos Karanikas, Georgios Floros, Christina Andreou, Aikaterini Tsoura, Georgios Garyfallos, Vasilios P Bozikas
INTRODUCTION: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia display deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) and Emotion Perception (EP) even before the appearance of full-blown symptomatology. METHODS: We evaluated ToM and EP in a male cohort consisting of 25 First Episode Psychosis (FEP) and 16 relapsed schizophrenic patients (CHRON) compared to 12 subjects in Ultra-high Risk (UHR) and 23 healthy controls (CTR). Furthermore, we measured the levels of Cortisol, Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF-1), TNF-a, TNF-b and several interleukins as potential biomarkers...
February 15, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Jeremy Besnard, Marina Pivette, Agnes Lambrichts, Nicolas Lalaux, Philippe Allain
INTRODUCTION: Environmental dependency phenomena refer to the enslavement of patients' performances under the characteristics of the tasks and were first described in case of prefrontal lobe damage. Two forms of environmental dependency, executive and social, may be dissociated, which involve respectively dorsolateral and orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction. Schizophrenia is widely considered to be caused by PFC dysfunction, but no study to date has addressed environmental dependency in this pathology...
January 29, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Natasza Żurowska, Agnieszka Kałwa, Krystyna Rymarczyk, Bogusław Habrat
INTRODUCTION: The study investigates how benzodiazepine (BZD) use and detoxification affects empathy and the recognition and intensity rating of emotional facial expressions. The sample comprised 43 participants in three groups: (1) during detoxification (N = 13), (2) after detoxification (N = 15), (3) a matched control group (N = 15). Clinical subjects were recruited from in-patients of an addiction treatment unit. METHODS: Empathy levels were tested with the Empathy Quotient (EQ-Short)...
January 21, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Thomas J Dinzeo, Virginia Culiañez Serna, Sherry D Pujji, Eve M Sledjeski
Introduction Research suggests that levels of schizotypy are related to cognitive and social functioning, with negative schizotypy being particularly related to deficits in verbal fluency (VF) and distinct social skills. Considering the possibility that different VF tasks may involve both shared and unique underlying processes, this study sought to examine the separate contributions of categorical and phonological forms of VF to social functioning in those with varying levels of negative schizotypy. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted in which 228 college students completed VF tasks, the SPQ-BR, and a social functioning questionnaire...
December 19, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Larisa Morosan, Deborah Badoud, George Salaminios, Stephan Eliez, Martial Van der Linden, Patrick Heller, Martin Debbané
INTRODUCTION: Antisocial individuals present behaviours that violate the social norms and the rights of others. In the present study, we examine whether biases in monitoring the self-generated cognitive material might be linked to antisocial manifestations during adolescence. We further examine the association with psychopathic traits and conduct problems (CPs). METHODS: Sixty-five incarcerated adolescents (IAs; M age = 15.85, SD = 1.30) and 88 community adolescents (CAs; M age = 15...
December 10, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Yasuhisa Sakurai, Masanori Fujimoto, Kensuke Hamada, Izumi Sugimoto
INTRODUCTION: Bálint's syndrome involves bilateral damage to the parieto-occipital area. The extent of the effect of unilateral damage on the Bálint's triad (oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia) remains unknown. METHODS: We examined a 63-year-old, right-handed woman who developed right hemianopia, oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, simultanagnosia, and hemispatial neglect (HSN) for the right after a cerebral infarction, with detailed neuropsychological tests, magnetic resonance imaging, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
December 2, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Jens Egeland, Tom Langerud Holmen, Gry Bang-Kittilsen, Therese Torgersen Bigseth, John Abel Engh
INTRODUCTION: Category fluency is associated with speed-, executive- and semantic impairments in schizphrenia. It has traditionally been linked to negative symptoms, whereas the relation to positive symptoms is mixed. Associations to the consensus negative, positive and disorganisation factors have not been analysed before. METHODS: Animal fluency was administered to 81 patients with schizophrenia. Measures of overall performance and applied strategies were analysed in relation to the Wallwork five-factor PANSS-model...
January 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Peter Clutton, Stephen Gadsby, Colin Klein
INTRODUCTION: Many theoretical treatments assume (often implicitly) that delusions ought to be taxonomised by the content of aberrant beliefs. A theoretically sound, and comparatively under-explored, alternative would split and combine delusions according to their underlying cognitive aetiology. METHODS: We give a theoretical review of several cases, focusing on monothematic delusions of misidentification and on somatoparaphrenia. RESULTS: We show that a purely content-based taxonomy is empirically problematic...
November 20, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Fabrice Jollant, Cédric Lemogne, Philippe Fossati
INTRODUCTION: Several lines of evidence suggest a perturbed sense of self in people who attempt suicide, but it has rarely been experimentally studied. Here, we aimed to explore in this population the narrative self through explicit self-perception and the self-reference effect in memory. METHODS: Forty-seven patients with a mood disorder, including 20 with a personal history of suicide attempt, completed a self-referential task. During the encoding phase, they were presented with personality traits and had to successively judge whether each trait described themselves ("self condition") or was a desirable trait, in general ("general condition")...
November 7, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Stephen Gadsby
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive neuropsychiatry has had much success in providing theoretical models for the causal origins of many delusional beliefs. Recently, it has been suggested that some anorexia nervosa patients' beliefs about their own body size should be considered delusions. As such, it seems high time the methods of cognitive neuropsychiatry were turned to modelling the false body size beliefs of anorexics. METHODS: In this paper, I adopt an empiricist approach to modelling the causal origins of false body size beliefs in anorexia...
November 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Paul C Fletcher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Catherine Bortolon, Jade Seillé, Stéphane Raffard
OBJECTIVES: The main goal of the present study was to explore the associations between several key variables that have been shown to partially mediate the link between specific trauma exposure and auditory hallucinations (AH), that is, maladaptive schemas and dissociation in the general population. METHODS: In total, 425 voluntary participants were recruited from the general population and completed online the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Young schema questionnaire, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, and the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale...
October 12, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
C Mangelinckx, J B Belge, P Maurage, E Constant
INTRODUCTION: Emotional decoding impairments have been largely demonstrated in schizophrenia for facial and prosodic stimuli, when presented separately. Nevertheless, the exploration of crossmodal integration has been far less considered, despite its omnipresence in daily social interactions. Moreover, the role played by basic visuo-motor impairments in unimodal and crossmodal decoding remains unexplored. METHODS: Thirty-two patients were compared with 32 matched controls in an emotional decoding task including unimodal (visual and auditory) and crossmodal (congruent and incongruent) conditions...
October 3, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Mélanie Brion, Fabien D'Hondt, Séverine Lannoy, Anne-Lise Pitel, Donald A Davidoff, Pierre Maurage
INTRODUCTION: Decoding emotional information from faces and voices is crucial for efficient interpersonal communication. Emotional decoding deficits have been found in alcohol-dependence (ALC), particularly in crossmodal situations (with simultaneous stimulations from different modalities), but are still underexplored in Korsakoff syndrome (KS). The aim of this study is to determine whether the continuity hypothesis, postulating a gradual worsening of cognitive and brain impairments from ALC to KS, is valid for emotional crossmodal processing...
September 8, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Timea Sparding, Katja Silander, Erik Pålsson, Josefin Östlind, Carl Johan Ekman, Carl M Sellgren, Erik Joas, Stefan Hansen, Mikael Landén
OBJECTIVE: To understand the etiology of cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, we need to clarify potential heterogeneity in cognitive functioning. To this end, we used multivariate techniques to study if the correlation structure of cognitive abilities differs between persons with bipolar disorder and controls. METHOD: Clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and healthy controls (n = 86) were assessed with a wide range of cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed, memory, and verbal skills...
September 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Clara S Humpston, Lisa H Evans, Christoph Teufel, Niklas Ihssen, David E J Linden
INTRODUCTION: The predictive processing framework has attracted much interest in the field of schizophrenia research in recent years, with an increasing number of studies also carried out in healthy individuals with nonclinical psychosis-like experiences. The current research adopted a continuum approach to psychosis and aimed to investigate different types of prediction error responses in relation to psychometrically defined schizotypy. METHODS: One hundred and two healthy volunteers underwent a battery of behavioural tasks including (a) a force-matching task, (b) a Kamin blocking task, and (c) a reversal learning task together with three questionnaires measuring domains of schizotypy from different approaches...
September 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Kyle R Mitchell, Alex S Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with schizotypy self-report subjective cognitive complaints commensurate with deficits reported by individuals with schizophrenia. In contrast to schizophrenia, objective deficits in memory are modest in individuals with schizotypy, as compared to their self-reported cognitive complaints. It has been proposed that abnormalities in semantic memory systems may underlie this dysjunction. METHODS: This study employed a modified verbal memory paradigm in a sample of 87 individuals with psychometrically defined schizotypy...
August 30, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Paweł Krukow, Michał Harciarek, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Kamil Jonak
AIMS: Patients with schizophrenia (SCH) show impaired verbal and non-verbal fluency. However, these individuals' fluctuations in words or designs generation efficiency over time, a phenomenon that may significantly affect fluency, have never been studied. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate if individuals with SCH may present with alternations in the dynamics of the information production and its control as well as to test if the potential abnormalities in this regard might affect these patients' overall performance on both verbal and non-verbal fluency tasks...
July 26, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Nicolle Zimmermann, Daniel C Mograbi, Andressa Hermes-Pereira, Rochele P Fonseca, George P Prigatano
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of executive functions (EF) components and episodic and working memory variables, as well as clinical and demographic factors, to awareness of cognitive ability in traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Sixty-five TBI patients (mild: n = 26; moderate/severe: n = 39) took part in the study. Independent stepwise regression models were calculated for EF and memory predictors, with awareness being measured by patient/informant discrepancy in the Patient Competency Rating Scale...
July 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
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