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Cognitive Neuropsychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667495/common-transdiagnostic-cognitive-deficits-among-people-with-psychiatric-disorders-exposed-to-childhood-maltreatment-a-meta-analysis
#1
Alexandra R-Mercier, Marjolaine Masson, Eve-Line Bussières, Caroline Cellard
INTRODUCTION: Previous meta-analyses have shown a moderate negative impact of maltreatment on the neuropsychological functioning of people with or without psychiatric disorders compared to healthy groups. The objectives of the present meta-analysis were to (1) investigate the impact of maltreatment on neuropsychological functioning of people with psychiatric disorders and to (2) evaluate the moderating effect of age, at the time of the cognitive assessment, on neuropsychological functioning...
April 18, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635964/validation-of-the-reading-the-mind-in-the-eyes-test-in-a-healthy-spanish-sample-and-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#2
Iratxe Redondo, David Herrero-Fernández
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to build a Spanish version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) including limited time of response and an integrated glossary, and to test its validity. METHODS: A total of 433 university students (121 men and 350 women) and 38 anorexic women completed the RMET and other related measures of empathy and alexithymia. The results of the Parallel Analysis suggested a unidimensional structure for 19 items, which was verified through a Confirmatory Factor Analysis...
April 11, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633666/impaired-facial-expression-recognition-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorder-a-case-control-study
#3
Kang-Seob Oh, Woo Hyung Lee, Sunyoung Kim, Dong-Won Shin, Young-Chul Shin, Se-Won Lim
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate whether social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients have low emotion recognition accuracy, take longer for emotion recognition and tended to interpret a stimulus more negatively than controls. METHODS: Fifty-six SAD patients and 56 healthy controls were participated in this study. We evaluated facial emotion recognition using a computer program in which participants chose one of seven emotions as displayed in each of 55 photographs of faces...
April 10, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629610/erratum
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608131/do-patients-with-different-psychiatric-disorders-show-altered-social-decision-making-a-systematic-review-of-ultimatum-game-experiments-in-clinical-populations
#5
Barbara Hinterbuchinger, Alexander Kaltenboeck, Josef Severin Baumgartner, Nilufar Mossaheb, Fabian Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Impairments in social functioning are a common feature of psychiatric disorders. Game paradigms pose a unique way for studying how people make decisions in interpersonal contexts. In the last decade, researchers have started to use these paradigms to study social decision-making in patients with psychiatric disorders. PURPOSE: The aim of this systematic literature review is to summarise the currently available evidence on the behaviour of patients with psychiatric disorders in the commonly used Ultimatum Game (UG)...
April 2, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502459/variation-of-temporal-order-reveals-deficits-in-categorisation-of-facial-expressions-in-patients-afflicted-with-depression
#6
Pegah Sarkheil, Niclas Kilian-Hütten, Kristina Mickartz, Thomas Vornholt, Klaus Mathiak
INTRODUCTION: It is well established that depressive disorders are associated with abnormalities in the processing of affective information. However, type of stimuli, perceptual complexity and cognitive demand are important factors in evaluating these findings. In particular, processing mechanisms of perceptual boundaries in ecologically valid face stimuli are largely unknown in depression. METHODS: In the current study, intensity-ordered frame sequences provided a dynamic visualisation of happy or sad facial expressions fading from or to neutral expressions...
March 4, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485348/impairment-of-perceptual-metacognitive-accuracy-and-reduced-prefrontal-grey-matter-volume-in-first-episode-psychosis
#7
Geoff Davies, Charlotte L Rae, Sarah N Garfinkel, Anil K Seth, Nick Medford, Hugo D Critchley, Kathryn Greenwood
INTRODUCTION: Metacognition, or "thinking about thinking", is a higher-order thought process that allows for the evaluation of perceptual processes for accuracy. Metacognitive accuracy is associated with the grey matter volume (GMV) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), an area also impacted in schizophrenia. The present study set out to investigate whether deficits in metacognitive accuracy are present in the early stages of psychosis. METHODS: Metacognitive accuracy in first-episode psychosis (FEP) was assessed on a perceptual decision-making task and their performance compared to matched healthy control participants (N = 18)...
February 27, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447543/unusual-sleep-experiences-and-dissociation-as-mediators-between-sleep-quality-and-proneness-to-hallucinations-in-a-nonclinical-population-sample-a-preliminary-study
#8
María Rosa Peña-Falcón, Claudia Pascualena-Nagore, Salvador Perona-Garcelán
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of sleep quality to proneness to hallucinations and the mediating role of dissociation and unusual sleep experiences in a nonclinical sample. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-seven participants completed a questionnaire on sleep quality, a dissociative experiences scale, an unusual sleep experiences scale and a hallucination proneness scale. RESULTS: The results showed a significant positive association between quality of sleep and hallucination proneness, dissociation and unusual sleep experiences, and that dissociation and unusual sleep experiences fully mediated between sleep quality and hallucination proneness...
March 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447074/social-cognition-in-the-course-of-psychosis-and-its-correlation-with-biomarkers-in-a-male-cohort
#9
Evangelos Ntouros, Evangelos Karanikas, Georgios Floros, Christina Andreou, Aikaterini Tsoura, Georgios Garyfallos, Vasilios P Bozikas
INTRODUCTION: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia display deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) and Emotion Perception (EP) even before the appearance of full-blown symptomatology. METHODS: We evaluated ToM and EP in a male cohort consisting of 25 First Episode Psychosis (FEP) and 16 relapsed schizophrenic patients (CHRON) compared to 12 subjects in Ultra-high Risk (UHR) and 23 healthy controls (CTR). Furthermore, we measured the levels of Cortisol, Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF-1), TNF-a, TNF-b and several interleukins as potential biomarkers...
March 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377770/environmental-dependency-phenomena-in-schizophrenia-a-pilot-study
#10
Jeremy Besnard, Marina Pivette, Agnes Lambrichts, Nicolas Lalaux, Philippe Allain
INTRODUCTION: Environmental dependency phenomena refer to the enslavement of patients' performances under the characteristics of the tasks and were first described in case of prefrontal lobe damage. Two forms of environmental dependency, executive and social, may be dissociated, which involve respectively dorsolateral and orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction. Schizophrenia is widely considered to be caused by PFC dysfunction, but no study to date has addressed environmental dependency in this pathology...
March 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353533/recognition-of-emotional-facial-expressions-in-benzodiazepine-dependence-and-detoxification
#11
Natasza Żurowska, Agnieszka Kałwa, Krystyna Rymarczyk, Bogusław Habrat
INTRODUCTION: The study investigates how benzodiazepine (BZD) use and detoxification affects empathy and the recognition and intensity rating of emotional facial expressions. The sample comprised 43 participants in three groups: (1) during detoxification (N = 13), (2) after detoxification (N = 15), (3) a matched control group (N = 15). Clinical subjects were recruited from in-patients of an addiction treatment unit. METHODS: Empathy levels were tested with the Empathy Quotient (EQ-Short)...
March 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480041/hallucinations-in-alzheimer-s-disease-failure-to-suppress-irrelevant-memories
#12
Mohamad El Haj, Karim Gallouj, Hedwige Dehon, Jean Roche, Franck Larøi
INTRODUCTION: Research with patients with schizophrenia suggests that inhibitory dysfunction leads to the emergence of redundant or irrelevant information from long-term memory into awareness, and that this process may be involved in generating hallucinations. We investigated whether inhibitory dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) leads to hallucinations. METHOD: AD participants and healthy matched controls were assessed with a hallucinations scale and a directed forgetting task...
February 26, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279010/category-fluency-in-schizophrenia-opposing-effects-of-negative-and-positive-symptoms
#13
Jens Egeland, Tom Langerud Holmen, Gry Bang-Kittilsen, Therese Torgersen Bigseth, John Abel Engh
INTRODUCTION: Category fluency is associated with speed-, executive- and semantic impairments in schizphrenia. It has traditionally been linked to negative symptoms, whereas the relation to positive symptoms is mixed. Associations to the consensus negative, positive and disorganisation factors have not been analysed before. METHODS: Animal fluency was administered to 81 patients with schizophrenia. Measures of overall performance and applied strategies were analysed in relation to the Wallwork five-factor PANSS-model...
January 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258396/the-relationship-of-categorical-and-phonological-verbal-fluency-to-negative-schizotypy-and-social-functioning-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#14
Thomas J Dinzeo, Virginia Culiañez Serna, Sherry D Pujji, Eve M Sledjeski
INTRODUCTION: Research suggests that levels of schizotypy are related to cognitive and social functioning, with negative schizotypy being particularly related to deficits in verbal fluency (VF) and distinct social skills. Considering the possibility that different VF tasks may involve both shared and unique underlying processes, this study sought to examine the separate contributions of categorical and phonological forms of VF to social functioning in those with varying levels of negative schizotypy...
January 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226782/patterns-of-source-monitoring-bias-in-incarcerated-youths-with-and-without-conduct-problems
#15
Larisa Morosan, Deborah Badoud, George Salaminios, Stephan Eliez, Martial Van der Linden, Patrick Heller, Martin Debbané
INTRODUCTION: Antisocial individuals present behaviours that violate the social norms and the rights of others. In the present study, we examine whether biases in monitoring the self-generated cognitive material might be linked to antisocial manifestations during adolescence. We further examine the association with psychopathic traits and conduct problems (CPs). METHODS: Sixty-five incarcerated adolescents (IAs; M age = 15.85, SD = 1.30) and 88 community adolescents (CAs; M age = 15...
January 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199507/asymmetric-oculomotor-apraxia-optic-ataxia-and-simultanagnosia-with-right-hemispatial-neglect-from-a-predominantly-left-sided-lesion-of-the-parieto-occipital-area
#16
Yasuhisa Sakurai, Masanori Fujimoto, Kensuke Hamada, Izumi Sugimoto
INTRODUCTION: Bálint's syndrome involves bilateral damage to the parieto-occipital area. The extent of the effect of unilateral damage on the Bálint's triad (oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia) remains unknown. METHODS: We examined a 63-year-old, right-handed woman who developed right hemianopia, oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, simultanagnosia, and hemispatial neglect (HSN) for the right after a cerebral infarction, with detailed neuropsychological tests, magnetic resonance imaging, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
January 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157137/taxonomising-delusions-content-or-aetiology
#17
Peter Clutton, Stephen Gadsby, Colin Klein
INTRODUCTION: Many theoretical treatments assume (often implicitly) that delusions ought to be taxonomised by the content of aberrant beliefs. A theoretically sound, and comparatively under-explored, alternative would split and combine delusions according to their underlying cognitive aetiology. METHODS: We give a theoretical review of several cases, focusing on monothematic delusions of misidentification and on somatoparaphrenia. RESULTS: We show that a purely content-based taxonomy is empirically problematic...
November 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120270/explaining-body-size-beliefs-in-anorexia
#18
Stephen Gadsby
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive neuropsychiatry has had much success in providing theoretical models for the causal origins of many delusional beliefs. Recently, it has been suggested that some anorexia nervosa patients' beliefs about their own body size should be considered delusions. As such, it seems high time the methods of cognitive neuropsychiatry were turned to modelling the false body size beliefs of anorexics. METHODS: In this paper, I adopt an empiricist approach to modelling the causal origins of false body size beliefs in anorexia...
November 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113547/self-reference-in-suicidal-behaviour
#19
Fabrice Jollant, Cédric Lemogne, Philippe Fossati
INTRODUCTION: Several lines of evidence suggest a perturbed sense of self in people who attempt suicide, but it has rarely been experimentally studied. Here, we aimed to explore in this population the narrative self through explicit self-perception and the self-reference effect in memory. METHODS: Forty-seven patients with a mood disorder, including 20 with a personal history of suicide attempt, completed a self-referential task. During the encoding phase, they were presented with personality traits and had to successively judge whether each trait described themselves ("self condition") or was a desirable trait, in general ("general condition")...
November 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057720/predictive-coding-and-hallucinations-a-question-of-balance
#20
Paul C Fletcher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
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