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Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30632780/it-s-the-fear-of-the-unknown-transition-from-higher-education-for-young-autistic-adults
#1
Jonathan Vincent
More young people with a diagnosis of autism are enrolling and successfully completing higher education courses than ever before and this is set to increase; however, while there is a burgeoning body of literature surrounding the transition into this stage of education, there is a paucity of research that investigates the transition as this population exit higher education. This exploratory qualitative study is one of the first to identify the specific experiences of young autistic adults making this transition, drawing on semi-structured interviews with 21 students and recent graduates...
January 11, 2019: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30632773/profiles-and-academic-trajectories-of-cognitively-gifted-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Meghan K Cain, Juhi R Kaboski, Jeffrey W Gilger
Gifted children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often referred to as twice-exceptional, the term that highlights the co-occurrence of exceptional challenges and exceptional giftedness. This study performed secondary data analysis on samples of twice-exceptional children from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study and the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study datasets. The results provide a descriptive profile of twice-exceptional (e.g. demographics, average academic performance, and services utilized), trajectory plots that indicate how academic performance changes over time, and multilevel analyses that model growth in academic outcomes using demographics, school services, and giftedness as predictors...
January 11, 2019: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30623667/a-novel-method-for-measuring-learning-opportunities-provided-by-parents-to-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Katherine S Davlantis, Annette Estes, Geraldine Dawson, Sally J Rogers
The aim of this study was to develop a measurement approach to assess the learning opportunities provided by parents to their young children with autism spectrum disorder during a free play task and to examine the relationship between learning opportunities and child performance on measures of cognition, autism spectrum disorder symptoms, and language. Participants were 91 children with autism spectrum disorder ages 12-24 months and their parents. Ordinary least squares regression was used. Results showed that children whose parents provided more learning opportunities had significantly higher cognitive scores and significantly higher vocabulary comprehension and production...
January 9, 2019: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30612447/anglo-latino-differences-in-parental-concerns-and-service-inequities-for-children-at-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Jan Blacher, Katherine Stavropoulos, Yasamine Bolourian
In an evaluation of Anglo and Latina mothers and their children at risk of autism, this study compared mother-reported child behavioral concerns to staff-observed symptoms of autism. Within Latina mothers, the impact of primary language (English/Spanish), mothers' education, and child age on ratings of developmental concerns was examined. Participants were 218 mothers (Anglo = 85; Latina = 133) of children referred to a no-cost autism screening clinic. Mothers reported on behavioral concerns, autism symptomology, and services received; children were administered the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule by certified staff...
January 7, 2019: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30606031/validation-of-the-arabic-version-of-the-social-communication-questionnaire
#5
Mohammed Aldosari, Eric Fombonne, Hesham Aldhalaan, Mohammed Ouda, Saba Elhag, Hawraa Alshammari, Iman Ghazal, Asma Alsaleh, Tala Alqadoumi, Richard Thomson, Mohanad Al Khasawneh, Mohamed Tolefat, Fouad Alshaban
Validated screening and diagnostic tools for autism spectrum disorder for use in Arabic-speaking individuals are scarce. This study validated the Arabic version of the Social Communication Questionnaire. The total study sample included 206 children with autism spectrum disorder and 206 typically developing children (73.8% male; mean age: 8.5 (standard deviation = 2.6) years). The mean Social Communication Questionnaire total score was significantly higher in autism spectrum disorder children than in typically developing children ( p < 0...
January 3, 2019: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30582345/autism-and-the-transition-to-university-from-the-student-perspective
#6
Sinead Lambe, Ailsa Russell, Catherine Butler, Sangeet Fletcher, Chris Ashwin, Mark Brosnan
University provides individuals with the opportunity to develop greater independence in living skills and social networks, while also gaining valuable qualifications. Despite a high proportion of autistic individuals aspiring to attend university, many either do not seek or gain entry or drop out prematurely. Although some steps have been taken to develop effective support, a recent review highlighted the scarcity of research into programmes designed to support autistic students transitioning to university...
December 22, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30582341/development-feasibility-and-preliminary-efficacy-of-an-employment-related-social-skills-intervention-for-young-adults-with-high-functioning-autism
#7
Connie Sung, Annemarie Connor, June Chen, Chien-Chun Lin, Hung-Jen Kuo, Jina Chun
This article details the iterative development, feasibility, and preliminary efficacy of an 8-week work-related social skills intervention, Assistive Soft Skills and Employment Training, for young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. In this mixed-methods study, pre- and post-intervention surveys, interviews, and functional measures were used to gather information on the program's feasibility, user acceptability, practicality, and preliminary efficacy. Results indicate that Assistive Soft Skills and Employment Training graduates showed significant improvements in work-related social skills knowledge, social functioning, and social/empathy self-efficacy...
December 22, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556743/neurodiversity-an-insider-s-perspective
#8
Jacquiline den Houting
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 17, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547677/experience-of-mental-health-diagnosis-and-perceived-misdiagnosis-in-autistic-possibly-autistic-and-non-autistic-adults
#9
Sheena K Au-Yeung, Louise Bradley, Ashley E Robertson, Rebecca Shaw, Simon Baron-Cohen, Sarah Cassidy
Previous research shows that autistic people have high levels of co-occurring mental health conditions. Yet, a number of case reports have revealed that mental health conditions are often misdiagnosed in autistic individuals. A total of 420 adults who identified as autistic, possibly autistic or non-autistic completed an online survey consisting of questions regarding mental health diagnoses they received, whether they agreed with those diagnoses and if not why. Autistic and possibly autistic participants were more likely to report receiving mental health diagnoses compared to non-autistic participants, but were less likely to agree with those diagnoses...
December 14, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547668/impairments-in-cognitive-empathy-and-alexithymia-occur-independently-of-executive-functioning-in-college-students-with-autism
#10
Tim Ziermans, Ymke de Bruijn, Renee Dijkhuis, Wouter Staal, Hanna Swaab
Reduced empathy and alexithymic traits are common across the autism spectrum, but it is unknown whether this is also true for intellectually advanced adults with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this study was to examine whether college students with autism spectrum disorder experience difficulties with empathy and alexithymia, and whether this is associated with their cognitive levels of executive functioning. In total, 53 college students with autism spectrum disorder were compared to a gender-matched group of 29 neurotypical students on cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy and alexithymia...
December 14, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30525959/early-emergence-of-discrepancy-in-adaptive-behavior-and-cognitive-skills-in-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Jessica Bradshaw, Scott Gillespie, Cheryl Klaiman, Ami Klin, Celine Saulnier
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder and average IQ exhibit a widening discrepancy between lagging adaptive skills relative to their cognitive potential, but it is unknown when this discrepancy emerges in development. To address this important question, we measured adaptive and cognitive skills longitudinally, from 12-36 months, in 96 low-risk typically developing infants and 69 high-risk siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder who at 36 months were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ( N = 21), the broader autism phenotype ( N = 19), or showed no concerns (unaffected; N = 29)...
December 7, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30525941/growth-mixture-models-of-adaptive-behavior-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Brianne Tomaszewski, Leann Smith DaWalt, Samuel L Odom
This study examined growth trajectories of teacher-reported adaptive behavior in a diverse sample of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. The participants were 244 adolescents between the ages of 14 and 21 years who were assessed at up to four time points across two and a half years of high school. Demographic variables (age, sex, race, maternal education), phenotypic characteristics (intelligence quotient, autism severity) and school factors (location of the school, school quality) were collected. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify distinct classes of growth trajectories in communication, daily living skills, and socialization domains of adaptive behavior...
December 7, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30525939/effects-of-coaching-on-the-fidelity-of-parent-implementation-of-reciprocal-imitation-training
#13
Ashley Penney, Ilene Schwartz
Imitation is an important early social communicative skill that is often impaired in young children with autism. Reciprocal imitation training is an easy-to-implement intervention that targets social imitation and can be taught to parents or other caregivers to implement at home and in the community. In this study, parents of children with autism were taught to implement reciprocal imitation training. The quality of parent fidelity of intervention implementation and rates of child spontaneous imitation were examined in three phases: baseline, post-didactic training, and after the introduction of 1:1 coaching...
December 7, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523706/current-profiles-and-early-predictors-of-reading-skills-in-school-age-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-longitudinal-retrospective-population-study
#14
Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Emilia Carlsson, Courtenay Norbury, Christopher Gillberg, Carmela Miniscalco
This study explores current reading profiles and concurrent and early predictors of reading in children with autism spectrum disorder. Before the age of 3 years, the study cohort underwent a neurodevelopmental assessment following identification in a population-based autism screening. At age 8 years, reading, language and cognition were assessed. Approximately half of the sample ( n = 25) were 'poor readers' at age 8 years, meaning that they scored below the normal range on tests of single word reading and reading comprehension...
December 7, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523699/a-population-based-examination-of-maltreatment-referrals-and-substantiation-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Marisa H Fisher, Richard A Epstein, Richard C Urbano, Alison Vehorn, Michael J Cull, Zachary Warren
Children with disabilities experience elevated rates of maltreatment, but little is known about the interaction of children with autism spectrum disorder with child protection systems. A population-based dataset of 24,306 children born in 2008 in Tennessee, which included 387 children with autism spectrum disorder identified through the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring network, was linked with state child protection records. Rates of maltreatment referrals, screening for further action, and substantiated maltreatment were examined for children with versus without autism spectrum disorder...
December 7, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523698/effects-of-familiarization-on-odor-hedonic-responses-and-food-choices-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
Anne-Claude Luisier, Genevieve Petitpierre, Annick Clerc Bérod, David Garcia-Burgos, Moustafa Bensafi
This study assessed whether olfactory familiarization can render food odors more pleasant, and consequently food more attractive, to children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants were first presented with a series of food odors (session 1). Then, they were familiarized on four occasions (time window: 5 weeks) with one of the two most neutral odors (the other neutral odor was used as control) (session 2). In session 3, participants smelled the entire series of odors again. Both verbal and facial responses were compared from session 1 to session 3...
December 7, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523695/parents-training-parents-lessons-learned-from-a-study-of-reciprocal-imitation-training-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Trevor A Hall, Sarah Mastel, Robert Nickel, Allison Wainer
Parent-mediated interventions are cost-effective ways to increase access to appropriate treatment services to children with autism spectrum disorder. We aimed to engage parents working as partners within rural autism identification teams to facilitate prompt initiation of autism-specific treatment services and expand the amount of treatment available to young children with autism spectrum disorder. To do this, we sought to employ a two-phase training approach: (Phase 1) train parents to fidelity in an evidence-based parent-mediated intervention (reciprocal imitation training), and (Phase 2) evaluate the extent to which parents could effectively coach other parents of newly diagnosed children to implement reciprocal imitation training with their child...
December 7, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497284/reaction-to-diagnosis-and-subsequent-health-in-mothers-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Phil Reed, Lisa A Osborne
The current study assessed whether reactions to diagnosis are associated with health status for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder at the time of diagnosis, and whether such diagnostic-reaction resolution status is associated with changes in health status over time. A total of 84 mothers of children newly diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, with stable reactions to diagnosis over a year, participated. Their perceptions of their physical and psychological functioning, and quality of life, were taken at the time of diagnosis and 1 year later...
November 29, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497279/-people-like-me-don-t-get-support-autistic-adults-experiences-of-support-and-treatment-for-mental-health-difficulties-self-injury-and-suicidality
#19
Louise Camm-Crosbie, Louise Bradley, Rebecca Shaw, Simon Baron-Cohen, Sarah Cassidy
Autistic people are at high risk of mental health problems, self-injury and suicidality. However, no studies have explored autistic peoples' experiences of treatment and support for these difficulties. In partnership with a steering group of autistic adults, an online survey was developed to explore these individuals' experiences of treatment and support for mental health problems, self-injury and suicidality for the first time. A total of 200 autistic adults (122 females, 77 males and 1 unreported) aged 18-67 (mean = 38...
November 29, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497274/healthcare-access-and-services-use-among-us-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Olivia J Lindly, Katharine E Zuckerman, Karen A Kuhlthau
This study aimed to determine associations of healthcare access problems with services use among US children with autism spectrum disorder. We analyzed 2011-2014 National Health Interview Survey data on 651 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 2-17 years. There were three measures of healthcare access problems: (1) delays accessing healthcare, (2) difficulty affording healthcare, and (3) trouble finding a primary care provider. There were five service use measures: (1) ⩾4 office visits, (2) ⩾1 well-child visit, (3) flu vaccine, (4) prescription medication, and (5) ⩾1 emergency department visit...
November 29, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
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