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Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413135/the-games-they-play-observations-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-on-the-school-playground
#1
Sean Gilmore, Lindsay K Frederick, Lupita Santillan, Jill Locke
The playground may be an important context to examine the social functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder. Previous literature on playground peer engagement has used quantitative methods, but there is limited research using qualitative observations to understand the nuances of playground behavior. Using a mixed-methods approach, 55 elementary school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder who are primarily included in general education settings were observed on the school playground using the Playground Observation of Peer Engagement...
November 9, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30409031/feasibility-of-a-trauma-informed-parent-teacher-cooperative-training-program-for-syrian-refugee-children-with-autism
#2
Sarah Dababnah, Serene Habayeb, Benjamin J Bear, Dana Hussein
Although the number of Syrians affected by the civil war rises, little work has been done to address the needs of Syrian refugee children with autism spectrum disorder. This research aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally sensitive intervention developed specifically for children with autism spectrum disorder affected by trauma. Local partners advised the program team on cultural norms. Nine parents and 11 teachers were recruited to participate in 12-week parent-teacher cooperatives in a large Turkish city...
November 9, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30409029/syllogistic-reasoning-reveals-reduced-bias-in-people-with-higher-autistic-like-traits-from-the-general-population
#3
Marcus Lewton, Chris Ashwin, Mark Brosnan
Recent theories of autism have emphasised the cognitive strengths and weaknesses in those with autism, which are also seen to some degree in non-clinical samples with higher autistic-like traits. The dual process theory of autism proposes that people with autism and non-clinical people with a higher degree of autistic-like traits have a propensity to show reduced intuitive processing (automatic and typically faster) alongside enhanced propensity towards deliberative processing (dependent on general cognitive ability and typically slower)...
November 9, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30404548/a-mixed-methods-process-evaluation-of-family-navigation-implementation-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Sarabeth Broder-Fingert, Sarah Qin, Julia Goupil, Jessica Rosenberg, Marilyn Augustyn, Nate Blum, Amanda Bennett, Carol Weitzman, James P Guevara, Ada Fenick, Michael Silverstein, Emily Feinberg
There is growing interest in Family Navigation as an approach to improving access to care for children with autism spectrum disorder, yet little data exist on the implementation of Family Navigation. The aim of this study was to identify potential failures in implementing Family Navigation for children with autism spectrum disorder, using a failure modes and effects analysis. This mixed-methods study was set within a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of Family Navigation in reducing the time from screening to diagnosis and treatment for autism spectrum disorder across three states...
November 8, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400749/improving-emotion-regulation-ability-in-autism-the-emotional-awareness-and-skills-enhancement-ease-program
#5
Caitlin M Conner, Susan W White, Kelly B Beck, Josh Golt, Isaac C Smith, Carla A Mazefsky
Emotion regulation impairments are common among individuals with autism spectrum disorder and are believed to often underlie commonly seen problems with aggression, depression, and anxiety. The Emotional Awareness and Skills Enhancement program was developed to reduce emotion regulation impairment and thereby improve behavioral disturbance, via mindfulness. Emotional Awareness and Skills Enhancement consists of a 16-week individual therapy treatment targeting emotion regulation impairments among individuals with autism spectrum disorder...
November 7, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394796/parent-and-professional-perspectives-on-behavioral-inflexibility-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-qualitative-study
#6
Chetna Sethi, Clare Harrop, Wanqing Zhang, Jill Pritchett, Allison Whitten, Brian A Boyd
Restricted and repetitive behaviors are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder; however, research on the functional impact of these behaviors on the quality of life for individuals with autism spectrum disorder and their families remains scarce. We conducted focus groups with parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and clinicians in order to better characterize the functional impact of behavioral inflexibility, which represents one potential dimensional construct that could account for the breadth of behaviors comprising the restricted and repetitive behavior domain...
November 3, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394790/parental-criticism-and-behavior-problems-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Jason K Baker, Rachel M Fenning, Mariann A Howland, David Huynh
Associations between parent critical attitudes (a component of the Expressed Emotion construct) and behavior problems have been relatively well established in adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder, but use of systems adapted for children with autism spectrum disorder and additional investigations with younger samples are needed. This study examined parental criticism, derived from a population-specific coding system, as related to behavior problems in children with autism spectrum disorder between the ages of 4 and 11 years, and considered parental warmth and children's psychophysiological reactivity as statistical moderators of these associations...
November 3, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394786/variation-in-restricted-and-repetitive-behaviors-and-interests-relates-to-inhibitory-control-and-shifting-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Susan Faja, Laura Nelson Darling
Symptoms of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests in autism are theoretically linked to executive functioning, which includes problem-solving abilities such as inhibition and cognitive flexibility. This study examined whether inhibition and flexibility are related to higher order restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests (e.g. circumscribed interests and ritualistic behavior) and sensorimotor behaviors (e.g. stereotyped and repetitive movements and sensory preoccupations) among 102 school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder who had cognitive abilities in the average or above average range...
November 3, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30381965/labelling-faces-as-autistic-reduces-the-inversion-effect
#9
Ciro Civile, Eamon Colvin, Hasan Siddiqui, Sukhvinder S Obhi
Does the belief that a face belongs to an individual with autism affect recognition of that face? To address this question, we used the inversion effect as a marker of face recognition. In Experiment 1, participants completed a recognition task involving upright and inverted faces labelled as either 'regular' or 'autistic'. In reality, the faces presented in both conditions were identical. Results revealed a smaller inversion effect for faces labelled as autistic. Thus, simply labelling a face as 'autistic' disrupts recognition...
November 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30378448/social-conversation-skill-improvements-associated-with-the-social-tools-and-rules-for-teens-program-for-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Jordan A Ko, Amber R Miller, Ty W Vernon
There has been a significant increase in the development of interventions to improve the social competence and success of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. The current investigation used direct observation and coding of social conversations as a rigorous method to further assess the efficacy of the Social Tools And Rules for Teens socialization intervention for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder in the context of a randomized controlled trial. A total of 35 adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder were randomized to either a treatment or waitlist control group...
October 31, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30354189/hard-talk-does-autism-need-philosophy
#11
Sven Bölte, Kenneth A Richman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30354191/neural-self-representation-in-autistic-women-and-association-with-compensatory-camouflaging
#12
Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Amber Nv Ruigrok, Edward T Bullmore, John Suckling, Bonnie Auyeung, Francesca Happé, Peter Szatmari, Simon Baron-Cohen
Prior work has revealed sex/gender-dependent autistic characteristics across behavioural and neural/biological domains. It remains unclear whether and how neural sex/gender differences are related to behavioural sex/gender differences in autism. Here, we examined whether atypical neural responses during mentalizing and self-representation are sex/gender-dependent in autistic adults and explored whether 'camouflaging' (acting as if behaviourally neurotypical) is associated with sex/gender-dependent neural responses...
October 24, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30345784/differences-in-food-consumption-and-nutritional-intake-between-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-typically-developing-children-a-meta-analysis
#13
Patricia Esteban-Figuerola, Josefa Canals, José Cándido Fernández-Cao, Victoria Arija Val
Children with autism spectrum disorders show higher food selectivity, which restricts consumption of some foods and may cause nutritional deficiencies. The aims of this meta-analysis are to determine the overall differences in nutritional intake and food consumption between children with autism spectrum disorder and control (typical development) children, as well as determine the extent to which the nutritional intake and food consumption of autistic children comply with the dietary recommendations. Children with autism spectrum disorder consume less protein (standardized mean difference = -0...
October 21, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328695/prevalence-of-sensory-impairments-physical-and-intellectual-disabilities-and-mental-health-in-children-and-young-people-with-self-proxy-reported-autism-observational-study-of-a-whole-country-population
#14
Ewelina Rydzewska, Laura A Hughes-McCormack, Christopher Gillberg, Angela Henderson, Cecilia MacIntyre, Julie Rintoul, Sally-Ann Cooper
This study investigated the comorbid conditions in a whole country population of children/young people aged 0-24 years with and without autism. Data were drawn from Scotland's Census 2011. We calculated the percentage with autism, their extent of comorbid conditions, odds ratio (with 95% confidence intervals) of autism predicting comorbidities, adjusted for age and gender, and odds ratio for age and gender predicting comorbidities within the cohort with autism. A total of 25,063/1,548,819 (1.6%) had autism: 19,880 (79...
October 17, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306792/what-am-i-thinking-perspective-taking-from-the-perspective-of-adolescents-with-autism
#15
Gray Atherton, Ben Lummis, Susan X Day, Liam Cross
Autistic people are often described as being impaired with regard to theory of mind, though more recent literature finds flaws in the theory of mind deficit paradigm. In addition, the predominant methods for examining theory of mind often rely on "observational" modes of assessment and do not adequately reflect the dynamic process of real-life perspective taking. Thus, it is imperative that researchers continue to test the autistic theory of mind deficit paradigm and explore theory of mind experiences through more naturalistic approaches...
October 11, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303398/measuring-treatment-response-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-applications-of-the-brief-observation-of-social-communication-change-to-the-autism-diagnostic-observation-schedule
#16
So Hyun Kim, Rebecca Grzadzinski, Kassandra Martinez, Catherine Lord
This study aims to determine the validity and reliability of applying the coding strategy from the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change, a newly validated treatment outcome measure, to videotaped segments of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Results indicate strong reliability and validity of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change ratings using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule segments in detecting changes in social communication over the course of treatment in young, minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder...
October 10, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296845/outcomes-of-children-receiving-group-early-start-denver-model-in-an-inclusive-versus-autism-specific-setting-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Giacomo Vivanti, Cheryl Dissanayake, Ed Duncan, Jessica Feary, Kristy Capes, Shannon Upson, Catherine A Bent, Sally J Rogers, Kristelle Hudry
A major topic of debate is whether children with autism spectrum disorder should be educated in inclusive or specialized settings. We examined the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of delivering the Group-Early Start Denver Model to children with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive versus specialized classrooms. We randomly assigned 44 preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder to receive the Group-Early Start Denver Model across one school calendar year in classrooms that included only children with autism spectrum disorder or mostly children who were typically developing...
October 8, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288989/adults-with-autism-spectrum-condition-have-atypical-perception-of-ambiguous-figures-when-bottom-up-and-top-down-interactions-are-incongruous
#18
Monika Intaitė, Alexandra L Georgescu, Valdas Noreika, Marie Ao von Saldern, Kai Vogeley, Christine M Falter-Wagner
We examined the perception of an ambiguous squares stimulus evoking bistable perception in a sample of 31 individuals with autistic spectrum condition and 22 matched typical adults. The perception of the ambiguous figure was manipulated by adaptation to unambiguous figures and/or by placing the ambiguous figure into a context of unambiguous figures. This resulted in four conditions testing the independent and combined (congruent and incongruent) manipulations of adaptation (bottom-up) and spatial context (top-down) effects...
October 5, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288988/exploring-and-building-autism-service-capacity-in-rural-and-remote-regions-participatory-action-research-in-rural-alberta-and-british-columbia-canada
#19
Amber Young, David B Nicholas, Shirley-Pat Chamberlain, Nirach Suapa, Nancy Gale, Anthony J Bailey
Based in participatory action research, this project had the aim of building capacity in treatment and support for individuals and families impacted by autism spectrum disorder in remote and rural communities of Canada. Communities were selected based on their rurality and willingness to engage in change efforts for enhanced service delivery within their region. Fifteen discussion groups with key stakeholders were convened in seven communities with ~200 community stakeholders. Based on analyses of these data from the stakeholders, themes were distilled through interpretive description, which in turn were presented to community stakeholders for reflection and collective action...
October 5, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288984/exploring-the-neurocognitive-correlates-of-challenging-behaviours-in-young-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Virginia Carter Leno, Silia Vitoratou, Rachel Kent, Tony Charman, Susie Chandler, Catherine Rg Jones, Francesca Happé, Gillian Baird, Andrew Pickles, Emily Simonoff
Many young people with autism spectrum disorder display 'challenging behaviours', characterised by externalising behaviour and self-injurious behaviours. These behaviours can have a negative impact on a young person's well-being, family environment and educational achievement. However, the development of effective interventions requires greater knowledge of autism spectrum disorder-specific models of challenging behaviours. Autism spectrum disorder populations are found to demonstrate impairments in different cognitive domains, namely social domains, such as theory of mind and emotion recognition, but also non-social domains such as executive functioning and sensory or perceptual processing...
October 5, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
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