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International Journal of Circumpolar Health

Shawn Renee Hordyk, Mary Ellen Macdonald, Paul Brassard
BACKGROUND: Inuit interpreters are key players in end-of-life (EOL) care for Nunavik patients and families. This emotionally intensive work requires expertise in French, English and Inuit dialects to negotiate linguistic and cultural challenges. Cultural differences among medical institutions and Inuit communities can lead to value conflicts and moral dilemmas as interpreters navigate how best to transmit messages of care at EOL. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to understand the experience of Inuit interpreters in the context of EOL care in Nunavik in order to identify training needs...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Tracey Galloway
BACKGROUND: Nutrition North Canada (NNC) is a retail subsidy program implemented in 2012 and designed to reduce the cost of nutritious food for residents living in Canada's remote, northern communities. The present study evaluates the extent to which NNC provides access to perishable, nutritious food for residents of remote northern communities. DESIGN: Program documents, including fiscal and food cost reports for the period 2011-2015, retailer compliance reports, audits of the program, and the program's performance measurement strategy are examined for evidence that the subsidy is meeting its objectives in a manner both comprehensive and equitable across regions and communities...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Monica C Skewes, Jordan P Lewis
Background Although notable health disparities related to alcohol use persist among Alaska Native people living in rural communities, there is a paucity of research examining drinking behaviour in particular segments of this population, including elders. One explanation for this is the distrust of behavioural health research in general and alcohol research in particular following the legacy of the Barrow Alcohol Study, still regarded as a notable example of ethics violations in cross-cultural research. Objective The present study reports findings from one of the first research studies asking directly about alcohol abuse among rural Alaska Natives (AN) since the study in Barrow took place in 1979...
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Karen M Lawford, Audrey R Giles
The Kivalliq Inuit Centre (KIC), a boarding home in Winnipeg, Manitoba, is unique in its provision of a pilot prenatal education class and public health nursing services for Nunavummiut who are beneficiaries of the Nunavut Land Claim Agreement. Through a critical review of literature, policies and interviews related to evacuation for birth, we argue that the pilot at the KIC has the potential to play an important role in improving maternal child health for residents of Nunavut.
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Lori E A Bradford, Lalita A Bharadwaj, Udoka Okpalauwaekwe, Cheryl L Waldner
Background Many Indigenous communities in Canada live with high-risk drinking water systems and drinking water advisories and experience health status and water quality below that of the general population. A scoping review of research examining drinking water quality and its relationship to Indigenous health was conducted. Objective The study was undertaken to identify the extent of the literature, summarize current reports and identify research needs. Design A scoping review was designed to identify peer-reviewed literature that examined challenges related to drinking water and health in Indigenous communities in Canada...
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Renata Rosol, Stephanie Powell-Hellyer, Hing Man Chan
Background The pervasive food insecurity and the diet transition away from local, nutrient-rich country foods present a public health challenge among Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic. While environmental factors such as climate change decreased the accessibility and availability of many country food species, new species were introduced into regions where they were previously unavailable. An adaptation such as turning to alternate country food species can be a viable solution to substitute for the nutrients provided by the declined food species...
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Karsten Fleischer Rex, Henrik Bygum Krarup, Peter Laurberg, Stig Andersen
Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in Arctic populations and high alcohol intake has been associated with an increased risk of a number of diseases. Yet, a description of the influence of alcohol intake in persons with HBV infection on liver biochemistry is lacking. Objective We aimed to describe the association between reported alcohol intake and liver biochemistry taking into account also HBV infection, ethnicity, Inuit diet, body mass index (BMI), gender and age in an Arctic population...
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Jon Øyvind Odland, Shawn Donaldson, Alexey Dudarev, Anders Carlsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Laura N Syron, Devin L Lucas, Viktor E Bovbjerg, Jeffrey W Bethel, Laurel D Kincl
Background The US commercial fishing industry is hazardous, as measured by mortality data. However, research on non-fatal injuries is limited. Non-fatal injuries constitute the majority of occupational injuries and can result in workers' lowered productivity and wages, lost quality of life, and disability. In the United States, a Work Process Classification System (WPCS) has previously been applied in Alaskan freezer-trawl and freezer-longline fleets to identify causes of injuries and specific hazards, but not to other fishing fleets...
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Sherin Elsheikh, Sanna Kuusikko-Gauffin, Marja-Leena Mattila, Katja Jussila, Hanna Ebeling, Soile Loukusa, Manal Omar, Geylan Riad, Arja Rautio, Irma Moilanen
Background Previous studies investigating neuropsychological functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have only analysed certain abilities, such as executive functions or language. While comprehensive assessment of the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD has been the focus of recent research, most of the published evidence originates from single centres. Though studies on differences in neuropsychological features of children with ASD across countries are essential for identifying different phenotypes of ASD, such studies have not been conducted...
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Eva-Maria Krümmel, Andrew Gilman
Background Arctic residents can be exposed to a wide range of contaminants through consumption of traditional (country) foods (i.e. food from wild animals and plants that are hunted, caught or collected locally in the Arctic). Yet these foods provide excellent nutrition, promote social cohesion, meet some spiritual needs for connectedness to the land and water, reinforce cultural ties, are economically important and promote overall good health for many. The risk and benefit balance associated with the consumption of traditional Arctic foods is complicated to communicate and has been referred to as the "Arctic Dilemma"...
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Nick Duelund, Kjeld Hougaard
Objective Giant cell tumours (GCTs) of the tendon sheets in fingers are rare. We therefore find it of interest to report on 5 cases identified in the Inuit population in Greenland within 16 months prior to this study. Material and methods The Inuit account for 56,000 people of the total population in Greenland. From November 2010 to 16 months prior to this study, we diagnosed 5 cases (0.6% of all orthopaedic operations) with a GCT of the flexor tendon sheet of a finger. The patients were aged between 10 and 54 years, and 4 were women...
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
James Berner, Michael Brubaker, Boris Revitch, Eva Kreummel, Moses Tcheripanoff, Jake Bell
The AMAP Human Health Assessment Group has developed different adaptation strategies through a long-term collaboration with all Arctic countries. Different adaptation strategies are discussed, with examples mainly from native population groups in Alaska.
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Jenny R Rand
Background There is a dearth of literature to guide the development of community-based HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and sexual health promotion programs within Inuit communities. Objective The aim of this study was to create a dialogue with Inuit women to address the lack of information available to inform programming to improve the sexual health of Inuit women, their families, and their communities in the Canadian Arctic. Design This study used Indigenous methodologies and methods by drawing from Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit and postcolonial research theory in a framework of Two-Eyed Seeing, and using storytelling sessions to gather data...
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Prabhu P Gounder, Lisa R Bulkow, Martin I Meltzer, Michael G Bruce, Thomas W Hennessy, Mary Snowball, Philip R Spradling, Bishwa B Adhikari, Brian J McMahon
Background The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) recommends semi-annual hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening using ultrasound (US) in persons with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection at high risk for HCC such as Asian males aged ≥40 years and Asian females aged ≥50 years. Objective To analyse the cost-effectiveness of 2 HCC screening methods in the Alaska Native (AN) health system: US-alone, or screening by alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) initially and switching to US for subsequent screenings if AFP >10 ng/mL (AFP→US)...
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Julia D Foutz, Steven A Cohen, Sarah K Cook
Background From 1970 to 2010, the Alaskan population increased from 302,583 to 698,473. During that time, the growth rate of Alaskan seniors (65+) was 4 times higher than their national counterparts. Ageing in Alaska requires confronting unique environmental, sociodemographic and infrastructural challenges, including an extreme climate, geographical isolation and less developed health care infrastructure compared to the continental US. Objective The objective of this analysis is to compare the health needs of Alaskan seniors to those in the continental US...
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Sudaba Mansuri, Alaa Badawi, Sheena Kayaniyil, David E Cole, Stewart B Harris, Mary Mamakeesick, Thomas Wolever, Joel Gittelsohn, Jonathon L Maguire, Philip W Connelly, Bernard Zinman, Anthony J Hanley
Background Sub-optimal vitamin D status is common worldwide and the condition may be associated with increased risk for various chronic diseases. In particular, low vitamin D status is highly prevalent in indigenous communities in Canada, although limited data are available on the determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in this population. The relationship between traditional food consumption and vitamin D status has not been well documented. Objective To investigate the determinants of serum 25(OH)D status in a First Nations community in Ontario, Canada, with a focus on the role of traditional food consumption and activities...
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Gwen Healey
Objective High rates of sexually transmitted infections in the Arctic have been a focus of recent research, and youth are believed to be at greatest risk of infection. Little research has focused on understanding youth perspectives on sexual health. The goal of this study was to collect the perspectives of youth in Nunavut on sexual health and relationships with the intent of informing public health practice. Method This qualitative research study was conducted within an Indigenous knowledge framework with a focus on Inuit ways of knowing...
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Raymond S W Tsang, Y Anita Li, Angie Mullen, Maureen Baikie, Kathleen Whyte, Michelle Shuel, Gregory Tyrrell, Jenny A L Rotondo, Shalini Desai, John Spika
Background With invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease controlled by vaccination with conjugate Hib vaccines, there is concern that invasive disease due to non-serotype b strains may emerge. Objective This study characterized invasive H. influenzae (Hi) isolates from Nunavut, Canada, in the post-Hib vaccine era. Methods Invasive H. influenzae isolates were identified by conventional methods at local hospitals; and further characterized at the provincial and federal public health laboratories, including detection of serotype antigens and genes, multi-locus sequence typing and antibiotic susceptibility...
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Sze Man Tse, Hope Weiler, Tom Kovesi
Background Food insecurity, vitamin D deficiency and lower respiratory tract infections are highly prevalent conditions among Inuit children. However, the relationship between these conditions has not been examined in this population. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between food insecurity and severe respiratory infections before age 2 years and health centre visits for a respiratory problem in the past year. We also explored the relationship between serum vitamin D status and respiratory outcomes in this population...
January 2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
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