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Microscopy and Microanalysis

Felix Börrnert, Julian Renner, Ute Kaiser
The electron source brightness is an important parameter in an electron microscope. Reliable and easy brightness measurement routes are not easily found. A determination method for the illumination semi-angle distribution in transmission electron microscopy is even less well documented. Herein, we report a simple measurement route for both entities and demonstrate it on a state-of-the-art instrument. The reduced axial brightness of the FEI X-FEG with a monochromator was determined to be larger than 108 A/(m2 sr V)...
May 21, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Ayyad Z Khan, Tor P Utheim, Sjur Reppe, Leiv Sandvik, Torstein Lyberg, Borghild B-H Roald, Ibrahim B Ibrahim, Jon R Eidet
The advancement of human retinal pigment epithelial cell (hRPE) replacement therapy is partly dependent on optimization of cell culture, cell preservation, and storage medium. This study was undertaken to search for a suitable storage temperature and storage medium for hRPE. hRPE monolayer sheets were cultured under standard conditions at 37°C and then randomized for storage at six temperatures (4, 16, 20, 24, 28, and 37°C) for 7 days. After revealing a suitable storage temperature, hRPE sheets were subsequently stored with and without the silk protein sericin added to the storage medium...
April 11, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Sergey Y Luchkin, Keith J Stevenson
In this work we analyzed the effect of the atomic force microscopy probe tip apex shape on Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) potential sensitivity and spatial resolution. It was found that modification of the apex shape from spherical to planar upon thinning of the conductive coating leads to enhanced apex contribution to the total electrostatic force between the probe and the sample. The effect results in extended potential sensitivity and spatial resolution of KPFM. Experimental results were supported by calculations...
April 5, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Diego Tamburini, Caroline R Cartwright, Grzegorz Cofta, Magdalena Zborowska, Miroslava Mamoňová
A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and oak (Quercus sp.) wood samples exposed to various types of natural degradation is presented with the aim of discussing the correct identification of multiple degradation signs in waterlogged wood. This is part of an experiment performed at the archeological site of Biskupin (Poland) to evaluate the dynamics of short-term wood degradation during reburial and the suitability of excavated wood as substrate for the fungal attack. The final aim is to support and inform the in situ conservation strategy currently applied to archeological woods...
April 2, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Cheng Sun, Erich Müller, Matthias Meffert, Dagmar Gerthsen
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with low-energy electrons has been recognized as an important addition to the family of electron microscopies as it may avoid knock-on damage and increase the contrast of weakly scattering objects. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) are well suited for low-energy electron microscopy with maximum electron energies of 30 keV, but they are mainly used for topography imaging of bulk samples. Implementation of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector and a charge-coupled-device camera for the acquisition of on-axis transmission electron diffraction (TED) patterns, in combination with recent resolution improvements, make SEMs highly interesting for structure analysis of some electron-transparent specimens which are traditionally investigated by TEM...
March 28, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Zhendong Cui, Weige Han
To better understand the formation and evolution of hierarchical crack networks in shales, observations of microscopic damage, and crack growth were conducted using an in situ tensile apparatus inside a scanning electron microscope. An arched specimen with an artificial notch incised into the curved edge was shown to afford effective observation of the damage and crack growth process that occurs during the brittle fracturing of shale. Because this arched specimen design can induce a squeezing effect, reducing the tensile stress concentration at the crack tip, and preventing the brittle shale from unstable fracturing to some extent...
April 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Mike B Matthews, Stuart L Kearns, Ben Buse
The accuracy to which Cu and Al coatings can be determined, and the effect this has on the quantification of the substrate, is investigated. Cu and Al coatings of nominally 5, 10, 15, and 20 nm were sputter coated onto polished Bi using two configurations of coater: One with the film thickness monitor (FTM) sensor colocated with the samples, and one where the sensor is located to one side. The FTM thicknesses are compared against those calculated from measured Cu Lα and Al Kα k-ratios using PENEPMA, GMRFilm, and DTSA-II...
April 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Visittapong Yordsri, Chanchana Thanachayanont, Shunsuke Asahina, Yuuki Yamaguchi, Masahiro Kawasaki, Tetsuo Oikawa, Tadashi Nobuchi, Makoto Shiojiri
Green culms of bamboo and charcoal of Bambusa multiplex were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. A dynamic observation of the initial stage of carbonization was also performed in-situ by heating a radial longitudinal section of the bamboo culm at a rate of 20°C/min up to 500°C. EDS mapping of the green bamboo culms detected Si signals in the harder cells such as the epidermis (Ep), cortex (Cor) and vascular bundle sheath (Bs) and between these cells as silicon oxide particles...
April 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Julia I Deitz, A T M Golam Sarwar, Santino D Carnevale, Tyler J Grassman, Roberto C Myers, David W McComb
The ability to characterize recombination and carrier trapping processes in group-III nitride-based nanowires is vital to further improvements in their overall efficiencies. While advances in scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)-based cathodoluminescence (CL) have offered some insight into nanowire behavior, inconsistencies in nanowire emission along with CL detector limitations have resulted in the incomplete understanding in nanowire emission processes. Here, two nanowire heterostructures were explored with STEM-CL: a polarization-graded AlGaN nanowire light-emitting diode (LED) with a GaN quantum disk and a polarization-graded AlGaN nanowire with three different InGaN quantum disks...
April 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Alexander Heiss, Daesung Park, Anna-Christin Joel
Spiders are natural specialists in fiber processing. In particular, cribellate spiders manifest this ability as they produce a wool of nanofibers to capture prey. During its production they deploy a sophisticated movement of their spinnerets to darn in the fibers as well as a comb-like row of setae, termed calamistrum, on the metatarsus which plays a key role in nanofiber processing. In comparison to the elaborate nanofiber extraction and handling process by the spider's calamistrum, the human endeavors of spinning and handling of artificial nanofibers is still a primitive technical process...
April 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Ben Buse, Stuart Kearns
Automated phase maps are an important tool for characterizing samples but the data quality must be evaluated. Common options include the overlay of phases on backscattered electron (BSE) images and phase composition averages and standard deviations. Both these methods have major limitations. We propose two methods of evaluation involving principal component analysis. First, a red-green-blue composite image of the first three principal components, which comprise the majority of the chemical variation, which provides a good reference against which phase maps can be compared...
April 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Carlo Polidori, Agustín Pastor, Alberto Jorge, José Pertusa
Polistes paper wasps can be used to monitor trace metal contaminants, but the effects of pollution on the health of these insects are still unknown. We evaluated, in a south-eastern area of Spain, whether workers of Polistes dominula collected at urban and rural sites differ in health of midgut tissue and in fluctuating asymmetry, an estimate of developmental noise. We found that wasps collected at the urban sites had abundant lead (Pb)-containing spherites, which were less visible in wasps from the rural sites...
April 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Marian C Popescu, Bogdan I Bita, Vasilica Tucureanu, Dan Vasilache, Melania A Banu, Andrei M Avram, Raluca A Giurescu-Dumitrescu
The aim of this study is to conduct an extended surface and cross-section characterization of a denture base acrylic resin subjected to 500, 650, and 750 W microwave irradiation for 2, 3, and 5 min to assess its morphological modifications. A commercial heat-cured powder was polymerized according to the manufacturer's specifications and distributed into 20 circular samples. A stainless-steel wire was partially embedded in half of the discs, in order to investigate the metal-polymer interface. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging, white light interferometry, roughness measurements and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry were employed for morphological and structural evaluation of the irradiated polymer...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Maria Luiza S Mello, Benedicto de Campos Vidal, Jerome G Rozen
The larvae of the two distantly related nonsocial bees Ericrocis lata (Apidae) and Hesperapis (Carinapis) rhodocerata (Melittidae), which develop mostly under arid desert areas of North America, and that differ in that they either spin (E. lata) or do not spin (H. rhodocerata) protective cocoons before entering diapause, produce transparent films that cover the larval integument. To understand the nature of these films, their responses to topochemical tests and their characteristics when examined with fluorescence and high-performance polarization microscopy and microspectroscopy were studied...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Ben Buse, Stuart Kearns
Quantification of first series transition metal Lα X-rays is hampered by absorption and in some cases transition probabilities (fluorescence yields) varying with chemical bonding. Compound mass absorption coefficients for Fe Lα were measured in the olivine solid solution series [Forsterite (Mg2SiO4) to Fayalite (Fe2SiO4)] and the mass absorption coefficients for Fe Lα absorbed by Fe were calculated. The mass absorption coefficients vary systematically between Fo83 and Fo0. Using the measured mass absorption coefficients for both standard and unknown and by correcting for a systematic discrepancy, consistent with varying partial fluorescence yields, a good agreement between calculated k-ratios and measured k-ratios is achieved...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Marko S Sabovljević, Marieluise Weidinger, Aneta D Sabovljević, Wolfram Adlassnig, Ingeborg Lang
Bryophytes are usually taken as good bioindicators. However, they represent a large group of terrestrial plants and they express an enormous range of peculiarities within the plant kingdom. With the aim to search for a common pattern of zinc binding, we established axenical in vitro cultures of a dozen bryophyte species that include hornworts, thallose, and leafy liverworts, as well as acrocarp and pleurocarp mosses. The species were grown free of contaminants for many years prior to the application of different treatments, i...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Shuang Liang, Zheng-Wen Nie, Jing Guo, Ying-Jie Niu, Kyung-Tae Shin, Sun A Ock, Xiang-Shun Cui
MicroRNA (miR)-29b plays a crucial role during somatic cell reprogramming. The aim of the current study was to explore the effects of miR-29b on the developmental competence of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, as well as the underlying mechanisms of action. The expression level of miR-29b was lower in bovine SCNT embryos at the pronuclear, 8-cell, and blastocyst stages compared with in vitro fertilized embryos. In addition, miR-29b regulates the expression of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt3a/3b and Dnmt1) in bovine SCNT embryos...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Niels de Jonge, Andreas Verch, Hendrix Demers
The spatial resolution of aberration-corrected annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy was studied as function of the vertical position z within a sample. The samples consisted of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) positioned in different horizontal layers within aluminum matrices of 0.6 and 1.0 µm thickness. The highest resolution was achieved in the top layer, whereas the resolution was reduced by beam broadening for AuNPs deeper in the sample. To examine the influence of the beam broadening, the intensity profiles of line scans over nanoparticles at a certain vertical location were analyzed...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Svetlana L Kotova, Peter S Timashev, Galina V Belkova, Marina V Kochueva, Ksenia V Babak, Victoria A Timofeeva, Elena B Kiseleva, Olga O Vasilieva, Anna V Maslennikova, Anna B Solovieva
Radiation therapy, widely used in the treatment of a variety of malignancies in the pelvic area, is associated with inevitable damage to the surrounding healthy tissues. We have applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to track the early damaging effects of ionizing radiation on the collagen structures in the experimental animals' bladder and rectum. The first signs of the low-dose radiation (2 Gy) effect were detected by AFM as early as 1 week postirradiation. The observed changes were consistent with initial radiation destruction of the protein matrix...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Zhangchuan Peng, Chun Liu, Lin Zhang, Wei Li, Wenbo Hu, Sanyuan Ma, Qingyou Xia
One of the critical prerequisites for accurately measuring the mechanical properties of profiled fibers is the precise determination of their cross-sectional areas (CSAs). In this study, a new method is established for determining a single profiled fibers' CSA based on the frozen section method and digital photo, pixel-ratio method (FS-DP). FS-DP is used to obtain a transverse section of a fiber, by acquiring an image of the cross section using optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy, and then calculating the CSA using Photoshop...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
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