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Microscopy and Microanalysis

Zhangchuan Peng, Chun Liu, Lin Zhang, Wei Li, Wenbo Hu, Sanyuan Ma, Qingyou Xia
One of the critical prerequisites for accurately measuring the mechanical properties of profiled fibers is the precise determination of their cross-sectional areas (CSAs). In this study, a new method is established for determining a single profiled fibers' CSA based on the frozen section method and digital photo, pixel-ratio method (FS-DP). FS-DP is used to obtain a transverse section of a fiber, by acquiring an image of the cross section using optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy, and then calculating the CSA using Photoshop...
January 30, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Fakhri Al-Bagdadi, Jim Schumacher, Jessi Carter, Ferenc Tóth, Robert W Henry
The ramus communicans, neural connection between medial and lateral plantar nerves of the horse, was transected to determine the degree to which medial and lateral plantar nerves contribute to the plantar ramus. After 2 months, sections of plantar nerves immediately proximal and distal to the communicating branch were collected and processed for electron microscopy. All examined nerves had undergone Wallerian degeneration and contained regenerating and mature fibers. Layers of the myelin sheath were separated by spaces and vacuoles, indicating demyelination of medial and lateral plantar nerves...
January 24, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Milena Vesković, Milica Labudović-Borović, Ivan Zaletel, Jelena Rakočević, Dušan Mladenović, Bojan Jorgačević, Danijela Vučević, Tatjana Radosavljević
The effects of betaine on hepatocytes chromatin architecture changes were examined by using fractal and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis in methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into groups: (1) Control: standard diet; (2) BET: standard diet and betaine supplementation through drinking water (solution 1.5%); (3) MCD group: MCD diet for 6 weeks; (4) MCD+BET: fed with MCD diet + betaine for 6 weeks. Liver tissue was collected for histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and determination of fractal dimension and GLCM parameters...
January 19, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Eveline Ultee, Fred Schenkel, Wen Yang, Susanne Brenzinger, Jamie S Depelteau, Ariane Briegel
Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) enables the study of biological structures in situ in great detail and to solve protein structures at Ångstrom level resolution. Due to recent advances in instrumentation and data processing, the field of cryo-EM is a rapidly growing. Access to facilities and national centers that house the state-of-the-art microscopes is limited due to the ever-rising demand, resulting in long wait times between sample preparation and data acquisition. To improve sample storage, we have developed a cryo-storage system with an efficient, high storage capacity that enables sample storage in a highly organized manner...
January 18, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Marian C Popescu, Bogdan I Bita, Vasilica Tucureanu, Dan Vasilache, Melania A Banu, Andrei M Avram, Raluca A Giurescu-Dumitrescu
The aim of this study is to conduct an extended surface and cross-section characterization of a denture base acrylic resin subjected to 500, 650, and 750 W microwave irradiation for 2, 3, and 5 min to assess its morphological modifications. A commercial heat-cured powder was polymerized according to the manufacturer's specifications and distributed into 20 circular samples. A stainless-steel wire was partially embedded in half of the discs, in order to investigate the metal-polymer interface. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging, white light interferometry, roughness measurements and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry were employed for morphological and structural evaluation of the irradiated polymer...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Maria Luiza S Mello, Benedicto de Campos Vidal, Jerome G Rozen
The larvae of the two distantly related nonsocial bees Ericrocis lata (Apidae) and Hesperapis (Carinapis) rhodocerata (Melittidae), which develop mostly under arid desert areas of North America, and that differ in that they either spin (E. lata) or do not spin (H. rhodocerata) protective cocoons before entering diapause, produce transparent films that cover the larval integument. To understand the nature of these films, their responses to topochemical tests and their characteristics when examined with fluorescence and high-performance polarization microscopy and microspectroscopy were studied...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Ben Buse, Stuart Kearns
Quantification of first series transition metal Lα X-rays is hampered by absorption and in some cases transition probabilities (fluorescence yields) varying with chemical bonding. Compound mass absorption coefficients for Fe Lα were measured in the olivine solid solution series [Forsterite (Mg2SiO4) to Fayalite (Fe2SiO4)] and the mass absorption coefficients for Fe Lα absorbed by Fe were calculated. The mass absorption coefficients vary systematically between Fo83 and Fo0. Using the measured mass absorption coefficients for both standard and unknown and by correcting for a systematic discrepancy, consistent with varying partial fluorescence yields, a good agreement between calculated k-ratios and measured k-ratios is achieved...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Marko S Sabovljević, Marieluise Weidinger, Aneta D Sabovljević, Wolfram Adlassnig, Ingeborg Lang
Bryophytes are usually taken as good bioindicators. However, they represent a large group of terrestrial plants and they express an enormous range of peculiarities within the plant kingdom. With the aim to search for a common pattern of zinc binding, we established axenical in vitro cultures of a dozen bryophyte species that include hornworts, thallose, and leafy liverworts, as well as acrocarp and pleurocarp mosses. The species were grown free of contaminants for many years prior to the application of different treatments, i...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Shuang Liang, Zheng-Wen Nie, Jing Guo, Ying-Jie Niu, Kyung-Tae Shin, Sun A Ock, Xiang-Shun Cui
MicroRNA (miR)-29b plays a crucial role during somatic cell reprogramming. The aim of the current study was to explore the effects of miR-29b on the developmental competence of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, as well as the underlying mechanisms of action. The expression level of miR-29b was lower in bovine SCNT embryos at the pronuclear, 8-cell, and blastocyst stages compared with in vitro fertilized embryos. In addition, miR-29b regulates the expression of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt3a/3b and Dnmt1) in bovine SCNT embryos...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Niels de Jonge, Andreas Verch, Hendrix Demers
The spatial resolution of aberration-corrected annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy was studied as function of the vertical position z within a sample. The samples consisted of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) positioned in different horizontal layers within aluminum matrices of 0.6 and 1.0 µm thickness. The highest resolution was achieved in the top layer, whereas the resolution was reduced by beam broadening for AuNPs deeper in the sample. To examine the influence of the beam broadening, the intensity profiles of line scans over nanoparticles at a certain vertical location were analyzed...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Svetlana L Kotova, Peter S Timashev, Galina V Belkova, Marina V Kochueva, Ksenia V Babak, Victoria A Timofeeva, Elena B Kiseleva, Olga O Vasilieva, Anna V Maslennikova, Anna B Solovieva
Radiation therapy, widely used in the treatment of a variety of malignancies in the pelvic area, is associated with inevitable damage to the surrounding healthy tissues. We have applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to track the early damaging effects of ionizing radiation on the collagen structures in the experimental animals' bladder and rectum. The first signs of the low-dose radiation (2 Gy) effect were detected by AFM as early as 1 week postirradiation. The observed changes were consistent with initial radiation destruction of the protein matrix...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Etienne Brodu, Emmanuel Bouzy
Transmission Kikuchi diffraction is an emerging technique aimed at producing orientation maps of the structure of materials with a nanometric lateral resolution. This study investigates experimentally the depth resolution of the on-axis configuration, via a twinned silicon bi-crystal sample specifically designed and fabricated. The measured depth resolution varies from 30 to 65 nm in the range 10-30 keV, with a close to linear dependence with incident energy and no dependence with the total sample thickness...
December 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Elliot Padgett, Robert Hovden, Jessica C DaSilva, Barnaby D A Levin, John L Grazul, Tobias Hanrath, David A Muller
Electron tomography has become a valuable and widely used tool for studying the three-dimensional nanostructure of materials and biological specimens. However, the incomplete tilt range provided by conventional sample holders limits the fidelity and quantitative interpretability of tomographic images by leaving a "missing wedge" of unknown information in Fourier space. Imaging over a complete range of angles eliminates missing wedge artifacts and dramatically improves tomogram quality. Full-range tomography is usually accomplished using needle-shaped samples milled from bulk material with focused ion beams, but versatile specimen preparation methods for nanoparticles and other fine powders are lacking...
December 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Jun Young Cheong, Joon Ha Chang, Sung Joo Kim, Chanhoon Kim, Hyeon Kook Seo, Jae Won Shin, Jong Min Yuk, Jeong Yong Lee, Il-Doo Kim
We trace Sn nanoparticles (NPs) produced from SnO2 nanotubes (NTs) during lithiation initialized by high energy e-beam irradiation. The growth dynamics of Sn NPs is visualized in liquid electrolytes by graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. The observation reveals that Sn NPs grow on the surface of SnO2 NTs via coalescence and the final shape of agglomerated NPs is governed by surface energy of the Sn NPs and the interfacial energy between Sn NPs and SnO2 NTs. Our result will likely benefit more rational material design of the ideal interface for facile ion insertion...
December 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Muhammad Burhan Khan, Humaira Nisar, Choon Aun Ng, Kim Ho Yeap, Koon Chun Lai
Image processing and analysis is an effective tool for monitoring and fault diagnosis of activated sludge (AS) wastewater treatment plants. The AS image comprise of flocs (microbial aggregates) and filamentous bacteria. In this paper, nine different approaches are proposed for image segmentation of phase-contrast microscopic (PCM) images of AS samples. The proposed strategies are assessed for their effectiveness from the perspective of microscopic artifacts associated with PCM. The first approach uses an algorithm that is based on the idea that different color space representation of images other than red-green-blue may have better contrast...
December 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Elena Ruggeri, Keith F DeLuca, Cesare Galli, Giovanna Lazzari, Jennifer G DeLuca, Joanne E Stokes, Elaine M Carnevale
Confocal microscopy was used to image stages of equine zygote development, at timed intervals, after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of oocytes that were matured in vivo or in vitro. After fixation for 4, 6, 8, 12, or 16 h after ICSI, zygotes were incubated with α/β tubulin antibodies and human anticentromere antibody (CREST/ACA), washed, incubated in secondary antibodies, conjugated to either Alexa 488 or Alexa 647, and incubated with 561-Phalloidin and Hoechst 33258. An Olympus IX81 spinning disk confocal microscope was used for imaging...
December 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Doaa M Mokhtar, Manal T Hussein, Ahmed H S Hassan
Endogenous melatonin is a hormone secreted by pineal gland; it has several roles in metabolism, reproduction, and remarkable antioxidant properties. Studies on the melatonin effect on the adrenal glands which are important endocrine organs, controlling essential physiological functions, are still deficient. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effect of exogenous melatonin treatment on the adrenal cortex and medulla using several approaches. Adrenal glands of 15 Soay ram were examined to detect the effect of melatonin treatment...
December 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Chonghong Zhang, Jiejie Lv, Fuchun Li, Xuelin Li
Calcite spherulites have been observed in many laboratory experiments with different bacteria, and spherulitic growth has received much interest in mineralogy research. However, the nucleation and growth mechanism, as well as geological significance of calcite spherulites in solution with bacteria is still unclear. Herein, spherulites composed of an amorphous core, a Mg-calcite body and an organic film were precipitated by the Curvibacter lanceolatus HJ-1 bacterial strain in a solution with a molar Mg/Ca ratio of 3...
December 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Timothy J Ruggles, Geoffrey F Bomarito, Andrew H Cannon, Jacob D Hochhalter
Digital image correlation (DIC) in a scanning electron microscope and high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HREBSD) provide valuable and complementary data concerning local deformation at the microscale. However, standard surface preparation techniques are mutually exclusive, which makes combining these techniques in situ impossible. This paper introduces a new method of applying surface patterning for DIC, namely a urethane microstamp, that provides a pattern with enough contrast for DIC at low accelerating voltages, but is virtually transparent at the higher voltages necessary for HREBSD and conventional EBSD analysis...
December 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Susumu Imashuku, Koichiro Ono, Kazuaki Wagatsuma
The potential of the application of an X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) analyzer and portable analyzers, composed of a cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrometer and electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), to the on-line and on-site analysis of nonmetallic inclusions in steel is investigated as the first step leading to their practical use. MgAl2O4 spinel and Al2O3 particles were identified by capturing the luminescence as a result of irradiating X-rays in air on a model sample containing MgAl2O4 spinel and Al2O3 particles in the size range from 20 to 50 μm...
December 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
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