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Microscopy and Microanalysis

Jose Luis Perez-Rodriguez, Antonio Albardonedo, Maria Dolores Robador, Adrian Duran
Gilding threads collected from Spanish and Portuguese palaces and from the embroideries and adornments of sculptures of the Virgin and Christ that form part of Sevillian Holy Week were analyzed and compared (20 artifacts were evaluated). The study covered a broad time period with examples from the 13th to 14th centuries, 18th to 20th centuries, and also including modern embroideries. A combination of scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used. The knowledge of the layered structures of the threads has provided very valuable information regarding the manufacturing techniques...
September 20, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Ricardo J C Carbas, Lucas F M da Silva, Luís F S Andrés
The influence of the concentration of carbon black nanoparticles on the mechanical behavior of a structural adhesive was studied to evaluate and understand the stiffness, strength, and deformation behavior of a reinforced epoxy adhesive. Two carbon black nanoparticles with different dielectric properties and sizes (Monarch® 120 and Vulcan® XC72R) were studied. A bi-component structural epoxy adhesive was selected. Specimens with different concentrations of carbon black were manufactured (0, 5, 10, and 20% on volume of resin) for each type of nanoparticle...
September 20, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Clifford S Todd, William A Heeschen
A new method of image texture analysis is presented, based on the mean and standard deviation of gray levels within domains in an image. The calculations are performed recursively on domains of various sizes within the images. These gray level calculations are used as the input matrix for principal component analysis. The technique analyzes the entire image as a whole and is not for image segmentation. The analysis routine operates across all distances, frequencies and directions in the image, and is not computationally burdensome...
September 20, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Susana Galante-Oliveira, António Pereira, Tiago Baptista, Fernanda Guimarães, Jorge Soares, José Carlos Lopes, Jorge Machado, Carlos Barroso
Statoliths are nonskeletal calcified structures included in most invertebrates' gravireceptors. They have been identified and characterized in several gastropod and cephalopod molluscs and have proved to be very useful for age estimation, growth studies, and connectivity analysis, among other applications. Beyond the scarce available records on their occurrence in Class Bivalvia, statoliths are yet to be documented in the grooved carpet shell, Ruditapes decussatus, a species of high ecological and commercial value...
August 3, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Leonor Costa, Margarida Nunes, Sónia Costa, Milene Trindade, Catarina Miguel, Teresa Ferreira
This work used a multi-analytical approach to characterize two 19th century ambrotypes and was motivated by the lack of insight on these historical objects. Photographic imaging and optical microscopy (OM) were used to identify abrasions, cracks related to reticulation, tarnishing, and other aspects associated to production and degradation processes. With variable pressure scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) these processes were seen with great detail and further characterized...
August 2, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Shingo Kiyoto, Arata Yoshinaga, Eva Fernandez-Tendero, Arnaud Day, Brigitte Chabbert, Keiji Takabe
The distribution of lignin, 8-5' and 8-8' linked lignin substructure, and noncellulosic polysaccharides in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) phloem fibers were explored based on histochemical and immunological methods. Ultraviolet absorption and potassium permanganate staining were observed mainly in the compound middle lamella (CML) and S1 layers, and rarely in the G-layer of phloem fibers, suggesting that lignin concentration is high at the CML and S1 layers, and very low at the G-layer of hemp fibers. Acriflavine staining, uniform KM1 labeling (8-5' linked lignin substructure), and no KM2 labeling (8-8' linked structure) were observed in the G-layer, suggesting that there is a small amount of lignin-like compound with 8-5' linked structure in the G-layer...
August 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Robert Hovden, Pengzi Liu, Noah Schnitzer, Adam W Tsen, Yu Liu, Wenjian Lu, Yuping Sun, Lena F Kourkoutis
Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted interest due to their promise for future electronic and optoelectronic technologies. As one approaches the two-dimensional (2D) limit, thickness and local topology can greatly influence the macroscopic properties of a material. To understand the unique behavior of TMDs it is therefore important to identify the number of atomic layers and their stacking in a sample. The goal of this work is to extract the thickness and stacking sequence of TMDs directly by matching experimentally recorded high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscope images and convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) patterns to quantum mechanical, multislice scattering simulations...
August 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Matthew D Zotta, Mandy C Nevins, Richard K Hailstone, Eric Lifshin
A method is presented to determine the spatial distribution of electrons in the focused beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Knowledge of the electron distribution is valuable for characterizing and monitoring SEM performance, as well as for modeling and simulation in computational scanning electron microscopy. Specifically, it can be used to characterize astigmatism as well as study the relationship between beam energy, beam current, working distance, and beam shape and size. In addition, knowledge of the distribution of electrons in the beam can be utilized with deconvolution methods to improve the resolution and quality of backscattered, secondary, and transmitted electron images obtained with thermionic, FEG, or Schottky source instruments...
August 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Zong-You Huang, Yu-Jing Zhang, Jun-Yan Liu, Zhen-De Yang, Wen Lu, Xia-Lin Zheng
The antennal sensilla of female Quadrastichus mendeli Kim & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) were observed with scanning and transmission electron microscopy in this study. The antenna of Q. mendeli was geniculate, and the flagellum was composed of seven subsegments. Six distinct types of sensory receptors were observed, including sensilla basiconic capitate peg, sensilla böhm, sensilla chaetica, sensilla campaniformia, sensilla placodea and sensilla trichodea. Sensilla basiconic capitate pegs were found on the flagellomeres, and Böhm sensilla were found on the basal part of scape and the pedicel...
August 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Ingrid McCarroll, Barbara Scherrer, Peter Felfer, Michael P Moody, Julie M Cairney
Understanding oxide-metal interfaces is crucial to the advancement of materials and components for many industries, most notably for semiconductor devices and power generation. Atom probe tomography provides three-dimensional, atomic scale information about chemical composition, making it an excellent technique for interface analysis. However, difficulties arise when analyzing interfacial regions due to trajectory aberrations, such as local magnification, and reconstruction artifacts. Correlative microscopy and field simulation techniques have revealed that nonuniform evolution of the tip geometry, caused by heterogeneous field evaporation, is partly responsible for these artifacts...
August 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Dale E Newbury, Nicholas W M Ritchie
When analyzing an unknown by electron-excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, with the entire periodic table possibly in play, how does the analyst discover minor and trace constituents when their peaks are overwhelmed by the intensity of an interfering peak(s) from a major constituent? In this paper, we advocate for and demonstrate an iterative analytical approach, alternating qualitative analysis (peak identification) and standards-based quantitative analysis with peak fitting. This method employs two "tools": (1) monitoring of the "raw analytical total," which is the sum of all measured constituents as well as any such as oxygen calculated by the method of assumed stoichiometry, and (2) careful inspection of the "peak fitting residual spectrum" that is constructed as part of the quantitative analysis procedure in the software engine DTSA-II (a pseudo-acronym) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology...
August 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Rebecca S Dillard, Cheri M Hampton, Joshua D Strauss, Zunlong Ke, Deanna Altomara, Ricardo C Guerrero-Ferreira, Gabriella Kiss, Elizabeth R Wright
Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful tool for macromolecular to near-atomic resolution structure determination in the biological sciences. The specimen is maintained in a near-native environment within a thin film of vitreous ice and imaged in a transmission electron microscope. The images can then be processed by a number of computational methods to produce three-dimensional information. Recent advances in sample preparation, imaging, and data processing have led to tremendous growth in the field of cryo-EM by providing higher resolution structures and the ability to investigate macromolecules within the context of the cell...
August 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Aline D Gabbardo, Xi Wang, Angeire Huggins, G S Frankel
5xxx series aluminum alloys, as Al-4.5Mg-1.0Mn (AA5083), are strengthened by Mg solid solution and work hardening. A drawback of this alloy is the fact that β phase, Al3Mg2, can precipitate on grain boundaries causing sensitization and intergranular corrosion, which is detrimental to the integrity of the structure. Metallography is an important technique to study the grain structure and highly sought for intergranular corrosion evaluation; however, revealing the grains of completely un-sensitized AA5083 is challenging...
August 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Kevin Abbasi, Danqi Wang, Michael A Fusella, Barry P Rand, Amir Avishai
Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) is a technique regularly used to obtain crystallographic information from inorganic samples. When EBSD is acquired simultaneously with emitting diodes data, a sample can be thoroughly characterized both structurally and compositionally. For organic materials, coherent Kikuchi patterns do form when the electron beam interacts with crystalline material. However, such patterns tend to be weak due to the low average atomic number of organic materials. This is compounded by the fact that the patterns fade quickly and disappear completely once a critical electron dose is exceeded, inhibiting successful collection of EBSD maps from them...
August 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Shiyun Lin, Bin Chen, Zhongqi Fang, Wei Ye
The work is to investigate the relationships between the microstructures and mechanical behaviors of lobster cuticles and reveal the inner mechanisms of the anisotropic mechanical properties of the cuticles and give the helpful guidance for the design of high-performance man-made composites. First, the tensile mechanical properties of the longitudinal and transverse specimens of the cuticles of American lobsters were tested with a mechanical-testing instrument. It is was found that the fracture strength and elastic modulus of the longitudinal specimens are distinctly larger than those of the transverse specimens...
August 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Colin M MacRae, Anthony E Hughes, James S Laird, A M Glenn, Nicholas C Wilson, Aaron Torpy, Mark A Gibson, Xiaorong Zhou, Nick Birbilis, George E Thompson
Electron and proton microprobes, along with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis were used to study the microstructure of the contemporary Al-Cu-Li alloy AA2099-T8. In electron probe microanalysis, wavelength and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry were used in parallel with soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) to characterize the microstructure of AA2099-T8. The electron microprobe was able to identify five unique compositions for constituent intermetallic (IM) particles containing combinations of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn...
August 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
José Ricardo Carneiro, Paulo Joaquim Almeida, Maria de Lurdes Lopes
The exposure to solar radiation (mainly due to the action of ultraviolet radiation) is one of the main causes for the premature failure of many polymeric materials, including the geotextiles. In this work, a nonwoven polypropylene geotextile (stabilized with a known amount of a hindered amine light stabilizer) was exposed to ultraviolet-aging tests, both in the laboratory (accelerated conditions) and outdoors (natural conditions). The damage occurred in the geotextile (caused by the ultraviolet-aging tests) was evaluated quantitatively (by monitoring changes in its mass per unit area, thickness, and tensile properties) and qualitatively (by scanning electron microscopy)...
June 19, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Jafrin F Hussain, Sabitry Bordoloi
This paper deals with the study of the surface morphology of barbels, upper lips, and adhesive discs in four hill stream fish species collected from Basistha River, a torrential river in Guwahati city, Assam, India. The four species belonging to the genus Garra namely, Garra gotyla (Gray, 1830), Garra gravelyi (Annandale, 1919), Garra stenorhynchus (Jerdon, 1849), and Garra nasuta (McClelland, 1838) were collected from the same torrential habitat. These fish revealed anatomical peculiarities in their barbels, lips, and adhesive discs which are believed to help them in adapting to such habitats...
June 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Muhammad Sufyan, Ikram Badshah, Mushtaq Ahmad, Muhammad Zafar, Saraj Bahadur, Neelam Rashid
The present study planned to assess the medicinally important plants in the lower Margalla Hills of Islamabad, Pakistan using scanning electron microscopy of their pollens. Both quantitative and qualitative characters of the pollens were analyzed. The shapes of the pollen were prolate, spheroidal, elliptical, and oblate. Exine sculpturing showed rugulate, scabrate, psilate gemmate, and reticulate ornamentation. The people residing in the rural areas are thought to depend, primarily, on medicinal plant resources for many health care needs...
June 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Shi Yanyan, Guo Yanlei, Zhang Ting, Ding Shigang
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of gastric diseases including gastric cancer. This study was aimed to explore whether hydrotalcite can inhibit H. pylori infection of gastric epithelial cells. METHODS: the gastric epithelial cell line GES-1 and the gastric cancer cell line BGC823 were infected with H. pylori at multiplicities of infections (MOIs) of 50:1 and 100:1. Hydrotalcite was added to cell cultures. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle analysis were performed to measure the situation of cell growth...
June 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
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