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Microscopy and Microanalysis

Zirong Peng, Pyuck-Pa Choi, Baptiste Gault, Dierk Raabe
Cemented tungsten carbide has been analyzed using laser-pulsed atom probe tomography (APT). The influence of experimental parameters, including laser pulse energy, pulse repetition rate, and specimen base temperature, on the acquired data were evaluated from different aspects, such as mass spectrum, chemical composition, noise-to-signal ratio, and multiple events. Within all the applied analysis conditions, only 1 MHz pulse repetition rate led to a strong detector saturation effect, resulting in a largely biased chemical composition...
January 17, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Johannes Mielke, Pavla Dohányosová, Philipp Müller, Silvia López-Vidal, Vasile-Dan Hodoroaba
The potential of electrospray deposition, for the controlled preparation of particles for imaging in electron microscopes, is evaluated on various materials: from mono-modal suspensions of spherical particles to multimodal suspensions and to real-world industrial materials. It is shown that agglomeration is reduced substantially on the sample carrier, compared with conventional sample preparation techniques. For the first time, it is possible to assess the number concentration of a tri-modal polystyrene suspension by electron microscopy, due to the high deposition efficiency of the electrospray...
January 9, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Osamu Nishikawa, Masahiro Taniguchi
In 1994, a new type of atom probe instrument, named the scanning atom probe (SAP), was proposed. The unique feature of the SAP is the introduction of a small extraction electrode, which scans over a specimen surface and confines the high field, required for field evaporation of surface atoms in a small space, between the specimen and the electrode. Thus, the SAP does not require a sharp specimen tip. This indicates that the SAP can mass analyze the specimens which are difficult to form in a sharp tip, such as organic materials and biomolecules...
December 22, 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Mark J Hagmann, Dmitry A Yarotski, Marwan S Mousa
Quasi-periodic excitation of the tunneling junction in a scanning tunneling microscope, by a mode-locked ultrafast laser, superimposes a regular sequence of 15 fs pulses on the DC tunneling current. In the frequency domain, this is a frequency comb with harmonics at integer multiples of the laser pulse repetition frequency. With a gold sample the 200th harmonic at 14.85 GHz has a signal-to-noise ratio of 25 dB, and the power at each harmonic varies inversely with the square of the frequency. Now we report the first measurements with a semiconductor where the laser photon energy must be less than the bandgap energy of the semiconductor; the microwave frequency comb must be measured within 200 μm of the tunneling junction; and the microwave power is 25 dB below that with a metal sample and falls off more rapidly at the higher harmonics...
December 20, 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Hamed Heidari, Guadalupe Rivero, Hosni Idrissi, Dhanya Ramachandran, Seda Cakir, Ricardo Egoavil, Mert Kurttepeli, Amandine C Crabbé, Tom Hauffman, Herman Terryn, Filip Du Prez, Dominique Schryvers
A systematic study has been carried out to compare the surface morphology, shell thickness, mechanical properties, and binding behavior of melamine-formaldehyde microcapsules of 5-30 μm diameter size with various amounts of core content by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy including electron tomography, in situ nanomechanical tensile testing, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. It is found that porosities are present on the outside surface of the capsule shell, but not on the inner surface of the shell...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Agnieszka Priebe, Pierre Bleuet, Gael Goret, Jerome Laurencin, Dario Montinaro, Jean-Paul Barnes
In this paper the potential of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy combined with focused ion beam technology to characterize the composition of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in three-dimension is demonstrated. The very high sensitivity of this method allows even very small amounts of elements/compounds to be detected and localized. Therefore, interlayer diffusion of elements between porous electrodes and presence of pollutants can be analyzed with a spatial resolution of the order of 100 nm. However, proper element recognition and mass interference still remain important issues...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Wei Guo, Brian T Sneed, Lin Zhou, Wei Tang, Matthew J Kramer, David A Cullen, Jonathan D Poplawsky
Alnico alloys have long been used as strong permanent magnets because of their ferromagnetism and high coercivity. Understanding their structural details allows for better prediction of the resulting magnetic properties. However, quantitative three-dimensional characterization of the phase separation in these alloys is still challenged by the spatial quantification of nanoscale phases. Herein, we apply a dual tomography approach, where correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS) tomography and atom probe tomography (APT) are used to investigate the initial phase separation process of an alnico 8 alloy upon non-magnetic annealing...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Edison Barbieri, Janaína Campos-Garcia, Diego S T Martinez, José Roberto M C da Silva, Oswaldo Luiz Alves, Karina F O Rezende
The effect of heavy metal in fish has been the focus of extensive research for many years. However, the combined effect of heavy metals and nanomaterials is still a new subject that needs to be studied. The aim of this study was to examine histopathologic alterations in the gills of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to determine possible effects of lead (Pb), carbon nanotubes, and Pb+carbon nanotubes on their histological integrity, and if this biological system can be used as a tool for evaluating water quality in monitoring programs...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Marko Blaskovic, Dragana Gabrić, Nichola J Coleman, Ian J Slipper, Mitko Mladenov, Elizabeta Gjorgievska
The aim of the present study was to compare dynamics of the bone healing process after different types of osteotomies. In total, 24 Wistar rats were subjected to different types of osteotomy performed with standard steel bur, piezosurgery, contact, and non-contact Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser ablation. The animals were randomly divided into four groups, to be euthanized immediately after the procedure, or at 1, 2, or 3 weeks after surgery. The obtained bone samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Alejandro Mitrani Viggiano, José Luis Ruvalcaba Sil, Mayra D Manrique Ortega, Victoria Corregidor Berdasco
Jadeite was greatly appreciated by pre-Hispanic cultures in Mesoamerica. Despite its importance, knowledge of its mining sources was lost after the Spanish conquest. In the 1950s the only confirmed jadeite deposits in Mesoamerica were found in the Motagua River Fault (MRF), Guatemala. The aim of this study is to present a methodology that is appropriate for the study of archeological jadeite objects using non-destructive spectroscopic and micro-ion beam analysis techniques. This methodology has been applied to perform mineral, elemental, and luminescence characterization of five jadeite samples from the MRF, with white, lilac, and green colors...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Albina D Resende, Alexandre Lobo-da-Cunha, Fernanda Malhão, Eduardo Rocha
Literature about fish kidney peroxisomes is scarce. To tackle this caveat, a stereological approach on renal peroxisome morphological parameters was performed for the first time in a fish, establishing correlations with maturation stages as it was previously done in brown trout liver. Three-year-old brown trout males and females were collected at the major seasons of their reproductive cycle. Trunk kidney was fixed and processed for catalase cytochemistry. Classical stereological methods were applied to electromicrographs to quantitate morphological parameters...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Xavier Llovet, Philippe T Pinard, Erkki Heikinheimo, Seppo Louhenkilpi, Silvia Richter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Marek Drab, Janusz Krajniak, Krzysztof P Grzelakowski
We report on a robust method for chemical element-sensitive imaging by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The commercial Auriga FE-SEM microscope (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany), equipped with an energy-selective grid detector (EsB) as a part of the experimental setup, was applied for generation of chemical contrast at low accelerating voltages, which is gentle for sensitive samples. The EsB-grid detector, conceptually adapted by us as an energy retarding field analyzer (RFA), was used to detect the two-dimensional (2D) energy spectrum for the first time...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Matthias Schäper, Susanne Reimann, Matthias Frentzen, Jörg Meister
The aim of this study was to compare surface structures of laser-irradiated dental hard tissues using confocal (CFM), atomic force (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The general potential of the AFM in analyzing laser-irradiated surfaces was determined in this context. Specimens of human enamel and dentin were irradiated using an 8.6 W Nd:YVO4 laser with a pulse duration of 8 ps, λ Center=1,064 nm, and a pulse repetition rate of 500 kHz. Surface topology of irradiated areas (1 mm2) was investigated using AFM, CFM, and SEM...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Jingxu Zheng, Zhongyuan Luo, Lida Tan, Bin Chen
In the present study, nano-sized cuboid-shaped particles in Mg-Nd-Y are studied by means of Cs-corrected atomic-scale high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy. The structure of the cuboid-shaped phase is identified to be yttrium (major component) and neodymium atoms in face-centered cubic arrangement without the participation of Mg. The lattice parameter a=5.15 Å. During isothermal aging at 225°C, Mg3(Nd,Y) precipitates adhere to surface (100) planes of the cuboid-shaped particles with the orientation relationship: $[100]_{{{\rm Mg}_{{\rm 3}} {\rm RE}}} \,/\,\,/\,[100]_{{{\rm Cuboid}}} $ and $[310]_{{{\rm Mg}_{{\rm 3}} {\rm RE}}} \,/\,\,/\,[012]_{{{\rm Cuboid}}} $ ...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Dingrong Yi, Linghua Kong, Ranjith K Kankala, Zi Wang
There is an unmet need for researchers in life sciences and clinical pathology to obtain untainted target cells with very high accuracy, which are suitable for subsequent genome and protein analysis. In this paper, an electrostatic capture laser microdissection technology (ECM) is proposed and explained. Following microscopic identification and separation of target cells from the surrounding tissues using laser cutting, the ECM uses electrostatic forces to capture target cells. Validation experiments indicate that ECM can capture a wide assortment of contamination-free homogeneous samples, ranging from very tiny pieces of a few micrometers in diameter to large pieces with a surface area of over 40,000 µm2...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Vladimir P Oleshko, Andrew A Herzing, Christopher L Soles, Jared J Griebel, Woo J Chung, Adam G Simmonds, Jeffrey Pyun
Poly[sulfur-random-(1,3-diisopropenylbenzene)] copolymers synthesized via inverse vulcanization represent an emerging class of electrochemically active polymers recently used in cathodes for Li-S batteries, capable of realizing enhanced capacity retention (1,005 mAh/g at 100 cycles) and lifetimes of over 500 cycles. The composite cathodes are organized in complex hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) architectures, which contain several components and are challenging to understand and characterize using any single technique...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Michael Marko, Chyongere Hsieh, Eric Leith, David Mastronarde, Sohei Motoki
Phase plate (PP) imaging has proven to be valuable in transmission cryo electron microscopy of unstained, native-state biological specimens. Many PP types have been described, however until the recent implementation of the "hole-free" phase plate (HFPP), imaging has been challenging. We found the HFPP to be simple to construct and to set up in the transmission electron microscopy, but care in implementing automated data collection is needed. Performance may be variable, both initially and over time, thus it is important to monitor and evaluate image quality by observing the power spectrum...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Michael J Zachman, Emily Asenath-Smith, Lara A Estroff, Lena F Kourkoutis
Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows atomic scale characterization of solid-solid interfaces, but has seen limited applications to solid-liquid interfaces due to the volatility of liquids in the microscope vacuum. Although cryo-electron microscopy is routinely used to characterize hydrated samples stabilized by rapid freezing, sample thinning is required to access the internal interfaces of thicker specimens. Here, we adapt cryo-focused ion beam (FIB) "lift-out," a technique recently developed for biological specimens, to prepare intact internal solid-liquid interfaces for high-resolution structural and chemical analysis by cryo-STEM...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Maria J Pereira, Joao S Amaral, Nuno J O Silva, Vitor S Amaral
Determining and acting on thermo-physical properties at the nanoscale is essential for understanding/managing heat distribution in micro/nanostructured materials and miniaturized devices. Adequate thermal nano-characterization techniques are required to address thermal issues compromising device performance. Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) is a probing and acting technique based on atomic force microscopy using a nano-probe designed to act as a thermometer and resistive heater, achieving high spatial resolution...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
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