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Microscopy and Microanalysis

Bidisha Ukil, Suman Kundu, Larisha Mawkhlieng Lyndem
Previous studies have shown the anthelmintic efficacy of Senna alata, Senna alexandrina and Senna occidentalis on the zoonotic parasite Hymenolepis diminuta through microscopic studies on morphological structure. The present study is based on the light and confocal microscopic studies to understand if Senna extracts affect neurotransmitter activity of the parasites. A standard concentration (40 mg/mL) of the three leaf extracts and one set of 0.005 mg/mL concentration of the reference drug praziquantel were tested against the parasites, keeping another set of parasites in phosphate buffer saline as a control...
November 13, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Yongjie Zhang, Goro Miyamoto, Tadashi Furuhara
The composition of nano-sized alloy carbides formed by interphase precipitation in V-Nb and V-Ti multiple microalloyed low-carbon steels is analyzed by using three-dimensional atom probe. Carbide-forming alloying elements including V, Nb, and Ti, are simultaneously precipitated from the early stage of isothermal treatment, whose atoms are uniformly distributed in the carbide particles, even after prolonged holding. Cluster analysis by the maximum separation method, with parameters optimized using different methods, is carried out to extract alloy carbides from matrix...
November 12, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Sónia Simões, Ana Soares, Carlos José Tavares, Aníbal Guedes
The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential use of titanium foil coated with sputtered silver and copper films as a novel brazing filler for joining TiAl alloys. For this purpose, a detailed microstructural characterization of the resulting brazing interfaces was carried out. The development of brazing fillers that allow the joining of TiAl alloys without compromising the service temperature is a fruitful prospect. Brazing experiments were performed in a vacuum at 900, 950, and 980°C, with a dwell time of 30 min...
November 6, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Eva M Pala
Scanning electron microscopy of the scales of Cyprinus carpio, inhabiting two government-sponsored fish farms, with different sources of pollutants, in the North-East state of Meghalaya, India revealed extensive damage to them. Lepidonts, which are teeth-like structures present on the edge of circulii, were discovered to be either partly or completely damaged. The dislodgment of complete rows of lepidonts along with broken lepidonts was also observed. Loss of symmetry and torn areas of circulii are some of the abnormalities also observed as compared to control samples...
November 6, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Ty J Prosa, Savanna Strennen, David Olson, Dan Lawrence, David J Larson
Specimen survivability is a primary concern to those who utilize atom probe tomography (APT) for materials analysis. The state-of-the-art in understanding survivability might best be described as common-sense application of basic physics principles to describe failure mechanisms. For example, APT samples are placed under near-failure mechanical-stress conditions, so reduction in the force required to initiate field evaporation must provide for higher survivability-a common sense explanation of survivability...
November 5, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Josefa Roselló, Lourdes Soriano, Holmer Savastano, M Victoria Borrachero, Pilar Santamarina, Jordi Payá
Many agrowastes are being used for energy production by combustion in power plants. This process generates huge amounts of ash, which has a potential pozzolanic activity for blending with Portland cement or hydrated lime. In this paper, the ash obtained from elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum var. purple) leaves (EGLs) was studied, including the silicon content and its distribution, the presence of other compounds, and in addition, the presence of silica bodies (phytoliths). Combustion temperatures of 450 and 650°C produced an unaltered inorganic skeleton (spodogram), whereas at 850°C, there is a sintering process because of high potassium content in the ash...
October 16, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Joana B Serrano, Filipa Martins, Cátia D Pereira, Ans M M van Pelt, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva, Sandra Rebelo
TorsinA is a member of the AAA+ superfamily of adenosine triphosphatases. These AAA+ proteins have numerous biological functions, including vesicle fusion, cytoskeleton dynamics, intracellular trafficking, protein folding, and degradation as well as organelle biogenesis. Of particular interest is torsinA, which is mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope (NE). Interestingly, mutations in the TOR1A gene (the gene encoding torsinA) are associated with DYT1 dystonia and with the preferential localization of mutated torsinA at the NE, where it is associated with lamina-associated polypeptide 1...
September 24, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Sónia Simões, Íris Carneiro, Filomena Viana, Marcos A L Reis, Manuel F Vieira
This research focuses on the microstructural characterization of nickel matrix composites reinforced by carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The nanocomposites were produced by a conventional powder metallurgy process and the dispersion of CNTs and mixture with nickel powders was performed in a single step by ultrasonication. Microstructural characterization of Ni-CNT nanocomposites was performed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and fast Fourier transform analyses...
September 24, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Ricardo J C Carbas, Lucas F M da Silva, Luís F S Andrés
The influence of the concentration of carbon black nanoparticles on the mechanical behavior of a structural adhesive was studied to evaluate and understand the stiffness, strength, and deformation behavior of a reinforced epoxy adhesive. Two carbon black nanoparticles with different dielectric properties and sizes (Monarch® 120 and Vulcan® XC72R) were studied. A bi-component structural epoxy adhesive was selected. Specimens with different concentrations of carbon black were manufactured (0, 5, 10, and 20% on volume of resin) for each type of nanoparticle...
September 20, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Barbara Cisterna, Federico Boschi, Anna C Croce, Rachele Podda, Serena Zanzoni, Daniele Degl'Innocenti, Paolo Bernardi, Manuela Costanzo, Pasquina Marzola, Viviana Covi, Gabriele Tabaracci, Manuela Malatesta
The production of Amarone wine is governed by a disciplinary guideline to preserve its typical features; however, postharvest infections by the fungus Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) not only represent a phytosanitary problem but also cause a significant loss of product. In this study, we tested a treatment with mild ozoniztion on grapes for Amarone wine production during withering in the fruttaio (the environment imposed by the disciplinary guideline) and evaluated the impact on berry features by a multimodal imaging approach...
October 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Jingfeng Guo, Tieshan Cao, Congqian Cheng, Xianming Meng, Jie Zhao
The magnetism and microstructure of Cr25Ni35Nb and Cr35Ni45Nb alloy tubes after 5 years of service were investigated in this paper. The saturation magnetization of the Cr25Ni35Nb alloy tube in the thickness direction is more than 20 emu/g, and the tube becomes ferromagnetic. The inner and outer walls of Cr35Ni45Nb alloy tubes also become ferromagnetic. But the saturation magnetization of the Cr35Ni45Nb alloy tubes approaches to zero in the center zone. The primary carbides M7C3 and NbC are changed into M23C6 and G phase at the outer region of the furnace tube...
October 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Dimitrios Kapsokalyvas, Arnold Wilbers, Ilco A L A Boogers, Maaike M Appeldoorn, Mirjam A Kabel, Joachim Loos, Marc A M J Van Zandvoort
Parameters such as pretreatment method, enzyme type and concentration, determine the conversion efficiency of biomass' cellulose and hemicellulose to glucose and mainly xylose in biomass-based fuel production. Chemical quantification of these processes offers no information on the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) on particle morphology. We report on the development of a microscopy method for imaging pretreated biomass particles at different EH stages. The method was based on acquiring large field of view images, typically 20×10 mm2 containing thousands of particles...
October 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Dipendra Jha, Saransh Singh, Reda Al-Bahrani, Wei-Keng Liao, Alok Choudhary, Marc De Graef, Ankit Agrawal
We present a deep learning approach to the indexing of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns. We design and implement a deep convolutional neural network architecture to predict crystal orientation from the EBSD patterns. We design a differentiable approximation to the disorientation function between the predicted crystal orientation and the ground truth; the deep learning model optimizes for the mean disorientation error between the predicted crystal orientation and the ground truth using stochastic gradient descent...
October 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Akira Ohba, Tomoyasu Nakano, Shinobu Onoda, Takahiro Mochizuki, Katsuhiro Nakamoto, Hisaya Hotaka, Katsuyoshi Fujita, Shinji Ohsuka, Motosuke Miyoshi, Keita Soda, Takao Hamakubo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Marian B Tzolov, Nicholas C Barbi, Christopher T Bowser, Owen Healy
Highly luminescent thin films of zinc tungstate (ZT) have been deposited on top of conventional scintillators (Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite, Yttrium Aluminum Garnet) for electron detection in order to replace the need for a top conducting layer, such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or aluminum, which is non-scintillating and electron absorbing. Such conventional conducting layers serve the single purpose of eliminating electrical charge build-up on the scintillator. The ZT film also eliminates charging, which has been verified by measuring the Duane-Hunt limit and electron emission versus accelerating voltage...
October 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Liangli Wang, Sara E Miller, Fan Yuan
Emerging evidence from various studies indicates that plasmid DNA (pDNA) is internalized by cells through an endocytosis-like process when it is used for electrotransfection. To provide morphological evidence of the process, we investigated ultrastructures in cells that were associated with the electrotransfected pDNA, using immunoelectron microscopy. The results demonstrate that four endocytic pathways are involved in the uptake of the pDNA, including caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, macropinocytosis, and the clathrin-independent carrier/glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein-enriched early endosomal compartment (CLIC/GEEC) pathway...
October 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Orkun Furat, Thomas Leißner, Ralf Ditscherlein, Ondřej Šedivý, Matthias Weber, Kai Bachmann, Jens Gutzmer, Urs Peuker, Volker Schmidt
In this paper, three-dimensional (3D) image data of ore particle systems is investigated. By combining X-ray microtomography with scanning electron microscope (SEM)-based image analysis, additional information about the mineralogical composition from certain planar sections can be gained. For the analysis of tomographic images of particle systems the extraction of single particles is essential. This is performed with a marker-based watershed algorithm and a post-processing step utilizing a neural network to reduce oversegmentation...
October 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Avinash Srinivasan, Weiding Han, Anjam Khursheed
This paper presents a new method for creating and monitoring controlled localized negatively charged regions inside insulators with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A localized buried charged region is created and observed close to the point where a high voltage primary beam (10 kV) strikes a metal-insulator-silicon specimen. The amount of buried charge within the insulator at any given moment can be dynamically monitored by detecting the appearance of a second peak in the secondary electron (SE) energy spectrum...
October 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Yuezong Wang
Microscopic vision systems based on a stereo light microscope (SLM) are used in microscopic measuring fields. Conventional measuring methods output the disparity surface based on stereo matching methods; however, these methods require that stereo images contain sufficient distinguishing features. Moreover, matching results typically contain many mismatched points. This paper presents a novel method for disparity surface reconstruction by combining an SLM and laser measuring techniques. The surfaces of small objects are scanned by a laser fringe, and a stereo image sequence containing laser stripes is obtained...
October 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Astrid Zayas-Santiago, David S Ríos, Lidia V Zueva, Mikhail Y Inyushin
Transparent cells in the vertebrate optical tract, such as lens fiber cells and corneal epithelium cells, have specialized proteins that somehow permit only a low level of light scattering in their cytoplasm. It has been shown that both cell types contain (1) beaded intermediate filaments as well as (2) α-crystallin globulins. It is known that genetic and chemical alterations to these specialized proteins induce cytoplasmic opaqueness and visual complications. Crystallins were described previously in the retinal Müller cells of frogs...
October 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
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