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AIDS and Behavior

Angela Parcesepe, Olga Tymejczyk, Robert Remien, Tsigereda Gadisa, Sarah Gorrell Kulkarni, Susie Hoffman, Zenebe Melaku, Batya Elul, Denis Nash
Recent World Health Organization HIV treatment guideline expansion may facilitate timely antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. However, large-scale success of universal treatment strategies requires a more comprehensive understanding of known barriers to early ART initiation. This work aims to advance a more comprehensive understanding of interrelationships among three known barriers to ART initiation: psychological distress, HIV-related stigma, and low social support. We analyzed cross-sectional interview data on 1175 adults initiating ART at six HIV treatment clinics in Ethiopia...
February 16, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Hong-Ha M Truong, Robin Fatch, Robert M Grant, Meenakshi Mathur, Sameer Kumta, Hemangi Jerajani, Timothy A Kellogg, Christina P Lindan
We examined associations with HIV recent infection and estimated transmitted drug resistance (TDR) prevalence among 3345 men at sexually transmitted infection clinics in Mumbai (2002-2005). HIV seroincidence was 7.92% by the BED-CEIA and was higher at a clinic located near brothels (12.39%) than at a hospital-based clinic (3.94%). HIV recent infection was associated with a lifetime history of female sex worker (FSW) partners, HSV-2, genital warts, and gonorrhea. TDR prevalence among recent infection cases was 5...
February 16, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Shannon M Fuller, Kimberly A Koester, Andres Maiorana, Wayne T Steward, Michelle R Broaddus, Katie Lass, Sophia Zamudio-Haas, Evelyn Byrd Quinlivan, Janet J Myers
Ensuring continuity of and retention in care after release from prison is critical for optimizing health outcomes among people living with HIV. As part of a large federal initiative, we conducted qualitative interviews (n = 24) with individuals living with HIV and recently released from prison in four states to understand their experiences in different navigation interventions to improve access to HIV care post-release. Interventions were delivered only in prison, only in the community, or in both settings...
February 13, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Joel Ndayongeje, Amani Msami, Yovin Ivo Laurent, Syangu Mwankemwa, Moza Makumbuli, Alois M Ngonyani, Jenny Tiberio, Susie Welty, Christen Said, Meghan D Morris, Willi McFarland
We mapped hot spots and estimated the numbers of people who use drugs (PWUD) and who inject drugs (PWID) in 12 regions of Tanzania. Primary (ie, current and past PWUD) and secondary (eg, police, service providers) key informants identified potential hot spots, which we visited to verify and count the number of PWUD and PWID present. Adjustments to counts and extrapolation to regional estimates were done by local experts through iterative rounds of discussion. Drug use, specifically cocaine and heroin, occurred in all regions...
February 12, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Deki Pem, Tshewang Nidup, Ugyen Wangdi, Dorji Pelzom, Ali Mirzazadeh, Willi McFarland
Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) were recently made available over the counter in Bhutan. We evaluated knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning ECP in 2 populations at risk for HIV and STI (sexually transmitted infections): entertainment women (drayang) and male truck drivers and helpers (truckers). Of 179 drayang and 437 truckers intercepted at venues, 73.7 and 21.1%, respectively, had heard of ECP; 47.0% of drayang had used them. Their concerns about ECP use included harm to the body, impact on future pregnancy, side effects, and HIV/STI risk...
February 12, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Man-Pui Sally Chan, Sophie Lohmann, Alex Morales, Chengxiang Zhai, Lyle Ungar, David R Holtgrave, Dolores Albarracín
The present study evaluated the potential use of Twitter data for providing risk indices of STIs. We developed online risk indices (ORIs) based on tweets to predict new HIV, gonorrhea, and chlamydia diagnoses, across U.S. counties and across 5 years. We analyzed over one hundred million tweets from 2009 to 2013 using open-vocabulary techniques and estimated the ORIs for a particular year by entering tweets from the same year into multiple semantic models (one for each year). The ORIs were moderately to strongly associated with the actual rates (...
February 9, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Lisa Armistead, Nada Goodrum, Marya Schulte, William Marelich, Rebecca LeCroix, Debra A Murphy
Nondisclosure of maternal HIV status to young children can negatively impact child functioning; however, many mothers do not disclose due to lack of self-efficacy for the disclosure process. This study examines demographic variations in disclosure self-efficacy, regardless of intention to disclose, and assesses the relationship between self-efficacy and child adjustment via the parent-child relationship among a sample of HIV+ mothers and their healthy children (N = 181 pairs). Mothers completed demographic and self-efficacy measures; children completed measures assessing the parent-child relationship and child adjustment (i...
February 9, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Vanessa Veronese, Zaw Min Oo, Zaw Win Thein, Poe Poe Aung, Bridget L Draper, Chad Hughes, Claire Ryan, Alisa Pedrana, Mark Stoové
Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) are a priority population for HIV prevention in Myanmar but report sub-optimal HIV testing frequency. Previous studies have shown that peer involvement in HIV testing can normalize stigmatized sexualities and reduce barriers to testing. We explored the acceptability of peer-delivered HIV testing among 425 undiagnosed MSM and TW in Yangon and Mandalay. An overwhelming majority of participants (86%) reported being 'comfortable/very comfortable' with peer-delivered HIV testing...
February 9, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Katherine E Schlusser, Shweta Sharma, Pola de la Torre, Giuseppe Tambussi, Rika Draenert, Angie N Pinto, Julia A Metcalf, Danielle German, James D Neaton, Oliver Laeyendecker
Identifying individuals with recent HIV infection is critical to research related to viral reservoirs, outbreak investigations and intervention applications. A multi-assay algorithm (MAA) for recency of infection was used in conjunction with self-reported date of infection and documented date of diagnosis to estimate the number of participants recently infected in the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial. We tested samples for three groups of participants from START using a MAA: (1) 167 individuals who reported being infected ≤ 6 months before randomization; (2) 771 individuals who did not know their date of infection but were diagnosed within 6 months before randomization; and (3) as controls for the MAA, 199 individuals diagnosed with HIV ≥ 2 years before randomization...
February 9, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Letitia E Travaglini, Seth S Himelhoch, Li Juan Fang
Black women living with HIV/AIDS (LWHA) are a subgroup with the highest growing rates of HIV infection in the United States. Stigma and co-occurring mental and physical health problems have been reported among Black women LWHA, and research on the benefits of social and religious support, often major protective factors among Black women, has been met with mixed findings. The current study examined the relation between anticipated HIV stigma and mental and physical health symptoms and risk and protective factors (discrimination, coping, social support) among Black women LWHA (N = 220)...
February 7, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Maria Reinius, Maria Wiklander, Lena Wettergren, Veronica Svedhem, Lars E Eriksson
The aim was to empirically test the tenets of Earnshaw and Chaudoir's HIV stigma framework and its potential covariates for persons living with HIV in Sweden. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was used on survey data from 173 persons living with HIV in Sweden. Experiencing stigma was reported to a higher extent by younger persons and by women who had migrated to Sweden. As expected, anticipated stigma was related to lower Physical functioning, and internalized stigma to lower Emotional wellbeing...
February 7, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Lynn Murphy Michalopoulos, Tina Jiwatram-Negron, Louisa Gilbert, Stacey A Shaw, Alyssa Brelsford, Assel Terlikbayeva, Sholpan Primbetova, Nabila El-Bassel
We examined potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and the relationship between PTEs and HIV risk behaviors among male market workers in Kazakhstan, comparing Kazakhstani to external migrants. Using respondent-driven sampling, participants were 1342 male marketplace workers in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regressions were conducted. We found high prevalence of PTEs among participants, and significant differences between PTEs and HIV risk by migrant status. Kazakhstanis reporting 1-2 or three-or-more traumatic events were more likely to report engaging in sex trading, compared to Kazakhstanis who reported no PTEs (OR = 3...
February 6, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Moses Kelly Kumwenda, Elizabeth Lucy Corbett, Jeremiah Chikovore, Mackwellings Phiri, Daniel Mwale, Augustine Talumba Choko, Marriot Nliwasa, Rodrick Sambakunsi, Miriam Taegtmeyer, Tore Jarl Gutteberg, Alister Munthali, Nicola Desmond
A community-based HIV self-testing study in Blantyre, Malawi demonstrated that not all individuals living in couples tested with their partner. We describe factors dissuading individuals in couples from self-testing with their partner. Data were drawn from qualitative study exploring consequences of HIV self-testing within couples. In-depth interviews were conducted with 33 individuals living in couples who tested alone. Participants expressed fear of dealing with HIV-discordant relationships. Failure to self-test with a partner was correlated with gender, with more men than women overtly declining or unconsciously unable to have joint HIV self-test...
February 6, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Miriam Hartmann, Margaret McConnell, Linda-Gail Bekker, Connie Celum, Thola Bennie, Jabulisile Zuma, Ariane van der Straten
In high prevalence environments relationship characteristics are likely to be associated with HIV risk, yet evidence indicates general underestimation of risk. Furthermore uncertainty about partner's risk may challenge PrEP demand among young African women. We conducted quantitative and qualitative interviews with women before and after HIV discussions with partners, to explore how partner's behavior affected risk perceptions and interest in PrEP. Twenty-three women were interviewed once; twelve had a follow-up interview after speaking to their partners...
February 5, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Thomas H F Whitfield, Steven A John, H Jonathon Rendina, Christian Grov, Jeffrey T Parsons
Literature concerning pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among gay and bisexual identifying men (GBM) has explored facilitators and barriers to uptake and adherence. Far less reported are the reasons why GBM discontinue PrEP use. A national sample of 1071 GBM completed surveys about PrEP use and discontinuation. Participants who were still taking PrEP the 24-month follow up were compared to those that had stopped. Eighteen percent (n = 31) of GBM who reported ever using PrEP discontinued use. Younger (AOR = 0...
February 5, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Sybil G Hosek, Gary W Harper, Diana Lemos, Jane Burke-Miller, Sonia Lee, Lawrence Friedman, Jaime Martinez
ACCEPT is a gender-specific, group-based intervention aimed at addressing factors that impact engagement in care for youth newly diagnosed with HIV, including stigma, disclosure, healthy relationships, substance use, and future life planning. To test the efficacy of ACCEPT, we enrolled 103 youth and randomly assigned 57 to the ACCEPT condition and 46 to a health education control condition (HEALTH). Acceptability ratings were very high for both conditions. Over the 12 months post-intervention, the ACCEPT group was associated with an odds ratio of 2...
February 2, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Daniel E Mauck, Diana M Sheehan, Kristopher P Fennie, Lorene M Maddox, Mary Jo Trepka
This study's objective was to examine the role of gay neighborhood residence and other neighborhood factors in racial/ethnic disparities in retention in HIV care and viral load suppression during 2015. Florida residents diagnosed 2000-2014 with HIV infection and with transmission mode of men who have sex with men (MSM) were included in multi-level logistic regression models. Of 29,156 MSM, 29.4% were not retained and 34.2% were not virally suppressed. Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) had a higher likelihood of not being retained (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 1...
January 25, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
G Vallecillo, M J Robles, X Durán, E Lerma, J P Horcajada, M Torrens
AIDS is a major cause of preventable mortality in HIV-infected people who inject drugs (HIV-PWID). An observational study was conducted to examine trends in AIDS mortality and related factors among HIV-infected individuals who died between 2000 and 2015 at an urban hospital. Overall HIV-mortality was 6.5% (413/6307) with no changes over time (p 0.76). AIDS mortality dropped in HIV-PWID (p 0.02) although it represented 26.4% at the end of study period. Age (per one-year increase) [odds ratio (OR) 0.95], third study period (2010-2015) (OR 0...
January 25, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Emily M Cherenack, Kathleen J Sikkema, Melissa H Watt, Nathan B Hansen, Patrick A Wilson
HIV diagnosis presents a critical opportunity to reduce secondary transmission, improve engagement in care, and enhance overall well-being. To develop relevant interventions, research is needed on the psychosocial experiences of newly diagnosed individuals. This study examined avoidant coping, self-efficacy for HIV disclosure decisions, and depression among 92 newly diagnosed men who have sex with men who reported recent sexual risk behavior. It was hypothesized that avoidant coping would mediate the relationship between self-efficacy and depression...
January 25, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Caitlin Quinn, Neema Nakyanjo, William Ddaaki, Virginia M Burke, Naadiya Hutchinson, Joseph Kagaayi, Maria J Wawer, Fred Nalugoda, Caitlin E Kennedy
HIV partner notification involves contacting sexual partners of people who test HIV positive and referring them to HIV testing, treatment, and prevention services. To understand values and preferences of key and general populations in Rakai, Uganda, we conducted 6 focus group discussions and 63 in-depth interviews in high prevalence fishing communities and low prevalence mainland communities. Participants included fishermen and sex workers in fishing communities, male and female mainland community members, and healthcare providers...
January 25, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
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