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AIDS and Behavior

Jill Murphree, D Scott Batey, Emma Sophia Kay, Andrew O Westfall, Michael J Mugavero
Certain populations of people living with HIV (PLWH) are at greater risk for falling out of care, including PLWH with a history of incarceration. This is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In the current retrospective cohort study, we examined patient-level information for 340 PLWH who had transferred HIV care services from prison or from other community-based or private HIV primary care providers to a large urban HIV clinic in the southeastern United States. Results indicated that, compared to those transferring care from another community-based or private medical provider, PLWH transferring care from prison were significantly less likely to be retained in care than PLWH transferring care from other providers, even after controlling for other factors...
August 17, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Anne Ruhweza Katahoire, Cecily Banura, Wilson Winstons Muhwezi, Sheri Bastien, Annegreet Wubs, Knut-Inge Klepp, Leif Edvard Aarø
In a cluster-randomized trial conducted in 22 government secondary schools in Uganda, effects of a school-based intervention aimed at improving aspects of parent/caregiver-adolescent communication on sexuality were examined. The intervention comprised classroom-based education sessions, take home assignments for students to discuss with parents/caregivers and parenting workshops. Baseline and post intervention questionnaires were completed by students and by parents/caregivers. Effect estimates were significant for both students and parents/caregivers on sexuality communication frequency and quality, and for positive and negative attitudes towards sex-related communication, all in the desired direction with effect sizes ranging from 0...
August 16, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Michalina A Montaño, Julia C Dombrowski, Sayan Dasgupta, Matthew R Golden, Ann Duerr, Lisa E Manhart, Lindley A Barbee, Christine M Khosropour
We examined changes in sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among 183 men who have sex with men (MSM) initiating pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) at an STD Clinic in Seattle, WA. We used generalized estimating equations to measure changes in sexual behavior during PrEP use, and linked PrEP patient data with STI surveillance data to compare the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and early syphilis in the periods prior to and during PrEP use. Reporting never using condoms in the prior 30 days increased (adjusted relative risk = 1...
August 16, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Jane J Lee, Gary Yu
Latino immigrants in the United States are at elevated risk for HIV infection and delayed HIV diagnosis. Immigration documentation status and its contribution to fears are important barriers to accessing health services including HIV testing. A currently changing political climate within the United States may have increased the complexity of the intersection of documentation status and health care access. This study used an anonymous survey conducted in March and April 2017 in New York City to compare: sociodemographic characteristics, HIV testing behaviors, HIV risk behaviors, and perceptions of fear around HIV testing among documented and undocumented Latino immigrants (N = 301)...
August 14, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Elizabeth A Kelvin, Gavin George, Eva Mwai, Samuel Kinyanjui, Matthew L Romo, Jacob O Odhiambo, Faith Oruko, Eston Nyaga, Kaymarlin Govender, Joanne E Mantell
We assessed whether informing female sex workers about the availability of HIV self-testing at clinics in Kenya using text messages would increase HIV testing rates. We selected a sample of 2196 female sex workers registered in an electronic health record system who were irregular HIV testers and randomized them to be sent a text message announcing the availability of (1) HIV self-test kits sent three times (intervention), (2) general HIV testing sent three times (enhanced standard of care [SOC]), or (3) general HIV testing sent one time (traditional SOC)...
August 14, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Steven P Philpot, Garrett Prestage, Jeanne Ellard, Andrew E Grulich, Benjamin R Bavinton
Many gay Australian serodiscordant couples are currently relying on an HIV-positive partner's undetectable viral load (UVL) to practice condomless sex. For these couples, preventing HIV is often considered a mutual responsibility, yet they lack a formally endorsed strategy that helps them navigate 'UVL for prevention' (UfP) as a couple. Drawing on interviews with 21 Australian gay men representing 15 serodiscordant couples, we explored 'the couple' within serodiscordant HIV prevention. In learning to rely on UfP, couples were initially apprehensive as they navigated unfamiliar territory, but their concerns faded over time...
August 13, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Ryan R Guinness, Jonathan E Volk, Leo B Hurley, Tadd T Tobias, Julia L Marcus
We piloted a low-intensity outreach intervention to increase linkage to PrEP care among HIV-uninfected individuals with rectal sexually transmitted infections or syphilis. We sent a secure email message or letter with information about accessing PrEP. Of those sent an email, 12.4% were linked to PrEP care; linkage differed by race/ethnicity, ranging from 0% of Black individuals to 32% of Hispanic individuals (P = 0.019). No individuals sent letters were linked to PrEP care. A one-time secure email to high-risk patients is feasible to increase linkage to PrEP care...
August 12, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Chi-Chi N Udeagu, Jamie Huang, Kavita Misra
Late presentation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care is an important concern for clinical outcomes and HIV prevention. Significant proportions of HIV-diagnosed persons are not timely linked to care following HIV diagnosis. We implemented and evaluated an intervention to link to care persons never in HIV care (NIC). Disease intervention specialists (DIS) traced persons presumed to be NIC since HIV diagnosis, offered them assistance with linkage to care, and elicited reasons for NIC. We examined the overall outcomes of the intervention and reasons for NIC...
August 10, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Timothy N Crawford, Alice C Thornton
Alcohol is prevalent among people living with HIV and can lead to multiple comorbid conditions (multimorbidity). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between alcohol use history and multimorbidity among people living with HIV. A retrospective cohort study design was conducted at an urban, academic infectious disease clinic in Kentucky. Individuals seeking care between 2010 and 2014 were included. Modified Poisson regression was used to examine the relationship between alcohol use history (never, current, and former use) and multimorbidity (≥ 2 conditions)...
August 7, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Tyler B Wray, Mark A Celio, Ashley E Pérez, Graham T DiGuiseppi, Daniel J Carr, Laura Allison Woods, Peter M Monti
Alcohol use is a key risk factor for HIV infection among MSM, in part because intoxication may interfere with the use of prevention methods like condoms. However, few studies have examined whether this is due to alcohol's pharmacological or expectancy effects or explored the specific aspects of sexual decision-making that may be affected. In this study, high-risk, heavy drinking MSM (N = 121) were randomly assigned to receive either (1) alcohol beverages, (2) placebo beverages, or (3) control beverages, before navigating a video-based sexual risk scenario that assessed several aspects of sexual decision-making...
August 7, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Luke D Mitzel, Laura E VanderDrift, Michael Ioerger, Peter A Vanable
High adherence rates to antiretroviral medications are necessary for people living with HIV/AIDS. The current study focuses on relationship-level predictors of HIV medication adherence by testing whether adherence rates differ by dyadic serostatus (seroconcordant vs. serodiscordant couples) among individuals with HIV in romantic relationships. Results showed a significant interaction between dyadic serostatus and relationship duration on adherence, such that individuals in long-term serodiscordant relationships reported better adherence than short-term serodiscordant relationships or seroconcordant partners in long-term relationships...
August 6, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
E Jennifer Edelman, Brent A Moore, Stephen R Holt, Nathan Hansen, Tassos C Kyriakides, Michael Virata, Sheldon T Brown, Amy C Justice, Kendall J Bryant, David A Fiellin, Lynn E Fiellin
We sought to test the efficacy of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) on HIV-related and drinking outcomes. From April 2011-February 2015, we conducted a 4-site randomized double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial involving 51 HIV-positive patients with heavy drinking and < 95% antiretroviral (ART) adherence. All participants received counseling. The primary outcome was proportion with ≥ 95% ART adherence. Secondary outcomes included HIV biomarkers, VACS Index score, and past 30-day heavy drinking days...
August 2, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
L Medina-Perucha, H Family, J Scott, S Chapman, C Dack
This systematic literature review identified factors associated with sexual risks related to sexually transmitted infections (STI), HIV and other blood-borne viruses (BBV) among women using heroin and other drugs. The search strategy included five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PsycNET, Web of Science, Scopus), and PsycEXTRA for grey literature. Out of the 12,135 publications screened, 30 peer-reviewed articles were included. Most publications were cross-sectional (n = 25), quantitative (n = 23) and included 11,305 women...
August 2, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Hyunsuk Yoo, Juyeon Lee, Jae-Joon Yim, Till Bärnighausen, Frank Tanser, Sue K Park
We investigated whether mortality risk increases with the number of full-term pregnancies in HIV-infected women. Our study is based on data from the ACDIS cohort, collected in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Mortality risk for different number of pregnancies in HIV-infected women was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards model. The risk of TB or AIDS mortality in HIV-uninfected women did not change with the number of full-term pregnancies, while the corresponding risk increased markedly in HIV-infected women...
August 2, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Marie Préau, Marion Mora, Costanza Puppo, Vanessa Laguette, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Faroudy Boufassa, Laurence Meyer, Olivier Lambotte, Bruno Spire
People living with HIV who spontaneously control the virus without antiretroviral treatment are called HIV Controllers and their status places them at the limits of bio-clinical normality. The objective of this study was to investigate an unexplored field: HIV Controllers' quality of life (QOL). Using quantitative methods, we compared the QOL of untreated (by definition) HIV Controllers in the ANRS CO18 HIV Controller cohort study, with the QOL of treated patients in the French national survey ANRS VESPA 2...
August 2, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Sabine L van Elsland, Remco P H Peters, Nelis Grobbelaar, Patiswa Ketelo, Maarten O Kok, Mark F Cotton, A Marceline van Furth
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a challenge for HIV-infected children. In this cross-sectional study, we used structured interview-administered questionnaires and medical records to measure adherence levels and factors associated with adherence and viral suppression. We included 195 South African children aged 2.1-12.9 on ART. Adherence levels ranged between 20.5% (pill count) and 89.1% (self-report). Boys were less adherent according to self-report, girls were less adherent according to pill count...
July 27, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Lori A J Scott-Sheldon, Brittany L Balletto, Marissa L Donahue, Melissa M Feulner, Dean G Cruess, Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher, Rena R Wing, Michael P Carey
This meta-analysis examined the effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on stress, psychological symptoms, and biomarkers of disease among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Comprehensive searches identified 16 studies that met the inclusion criteria (N = 1059; M age = 42 years; 20% women). Participants had been living with HIV for an average of 8 years (range = < 1-20 years); 65% were currently on antiretroviral therapy. Between-group analyses indicated that depressive symptoms were reduced among participants receiving the MBIs compared to controls (d+ = 0...
July 27, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Jessica M Fogel, Theodorus Sandfort, Yinfeng Zhang, Xu Guo, William Clarke, Autumn Breaud, Vanessa Cummings, Erica L Hamilton, Arthur Ogendo, Noel Kayange, Ravindre Panchia, Karen Dominguez, Ying Q Chen, Susan H Eshleman
Some HIV-infected individuals in research studies may choose not to disclose knowledge of their HIV status to study staff. We evaluated the accuracy of self-reported HIV status among African men and transgender women who have sex with men and who were screened for a research study. Sixty-seven of 183 HIV-infected participants reported a prior HIV diagnosis. Samples from the remaining 116 participants were tested for antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Thirty-six of the 116 participants had ARV drugs detected, indicating that they were on antiretroviral treatment; these participants were classified as previously diagnosed based on ARV drug testing...
July 26, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Lisa G Johnston, Phyu-Mar Soe, Min Yu Aung, Savina Ammassari
Estimating the sizes of key populations at risk for HIV is crucial for HIV prevention and treatment. We provide findings of population size estimates (PSE) of males who inject drugs (MWID) in Myanmar, provide an intuitive method for countries to extrapolate subnational estimates into national estimates and provide guidance on how to maximize the utility of current PSE techniques. We used unique object and service multipliers, and successive sampling PSE in conjunction with a respondent driven sampling survey of MWID in ten Myanmar townships in 2014...
July 25, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Jennifer L Brown, Peter A Vanable, Rebecca A Bostwick, Michael P Carey
Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience HIV disparities. This study pilot-tested a two session, group-delivered intervention to promote sexual health and stress management skills for HIV-infected MSM. Participants (N = 80) were randomized to an immediate or delayed intervention condition. Analyses of covariance examined intervention efficacy. Compared to the delayed condition, intervention condition participants reported: greater HIV transmission knowledge (p < .001), higher HIV disclosure self-efficacy (p = ...
July 23, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
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