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AIDS and Behavior

Jennifer J Carroll, Jonathan Colasanti, Marlene C Lira, Carlos Del Rio, Jeffrey H Samet
Clinical practice that utilizes chronic opioid therapy has been recognized as one major cause of the opioid crisis. Among patients living with HIV, the risks associated with chronic opioid therapy may be complicated by factors such as co-occurring mental health diagnoses, substance use, and economic marginalization. Improving opioid prescribing practices in HIV clinics requires attention to these and other characteristics common to HIV care. In the context of a randomized controlled trial testing an intervention to improve opioid prescribing practices in HIV outpatient clinics, we interviewed physicians about their perspectives on chronic opioid therapy...
December 5, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Thurka Sangaramoorthy, Amelia Jamison, Typhanye Dyer
Evidence suggests that racial disparities in the HIV care continuum persist in older age groups, particularly among African Americans. The objective of this systematic review was to identify factors that facilitate or hinder older African Americans' engagement in the HIV care continuum. For studies published between 2003 and 2018, we: (1) searched databases using keywords, (2) excluded non-peer-reviewed studies, (3) limited findings to older African Americans and the HIV care continuum, and (4) retrieved and summarized data focused on barriers and facilitators of the HIV care continuum...
December 5, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Macland Njagi, Cristian J Chandler, Robert W S Coulter, Daniel E Siconolfi, Ronald D Stall, James E Egan
Kenya has been home to one of the most severe HIV/AIDS epidemics in Sub-Saharan Africa. This persistent epidemic requires interventions tailored to affected populations, particularly men who have sex with men (MSM). Given the resource constraints of many clinics and ecological challenges of Kenya, such as the illegality of sex among MSM, interventions to address HIV must strategically engage this population. This quasi-experimental pilot study of N = 497 sought to explore differences in discovering previously unknown HIV-positive MSM in Nairobi, Kenya...
December 1, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Shana M Green, DeAnne Turner, Julie A Baldwin, Eric R Walsh-Buhi, Cheryl A Vamos, Getachew Dagne, Stephanie L Marhefka
The information, motivation, behavioral Skills (IMB) model was used to identify factors that affect condom use with new sex partners that were met offline or online. Mixed methods data were collected from adults between the ages of 18 and 29 years who reported a new sex partner. A model was composed of participants' IMB scale scores to determine the effect of these variables on condom use. A subset of 20 survey participants completed interviews exploring how IMB model elements may have influenced their condom use...
December 1, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Rachel Rinehart, Deep Rao, Rivet K Amico, Eduardo Ruiz, Peter Brandes, Cecilia Correa, Siavash Pasalar, Javier R Lama, Ann Duerr, Yamile Molina
Experiencing HIV-related stigma has important impacts on the mental health of people living with HIV, which has implications for treatment adherence, disease progression, and health outcomes. The impacts of stigma are particularly important to consider among sexual and gender minorities, who often face a disproportionate burden of HIV. To address the implications of stigma in these key populations, we leveraged a longitudinal study conducted among Peruvian sexual and gender minorities to compare the relative effects of multiple mediators affecting the relationship between experienced HIV-related stigma and psychological distress: internalized HIV-related stigma, adaptive coping, and maladaptive coping...
December 1, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Steven Paul Woods, Kelli L Sullivan
HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment is an independent predictor of low general health literacy, which can be associated with poor disease outcomes (e.g., viremia). Given the increasing frequency with which health behaviors occur in an online environment (e.g., health information seeking, provider interactions), there is a specific need to understand the predictors of electronic health (eHealth) literacy of persons living with HIV disease. In this study, 90 HIV+ persons completed the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS), which measures one's awareness, skills and evaluation of online health resources...
December 1, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Lao-Tzu Allan-Blitz, M Christina Herrera, Gino M Calvo, Silver K Vargas, Carlos F Caceres, Jeffrey D Klausner, Kelika A Konda
Venue-based testing may improve screening efforts for HIV and syphilis, thereby reducing transmission. We offered onsite rapid dual HIV and syphilis testing at venues popular among MSM and/or transgender women in Lima, Peru. We used Poisson regression to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for factors associated with each infection. Most (90.4%) of the 303 participants would test more frequently if testing was available at alternative venues. New cases of HIV (69) and syphilis infection (84) were identified...
November 30, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Tesfaye Regassa Feyissa, Melissa L Harris, Alemu Sufa Melka, Deborah Loxton
In 2014, about 1.5 million pregnancies occurred among HIV-positive women in low and middle-income countries. To pool magnitude and factors associated with unintended pregnancy in women living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, a systematic search of electronic databases was undertaken in November 2016. Pooling the magnitude of unintended pregnancy reported by 14 studies yielded a crude summary prevalence of 55.9%. The magnitude of unwanted pregnancy and mistimed pregnancy in six studies ranged from 14 to 59 and 9 to 47...
November 22, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Ana P Ortiz, Mark Machin, Marievelisse Soto-Salgado, Hilmaris Centeno-Girona, Darilyn Rivera-Collazo, Daisy González, Moon S Chen, Vivian Colón-López
Anal cancer incidence is higher in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) than in the general population. Participation of PLWHA in anal cancer clinical trials (CTs) is essential; Hispanic PLWHA are underrepresented in CTs. We conducted a behavioral CT among 305 PLWHA in Puerto Rico to measure the efficacy of an educational video in increasing calls and screening into an anal cancer CT. Participants received printed educational materials on anal cancer and CTs; the intervention group also received an educational video...
November 22, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Angela M Parcesepe, Denis Nash, Olga Tymejczyk, William Reidy, Sarah Gorrell Kulkarni, Batya Elul
Problem drinking is commonly reported among people living with HIV (PLWH), associated with suboptimal HIV care outcomes and differs by gender. Psychosocial factors associated with problem drinking among PLWH remain poorly understood, including whether they differ by gender. This analysis examines the relationship between psychosocial factors and problem drinking separately by gender among PLWH in Tanzania. Cross-sectional data were collected from 812 men and non-pregnant women living with HIV aged 18 or older enrolling in HIV care at four health facilities in Tanzania...
November 21, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Gabriel J Culbert, Agung Waluyo, Melinda Wang, Tissa Aulia Putri, Alexander R Bazazi, Frederick L Altice
With adequate support, people with HIV (PWH) may achieve high levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during incarceration. We examined factors associated with ART utilization and adherence among incarcerated PWH (N = 150) in Indonesia. ART utilization was positively associated with HIV status disclosure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.5, 95% CI 1.2-24.1, p = 0.023), drug dependency (aOR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.2-12.6, p = 0.022), health service satisfaction (aOR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6...
November 21, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Aryan Esmaeili, Mostafa Shokoohi, Ahmad Danesh, Hamid Sharifi, Mohammad Karamouzian, AliAkbar Haghdoost, Armita Shahesmaeili, Samaneh Akbarpour, Meghan D Morris, Ali Mirzazadeh
We used two national surveys (2010: N = 1597; 2013: N = 1057) of people who inject drugs (PWID) in past-month to assess the prevalence and population size of PWID with either safe or unsafe injection and sex behaviors, overall and by HIV status. In 2013, only 27.0% (vs. 32.3% in 2010) had safe injection and sex, 24.6% (vs. 23.3% in 2010) had unsafe injection and sex, 26.4% (vs. 26.5% in 2010) had only unsafe injection, and 22.0% (vs. 18.0% in 2010) had unsafe sex only. Among HIV-positive PWID in 2013, only 22...
November 20, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Toan Ha, Stephen L Schensul, Mitchell Irving, Marie A Brault, Jean J Schensul, Priti Prabhughate, Melita Vaz
Depression, as well as other psychosocial factors, remains largely unaddressed among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in low and middle-income countries. Depression is a common occurrence among PLHIV and is elevated in those who consume alcohol. This paper will document the presence of depressive symptoms in alcohol-consuming male PLHIV receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in India. It examines the correlates of depressive symptoms and uses the data from in-depth interviews to explain the nature of the statistical relationships obtained from an NIH-funded a multilevel, multi-centric intervention study...
November 17, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Heidi E Hutton, Catherine R Lesko, Ximin Li, Carol B Thompson, Bryan Lau, Sonia Napravnik, Kenneth H Mayer, W Christopher Mathews, Mary E McCaul, Heidi M Crane, Rob J Fredericksen, Karen L Cropsey, Michael Saag, Katerina Christopoulos, Geetanjali Chander
Among people with HIV, alcohol use is associated with increased prevalence of sexual transmission behaviors. We examined associations between alcohol use in the prior year and sexual behaviors approximately six months later among 1857 women, 6752 men who have sex with men (MSM) and 2685 men who have sex with women (MSW). Any alcohol use was associated with increased risk of unsafe vaginal sex among women; anal sex and =>2 anal sex partners among MSM; and anal sex, =>2 anal or vaginal sex partners, and unsafe vaginal sex among MSW...
November 15, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Jennifer A Pellowski, Devon M Price, Abigail D Harrison, Emily L Tuthill, Landon Myer, Don Operario, Mark N Lurie
A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the efficacy of women-focused ART adherence interventions. Included studies (a) reported on a behavioral ART adherence intervention for cis-women living with HIV, (b) measured ART adherence as an outcome, and (c) employed a randomized controlled trial design. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, interventions significantly improved ART adherence compared to control conditions (random-effects d = 0.82, 95% CI [0.18, 1...
November 15, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Katherine A Buckheit, Luke D Mitzel, Stephen A Maisto, Tibor Palfai, Peter Vanable
Behavioral interventions remain the preferred strategy for reducing HIV-related risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), one of the populations most affected by HIV. To improve intervention efforts, research is needed to identify cognitive-motivational factors that may play a role in sexual risk behaviors among MSM. This study sought to replicate and extend previous work from a heterosexual population that identified a serial mediation effect of perceived intoxication and subjective sexual arousal in the relationship between alcohol consumption and determinants of sexual risk in a population of MSM...
November 14, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Shufaa R Uvila, Tara B Mtuy, Mark Urassa, James Beard, Baltazar Mtenga, Michael Mahande, Jim Todd
HIV care and treatment clinics (CTC) are important for management of HIV morbidity and mortality, and to reduce HIV transmission. Enrollment in HIV care and treatment clinics remains low in many developing countries. We followed up 632 newly diagnosed HIV patients aged 15 years and above from Magu District, Tanzania. Logistic regression was used to assess factors significantly associated with enrollment for CTC services. Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank tests were used to evaluate differences in timing uptake of services...
November 14, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Kayo Fujimoto, Peng Wang, Charlene A Flash, Lisa M Kuhns, Yucheng Zhao, Muhammad Amith, John A Schneider
The objective of this study is to identify individual-level factors and health venue utilization patterns associated with uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and to evaluate whether PrEP uptake behavior is further diffused among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) through health venue referral networks. A sample of 543 HIV-seronegative YMSM aged 16-29 were recruited in 2014-2016 in Chicago, IL, and Houston, TX. Stochastic social network models were estimated to model PrEP uptake. PrEP uptake was associated with more utilization of health venues in Houston and higher levels of sexual risk behavior in Chicago...
November 14, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Jingjing Li, Carla J Berg, Michael R Kramer, Regine Haardörfer, Maria Zlotorzynska, Travis H Sanchez
This study explored the extent to which county- and individual-level factors were associated with awareness, willingness to use, and use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among US men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted multilevel analyses using a sample of 8338 MSM residing in 1257 US counties drawn from the 2014-2015 American Men's Internet Survey to examine these associations, with focuses on variation in PrEP outcomes across counties and proportion variation explained by county-level factors (HIV prevalence, racial composition, median household income, income inequality, health insurance coverage)...
November 14, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Johanna Meléndez, Samuel W Reinhardt, Jane A O'Halloran, Andrej Spec, Andrea Alonzo Cordon, William G Powderly, Carlos Mejia Villatoro
Early HIV diagnosis remains a challenge in many regions with delayed diagnosis resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of people living with HIV receiving outpatient care at a large tertiary referral center in Guatemala to describe the proportion of late presenters (LP) and missed opportunities for HIV diagnosis. Of 3686 patients, 2990 (81.1%) were LP who were more likely to be male (60.2% vs. 48.0%, p < 0.0001), heterosexual (88.0% vs. 78.0%, p < 0...
November 13, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
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