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Biocontrol Science

Shiho Aoki, Kohei Yamakawa, Kenji Kubo, Junpei Takeshita, Miki Takeuchi, Yuka Nobuoka, Risei Wada, Mikio Kikuchi, Jun Sawai
 Silicone is widely used in packing materials, medical equipment, and separation membranes. Since microbial cells easily adhere to the surface of silicone materials and form biofilms, techniques for incorporating antimicrobial activity into silicone materials are in high demand. This study describes the preparation of silver (Ag)/silicone composite membranes through a simple two-step immersion process, utilizing an iodine solution followed by a silver nitrate solution at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that particles with sizes of several nanometers to several tens of nanometers were present on the silicone membrane surface; these particles were identified as silver iodide using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) ...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Hitomi Kuwahara, Junko Ninomiya, Hiroshi Morita
Studies have reported that cell density, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and redox reactions, can induce bioluminescence in bacteria. Conversely, the relationship between seawater components and luminescence is not well understood. The efficacy of marine luminous bacteria as biosensors, and their reactivity to fungicides (for example postharvest pesticides) are also unknown. Therefore, we studied the relationship between the luminescence of Aliivibrio fischeri and the composition of artificial seawater media and analyzed the toxicity of fungicides using A...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Shusaku Suzuki, Yoko Mano, Nobuhiko Furuya, Katsumi Fujitani
This is the first confirmed report of terbinafine low susceptibility Trichophyton rubrum, BGUTR13, in Japan collected from the whole sole of the elderly over 65s with cotton swab sampling method at the special nursing care-home in 2016. We revealed BGUTR13 showed low susceptibility (MIC, >128 μg/mL) against terbinafine. But, BGUTR13 exhibited normal susceptibility to itraconazole, did not showed cross-resistance. Also, the squalene epoxidase gene of terbinafine low susceptibility strain BGUTR13 which is the target of terbinafine contained newly confirmed one mismatch...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Takahito Ohmine, Seika Narai, Toshiki Matsubara, Toshihito Nomura, Kosuke Oda, Masaya Fukushi, Takashi Irie, Takayuki Komatsu, Yukinobu Tohya, Takemasa Sakaguchi
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is frequently used as a surrogate of human norovirus. We investigated eligibility of FCV for anti-viral assay by investigating the stability of infectivity and pH sensitivity in comparison with other viruses. We found that infectivities of FCV and murine norovirus (MNV) are relatively unstable in infected cells compared with those of coxsackievirus (CoV) and poliovirus (PoV) , suggesting that FCV and MNV have vulnerability. Western blotting indicated that inactivation of FCV was not due to viral protein degradation...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Yoko Sato, Masayuki Ishihara, Koichi Fukuda, Shingo Nakamura, Kaoru Murakami, Masanori Fujita, Hidetaka Yokoe
Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 -N) and nitrite-nitrogen (NO2 -N) are constituents of the nitrogen cycle. NO3 -N is toxic to humans, primarily due to its reduction to NO2 -N. In Japan, NO3 -N and NO2 -N levels in tap water must not exceed 10 mg/L and only NO2 -N alone not 0.04 mg/L, respectively. In this study, we verified the effect of microorganisms and ultraviolet (UV) to increase of NO2 -N in water. First, all tested drinking-waters including tap water and commercial mineral water in PET bottles had < 2 mg/L NO3 -N and undetectable levels (< 0...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Izumi Matsumoto, Takahiro Arai, Yui Nishimoto, Vichai Leelavatcharamas, Masakazu Furuta, Masao Kishida
The thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, growing at high temperature (45℃) , showed stronger survival under heat shock at 50℃ than the brewing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was unable to grow at 45℃. The survival rate of K. marxianus decreased to 10% during heat shock at 50℃ for 20 min, and to less than 0.01% at 60℃ for 20 min. Cells with damaged cellular membranes were infrequently observed at 50℃ and had decreased significantly from heat shock at 60℃. The metabolic activity of K...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Yasutaka Mori, Masashi Shirokawa, Shoya Sasaki
In this study, antibacterial polyelectrolyte/silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) composite powder was mixed with epoxy resins as fillers to impart antibacterial activity. Either an anhydride-type or a polyamideamine-type curing agent was applied to a bisphenol A-type base compound to prepare the epoxy resins. Antibacterial assays of these resins against Escherichia coli were performed using the shake tube technique; suppression of antibacterial activity was found for the anhydride-type resin, although the polyamideamine-type resin did exhibit antibacterial activity...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Toshio Sakai, Tetsuaki Tsuchido, Masakazu Furuta
Inhibitory effects of the powders of paprika, red pepper, black pepper, sage, oregano and thyme in a solid medium after heat treatment and gamma-irradiation on the development from spore of Bacillus subtilis were examined using calorimetry. Based on the f(t) curve (Antoce et al., 1996) from the thermogram obtained, two parameters, the growth rate constant and the growth retardation time, were used to evaluate the inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effects of paprika and red pepper powders were enhanced by the spore pretreatment with heat, but not significantly with irradiation...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Takahiro Yamakawa, Kazuhisa Tomita, Jun Sawai
We assessed the properties of biofilms (BFs) formed by mono- and co-cultures of Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (L+P-BF) at low temperatures and examined their sensitivity to several antibacterial substances. L. monocytogenes viable counts comprised only 1-10% of total L+P-BF viable counts at 10℃ and 15℃, indicating the significant prevalence of P. aeruginosa in co-cultures. L+P-BF formed at 10℃ and 15℃ showed very high resistance to antibiotics and NaClO. Examination of the effects of nattokinase and nisin, natural food additives with antibacterial properties, showed that their application alone failed to inhibit L+P-BF development at 10℃ and 15℃...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Eri Tagawa, Mayumi Ura, Eri Nakatsuka, Yoshiaki Hirono, Hidehisa Kawahara
 We investigated whether trimers of serine, threonine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine which may interact with water molecules and ice, show anti-ice nucleation activity. Only tyrosine trimer had high levels of anti-ice nucleation activity (10.10±0.74℃) at a final concentration of 0.2 mM. This was constant at an activity of 2.0℃ between the 0.01-0.1 mM concentrations, and rapidly increased at 0.1 mM or more. At the final concentration of 0.2 mM or more, the activity of the tyrosine trimer was almost constant (from 9...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Kazuyuki Sogawa, Mika Kobayashi, Jun Suzuki, Akihiro Sanda, Yoshio Kodera, Masafumi Fukuyama
 Group A streptococcus is a bacterium that resides in the throat and skin and causes respiratory infection and occasionally glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Streptolysin O (SLO) produced by Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) binds to the cell membrane, particularly to that of white and red blood cells, and is toxic to the cells and tissue. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory activity of water-soluble polyphenols in olives (Olea europaea) against SLO-induced hemolysis. Hydroxytyrosol inhibited SLO-induced hemolytic activity, and the amount required for 50% inhibition of hemolysis was 1...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Jong Il Kim, Seong-Kil Son
 Dandruff and underarm malodor are caused by microorganisms. Personal hygiene products that contain various types of antimicrobial agents are available and are used for the prevention and alleviation of these conditions. However, their effects are not significant and often do not last long. Working toward a solution, hair was treated with thioglycolic acid, a reducing agent, and then with [2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride to covalently bond and immobilize quaternary ammonium chloride (QAC) to hair shafts...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Noriko Shimasaki, Akira Okaue, Ritsuko Kikuno, Katsuaki Shinohara
 Exact evaluation of the performance of surgical masks and biohazard protective clothing materials against pathogens is important because it can provide helpful information that healthcare workers can use to select suitable materials to reduce infection risk. Currently, to evaluate the protective performance of nonwoven fabrics used in surgical masks against viral aerosols, a non-standardized test method using phi-X174 phage aerosols is widely performed because actual respiratory viruses pose an infection risk during testing and the phage is a safe virus to humans...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Takehiko Kenzaka, Madoka Yasui, Takashi Baba, Masao Nasu, Katsuji Tani
 Recent studies have shown that the genome of Legionella pneumophila is characterized by many foreign genes from a variety of eukaryotes. The eukaryotic like proteins are known to play a role in its multiplication within host cells; however, their evolutionary genetics of L. pneumophila in environments is unknown. In this study, we examined the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rate of eukaryotic like domain encoding genes among L. pneumophila strains. In silico analysis revealed that the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rate in F-box domain gene (lpp0233) was higher than those in other eukaryotic like domain and protein encoding genes and housekeeping genes...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Debashis Dutta, Mira Debnath DAS
 In present study, Taguchi's design of experiment L9 orthogonal array was created using Qualitek-4 software with four most critical factors namely, K2 HPO4 , MgSO4 , CaCl2 and culture pH. Production of a new intracellular antifungal protein in submerged fermentation was optimized with yield of 0.98±0.1 mg/gram dry cell weight mycelia from Aspergillus giganteus MTCC 8408. The average molecular mass of the purified protein was figured as 5.122 kDa using Electro Spray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry. Scanning electron microscopy was used to correlate the effect of selected factors on fungal cell morphology and its metabolite production...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Noriko Shimasaki, Yasuhiro Nojima, Masaya Sakakibara, Ritsuko Kikuno, Chiori Iizuka, Akira Okaue, Shunji Okuda, Katsuaki Shinohara
 Recent studies have investigated the efficacy of air-cleaning products against pathogens in the air. A standard method to evaluate the reduction in airborne viruses caused by an air cleaner has been established using a safe bacteriophage instead of pathogenic viruses; the reduction in airborne viruses is determined by counting the number of viable airborne phages by culture, after operating the air cleaner. The reduction in the number of viable airborne phages could be because of "physical decrease" or "inactivation"...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Kishio Hatai, Takashi Kamada, Lik-Ming Lau, Julius Kulip, Chin-Soon Phan, Charles Santhanaraju Vairappan
 The antifungal activity of two Bornean medicinal wild gingers Plagiostachys megacarpa and Zingiber phillippsiae were examined against Lagenidium thermophilum. The most active extract was P. megacarpa at concentration of 320 µg/mL inhibiting both hyphal growth and zoospore production of L. thermophilum in 24 h. Toxicity tests were conducted using mud crab (Scylla tranquebarica) larva. Bath treatment of P. megacarpa at concentrations of 320 and 640 µg/mL for 24 h were highly effective against hyphae and zoospores of the strain and it is non-toxic to mud crab larva...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Hajime Teramura, Noriko Fukuda, Yumiko Okada, Hirokazu Ogihara
 The four types of chromogenic selective media that are commercially available in Japan were compared for establishing a Japanese standard method for detecting Cronobacter spp. based on ISO/TS 22964:2006. When assessed using 9 standard Cronobacter spp. strains and 29 non-Cronobacter strains, Enterobacter sakazakii isolation agar, ChromocultTM Enterobacter sakazakii agar, CHROMagarTM E. sakazakii, and XM-sakazakii agar demonstrated excellent inclusivity and exclusivity. Using the ISO/TS 22964:2006 method, the recovered numbers of 38 Cronobacter spp...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Xiaowen Cui, Hsu-Ming Sherman Wen, Yoshimasa Kinoshita, Shota Koishi, Chika Isowaki, Liushu Ou, Yoshimitsu Masuda, Ken-Ichi Honjoh, Takahisa Miyamoto
 Sublethally heat-injured cells of Salmonella in food can recover under favorable conditions, leading to foodborne illness. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of recovery from heat injury, the global changes in gene transcription of Salmonella Typhimurium were investigated in previous study. In this study, the functions of genes involved in phage shock response (viz., phage shock protein (psp) genes), the transcription levels of which were found in previous study to be increased during recovery from heat injury, were investigated in recovering cells...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Hiroya Okamoto, Shoko Koizumi, Hironori Shimizu, Otomi Cho, Takashi Sugita
 Malodorants in the human axilla are produced from human biogenic precursors by axillary bacterial enzymes. In the present study, we used pyrosequencing analysis to identify the axillary bacterial microbiota of 13 Japanese male subjects with cumin-like, spicy body odor (C type), and 9 with milky, skin-based body odor (M type). Anaerococcus, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus predominated in both C- and M-type subjects, followed by Moraxella and Peptoniphilus. These genera accounted for 96.2-99.9% of the total bacterial population, except in the microbiota of one C-type subject...
2018: Biocontrol Science
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