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Biocontrol Science

Kazuhiro Takahashi, Reiji Tanaka, Satoshi Fukuzaki
 The inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus cells that were unattached or attached to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) disc in pH-controlled sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions was studied under turbulent conditions. No significant desorption of attached cells occurred at the free available chlorine (FAC) concentrations from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/l. The number of viable cells was estimated by microbial calorimetry. The logarithmic relative reduction of viable cells was proportional to the product of the FAC concentration and time...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Zajeba Tabashsum, Mafruha Nazneen, C R Ahsan, M L Bari, M Yasmin
 Presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh goat meat samples (n= 40) of Dhaka city was analyzed using conventional and molecular methods. A total of 86 presumptive E. coli O157:H7 colonies were isolated from 60% of the samples using selective agar plating method. After conventional biochemical assay followed by API 20E assay, only 11 isolates were found to be E. coli O157:H7. Further serological test identified only four isolates that has strong agglutination reaction against anti-H7 sensitized latex...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Tuan Anh DO, Toshio Sakai, Masao Kishida, Masakazu Furuta
 Manganese contamination in water is one of the most serious problems in Southeast Asian countries, including Vietnam. Bioremediation using microorganisms, especially from the brewing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is expected to be a useful technique to remove manganese from contaminated water. Yeast strain S. cerevisiae BY4741 as the wild-type strain and some manganese-accumulating mutants bred from BY4741 were examined for cell growth and manganese accumulation in YPD liquid medium containing various concentrations of Mn(2+)...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Farahnaaz Feroz, Hiromi Shimizu, Terumi Nishioka, Miho Mori, Yoshikazu Sakagami
 Food is a basic necessity for human survival, but it is still the vehicle for the transmission of food borne disease. Various studies have examined the roles of spices, herbs, nuts, and semi-dried fruits, making the need for safe and convenient methods of decontamination a necessity. The current study determined the bacterial and fungal loads of 26 spices and herbs, 5 nuts, 10 semi-dried fruits and 5 other foods. Spices, herbs and semi-dried foods demonstrated the highest bacterial and fungal loads with the majority showing over 10(4) CFU/mL...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Masashi Yamamoto, Takashi Takami, Reiko Matsumura, Alexander Dorofeev, Yoshihiko Hirata, Hideaki Nagamune
 With the object of developing new biocides milder for human use than the current antiseptics, we synthesized a series of bis-quaternary ammonium compounds (bis-QACs). The antimicrobial activity of the newly synthesized bis-QACs and common biocides used as antiseptics was compared by examining minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). Moreover, the cytotoxicity of these compounds against human cells was determined to calculate the biocompatibility index (BI) of these compounds...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Chiraporn Ananchaipattana, Md Latiful Bari, Yasuhiro Inatsu
 Bacterial contamination in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods prepared and sold by small businesses in middle Thailand was surveyed. The 135 samples were randomly purchased from open markets and supermarkets in Bangkok and Pathum Thani provinces during May 2013 to February 2015. The results indicated that the rate of contamination in cooked pork, chicken meat and cooked aquatic items were 13/39 (33%), 18/45 (40%) and 14/57 (25%), respectively and the rate of bacterial contamination of collected samples from open market and supermarket were 26/67 (39%) and 19/68 (27%), respectively...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Hiroshi Fujikawa
 Prediction of competitive microbial growth is becoming important for microbial food safety. There would be two approaches to predict competitive microbial growth with mathematical models. The first approach is the development of a growth model for competitive microbes. Among several candidates for the competition model considered, the combination of the primary growth model of the new logistic (NL) model and the competition model of the Lotka-Vorttera (LV) model showed the best performance in predicting microbial competitive growth in the mixed culture of two species...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Hideharu Shintani
 Water for injection (WFI) and purified water are the most widely used and stringently regulated raw material in pharmaceutical manufacturing. WFI is utilized for a parenteral drug product. Water system is monitored at frequent and routine frequency for demonstrating the overall system control and stability of performance. The critical ports demonstrating systemic control should be monitored more frequently. For reducing the overall risk of microbial contamination or microbial build-up, it is important to develop appropriate alert and action levels...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Hideharu Shintani
 There are several rapid microbiological methods becoming available that have useful applications in pharmaceutical and medical devices. They are ATP bioluminescence, fluorescent labeling, electrical resistance, and nucleic acid probes. In choosing to employ rapid methods, the microbiologist should examine their prospective performances against the specific requirements for that sector. Some methods may require expensive equipment and offer full automation, and others represent only a small investment. The regulatory view of these methods is changing and they still officially have not been approved in medical and pharmaceutical area, but it will still be up to the microbiologist to demonstrate that the method chosen is fit for the purpose intended...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Kirika Ishiyama, Keisuke Nakamura, Taro Kanno, Yoshimi Niwano
Our previous study revealed that the photo-irradiation of rose bengal, erythrosine, and phloxine, xanthene photosensitizers, used as dental plaque disclosing agents, could exert bactericidal action on planktonic Streptococcus mutans via the singlet oxygen. In the present study, the photo-irradiation induced bactericidal activity of the three xanthene compounds against the experimental biofilm of S. mutans was investigated in combination with acid electrolyzed water (AcEW) and alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW)...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Manabu Furushita, Hiroshi Akagi, Azusa Kaneoka, Toshimichi Maeda, Tsubasa Fukuda, Ryohei Tatsuno, Tsuneo Shiba
Structure analysis was performed on the antibiotic-resistance-gene region of conjugative plasmids of four fish farm bacteria.The kanamycin resistance gene, IS26, and tetracycline resistance gene (tetA(D)) were flanked by two IS26s in opposite orientation in Citrobacter sp. TA3 and TA6, and Alteromonas sp. TA55 from fish farm A. IS26-Inner was disrupted with ISRSB101. The chloramphenicol resistance gene, IS26 and tetA (D) were flanked by two IS26s in direct orientation in Salmonella sp. TC67 from farm C. Structures of tetA (D) and IS26 were identical among the four bacteria, but there was no insertion within the IS26-Inner of Salmonella sp...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Takuto Nishimoto, Takeru Watanabe, Masakazu Furuta, Michihiko Kataoka, Masao Kishida
The roles of catalase and trehalose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae subject to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment were examined by measuring the catalase activity and intracellular trehalose levels in mutants lacking catalase or trehalose synthetase. Intracellular trehalose was elevated but the survival rate after H2O2 treatment remained low in mutants with deletion of the Catalase T gene. On the other hand, deletion of the trehalose synthetase gene increased the catalase activity in mutated yeast to levels higher than those in the wild-type strain, and these mutants exhibited some degree of tolerance to H2O2 treatment...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Hongyi Wei, Suguru Okunishi, Takeshi Yoshikawa, Yuto Kamei, Mahmoud A O Dawwoda, Sheila Mae S Santander-DE Leon, Sharon Nonato Nuñal, Hiroto Maeda
Antifungal bacteria (AB) in root rot fungus (RRF)-contaminated sweet potato farms were isolated, and seven strains were initially chosen as antagonistic candidates. An antagonistic test by using the mycelial disk placement method revealed that one AB strain by itself could inhibit the RRF growth. This AB strain was identified as Bacillus polyfermenticus based on phylogeny of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Two AB strains (Bacillus aerophilus) displayed high levels of antifungal activity when paired with photosynthetic bacterial strain A (a purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas faecalis)...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Fuyuki Aoyama, Takahisa Miyamoto
Filamentous fungi were isolated from the indoor environment of a soft drink manufacturing plant and ordinary residences. The isolated strains were identified based on morphological observation and the nucleotide sequences of the region near the D2 region of the 26S rDNA. Three genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium) accounted for 48.1% of the fungal strains detected in the manufacturing plant and 75.3% in residences. A DNA array for identification of 15 genera and 26 species of filamentous fungi that were most frequently isolated from the manufacturing plant was developed...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Hidehisa Kawahara, Yoshiyuki Matsuda, Takuya Sakaguchi, Naoki Arai, Yoshihide Koide
An identified class of antifreeze, a xylomannan-based thermal hysteresis (TH)-producing glycolipid, has been discovered from diverse taxa, including plants, insects, and amphibians. We isolated xylomannan from the mycelium and fruit body of the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes using successive hot extraction with water, 2% and 25% aqueous KOH, and gel filtration chromatography. The xylomannan from the fruit body had a recrystallization inhibiting (RI) activity (RI=0.44) at 0.5 mg/mL. The dried weight yield of the fruit body (7...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Noriko Shimasaki, Masayuki Hara, Ritsuko Kikuno, Katsuaki Shinohara
To prevent nosocomial infections caused by even either Ebola virus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), healthcare workers must wear the appropriate protective clothing which can inhibit contact transmission of these pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of protective clothing for penetration resistance against infectious agents. In Japan, some standard methods were established to evaluate the penetration resistance of protective clothing fabric materials under applied pressure...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Takahiro Ohnishi, Bongsoo Lim, Natsumi Nojima, Ogasawara Kunitoshi, Shunichi Inagaki, Koji Makitsuru, Mari Sasaki, Kunihiko Nakane, Hiroaki Tsuchioka, Kazumi Horikawa, Maiko Kawabe, Yasutaka Minegishi, Nobuo Miyazaki, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi
Kudoa septempunctata is the causative agent of a food-borne disease associated with the ingestion of raw olive flounder. As the current qRT-PCR method for its detection is time-consuming, a rapid and simple method is required. Recently, a new real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method and an immunochromatography method, whose sensitivities are intended to be compatible with that designated in the official analytical method (10(5) spores/g olive flounder), have been developed. To validate these new methods, we performed an inter-laboratory study across seven laboratories...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Masato Furukawa, Yasutaka Minegishi, Shinji Izumiyama, Kenji Yagita, Hideto Mori, Taku Uemura, Yoshiki Etoh, Eriko Maeda, Mari Sasaki, Kazuya Ichinose, Seiya Harada, Yoichi Kamata, Masaki Otagiri, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi, Takahiro Ohnishi
Sarcocystis fayeri (S. fayeri) is a newly identified causative agent of foodborne disease that is associated with the consumption of raw horse meat. The testing methods prescribed by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan are time consuming and require the use of expensive equipment and a high level of technical expertise. Accordingly, these methods are not suitable for use in the routine sanitary control setting to prevent outbreaks of foodborne disease. In order to solve these problems, we have developed a new, rapid and simple testing method using LAMP, which takes only 1 hour to perform and which does not involve the use of any expensive equipment or expert techniques...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Aiko Shimazaki, Jin J Sakamoto, Masakazu Furuta, Tetsuaki Tsuchido
The antifungal activities of diglycerin monoester of fatty acids (DGCs), which have been employed as food emulsifiers, were examined against three yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans and Candida utilis and were compared with those of sucrose monoester of palmitic acid (SC16) as another type of emulsifier and sodium benzoate (SB) as a weak acid food preservative. When the minimum growth inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of diglycerin monolaurate (DGC12) against these yeasts were determined 2 d after incubation in YM broth at pH5...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Mana Tsukada, Hong Sheng, Mika Tada, Takayuki Mokudai, Satomi Oizumi, Toshiaki Kamachi, Yoshimi Niwano
Our previous studies revealed that photo-irradiation of polyphenols could exert bactericidal action via reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, the photo-irradiation-induced bactericidal activity of the aqueous extract from the residue of crushed grapes from winemaking was investigated in relation to ROS formation. Staphylococcus aureus suspended in the extract was irradiated with LED light at 400 nm. This solution killed the bacteria, and a 3-4 log and a >5-log reduction of the viable counts were observed within 10 and 20 min, respectively...
2016: Biocontrol Science
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