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Biocontrol Science

Kirika Ishiyama, Keisuke Nakamura, Taro Kanno, Yoshimi Niwano
Our previous study revealed that the photo-irradiation of rose bengal, erythrosine, and phloxine, xanthene photosensitizers, used as dental plaque disclosing agents, could exert bactericidal action on planktonic Streptococcus mutans via the singlet oxygen. In the present study, the photo-irradiation induced bactericidal activity of the three xanthene compounds against the experimental biofilm of S. mutans was investigated in combination with acid electrolyzed water (AcEW) and alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW)...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Manabu Furushita, Hiroshi Akagi, Azusa Kaneoka, Toshimichi Maeda, Tsubasa Fukuda, Ryohei Tatsuno, Tsuneo Shiba
Structure analysis was performed on the antibiotic-resistance-gene region of conjugative plasmids of four fish farm bacteria.The kanamycin resistance gene, IS26, and tetracycline resistance gene (tetA(D)) were flanked by two IS26s in opposite orientation in Citrobacter sp. TA3 and TA6, and Alteromonas sp. TA55 from fish farm A. IS26-Inner was disrupted with ISRSB101. The chloramphenicol resistance gene, IS26 and tetA (D) were flanked by two IS26s in direct orientation in Salmonella sp. TC67 from farm C. Structures of tetA (D) and IS26 were identical among the four bacteria, but there was no insertion within the IS26-Inner of Salmonella sp...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Takuto Nishimoto, Takeru Watanabe, Masakazu Furuta, Michihiko Kataoka, Masao Kishida
The roles of catalase and trehalose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae subject to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment were examined by measuring the catalase activity and intracellular trehalose levels in mutants lacking catalase or trehalose synthetase. Intracellular trehalose was elevated but the survival rate after H2O2 treatment remained low in mutants with deletion of the Catalase T gene. On the other hand, deletion of the trehalose synthetase gene increased the catalase activity in mutated yeast to levels higher than those in the wild-type strain, and these mutants exhibited some degree of tolerance to H2O2 treatment...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Hongyi Wei, Suguru Okunishi, Takeshi Yoshikawa, Yuto Kamei, Mahmoud A O Dawwoda, Sheila Mae S Santander-DE Leon, Sharon Nonato Nuñal, Hiroto Maeda
Antifungal bacteria (AB) in root rot fungus (RRF)-contaminated sweet potato farms were isolated, and seven strains were initially chosen as antagonistic candidates. An antagonistic test by using the mycelial disk placement method revealed that one AB strain by itself could inhibit the RRF growth. This AB strain was identified as Bacillus polyfermenticus based on phylogeny of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Two AB strains (Bacillus aerophilus) displayed high levels of antifungal activity when paired with photosynthetic bacterial strain A (a purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas faecalis)...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Fuyuki Aoyama, Takahisa Miyamoto
Filamentous fungi were isolated from the indoor environment of a soft drink manufacturing plant and ordinary residences. The isolated strains were identified based on morphological observation and the nucleotide sequences of the region near the D2 region of the 26S rDNA. Three genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium) accounted for 48.1% of the fungal strains detected in the manufacturing plant and 75.3% in residences. A DNA array for identification of 15 genera and 26 species of filamentous fungi that were most frequently isolated from the manufacturing plant was developed...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Hidehisa Kawahara, Yoshiyuki Matsuda, Takuya Sakaguchi, Naoki Arai, Yoshihide Koide
An identified class of antifreeze, a xylomannan-based thermal hysteresis (TH)-producing glycolipid, has been discovered from diverse taxa, including plants, insects, and amphibians. We isolated xylomannan from the mycelium and fruit body of the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes using successive hot extraction with water, 2% and 25% aqueous KOH, and gel filtration chromatography. The xylomannan from the fruit body had a recrystallization inhibiting (RI) activity (RI=0.44) at 0.5 mg/mL. The dried weight yield of the fruit body (7...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Noriko Shimasaki, Masayuki Hara, Ritsuko Kikuno, Katsuaki Shinohara
To prevent nosocomial infections caused by even either Ebola virus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), healthcare workers must wear the appropriate protective clothing which can inhibit contact transmission of these pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of protective clothing for penetration resistance against infectious agents. In Japan, some standard methods were established to evaluate the penetration resistance of protective clothing fabric materials under applied pressure...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Takahiro Ohnishi, Bongsoo Lim, Natsumi Nojima, Ogasawara Kunitoshi, Shunichi Inagaki, Koji Makitsuru, Mari Sasaki, Kunihiko Nakane, Hiroaki Tsuchioka, Kazumi Horikawa, Maiko Kawabe, Yasutaka Minegishi, Nobuo Miyazaki, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi
Kudoa septempunctata is the causative agent of a food-borne disease associated with the ingestion of raw olive flounder. As the current qRT-PCR method for its detection is time-consuming, a rapid and simple method is required. Recently, a new real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method and an immunochromatography method, whose sensitivities are intended to be compatible with that designated in the official analytical method (10(5) spores/g olive flounder), have been developed. To validate these new methods, we performed an inter-laboratory study across seven laboratories...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Masato Furukawa, Yasutaka Minegishi, Shinji Izumiyama, Kenji Yagita, Hideto Mori, Taku Uemura, Yoshiki Etoh, Eriko Maeda, Mari Sasaki, Kazuya Ichinose, Seiya Harada, Yoichi Kamata, Masaki Otagiri, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi, Takahiro Ohnishi
Sarcocystis fayeri (S. fayeri) is a newly identified causative agent of foodborne disease that is associated with the consumption of raw horse meat. The testing methods prescribed by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan are time consuming and require the use of expensive equipment and a high level of technical expertise. Accordingly, these methods are not suitable for use in the routine sanitary control setting to prevent outbreaks of foodborne disease. In order to solve these problems, we have developed a new, rapid and simple testing method using LAMP, which takes only 1 hour to perform and which does not involve the use of any expensive equipment or expert techniques...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Aiko Shimazaki, Jin J Sakamoto, Masakazu Furuta, Tetsuaki Tsuchido
The antifungal activities of diglycerin monoester of fatty acids (DGCs), which have been employed as food emulsifiers, were examined against three yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans and Candida utilis and were compared with those of sucrose monoester of palmitic acid (SC16) as another type of emulsifier and sodium benzoate (SB) as a weak acid food preservative. When the minimum growth inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of diglycerin monolaurate (DGC12) against these yeasts were determined 2 d after incubation in YM broth at pH5...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Mana Tsukada, Hong Sheng, Mika Tada, Takayuki Mokudai, Satomi Oizumi, Toshiaki Kamachi, Yoshimi Niwano
Our previous studies revealed that photo-irradiation of polyphenols could exert bactericidal action via reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, the photo-irradiation-induced bactericidal activity of the aqueous extract from the residue of crushed grapes from winemaking was investigated in relation to ROS formation. Staphylococcus aureus suspended in the extract was irradiated with LED light at 400 nm. This solution killed the bacteria, and a 3-4 log and a >5-log reduction of the viable counts were observed within 10 and 20 min, respectively...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Ralte Zothansanga, Nachimuthu Senthilkumar, Guruswami Gurusubramanian
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains were isolated from jhum-agriculture, jhum-forest, aquatic and fallow soil samples from Mizoram by acetate selection method. Isolates were characterized for biochemical typing, cry gene and protein profiling, growth curve study and toxicity against Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Bt frequency was high in jhum-agriculture land (69.56%) whereas low in jhum-forest soils (31.57%). Bt was found to be abundant in jhum shifting cultivation soil with an index ranging between 0.010 and 0...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Katsunori Furuhata, Naoto Ishizaki, Kazuyuki Sogawa, Yasushi Kawakami, Shin-Ichi Lee, Masahiro Sato, Masafumi Fukuyama
From May 2014 to February 2015, 319 university students (male, n=173; female n=146) of 18 to 24 years of age who carried mobile phones or computer tablets were selected as subjects. Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 101 of 319 samples (31.7%). In the present study, 11 strains of S. aureus were isolated and identified, not all of which were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Overall, 14 species were identified, with 11 strains (10.9%) of S. xylosus being isolated at the highest frequency...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Noriko Shimasaki, Yasuhiro Nojima, Akira Okaue, Hitoshi Takahashi, Tsutomu Kageyama, Itsuki Hamamoto, Katsuaki Shinohara
Currently, threats caused by pathogens are serious public health problems worldwide. Protective clothing is essential when one is treating infected patients or dealing with unknown pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of protective clothing against pathogens. In Japan, some methods for evaluating the performance of protective clothing have been established in the Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS). However, a test method against virus aerosols has not been established. Because there is a risk of infection from a live virus during the test, it is necessary to devise a safe method for the virus-aerosol-based test...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Motokazu Nakayama, Kouichi Hosoya, Yumi Shimizu-Imanishi, Hiroji Chibana, Takashi Yaguchi
The number of spoilage incidents in the food industry attributable to a species of the genus Moniliella has recently increased, but the risk of food spoilage has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to rapidly identify high-risk species and to conduct a risk analysis study of Moniliella spp. Acetic acid resistance of M. acetoabutens and ethanol resistance of M. suaveolens were higher than for other Moniliella species. All examined strains of M. acetoabutens developed a high tolerance to acetic acid by being cultured twice in liquid media containing low concentrations of acetic acid...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Hideharu Shintani
Microbial testing performed in support of pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical production falls into three main categories: detection (qualitative), enumeration (quantitative), and characterization/identification. Traditional microbiological methods are listed in the compendia and discussed by using the conventional growth-based techniques, which are labor intensive and time consuming. In general, such tests require several days of incubation for microbial contamination (bioburden) to be detected, and therefore management seldom is able to take proactive corrective measures...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Naoki Kobayashi, Eriko Maeda, Shioko Saito, Ichiro Furukawa, Takahiro Ohnishi, Maiko Watanabe, Jun Terajima, Yukiko Hara-Kudo
The characteristics of 11 strains of Stx1-producing and Stx2-non-producing STEC O103:H2 were analyzed to investigate the differences in virulence in a single serotype of Shiga toxin (Stx) -producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Differences in the cell-adhesion activity to Caco-2 cells were observed among the strains. The activity of the one strain, isolated from a patient with hemolytic uremic syndrome was 4-20-fold higher than those of the other strains. Although the strains with high cell-adhesion activity showed high expressions of eae, espB, espD, and tir in the locus of enterocyte effacement related with cell-adhesion, those were not specific for this strain...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Yasuhiro Inatsu, Yukiko Ohata, Chiraporn Ananchaipattana, Md Latiful Bari, Yukie Hosotani, Susumu Kawasaki
Fate of Escherichia coli O157 cells was evaluated when inoculated into each step after production of lightly pickled Chinese cabbage. The efficacy of surface sterilization by 100 mg/L of chlorine water for 10 min on raw leaves (6.0 log CFU/g) was 2.2 log CFU/g reduction. No meaningful change of the population of E. coli O157 (3.5 log CFU/g to 1.5 log MPN/g) contaminated into 19 kinds of products was observed. These results indicated the difficulty of estimating the viable count of the cells between contaminated on farms and further processing and storage steps...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Shigeko Ueda, Manami Yamaguchi, Kayoko Eguchi, Miki Iwase
RNA extracts were analyzed with a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) - nucleic acid chromatography and a reverse transcription-quantitative PCR assay (RT-qPCR) based on the TaqMan probe for identification of cereulide-producing Bacillus cereus. All 100 emetic B. cereus strains were found to give positive results, but 50 diarrheal B. cereus strains and other bacterial species showed negative results in the NASBA-chromatography. That is, the assay could selectively identify the emetic strains among B...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Terumi Nishioka, Yuichiro Takai, Tomoko Mishima, Mitsuo Kawaradani, Hideo Tanimoto, Kiyotsugu Okada, Tatsuya Misawa, Shinichi Kusakari
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-pressure plasma treatment on seed disinfection and the possible mechanisms underlying this effect. Seed-borne disease refers to plant diseases that are transmitted by seeds; seed disinfection is an important technique for prevention of such diseases. In this study, the effectiveness of low-pressure plasma treatment in the inactivation of the seed-borne plant pathogenic bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris, inoculated on cruciferous seeds, was evaluated...
2016: Biocontrol Science
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