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Human Antibodies

Patrick Mayrhofer, Renate Kunert
Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies traditionally followed a strict scheme indicating target and species information. Because of the rapid advances in this field, emphasized by approval of four humanized and six human antibodies in 2017, the International Nonproprietary Name of new antibodies was updated profoundly by removing the species substem completely. In this review we give an overview about what developments led to the preference of the scientific community towards human-like antibodies. We summarize the major updates in naming schemes that tried to classify antibodies according to their humanization technique or to the final primary sequence and how this led to the erroneous perception to indicate expected immunogenicity...
July 23, 2018: Human Antibodies
Khosro Sardarian, Amir Hossein Maghsood, Marzieh Farimani, Mehrdad Hajiloii, Masoud Saidijam, Manizheh Farahpour, Hanie Mahaki, Alireza Zamani
BACKGROUND: Congenital toxoplasmosis is an important disease that occurs when pregnant women become infected with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of T. gondii B1 gene in placental tissues of IgM seronegative women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this research, chronic toxoplasmosis was identified through examination of blood samples in a group of pregnant women by anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM ELISA and nested-PCR techniques...
July 14, 2018: Human Antibodies
Adi Essam Zarei, Elrashdy M Redwan
Our previous results showed higher level of anti-Hib IgG (2.41 μg/ml) average geometric mean concentration (GMC) regardless of age and gender, followed by levels of IgM (0.91 μg/ml) and IgA (0.34 μg/ml), reflecting the prevalence of immunity against Hib. Current study was evaluated the avidity profile for these high anti-Hib concentration. The IgM avidity analysis did not revealed any significant results between male and female values. While, the average of IgA avidity in male samples were significantly (P< 0...
July 14, 2018: Human Antibodies
Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian, Mir Davood Omrani, Shahram Arsang-Jang, Mohammad Taheri, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
Schizophrenia is a chronic severe mental disorder in which immunologic imbalances have been reported. Some researchers have demonstrated dysregulation of cytokine levels in this mental disorder. Considering the possible role of cytokines in the pathogenesis or clinical course of schizophrenia, we assessed serum levels of IL-4, IL-10, IL-17A and IFN-γ in a homogenous sample of Iranian patients who were in remission under treatment with Clozapine compared with sex and age matched controls. There was a statistically significant difference in IL-4 levels between patients and healthy subjects (P= 0...
July 14, 2018: Human Antibodies
Adi Essam Zarei, Elrashdy M Redwan
Our previous reported that Jeddah, Saudi Arabia population have a comparable and protective herd immunity represented by IgG, IgA and IgM against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), by using indirect ELISA test was used to evaluate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate (PRP) total antibodies (IgM, IgG, IgA) in 1,003 sera samples. Current report was evaluated the IgG and IgA subclasses responsible about this protection using same methodology. IgG, IgA, and their subclasses are responsible about this circulating protection...
July 13, 2018: Human Antibodies
Mebratu Tarekegne, Addis Adera, Kalab Haile, Derara Guyo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess Bilbila Sokota Road Project workers' knowledge, attitude and practice on HIV/AIDS in China first highway engineering Company. METHODS: A cross sectional Survey was conducted among workers in China first high way engineering Company at Bilbila Sokota road project, Sokota, Ethiopia. Fifty-five workers were taken from project site/company. Data was collected using a validated self-administrated standardized questionnaire on Knowledge, attitude and practice including behavioral change regarding HIV/AIDS...
February 5, 2018: Human Antibodies
Ulrich Storz
This article is the second part of a trilogy that discusses IP issues related to anti-Tumor Necrosis factor α (TNFα) biologics. TNFα is the world's most valuable target, with accumulated sales of TNFα biologics of 34 bn USD in 2014. While in the first part of this trilogy, Humira was discussed, this second parts discusses the patent strategies of Enbrel, Remicade, Cimzia and Simponi.
February 5, 2018: Human Antibodies
Fatimah M Alshanqiti, Saad Berki Al-Masaudi, Ahmed M Al-Hejin, Nawal Abd El-Baky, Elrashdy M Redwan
BACKGROUND: Over the years, diphtheria was known as contagious fatal infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheria that affects upper respiratory system. The spread of diphtheria epidemic disease is best prevented by vaccination with diphtheria toxoid vaccine. Aluminum adjuvants were reported to stimulate the immune responses to killed and subunit vaccines. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to minimize adjuvant particles size, to gain insight of resulting immunity titer and impact on immune response antibody subtypes...
February 5, 2018: Human Antibodies
Nurgul Sarina, Sailau Abeldenov, Aigerim Turgimbayeva, Assylbek Zhylkibayev, Yerlan Ramankulov, Bekbolat Khassenov, Saule Eskendirova
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an important biomarker for detection and treatment of different types of cancers such as breast, ovarian, stomach cancer. In this study, we developed a monoclonal antibody against the extracellular domain (ECD) of HER2 biomarker of breast cancer. For this purpose, the ECD-HER2 gene was amplified and cloned into an expression vector. Gene was generated in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain for expression of recombinant protein. The expressed protein was separated by SDS-PAGE and detected by anti-his monoclonal antibody in immunoblotting...
February 5, 2018: Human Antibodies
Ivan Babic, Elmar Nurmemmedov, Venkata M Yenugonda, Tiffany Juarez, Natsuko Nomura, Sandeep C Pingle, Mark C Glassy, Santosh Kesari
Immunotherapy is now at the forefront of cancer therapeutic development. Gliomas are a particularly aggressive form of brain cancer for which immunotherapy may hold promise. Pritumumab (also known in the literature as CLNH11, CLN-IgG, and ACA-11) was the first monoclonal antibody tested in cancer patients. Pritumumab is a natural human monoclonal antibody developed from a B lymphocyte isolated from a regional draining lymph node of a patient with cervical carcinoma. The antibody binds ecto-domain vimentin on the surface of cancer cells...
February 5, 2018: Human Antibodies
Masome Mohagheghi, Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian, Mohammad Taheri, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani
Schizophrenia is a destructive clinical syndrome with diverse mental pathologies. Different mechanisms and factors have a role in this disease. A possible mechanism is that teratogenic viruses cause brain changes and results in the disease appearance. The schizophrenia patients were diagnosed by psychologists and with the consent of patients, five CC of venous blood was drawn. Than Serum samples were isolated and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) were quantified by ELISA sandwich kit...
February 5, 2018: Human Antibodies
Mohammad Taheri, Arezou Sayad
BACKGROUND: Interleukin 7 receptor alpha (IL7RA) gene that encodes a subunit of IL7 receptor has been reported to be associated with different immunologic disease. OBJECTIVE: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients have shown an aberrant blood level of soluble form of IL7R protein. The genomic changes in the sequence of this gene have been suggested to be correlated with its altered splicing specially, variants in the exon 6 of the gene have been reported to influence the maintenance or skipping of this exon and control the soluble or insoluble form of the final product...
February 5, 2018: Human Antibodies
Adi Essam Zarei, Elrashdy M Redwan
In this national comprehensive seroprevalence study, indirect ELISA test was used to evaluate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate (PRP) total antibodies (IgM, IgG, IgA) in 1,003 sera samples from routine medical check-up of healthy individuals attending the local medical facility in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in the period from February 2014 to January 2016. Serum anti-CPS antibodies confer immunity against invasive Hib disease. An anti-CPS concentration of ⩾ 0.15 μg/mL is believed to be a serological indication for short-term immunity protection against invasive Hib disease, while a concentration of ⩾ 1...
2018: Human Antibodies
Arezou Sayad, Tayyebali Salmani, Maryam Kazemzadeh Hemmesi, Maziar Ganji, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Mahsa Hatami, Mohammad Soudyab, Mohammad Taheri
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by recurrent episodes of demyelination and loss of oligodendrocytes. The demyelination process is caused by various subsets of CD4+ T cells with a Th1 and Th17 phenotype. The retinoid acid-related orphan receptor A (RORA) is expressed in Th17 cells and promote Th17 differentiation. In this study, we compared the expression level of RORA gene in the blood of 50 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients who were treated with IFN-β and 50 healthy controls by TaqMan Quantitative Real-Time PCR...
2018: Human Antibodies
Atefeh Hemati, Mahnaz Azarnia, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi, Amir Rahimi
BACKGROUND: Generation and utilization of the specific monoclonal antibodies against testis antigens is reported to identify the antigens that are important in reproductive field. OBJECTIVE: Current study aimed to introduce a hybridoma that producing a specific anti-testis monoclonal antibody to identify the testis antigens that can be important in the reproduction field. METHODS: To make hybridoma against testis antigens, mice were immunized with testis cell lysate...
2018: Human Antibodies
Hamideh Moravvej, Pardis-Sadat Tabatabaei-Panah, Elaheh Ebrahimi, Nafiseh Esmaeili, Sayyed Mohammad Hossein Ghaderian, Ralf J Ludwig, Reza Akbarzadeh
BACKGROUND: TNF-α -308G/A polymorphism has been investigated in few studies for an association with susceptibility to bullous pemphigoid (BP) and alopecia areata (AA). Yet, these findings had so far not been independently replicated, and no data on a possible association of TNFα -308G/A polymorphism with these diseases in Iranian population were available. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, a possible effect of TNF-α -308G/A variation on susceptibility to BP or AA disease was evaluated...
2018: Human Antibodies
R Willis, O Heslop, N Bodonaik, M Thame, U Kumar, M Aung, A Kellier, S Drysdale, V Leon, M Smikle
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal serotypes circulating in any population vary over time and between countries and impacts the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease in Jamaica. METHODS: Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (n= 349) along with demographic and clinical information were collected from patients presenting at the 4 major hospitals in Jamaica over a 2-year period...
2018: Human Antibodies
Xenia Wezler, Stefan Dübel, Thomas Schirrmann
ImmunoRNases combine tumor targeting by antibodies with the cytotoxic action of ribonucleases from the RNase A superfamily. This study investigated for the first time all catalytic active human RNase A family members (1 to 8) as effector components of antibody fusion proteins. ImmunoRNase fusion proteins were constructed using the CD30-specific bivalent recombinant scFv-Fc antibody SH313-B5. Production of the resulting entirely human immunoRNases 1 to 8 was done in mammalian cells by secretion of active forms...
2018: Human Antibodies
Zahra Valedkarimi, Hadi Nasiri, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Jalal Abdolalizadeh, Mojghan Esparvarinha, Jafar Majidi
In present study an optimized protocol for the separation of antibodies into antigen-binding fragments F(ab')2 using pepsin digestion was investigated. The production of these fragments is a consequential step in the development of medical research, treatment and diagnosis. For production of polyclonal antibody rabbit received antigen in four steps. The rabbit serum at 1/128000 dilution showed high absorbance in reaction with human IgG at the designed ELISA method. Rabbit IgG was purified by Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) method...
2018: Human Antibodies
Philipp Kuhn, Stefanie Thiem, Michael Steinert, Duncan Purvis, Veronika Lugmayr, Ulrich Treutlein, Lutz Plobner, Robert-Matthias Leiser, Michael Hust, Stefan Dübel
Legionella are Gram-negative bacteria that are ubiquitously present in natural and man-made water reservoirs. When humans inhale aerosolized water contaminated with Legionella, alveolar macrophages can be infected, which may lead to a life-threatening pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. Due to the universal distribution of Legionella in water and their potential threat to human health, the Legionella concentration in water for human use must be strictly monitored, which is difficult since the standard detection still relies on lengthy cultivation and analysis of bacterial morphology...
July 19, 2017: Human Antibodies
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