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Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276964/the-mirnas-in-the-pathgenesis-of-osteosarcoma
#1
REVIEW
Wenqing Liang, Bo Gao, Peng Fu, Shuogui Xu, Yu Qian, Qingge Fu
Osteosarcoma is an aggressive sarcoma of the bone characterized by a high level of genetic instability and recurrent DNA deletions and amplifications. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs, usually 18-25 nucleotides in length, which repress translation and cleave mRNA by base-pairing to the 3 untranslated region of the target genes. miRNAs have demonstrated far-reaching effects on the cellular biology of development and cancer. Their role in osteosarcomagenesis remains largely unexplored. A number of reports have investigated the role of microRNAs in osteosarcoma...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276962/role-of-mast-cells-in-gynecological-neoplasms
#2
Lingling Jiang, Ying Hua, Qi Shen, Shendi Ding, Wenxiao Jiang, Wenwen Zhang, Xueqiong Zhu
Mast cells are of paramount importance in allergic reactions, pathogen immune responses during infection, and angiogenesis, as well as innate and adaptive immune regulation. Beyond all these roles, mast cells are now increasingly being recognized as modulators of tumor biology and fate. Notwithstanding mounting evidence of mast cell accumulation in tumors, their exact role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression is still incompletely understood. Although some evidence suggests that mast cells can promote tumorigenesis, there are some clinical sets as well as experimental tumor models in which mast cells seem to have functions that favor the host...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276959/micrornas-in-androgen-dependent-pca
#3
REVIEW
Kai-Chang Zhu, Jia-ju Lu, Xiao-Lin Xu, Jian-mei Sun
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in Western countries and is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. The growth and progression of PCa is related to androgen levels. In cancer, nicroRNAs (miRs) function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. In androgen-dependent PCa, miRs play a role in the growth, development, progression, and metastasis of the disease, and are also involved in the response to therapy and therefore affect the prognosis. In this review, we focus on the role played by miRs concerning the mechanisms of androgen-dependent PCa...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276957/microrna-role-in-thyroid-cancer-pathogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Xiaoping Zhang, Haian Mao, Zhongwei Lv
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, non-coding RNAs approximately 22 nucleotides in length that negatively regulate translation of the protein-coding genes. As such, miRNAs are fundamental mediators of cellular differentiation, proliferation, and survival. Each miRNA may functionally interact with a multitude of target genes to exert various effects on normal physiology to support human health or pathological processes leading to disease conditions, such as cancer. Genome-wide analyses have generated specific miRNA profiles of thyroid cancers (TCs) and identified the up- and down-regulated miRNAs related to various carcinogenesis stages and prognoses...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276955/confronting-jc-virus-and-homo-sapiens-biological-signatures
#5
Guglielmo Lucchese
The present report describes the peptide commonality between JC virus (JCV) and the human proteome at the heptamer level. In total, 53 viral heptapeptides occur in functionally important human proteins with potential consequences for host functions and JCV pathogenesis. A paradigmatic example of a crucial peptide match is the SGKTTLA sequence, shared by JCV LT antigen and human nicotinamide/nicotinic acid riboside kinase, an enzyme involved in myelination processes. In general, the JCV-versus-host heptapeptide overlap may result in a competition between viral sequences and identical motifs in host enzymic active sites, adhesive domains, regulatory signaling motifs, etc...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276954/matrix-proteins-as-centralized-organizers-of-negative-sense-rna-virions
#6
REVIEW
Lassi Liljeroos, Sarah J Butcher
Matrix proteins are essential components of most negative-sense RNA, enveloped viruses. They serve a wide range of duties ranging from self-driven membrane budding and coordination of other viral components to modulation of viral transcription. The functional similarity between these proteins is striking, despite major differences in their structures. Whereas biochemical and structural studies have partly been hindered by the inherent aggregation properties of these proteins, their cellular functions are beginning to be understood...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276951/ros-signaling-pathways-and-biological-rhythms-perspectives-in-crustaceans
#7
REVIEW
Maria Luisa Fanjul-Moles
This work reviews concepts regarding the endogenous circadian clock and the relationship between oxidative stress (OS), light and entrainment in different organisms including crustaceans, particularly crayfish. In the first section, the molecular control of circadian rhythms in invertebrates, particularly in Drosophila, is reviewed, and this model is contrasted with recent reports on the circadian genes and proteins in crayfish. Second, the redox mechanisms and signaling pathways that participate in the entrainment of the circadian clock in different organisms are reviewed...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276947/experimental-models-of-melatonin-deficient-hypertension
#8
REVIEW
Fedor Simko, Russel J Reiter, Olga Pechanova, Ludovit Paulis
Melatonin secreted by the pineal gland plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) and its administration reduces hypertension both in animals and humans. There are two experimental models of melatonin-deficient hypertension: one induced by pinealectomy and another by continuous 24 hour exposure to light. Both models cause melatonin deficiency and prevent darkness-mediated nocturnal melatonin secretion and are associated with increased BP and myocardial, vascular and renal dysfunction. These models also lead to neurohumoral activation of the renin-angiotensin system, sympathetic nervous system, adrenocorticotrophin-glucocorticoid axis and cause insulin resistance...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276946/micrornas-in-the-regeneration-of-skeletal-muscle
#9
REVIEW
Xinkai Yu, Qun Zuo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of numerous biological processes by modulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The discovery of miRNAs as new and important regulators of gene expression is expected to broaden our biological understanding of the regulatory mechanism in muscle by adding another dimension of regulation to the diversity and complexity of gene-regulatory networks. Exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury and repair have always been among the highlights of research in sports medicine...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276945/iugr-alters-muscle-fiber-development-and-proteome-in-fetal-pigs
#10
Taiji Wang, Chuang Liu, Cuiping Feng, Xiaoqiu Wang, Gang Lin, Yuhua Zhu, Jingdong Yin, Defa Li, Junjun Wang
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may have permanent stunting effects on muscle growth and development of the progeny. However, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Recent studies comparing muscle fiber development and proteomes in IUGR and normal-body-weight (NBW) fetal pigs indicated that muscle fiber diameter were smaller in IUGR fetal pigs than in NBW fetal pigs on all three stages (d 60, d 90 and d 110) of gestation. Although the number of primary fibers did not differ between these two fetal groups on d 60 of gestation, the total number of muscle fibers in IUGR fetal pigs was lower on d 90 and 110 of gestation, when compared with NBW fetal pigs...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276944/mir-143-is-critical-for-the-formation-of-primordial-follicles-in-mice
#11
Jianfang Zhang, Xiaowen Ji, Doudou Zhou, Yueqin Li, Junkai Lin, Jiali Liu, Haoshu Luo, Sheng Cui
Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in fine-tuning gene networks, the roles of mmu-mir-143 (miR-143) in mammalian ovary development have not been studied in vitro. We investigated the expression and function of miR-143 in the mouse ovary during primordial follicle formation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that miR-143 expression increased during primordial follicle formation from 15.5 days post-coitus to 4 days post-partum. miR-143 was located in pregranulosa cells by in situ hybridization...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276943/scorpion-beta-toxins-and-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-interactions-and-effects
#12
REVIEW
Martha Pedraza Escalona, Lourival D Possani
Scorpion beta-toxins (beta-ScTxs) modify the activity of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels, thereby producing neurotoxic effects in diverse organisms. For this reason, beta-ScTxs are essential tools not only for discriminating among different channel sub-types but also for studying the mechanisms of channel gating and the structure-function relationship involved in this process. This review considers both the structural and the functional implications of the beta-ScTxs after they bind to their receptor sites, in accord with their classification into a) anti-mammalian beta-ScTxs, b) anti-insect selective excitatory beta-ScTxs, c) anti-insect selective depressant beta-ScTxs and d) beta-ScTxs active on both insect and mammals Nav channels...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276942/biomarker-discovery-by-plasma-proteomics-in-familial-brugada-syndrome
#13
M Di Domenico, D Scumaci, S Grasso, M Gaspari, A Curcio, A Oliva, F Ausania, C Di Nunzio, C Ricciardi, A C Santini, F A Rizzo, C Romano Carratelli, M Lamberti, D Conti, R La Montagna, V Tomei, V Malafoglia, V L Pascali, P Ricci, C Indolfi, F Costanzo, G Cuda
Brugada Syndrome (BS) is a polygenic inherited cardiac disease characterized by life-threatening arrhythmias and high incidence of sudden death. In this study, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to investigate specific changes in the plasma proteome of BS patients and family members sharing the same gene mutation (SCN5AQ1118X), with the aim to identify novel disease biomarkers. Our data demonstrate that the levels of several proteins were significantly altered in BS patients compared with controls...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276941/ovarian-cancer-as-a-genetic-disease
#14
REVIEW
Agnieszka Lech, Teodora Daneva, Shina Pashova, Hristo Gagov, Robert Crayton, Wojciech Kukwa, Anna M Czarnecka, Cezary Szczylik
Ovarian cancer is characterized by the highest mortality rate among gynecologic malignancies. Therefore, there is a growing need for innovative therapies and techniques for monitoring and prevention of this disease. The exact cause of most ovarian tumors usually remains unknown. Ovarian cancer is believed to be caused by a range of different variables. This review is an attempt to summarize some genetic factors involved in the disruption of certain signaling pathways responsible for ovarian tumor transformation and development...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276938/wnt3a-modulates-chondrogenesis-via-canonical-and-non-canonical-wnt-pathways-in-mscs
#15
Feng Qu, Junliang Wang, Ningru Xu, Chang Liu, Shuyuan Li, Ning Wang, Wei Qi, Haifeng Li, Chunbao Li, Zhenying Geng, Yujie Liu
The multilineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is controlled via unknown mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the differentiation of MSCs into chondrocytes via the Wnt signaling pathway. Overexpression of WNT3A in MSCs activated both the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways, which were responsible for different WNT3A-induced outcomes. WNT3A promoted MSC proliferation via the ß-catenin-mediated canonical Wnt pathway, and inhibited chondrogenesis of MSCs via the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated non-canonical Wnt pathway...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276937/the-role-of-rhox-homeobox-factors-in-tumorigenesis
#16
REVIEW
James A MacLean
Homeobox genes encode transcription factors that have well-established roles in embryonic development. We recently discovered the Rhox genes, a new family of homeobox genes, which are selectively expressed in the developing embryo, postnatal and adult gonads, and accessory tissues associated with mammalian reproduction. The largest and best-characterized Rhox cluster is found in mouse. However, all mammals examined to date possess a set of Rhox genes that, while they may vary in number by species, appear relevant to reproduction and are located in the syntenic region of the X chromosome...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276936/biological-significance-and-targeting-of-c-met-tyrosine-kinase-receptor-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Liliane Goetsch, Veronique Caussanel, Nathalie Corvaia
c-Met is a tyrosine kinase receptor largely described to be involved in cancer progression and metastasis. In such pathologic situation, many alterations of this receptor were noticed that include transcriptional overexpression, gene amplification, somatic or germline mutations and/or ligand dependent autocrine/paracrine loops. More recently it has also been suggested that c-Met would be involved in resistance to targeted therapies directed towards EGFR or angiogenesis. Major efforts from a large number of pharmaceutical companies are invested dedicated to evaluate the efficacy of either small molecule inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies directed against c-Met or its unique ligand HGF...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276934/microrna-in-the-molecular-mechanism-of-the-circadian-clock-in-mammals
#18
Cheng Chu, Zhongxin Zhao
The biochemical activity of mammals is controlled by an internal timekeeping mechanism driving a clock to run in approximate 24-hour (circadian) cycles. In mammals, this circadian clock is located both in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and peripheral oscillators. Recently, microRNAs have emerged as significant players in circadian clock timing. The biological implications of miRNAs are extended further by recent studies that microRNAs are expressed in the SCN and peripheral circadian oscillators. In this study, we review recent work revealing the role of microRNAs in the molecular mechanism of circadian clock in mammals...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276931/mechanisms-of-cardioprotection-by-isoflurane-against-i-r-injury
#19
REVIEW
Xiao-E Lang, Xiong Wang, Jian-Hua Jin
Myocardial infarction is responsible for most cardiovascular mortality as well as the pathogenesis of myocardial damage during and after infarction. Efforts are underway to modulate the development of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. Recently, the protective effect of isoflurane against myocardial I-R injury emerged as a possibility. Nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthases, factors related to energy metabolism, adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and hypoxia-inducible factor1-alpha have been shown to participate in the mechanisms of cardioprotection elicited by isoflurane against I-R injury...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23276929/prevalence-and-risk-factor-for-mdr-gnb-infection-in-liver-transplantation
#20
Lin Zhong, Tong-Yi Men, Hao Li, Yan Gu, Xin Ding, Tong-Hai Xing, Jun-Wei Fan, Zhi-Hai Peng
Liver transplantation (LT) has emerged as a viable therapy for various end-stage liver diseases. Multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) have emerged as predominant pathogens. The prevalence of MDR-GNB infection has been increasing in LT recipients, especially in early post-LT stages. MDR-GNB infection has become a main cause of death following LT. Since key elements of MDR-GNB infection after LT mainly include the pre-LT severity of underlying disease, technical problems, acute rejection, and so on, appropriate measures, such as improvement of LT technology and management, restriction of antibiotic use and immunosuppressive therapy advancement, should be commenced to prevent and control the occurrence of MDR-GNB infection...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library
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