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Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology

Yumi Kim, Jinyoung Jang, Hyun Jin Kim, Myoung Kyu Park
GABAergic control over dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra is crucial for determining firing rates and patterns. Although GABA activates both GABAA and GABAB receptors distributed throughout the somatodendritic tree, it is currently unclear how regional GABA receptors in the soma and dendritic compartments regulate spontaneous firing. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine actions of regional GABA receptors on spontaneous firing in acutely dissociated DA neurons from the rat using patch-clamp and local GABA-uncaging techniques...
November 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Hae Jin Kim, Eun Bok Baek, Sung Joon Kim
Dipeptidyl peptidase4 (DPP4) inhibitors such as gemigliptin are anti-diabetic drugs elevating plasma concentration of incretins such as GLP-1. In addition to the DPP4 inhibition, gemigliptin might directly improve the functions of vessels under pathological conditions. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation (ACh-EDR) of mesenteric arteries (MA) are altered by gemigliptin pretreatment in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats (SHR) and in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) under hyperglycemia-like conditions (HG; 2 hr incubation with 50 mM glucose)...
November 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Hyunsook Lee, Kyu-Tae Kang
The tube formation assay is a widely used in vitro experiment model to evaluate angiogenic properties by measuring the formation of tubular structures from vascular endothelial cells (ECs). in vitro experimental results are crucial when considered the advisability of moving forward to in vivo studies. Thus, the additional attentions to the in vitro assay is necessary to improve the quality of the pre-clinical data, leading to better decision-making for successful drug discovery. In this study, we improved the tube formation assay system in three aspects...
November 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
JooHan Woo, Hyun Jong Kim, Yu Ran Nam, Yung Kyu Kim, Eun Ju Lee, Inho Choi, Sung Joon Kim, Wan Lee, Joo Hyun Nam
Myoblast fusion depends on mitochondrial integrity and intracellular Ca2+ signaling regulated by various ion channels. In this study, we investigated the ionic currents associated with [Ca2+ ]i regulation in normal and mitochondrial DNA-depleted (ρ0) L6 myoblasts. The ρ0 myoblasts showed impaired myotube formation. The inwardly rectifying K+ current (IKir ) was largely decreased with reduced expression of KIR2.1, whereas the voltage-operated Ca2+ channel and Ca2+ -activated K+ channel currents were intact...
November 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Ji Seon Yang, Sujeong Jeon, Kee Dong Yoon, Shin Hee Yoon
Increasing evidence implicates changes in [Ca2+ ]i and oxidative stress as causative factors in amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neuronal cell death. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a component of anthocyanin, has been reported to protect against glutamate-induced neuronal cell death by inhibiting Ca2+ and Zn2+ signaling. The present study aimed to determine whether C3G exerts a protective effect against Aβ25-35 -induced neuronal cell death in cultured rat hippocampal neurons from embryonic day 17 fetal Sprague-Dawley rats using MTT assay for cell survival, and caspase-3 assay and digital imaging methods for Ca2+ , Zn2+ , MMP and ROS...
November 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Hyun Myung Ko, Yeonsun Jin, Hyun Ho Park, Jong Hyuk Lee, Seung Hyo Jung, So Young Choi, Sung Hoon Lee, Chan Young Shin
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders that share behavioral features, the results of numerous studies have suggested that the underlying causes of ASDs are multifactorial. Behavioral and/or neurobiological analyses of ASDs have been performed extensively using a valid model of prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA). Abnormal synapse formation resulting from altered neurite outgrowth in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) during embryonic brain development has been observed in both the VPA model and ASD subjects...
November 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Byung-Soo Choi, Yu-Jin Kim, Yong Pill Yoon, Hyun Jae Lee, Choong Jae Lee
In the present study, we investigated whether tussilagone, a natural product derived from Tussilago farfara , significantly affects the production and gene expression of airway MUC5AC mucin. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with tussilagone for 30 min and then stimulated with EGF (epidermal growth factor) or PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) for 24 h or the indicated periods. The MUC5AC mucin gene expression was measured by RT-PCR. Production of MUC5AC mucin protein was measured by ELISA. To elucidate the action mechanism of tussilagone, effect of tussilagone on PMA-induced NF-κB signaling pathway was investigated by western blot analysis...
November 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Jang-Hee Cho, Soon-Youn Choi, Hye-Myung Ryu, Eun-Joo Oh, Ju-Min Yook, Ji-Sun Ahn, Hee-Yeon Jung, Ji-Young Choi, Sun-Hee Park, Chan-Duck Kim, Yong-Lim Kim
Fimasartan, a new angiotensin II receptor antagonist, reduces myocyte damage and stabilizes atherosclerotic plaque through its anti-inflammatory effect in animal studies. We investigated the protective effects of pretreatment with fimasartan on ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in a mouse model of ischemic renal damage. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with or without 5 (IR-F5) or 10 (IR-F10) mg/kg/day fimasartan for 3 days. Renal ischemia was induced by clamping bilateral renal vascular pedicles for 30 min. Histology, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis assays were evaluated 24 h after IRI...
November 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Jin-Eon Han, Jin-Hwa Cho, Michiko Nakamura, Maan-Gee Lee, Il-Sung Jang
Migraine is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and disabling severe headaches. Although several anticonvulsant drugs that block voltage-dependent Na+ channels are widely used for migraine, far less is known about the therapeutic actions of carbamazepine on migraine. In the present study, therefore, we characterized the effects of carbamazepine on tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Na+ channels in acutely isolated rat dural afferent neurons, which were identified by the fluorescent dye DiI. The TTX-R Na+ currents were measured in medium-sized DiIpositive neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique in the voltage-clamp mode...
November 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Xu-Dong Zhang, Xiao-Yuan Guo, Jing-Xuan Tang, Lin-Na Yue, Juan-Hui Zhang, Tao Liu, Yu-Xia Dong, Song-Shan Tang
Extra-hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays an important role in reproduction. To study the treatment effect of Grin (a novel hGHRH homodimer), the infertility models of 85 male Chinese hamsters were established by intraperitoneally injecting 20 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide once in a week for 5 weeks and the treatment with Grin or human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) as positive control was evaluated by performing a 3-week mating experiment. 2-8 mg/kg of Grin and 200 U/kg of hMG showed similar effect and different pathological characteristics...
November 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Dan Wang, Yiling Jiang, Xiaoxin Yang, Qiong Wei, Huimin Wang
Endometriosis (EM) is one of the most common gynaecological disorder affecting women in their reproductive age. Mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of EM remains poorly understood, however inflammatory responses have been reported to be significantly involved. The efficacy of 6-shogaol on proliferation of endometriotic lesions and inflammatory pathways in experimentally-induced EM model was explored in this study. EM was stimulated in Sprague-Dawley rats by implantation of autologous endometrium onto the peritoneum abdominal wall...
November 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Yongzhu Lv, Bing Li, Kunna Han, Yang Xiao, Xianjun Yu, Yong Ma, Zhan Jiao, Jianjun Gao
Neddylation is a post-translational protein modification process. MLN4924 is a newly discovered pharmaceutical neddylation inhibitor that suppresses cancer growth with several cancer types. In our study, we first investigated the effect of MLN4924 on colon cancer cells (HCT116 and HT29). MLN4924 significantly inhibited the neddylation of cullin-1 and colon cancer cell growth in a time and dose-dependent manner. MLN4924 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HCT116 and HT29 cells. Moreover, MLN4924 also triggered autophagy in HCT116 and HT29 cells via suppressing the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway...
November 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Yao Wu, Feifei Si, Li Luo, Fengchuan Jing, Kunfeng Jiang, Jiwei Zhou, Qijian Yi
The effect of melatonin on juveniles with cardio fibrosis is poorly understood. We investigated whether HDACs participate in the anti-fibrotic processes regulated by melatonin during hypertrophic remodeling. Abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) was employed in juvenile rats resulting in pressure overload-induced ventricular hypertrophy and melatonin was subsequently decreased via continuous light exposure for 5 weeks after surgery. AAC rats displayed an increased cross-sectional area of myocardial fibers and significantly elevated collagen deposition compared to sham-operated rats, as measured by HE and Masson Trichrome staining...
November 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Jin Ryeol An, Hongliang Li, Mi Seon Seo, Won Sun Park
In this study, we demonstrated the inhibitory effect of the Class Ic antiarrhythmic agent propafenone on voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels using freshly isolated coronary artery smooth muscle cells from rabbits. The Kv current amplitude was progressively inhibited by propafenone in a dose-dependent manner, with an apparent IC50 value of 5.04±1.05 µM and a Hill coefficient of 0.78±0.06. The application of propafenone had no significant effect on the steady-state activation and inactivation curves, indicating that propafenone did not affect the voltage-sensitivity of Kv channels...
September 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Yong Soo Park, Seok Ho Myeong, In-Beom Kim, Ki-Wug Sung
Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, is commonly used to treat depression and neuropathic pain, but its mechanism is still unclear. We tested the effect of amitriptyline on 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3 ) receptor currents and studied its blocking mechanism because the clinical applications of amitriptyline overlapped with 5-HT3 receptor therapeutic potentials. Using a whole-cell voltage clamp method, we recorded the currents of the 5-HT3 receptor when 5-HT was applied alone or co-applied with amitriptyline in cultured NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells known to express 5-HT3 receptors...
September 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Jong Soo Han, Young Sil Min, Gil Hyung Kim, Sang-Hyun Chae, Yoonjin Nam, Jaehwi Lee, Seok-Yong Lee, Uy Dong Sohn
Bladder dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, there have been a few studies evaluating bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM in the presence of pharmacological inhibitors. In the present study, we compared the contractility of bladder smooth muscle from normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we utilized pharmacological inhibitors to delineate the mechanisms underlying bladder muscle differences between normal and DM rats. DM was established in 14 days after using a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) in Sprague-Dawley rats...
September 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Md Jamal Uddin, Eun Seon Pak, Hunjoo Ha
Acute kidney injury (AKI), which is defined as a rapid decline of renal function, becomes common and recently recognized to be closely intertwined with chronic kidney diseases. Current treatment for AKI is largely supportive, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as a novel mediator of AKI. Since carbon monoxide attenuates ER stress, the objective of the present study aimed to determine the protective effect of carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM2) on AKI associated with ER stress. Kidney injury was induced after LPS (15 mg/kg) treatment at 12 to 24 h in C57BL/6J mice...
September 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Dong Ho Bak, Mi Ji Choi, Soon Re Kim, Byung Chul Lee, Jae Min Kim, Eun Su Jeon, Wonil Oh, Ee Seok Lim, Byung Cheol Park, Moo Joong Kim, Jungtae Na, Beom Joon Kim
Human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) are used in tissue repair and regeneration; however, the mechanisms involved are not well understood. We investigated the hair growth-promoting effects of hUCB-MSCs treatment to determine whether hUCB-MSCs enhance the promotion of hair growth. Furthermore, we attempted to identify the factors responsible for hair growth. The effects of hUCB-MSCs on hair growth were investigated in vivo , and hUCB-MSCs advanced anagen onset and hair follicle neogeneration...
September 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Han Kyu Lee, Seok Bum Park, Su-Youne Chang, Sung Jun Jung
Itching is a common clinical symptom of skin disease that significantly affects a patient's quality of life. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors of keratinocytes and peripheral nerve fibers in skin are involved in the regulation of itching as well as pain. In this study, we investigated whether curcumin, which acts on TRPV1 receptors, affects histamine-induced itching in mice, using behavioral tests and electrophysiological approaches. We found that histamine-induced itching was blocked by topical application of curcumin in a concentration-dependent manner...
September 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Seon-Hui Jang, Soo-Joung Park, Chang-Jin Lee, Dong-Kuk Ahn, Seong-Kyu Han
Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) has been used therapeutically for various conditions including dystonia, cerebral palsy, wrinkle, hyperhidrosis and pain control. The substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) receive orofacial nociceptive information from primary afferents and transmit the information to higher brain center. Although many studies have shown the analgesic effects of BoNT/A, the effects of BoNT/A at the central nervous system and the action mechanism are not well understood...
September 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
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