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Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333060/optimising-human-community-sizes
#1
Robin I M Dunbar, Richard Sosis
We examine community longevity as a function of group size in three historical, small scale agricultural samples. Community sizes of 50, 150 and 500 are disproportionately more common than other sizes; they also have greater longevity. These values mirror the natural layerings in hunter-gatherer societies and contemporary personal networks. In addition, a religious ideology seems to play an important role in allowing larger communities to maintain greater cohesion for longer than a strictly secular ideology does...
January 2018: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333059/innate-food-aversions-and-culturally-transmitted-food-taboos-in-pregnant-women-in-rural-southwest-india-separate-systems-to-protect-the-fetus
#2
Caitlyn D Placek, Purnima Madhivanan, Edward H Hagen
Pregnancy increases women's nutritional requirements, yet causes aversions to nutritious foods. Most societies further restrict pregnant women's diet with food taboos. Pregnancy food aversions are theorized to protect mothers and fetuses from teratogens and pathogens or increase dietary diversity in response to resource scarcity. Tests of these hypotheses have had mixed results, perhaps because many studies are in Westernized populations with reliable access to food and low exposure to pathogens. If pregnancy food aversions are adaptations, however, then they likely evolved in environments with uncertain access to food and high exposure to pathogens...
November 2017: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333058/acquisition-of-a-socially-learned-tool-use-sequence-in-chimpanzees-implications-for-cumulative-culture
#3
Gillian L Vale, Sarah J Davis, Susan P Lambeth, Steven J Schapiro, Andrew Whiten
Cumulative culture underpins humanity's enormous success as a species. Claims that other animals are incapable of cultural ratcheting are prevalent, but are founded on just a handful of empirical studies. Whether cumulative culture is unique to humans thus remains a controversial and understudied question that has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the evolution of this phenomenon. We investigated whether one of human's two closest living primate relatives, chimpanzees, are capable of a degree of cultural ratcheting by exposing captive populations to a novel juice extraction task...
September 2017: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333057/family-counts-deciding-when-to-murder-among-the-icelandic-vikings
#4
Markel Palmstierna, Anna Frangou, Anna Wallette, Robin Dunbar
In small scale societies, lethal attacks on another individual usually invite revenge by the victim's family. We might expect those who perpetrate such attacks to do so only when their own support network (mainly family) is larger than that of the potential victim so as to minimise the risk of retaliation. Using data from Icelandic family sagas, we show that this prediction holds whether we consider biological kin or affinal kin (in-laws): on average, killers had twice as many relatives as their victims. These findings reinforce the importance of kin as a source of implicit protection even when they are not physically present...
March 2017: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781514/kin-and-birth-order-effects-on-male-child-mortality-three-east-asian-populations-1716-1945
#5
Hao Dong, Matteo Manfredini, Satomi Kurosu, Wenshan Yang, James Z Lee
Human child survival depends on adult investment, typically from parents. However, in spite of recent research advances on kin influence and birth order effects on human infant and child mortality, studies that directly examine the interaction of kin context and birth order on sibling differences in child mortality are still rare. Our study supplements this literature with new findings from large-scale individual-level panel data for three East Asian historical populations from northeast China (1789-1909), northeast Japan (1716-1870), and north Taiwan (1906-1945), where preference for sons and first-borns is common...
March 2017: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540276/silent-disco-dancing-in-synchrony-leads-to-elevated-pain-thresholds-and-social-closeness
#6
Bronwyn Tarr, Jacques Launay, Robin I M Dunbar
Moving in synchrony leads to cooperative behaviour and feelings of social closeness, and dance (involving synchronisation to others and music) may cause social bonding, possibly as a consequence of released endorphins. This study uses an experimental paradigm to determine which aspects of synchrony in dance are associated with changes in pain threshold (a proxy for endorphin release) and social bonding between strangers. Those who danced in synchrony experienced elevated pain thresholds, whereas those in the partial and asynchrony conditions experienced no analgesic effects...
September 2016: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805247/local-competition-increases-people-s-willingness-to-harm-others
#7
Jessica L Barker, Pat Barclay
Why should organisms incur a cost in order to inflict a (usually greater) cost on others? Such costly harming behavior may be favored when competition for resources occurs locally, because it increases individuals' fitness relative to close competitors. However, there is no explicit experimental evidence supporting the prediction that people are more willing to harm others under local versus global competition. We illustrate this prediction with a game theoretic model, and then test it in a series of economic games...
July 2016: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158219/group-music-performance-causes-elevated-pain-thresholds-and-social-bonding-in-small-and-large-groups-of-singers
#8
Daniel Weinstein, Jacques Launay, Eiluned Pearce, Robin I M Dunbar, Lauren Stewart
Over our evolutionary history, humans have faced the problem of how to create and maintain social bonds in progressively larger groups compared to those of our primate ancestors. Evidence from historical and anthropological records suggests that group music-making might act as a mechanism by which this large-scale social bonding could occur. While previous research has shown effects of music making on social bonds in small group contexts, the question of whether this effect 'scales up' to larger groups is particularly important when considering the potential role of music for large-scale social bonding...
March 1, 2016: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26858521/facial-averageness-and-genetic-quality-testing-heritability-genetic-correlation-with-attractiveness-and-the-paternal-age-effect
#9
Anthony J Lee, Dorian G Mitchem, Margaret J Wright, Nicholas G Martin, Matthew C Keller, Brendan P Zietsch
Popular theory suggests that facial averageness is preferred in a partner for genetic benefits to offspring. However, whether facial averageness is associated with genetic quality is yet to be established. Here, we computed an objective measure of facial averageness for a large sample (N = 1,823) of identical and nonidentical twins and their siblings to test two predictions from the theory that facial averageness reflects genetic quality. First, we use biometrical modelling to estimate the heritability of facial averageness, which is necessary if it reflects genetic quality...
January 1, 2016: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26766895/sustained-cooperation-by-running-away-from-bad-behavior
#10
Charles Efferson, Carlos P Roca, Sonja Vogt, Dirk Helbing
For cooperation to evolve, some mechanism must limit the rate at which cooperators are exposed to defectors. Only then can the advantages of mutual cooperation outweigh the costs of being exploited. Although researchers widely agree on this, they disagree intensely about which evolutionary mechanisms can explain the extraordinary cooperation exhibited by humans. Much of the controversy follows from disagreements about the informational regularity that allows cooperators to avoid defectors. Reliable information can allow cooperative individuals to avoid exploitation, but which mechanisms can sustain such a situation is a matter of considerable dispute...
January 2016: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26880866/a-test-of-the-facultative-calibration-reactive-heritability-model-of-extraversion
#11
Hannah J Haysom, Dorian G Mitchem, Anthony J Lee, Margaret J Wright, Nicholas G Martin, Matthew C Keller, Brendan P Zietsch
A model proposed by Lukaszewski and Roney (2011) suggests that each individual's level of extraversion is calibrated to other traits that predict the success of an extraverted behavioural strategy. Under 'facultative calibration', extraversion is not directly heritable, but rather exhibits heritability through its calibration to directly heritable traits ("reactive heritability"). The current study uses biometrical modelling of 1659 identical and non-identical twins and their siblings to assess whether the genetic variation in extraversion is calibrated to variation in facial attractiveness, intelligence, height in men and body mass index (BMI) in women...
September 2015: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25937789/no-relationship-between-intelligence-and-facial-attractiveness-in-a-large-genetically-informative-sample
#12
Dorian G Mitchem, Brendan P Zietsch, Margaret J Wright, Nicholas G Martin, John K Hewitt, Matthew C Keller
Theories in both evolutionary and social psychology suggest that a positive correlation should exist between facial attractiveness and general intelligence, and several empirical observations appear to corroborate this expectation. Using highly reliable measures of facial attractiveness and IQ in a large sample of identical and fraternal twins and their siblings, we found no evidence for a phenotypic correlation between these traits. Likewise, neither the genetic nor the environmental latent factor correlations were statistically significant...
May 1, 2015: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053916/chimpanzees-copy-dominant-and-knowledgeable-individuals-implications-for-cultural-diversity
#13
Rachel Kendal, Lydia M Hopper, Andrew Whiten, Sarah F Brosnan, Susan P Lambeth, Steven J Schapiro, Will Hoppitt
Evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection will fashion cognitive biases to guide when, and from whom, individuals acquire social information, but the precise nature of these biases, especially in ecologically valid group contexts, remains unknown. We exposed four captive groups of chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) to a novel extractive foraging device and, by fitting statistical models, isolated four simultaneously operating transmission biases. These include biases to copy (i) higher-ranking and (ii) expert individuals, and to copy others when (iii) uncertain or (iv) of low rank...
January 2015: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25663798/regulatory-adaptations-for-delivering-information-the-case-of-confession
#14
Daniel Sznycer, Eric Schniter, John Tooby, Leda Cosmides
Prior to, or concurrent with, the encoding of concepts into speech, the individual faces decisions about whether, what, when, how, and with whom to communicate. Compared to the existing wealth of linguistic knowledge however, we know little of the mechanisms that govern the delivery and accrual of information. Here we focus on a fundamental issue of communication: The decision whether to deliver information. Specifically, we study spontaneous confession to a victim. Given the costs of social devaluation, offenders are hypothesized to refrain from confessing unless the expected benefits of confession (e...
January 1, 2015: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25593514/does-implied-community-size-predict-likeability-of-a-similar-stranger
#15
Jacques Launay, Robin I M Dunbar
Homophily, the tendency for people to cluster with similar others, has primarily been studied in terms of proximal, psychological causes, such as a tendency to have positive associations with people who share traits with us. Here we investigate whether homophily could be correlated with perceived group membership, given that sharing traits with other people might signify membership of a specific community. In order to investigate this, we tested whether the amount of homophily that occurs between strangers is dependent on the number of people they believe share the common trait (i...
January 2015: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25593513/someone-to-live-for-effects-of-partner-and-dependent-children-on-preventable-death-in-a-population-wide-sample-from-northern-ireland
#16
Caroline Uggla, Ruth Mace
How to allocate resources between somatic maintenance and reproduction in a manner that maximizes inclusive fitness is a fundamental challenge for all organisms. Life history theory predicts that effort put into somatic maintenance (health) should vary with sex, mating and parenting status because men and women have different costs of reproduction, and because life transitions such as family formation alter the fitness payoffs from investing in current versus future reproduction. However, few tests of how such life history parameters influence behaviours closely linked to survival exist...
January 2015: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25530698/extraneous-color-affects-female-macaques-gaze-preference-for-photographs-of-male-conspecifics
#17
Kelly D Hughes, James P Higham, William L Allen, Andrew J Elliot, Benjamin Y Hayden
Humans find members of the opposite sex more attractive when their image is spatially associated with the color red. This effect even occurs when the red color is not on the skin or clothing (i.e. is extraneous). We hypothesize that this extraneous color effect could be at least partially explained by a low-level and biologically innate generalization process, and so similar extraneous color effects should be observed in non-humans. To test this possibility, we examined the influence of extraneous color in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)...
January 1, 2015: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25214758/direct-investment-by-stepfathers-can-mitigate-effects-on-educational-outcomes-but-does-not-improve-behavioural-difficulties
#18
Emily H Emmott, Ruth Mace
In contemporary developed populations, stepfather presence has been associated with detrimental effects on child development. However, the proximate mechanisms behind such effects are yet to be fully explored. From a behavioural ecological perspective, the negative effects associated with stepfathers may be due to the reduced quantity and quality of investments children receive within stepfather households. Here, we build on previous studies by investigating whether the effects of stepfather presence on child outcomes are driven by differences in maternal and partner (i...
September 2014: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24719551/humans-are-not-fooled-by-size-illusions-in-attractiveness-judgements
#19
Melissa Bateson, Martin J Tovée, Hannah R George, Anton Gouws, Piers L Cornelissen
Could signallers use size contrast illusions to dishonestly exaggerate their attractiveness to potential mates? Using composite photographs of women from three body mass index (BMI) categories designed to simulate small groups, we show that target women of medium size are judged as thinner when surrounded by larger women than when surrounded by thinner women. However, attractiveness judgements of the same target women were unaffected by this illusory change in BMI, despite small true differences in the BMIs of the target women themselves producing strong effects on attractiveness...
March 2014: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24778546/the-marginal-valuation-of-fertility
#20
James Holland Jones, Rebecca Bliege Bird
Substantial theoretical and empirical evidence demonstrates that fertility entails economic, physiological, and demographic trade-offs. The existence of trade-offs suggests that fitness should be maximized by an intermediate level of fertility, but this hypothesis has not had much support in the human life-history literature. We suggest that the difficulty of finding intermediate optima may be a function of the way fitness is calculated. Evolutionary analyses of human behavior typically use lifetime reproductive success as their fitness criterion...
January 1, 2014: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
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