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Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry

Li Lin, Chang Xu, Martha S Carraway, Claude A Piantadosi, A Richard Whorton, Sheng Li
S-nitrosothiols derived from nitric oxide are known to regulate cell signaling through thiol modification. Since small G protein RhoA contains cysteine residues in the GTP-binding domain which is critical for its function, modification these thiols may alter RhoA activity and lead to changes in the downstream signaling such as myosin light chain phosphorylation. However, it is still unclear that if RhoA activity and its downstream signals might be modulated by S-nitrosothiols and if the two cysteine residues located in the GTP-binding domain are critical for the regulation...
January 18, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Itamar Goren, Urs Christen, Josef Pfeilschifter, Stefan Frank
The gaseous mediator nitric oxide (NO) is a central regulatory molecule during the inflammatory phase of cutaneous tissue repair. The inducible NO-synthase (iNOS) represents the main isoform of the three NO producing enzymes at the wound site. In particular, keratinocytes and macrophages are described as main sources of iNOS-derived NO in skin wounds. Here we provide experimental evidence that Ly-6B2+ leukocytes are an additional cellular source of iNOS-derived NO in wounds. As wound iNOS protein expression temporally coincides with both macrophage and neutrophil infiltration, we used immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to address iNOS expression in both macrophages and neutrophil subsets...
January 17, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Eduard Dumitrescu, Kenneth Wallace, Silvana Andreescu
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule that has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes in living organisms. NO plays an important role in embryonic development in vertebrates and has been reported to influence early organ development and plasticity. Quantifying NO in single embryos and their developing organs is challenging because of the small size of the embryos, the low dynamically changing concentration and the short life-time of NO. Here, we measured the distribution of NO in the intestine of live zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in physiological conditions and under the influence of therapeutic agents...
January 16, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Huyi He, Wenjing Huang, Thet Lwin Oo, Minghua Gu, Jie Zhan, Aiqin Wang, Long-Fei He
Aluminum (Al) stress alters nitric oxide (NO) and induces programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. Recent study has shown that NO inhibits Al-induced PCD. However, the mechanism of NO inhibiting Al-induced PCD has not been revealed yet. Here, we investigated the behavior of mitochondria during Al-induced PCD suppressed by NO in peanut. Seedlings of peanut was grown hydroponically in a controllable growth room. The mitochondrial physiological parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. The expression of AhANT and AhHsp70 was determined by quantitative RT-PCR...
January 15, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
D K Gaynullina, A A Borzykh, S I Sofronova, E K Selivanova, A A Shvetsova, A A Martyanov, I V Kuzmin, O S Tarasova
INTRODUCTION: Our recent study showed that NO-mediated anticontractile effect of endothelium is absent in coronary arteries of adult rats, which suffered from antenatal/early postnatal hypothyroidism. This study tested the hypothesis that exercise training would improve such detrimental consequences of early thyroid deficiency. DESIGN AND METHODS: Wistar dams received propylthiouracil (PTU, 7 ppm) in drinking water during gestation and two weeks postpartum; control dams received tap water...
January 4, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Alphonce I Marealle, Mario Siervo, Sara Wassel, Les Bluck, Andrew M Prentice, Omary Minzi, Philip Sasi, Appolinary Kamuhabwa, Deogratias Soka, Julie Makani, Sharon E Cox
BACKGROUND: Low bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD). We designed a nested pilot study to be conducted within a clinical trial testing the effects of a daily ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) fortified with arginine (Arg) and citrulline (Citr) vs. non-fortified RUSF in children with SCD. The pilot study evaluated 1) the feasibility of a non-invasive stable isotope method to measure whole-body NO production and 2) whether Arg+Citr supplementation was associated with increased whole-body NO production...
January 2, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Daniel M Hirai, Steven W Copp, Scott K Ferguson, Clark T Holdsworth, K Sue Hageman, David C Poole, Timothy I Musch
Nitric oxide (NO) modulates oxygen delivery-utilization matching in resting and contracting skeletal muscle. Recent reports indicate that neuronal NO synthase (nNOS)-mediated vasoregulation during contractions is enhanced with exercise training and impaired with chronic heart failure (HF). Consequently, we tested the hypothesis that selective nNOS inhibition (S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline; SMTC, 2.1 μmol/kg) would produce attenuated reductions in muscle blood flow during moderate/heavy submaximal exercise in sedentary HF rats compared to their healthy counterparts...
December 27, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Pablo H La Padula, Melisa Etchegoyen, Analia Czerniczyniec, Barbara Piotrkowski, Silvia Lores Arnaiz, Jose Milei, Lidia E Costa
AIM: In previous studies, upregulation of NOS during acclimatization of rats to sustained hypobaric hypoxia was associated to cardioprotection, evaluated as an increased tolerance of myocardium to hypoxia/reoxygenation. The objective of the present work was to investigate the effect of acute hypobaric hypoxia and the role of endogenous NO concerning cardiac tolerance to hypoxia/reoxygenation under β-adrenergic stimulation. METHODS: Rats were submitted to 58.7 kPa in a hypopressure chamber for 48 h whereas their normoxic controls remained at 101...
December 27, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Fareen Sami, Mohammad Faizan, Ahmad Faraz, Husna Siddiqui, Mohammad Yusuf, Shamsul Hayat
Nitric oxide (NO) is a major signaling biomolecule associated with signal transduction in plants. The beneficial role of NO in plants, exposed to several abiotic stresses shifted our understanding as it being not only free radical, released from the toxic byproducts of oxidative metabolism but also helps in plant sustenance. An explosion of research in plant NO biology during the last two decades has revealed that NO is a key signal associated with plant growth, germination, photosynthesis, leaf senescence, pollen growth and reorientation...
December 21, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Daniela Coppola, Daniela Giordano, Lisa Milazzo, Barry D Howes, Paolo Ascenzi, Guido di Prisco, Giulietta Smulevich, Robert K Poole, Cinzia Verde
Despite the large number of globins recently discovered in bacteria, our knowledge of their physiological functions is restricted to only a few examples. In the microbial world, globins appear to perform multiple roles in addition to the reversible binding of oxygen; all these functions are attributable to the heme pocket that dominates functional properties. Resistance to nitrosative stress and involvement in oxygen chemistry seem to be the most prevalent functions for bacterial globins, although the number of globins for which functional roles have been studied via mutation and genetic complementation is very limited...
December 21, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Shouzhe Lin, Smriti Juriasingani, Alp Sener
In prolonged complete unilateral ureteral obstruction, reduced renal blood flow places the kidney in a state of ischemia, which can cause tubular injury and inflammation. Infiltrating inflammatory cells release transforming growth factor beta 1, which is a cytokine that initiates fibrosis through the epithelial-mesenchymal-transition pathway. Persistent fibrosis can lead to irreversible renal injury and loss of function. While surgical intervention can remove the obstruction, relief of obstruction may not fully reverse renal injury...
December 19, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Rasool Roohparvar, Tayebeh Shamspur, Ali Mostafavi
A novel, inexpensive and sensitive type of magnetic nanosorbent based on the functionalized silica-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles was prepared and used for the adsorption of trace amounts of nitrite and nitrate ions. The work is based on selective ion-pairing complex formation of nitrate and nitrite with Cu(I)-neocuproine which are covalently bounded on nanoparticles. Nitrite was determined according to its reaction with barbituric acid to give violuric acid and determination of nitrate was based on its reduction to nitrite in the presence of Zn/NaCl...
December 14, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Rixing Zhan, Fan Wang, Ying Wu, Ying Wang, Wei Qian, Menglong Liu, Tengfei Liu, Weifeng He, Hui Ren, Gaoxing Luo
OBJECTIVE: Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) play a critical role in wound repair, but the mechanism underlying ESC proliferation is unclear. Here, we explored the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on ESC proliferation and the possible underlying mechanism. METHODS: The effect of NO (two NO donors, SNAP and spermine NONOate, were used) on cell proliferation was detected using cell proliferation and DNA synthesis assays. Thereafter, expression of FOXG1 and c-Myc induced by NO was determined by immunoblot analysis...
December 14, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Sinead T J McDonagh, Lee J Wylie, James M A Webster, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
Inorganic nitrate (NO3-) supplementation has been shown to improve cardiovascular health indices in healthy adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the vehicle of NO3- administration can influence NO3- metabolism and the subsequent blood pressure response. Ten healthy males consumed an acute equimolar dose of NO3- (∼5.76 mmol) in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice drink (BR; 55 mL), a non-concentrated beetroot juice drink (BL; 456 mL) and a solid beetroot flapjack (BF; 60 g). A drink containing soluble beetroot crystals (BC; ∼1...
December 6, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Luke Liddle, Christopher Monaghan, Mia C Burleigh, Luke C McIlvenna, David J Muggeridge, Chris Easton
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the change (Δ) in plasma volume (PV), nitrate [NO3-], and nitrite [NO2-] concentration following changes in posture in the presence and absence of elevated plasma [NO3-] and [NO2-] METHODS: Fourteen healthy participants completed two trials that were preceded by either supplementation with NO3--rich beetroot juice (BR; total of ∼31 mmol NO3-) or no supplementation (CON). Both trials comprised 30 min of lying supine followed by 2 min of standing, 2 min of sitting and 5 min of sub-maximal cycling...
November 30, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Juliana M Navia-Pelaez, Gianne P Campos-Mota, Jessica C Araujo-Souza, Nikos Stergiopulos, Luciano S A Capettini
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is now considered an important player in vascular function. It has a protective role in atherosclerosis and hypertension. However, despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate its activity in vascular cells. Here we explore the mechanisms by which nNOS is activated in endothelium. We evaluated aorta relaxation response and phosphorylation of nNOS during protein phosphatases 1 and 2 (PP1 and PP2) inhibition, in eNOS silenced mice. PP1 translocation and interaction between the nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1) and PP1 was evaluated in endothelial EA...
November 25, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
K Kaneko, Y Miyamoto, R Tsukuura, K Sasa, T Akaike, S Fujii, K Yoshimura, K Nagayama, M Hoshino, S Inoue, K Maki, K Baba, D Chikazu, R Kamijo
Osteoclasts are multinucleated giant cells differentiated from monocyte-macrophage-lineage cells under stimulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B (RANK) ligand (RANKL) produced by osteoblasts and osteocytes. Although it has been reported that nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in this process, the mechanism by which these labile molecules promote osteoclast differentiation are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the formation and function of 8-nitro-cGMP, a downstream molecule of NO and ROS, in the process of osteoclast differentiation in vitro...
November 25, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Matthew G Costales, Mohammad Samiul Alam, Christopher Cavanaugh, Kristina M Williams
Surface enzymes CD39 (nucleoside triphosphate dephosphorylase) and CD73 (ecto-5'-nucleotidase) mediate the synthesis of extracellular adenosine that can regulate immune responses. Adenosine produced by CD39/CD73 acts via adenosine receptors (ARs). CD73 is expressed by a variety of cell types and mediates anti-inflammatory responses. Because efficient innate immune responses are required for clearance of Salmonella infection, we investigated the role of CD73 in macrophage function, including phagocytosis, intracellular killing of Salmonella, and anti-bacterial pro-inflammatory responses to Salmonella-whole cell lysate (ST-WCL) or Salmonella infection...
November 11, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Sheena Maharaj, Kim D Lu, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Frank Zaldivar, Fadia Haddad, Hye-Won Shin, Szu-Yun Leu, Eliezer Nussbaum, Inderpal Randhawa, Dan M Cooper
Assessment of nitric oxide (NO) dynamics in immune cells, commonly measured using NO surrogates such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) rather than NO itself, has been effective in understanding pathophysiology across a wide range of diseases. Although the intracellular measurement of NO is now feasible, many technical issues remain unresolved. The principle aim of our study was to determine the effect of storage time of whole blood on nitric oxide (NO) level expression in leukocytes. This is important because immune cells remain chemically dynamic even after they are removed from the circulation, and the impact of storage time must be known to optimally quantify the effect of a disease or condition on NO dynamics in circulating leukocytes...
November 9, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Brandon J Reeder, John Ukeri
Globin-mediated nitric oxide (NO) dioxygenase and nitrite reductase activities have been proposed to serve protective functions within the cell by scavenging or generating NO respectively. Cytoglobin has rapid NO dioxygenase activity, similar to other globins, however, the apparent rates of nitrite reductase activity have been reported as slow or negligible. Here we report that the activity of cytoglobin nitrite reductase activity is strongly dependent on the oxidation state of the two surface-exposed cysteine residues...
November 8, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
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