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Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry

Stephen J Bailey, Jamie R Blackwell, Lee J Wylie, Terezia Holland, Paul G Winyard, Andrew M Jones
Dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate (NO3(-)) has been reported to improve cardiovascular health indices in healthy adults. Cigarette smoking increases circulating thiocyanate (SCN(-)), which has been suggested to competitively inhibit salivary nitrate (NO3(-)) uptake, a rate-limiting step in dietary NO3(-) metabolism. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that dietary NO3(-) supplementation would be less effective at increasing the circulating plasma nitrite ([NO2(-)]) and lowering blood pressure in smokers (S) compared to non-smokers (NS)...
October 12, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Sarah L Wynia-Smith, Brian C Smith
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signaling molecule impacting many biological pathways. NO is produced in mammals by three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms: neuronal (nNOS), endothelial (eNOS), and inducible (iNOS). nNOS and eNOS produce low concentrations of NO for paracrine signaling; NO produced and released from one cell diffuses to a neighboring cell where it binds and activates soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). iNOS produces high concentrations of NO using NO toxicity to amplify the innate immune response...
October 5, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Halley C Oliveira, Bruna C R Gomes, Milena T Pelegrino, Amedea B Seabra
Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule involved in plant response to various abiotic stresses. However, the application of NO donors in agriculture is hampered by the instability of these compounds. Despite the successful uses of NO-releasing nanoparticles for biomedical purposes and the variety of nanomaterials developed as carrier systems of agrochemicals, the potential applications of nanocarriers for NO delivery in plants have not yet been tested. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs) containing the NO donor S-nitroso-mercaptosuccinic acid (S-nitroso-MSA)...
September 29, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Taís S Assmann, Letícia A Brondani, Ana P Bouças, Jakeline Rheinheimer, Bianca M de Souza, Luís H Canani, Andrea C Bauer, Daisy Crispim
BACKGROUND: Altered serum nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported by different studies; however, results are still controversial. Until this date, no meta-analysis evaluated the association of NO levels with DM. Thus, this paper describes a meta-analysis conducted to evaluate if there is a relationship between NO levels and type 1 DM (T1DM) or type 2 DM (T2DM). METHODS: A literature search was done to identify all studies that investigated NO levels between T1DM or T2DM patients (cases) and non-diabetic subjects (controls)...
September 24, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Lenka Tomasova, Leszek Dobrowolski, Halina Jurkowska, Maria Wróbel, Tomasz Huc, Karol Ondrias, Ryszard Ostaszewski, Marcin Ufnal
Research suggests that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important biological mediator involved in various physiological processes including the regulation of arterial blood pressure (BP). Although H2S is abundant in the colon, the effects of gut-derived H2S on the circulatory system have not yet been investigated. We studied the effects of intracolonic administration of Na2S, a H2S donor, on systemic hemodynamics. Hemodynamics were recorded in anesthetized, normotensive Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats at baseline and after intracolonic injection of either saline (controls) or Na2S·9H2O saline solution at a dose range of 10-300 mg/kg of BW...
September 22, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Guannan Zhang, Xiaodong Li, Chengyu Sheng, Xiaohui Chen, Yu Chen, Dingliang Zhu, Pingjin Gao
A large amount of NO is generated through the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway from the vascular adventitia in various vascular diseases. However, it is currently not fully understood how the iNOS signaling pathway is activated. In the present study, this question was addressed in the context of adventitial cellular interactions. A rat model of acute hypertension in the contralateral carotid arteries was established through transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery. In this model, activated macrophages were found surrounded by a large quantity of iNOS-expressing adventitial fibroblasts (AFs), suggesting a possible causal relationship between macrophages and iNOS activation of the neighboring AFs...
September 21, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Da-Bin Kuang, Ji-Peng Zhou, Lin-Yu Yu, Wen-Jing Zeng, Jian Xiao, Gang-Zhi Zhu, Zan-Lin Zhang, Xiao-Ping Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether microRNA (miRNA) miR-21 regulates dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1) expression through binding 3'-UTR region directly in human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore whether DDAH1-V2/V3 transcripts can function as microRNA sponge, thereby modulating DDAH1-V1 expression. METHODS: The DDAH1 3'-UTR containing miR-21 recognizing sequence was cloned into PmirGLO dual-luciferase miRNA target expression plasmid to construct PmirGLO-miR-21...
September 20, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Jérôme Santolini, François André, Sylvain Jeandroz, David Wendehenne
Over the past twenty years, nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as an important player in various plant physiological processes. Although many advances in the understanding of NO functions have been made, the question of how NO is produced in plants is still challenging. It is now generally accepted that the endogenous production of NO is mainly accomplished through the reduction of nitrite via both enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms which remain to be fully characterized. Furthermore, experimental arguments in favour of the existence of plant nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like enzymes have been reported...
September 19, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Jun Yi, Adam L O Campbell, George B Richter-Addo
Bacteria utilize a heme/non-heme enzyme system to detoxify nitric oxide (NO) to N2O. In order to probe the capacity of a single-heme system to mediate this NO-to-N2O transformation, various scenarios for addition of electrons, protons, and a second NO molecule to a heme nitrosyl to generate N2O were explored by density functional theory calculations. We describe, utilizing this single-heme system, several stepwise intermediates along pathways that enable the critical N-N bond formation step yielding the desired Fe-N2O product...
September 16, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Bing Wang, Samantha M Powell, Neda Hessami, Fares Z Najar, Leonard M Thomas, Elizabeth A Karr, Ann H West, George B Richter-Addo
Nitroreductases (NRs) are flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-dependent enzymes that catalyze the biotransformation of organic nitro compounds (RNO2; R = alkyl, aryl) to the nitroso RN=O, hydroxylamino RNHOH, or amine RNH2 derivatives. Metronidazole (Mtz) is a nitro-containing antibiotic that is commonly prescribed for lower-gut infections caused by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium difficile. C. difficile infections rank number one among hospital acquired infections, and can result in diarrhea, severe colitis, or even death...
September 10, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Tobias M Hedison, Sam Hay, Nigel S Scrutton
This perspective reviews single molecule and ensemble fluorescence spectroscopy studies of the three tissue specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoenzymes and the related diflavin oxidoreductase cytochrome P450 reductase. The focus is on the role of protein dynamics and the protein conformational landscape and we discuss how recent fluorescence-based studies have helped in illustrating how the nature of the NOS conformational landscape relates to enzyme turnover and catalysis.
September 9, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Galimudi Rajesh Kumar, Kondapalli Mrudula Spurthi, Gundapaneni Kishore Kumar, Tupurani Mohini Aiyengar, Padala Chiranjeevi, Shyamala Nivas, Cingeetham Anuradha, Banapuram Swathi, Sanjib Kumar Sahu, Altaf Ali, Hanumanth Surekha Rani
BACKGROUND: The eNOS gene has been extensively screened for important variations in the promoter (-786T/C), Intron 4 (4b/4a) and exon 7 (894G/T) regions in multiple diseases. Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is much higher in young Indians when compared to other ethnic groups and first-degree relatives (FDRS) of CHD patients are at risk correlating with earlier age-of-onset and poor prognosis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to understand the genetic mechanism of eNOS -786T/C, Intron 4b/4a and 894G/T polymorphisms/haplotypes in the development of CHD and to identify individuals having coronary risk factors among the FDRS of CHD patients by comparing them with the general population...
September 6, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Philip J Hennis, Kay Mitchell, Edward Gilbert-Kawai, Vassiliki Bountziouka, Angie Wade, Martin Feelisch, Michael P Grocott, Daniel S Martin
: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of beetroot juice, on acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms and physiological responses, in a group of young males trekking to Mount Everest Base Camp (EBC). Forty healthy male students (mean age (SD): 16 (1) yrs) trekked to EBC over 11 days. Following an overnight fast, each morning participants completed the Lake Louise AMS questionnaire and underwent a series of physiological tests: resting blood pressure as well as resting and exercising heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation...
September 2, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Barbara Hohensinn, Renate Haselgrübler, Ulrike Müller, Verena Stadlbauer, Peter Lanzerstorfer, Gerald Lirk, Otmar Höglinger, Julian Weghuber
BACKGROUND: Dietary inorganic nitrate (NO3(-)) and its reduced forms nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitric oxide (NO), respectively, are of critical importance for host defense in the oral cavity. High concentrations of salivary nitrate are linked to a lower prevalence of caries due to growth inhibition of cariogenic bacteria. OBJECTIVE: In-vitro studies suggest that the formation of antimicrobial NO results in an increase of the pH preventing erosion of tooth enamel. The purpose of this study was to prove this effect in-vivo...
September 1, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Binglan Yu, Aron H Blaesi, Noel Casey, Grigory Raykhtsaum, Luca Zazzeron, Rosemary Jones, Alexander Morrese, Danil Dobrynin, Rajeev Malhotra, Donald B Bloch, Lee E Goldstein, Warren M Zapol
Inhalation of nitric oxide (NO) produces selective pulmonary vasodilation without dilating the systemic circulation. However, the current NO/N2 cylinder delivery system is cumbersome and expensive. We developed a lightweight, portable, and economical device to generate NO from air by pulsed electrical discharge. The objective of this study was to investigate and optimize the purity and safety of NO generated by this device. By using low temperature streamer discharges in the plasma generator, we produced therapeutic levels of NO with very low levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone...
August 31, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Gustavo H Oliveira-Paula, Riccardo Lacchini, Jose E Tanus-Santos
Nitric oxide (NO) is a vasoactive substance synthesized from l-arginine by neuronal (NOS1), endothelial (NOS3), and inducible (NOS2) nitric oxide synthases. NOS3 is the most important NO synthase isoform in the vascular endothelium and therefore it exerts critical roles in the cardiovascular system. NOS3 is encoded by NOS3 gene, which displays a large number of genetic polymorphisms such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs), microsatellites, and insertions/deletions...
August 25, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Yien Liu, Donald G Buerk, Kenneth A Barbee, Dov Jaron
Nitrite infusion into the bloodstream has been shown to elicit vasodilation and protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury through nitric oxide (NO) release in hypoxic conditions. However, the mechanism by which nitrite-derived NO escapes scavenging by hemoglobin in the erythrocyte has not been fully elucidated, owing in part to the difficulty in measuring the reactions and transport on NO in vivo. We developed a mathematical model for an arteriole and surrounding tissue to examine the hypothesis that dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) acts as a stable intermediate for preserving NO...
August 24, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Divya Vasudevan, Rhea C Bovee, Douglas D Thomas
Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenously produced signaling molecule with multiple regulatory functions in physiology and disease. The most studied molecular mechanisms underlying the biological functions of NO include its reaction with heme proteins and regulation of protein activity via modification of thiol residues. A significant number of transcriptional responses and phenotypes observed in NO microenvironments, however, still lack mechanistic understanding. Recent studies shed new light on NO signaling by revealing its influence on epigenetic changes within the cell...
September 30, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Oliver Michael Shannon, Lauren Duckworth, Matthew John Barlow, David Woods, Jose Lara, Mario Siervo, John Paul O'Hara
Nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BRJ) increases plasma nitrite concentrations, lowers the oxygen cost (V⋅O2) of steady-state exercise and improves exercise performance in sedentary and moderately-trained, but rarely in well-trained individuals exercising at sea-level. BRJ supplementation may be more effective in a hypoxic environment, where the reduction of nitrite into nitric oxide (NO) is potentiated, such that well-trained and less well-trained individuals may derive a similar ergogenic effect. We conducted a randomised, counterbalanced, double-blind placebo controlled trial to determine the effects of BRJ on treadmill running performance in moderate normobaric hypoxia (equivalent to 2500 m altitude) in participants with a range of aerobic fitness levels...
September 30, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Harmeet Kaur, Satish C Bhatla
The present findings demonstrate significant modulation of total glutathione content, reduced glutathione (GSH) content, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content, GSH/GSSG ratio and glutathione reductase (GR; EC activity in dark-grown seedling cotyledons in response to salt-stress (120 mM NaCl) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. A differential spatial distribution of GR activity (monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) imaging) is also evident. Melatonin and nitric oxide (NO) differentially ameliorate salt stress effect by modulating GR activity and GSH content in seedling cotyledons...
September 30, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
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