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Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry

Matthew G Costales, Mohammad Samiul Alam, Christopher Cavanaugh, Kristina M Williams
Surface enzymes CD39 (nucleoside triphosphate dephosphorylase) and CD73 (ecto-5'-nucleotidase) mediate the synthesis of extracellular adenosine that can regulate immune responses. Adenosine produced by CD39/CD73 acts via adenosine receptors (ARs). CD73 is expressed by a variety of cell types and mediates anti-inflammatory responses. Because efficient innate immune responses are required for clearance of Salmonella infection, we investigated the role of CD73 in macrophage function, including phagocytosis, intracellular killing of Salmonella, and anti-bacterial pro-inflammatory responses to Salmonella-whole cell lysate (ST-WCL) or Salmonella infection...
November 11, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Sheena Maharaj, Kim Lu, Shlomit Aizik, Frank Zaldivar, Fadia Haddad, Hye-Won Shin, Szu-Yun Leu, Eliezer Nussbaum, Inderpal Randhawa, Dan Cooper
Assessment of nitric oxide (NO) dynamics in immune cells, commonly measured using NO surrogates such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) rather than NO itself, has been effective in understanding pathophysiology across a wide range of diseases. Although the intracellular measurement of NO is now feasible, many technical issues remain unresolved. The principle aim of our study was to determine the effect of storage time of whole blood on nitric oxide (NO) level expression in leukocytes. This is important because immune cells remain chemically dynamic even after they are removed from the circulation, and the impact of storage time must be known to optimally quantify the effect of a disease or condition on NO dynamics in circulating leukocytes...
November 9, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Brandon J Reeder, John Ukeri
Globin-mediated nitric oxide (NO) dioxygenase and nitrite reductase activities have been proposed to serve protective functions within the cell by scavenging or generating NO respectively. Cytoglobin has rapid NO dioxygenase activity, similar to other globins, however, the apparent rates of nitrite reductase activity have been reported as slow or negligible. Here we report that the activity of cytoglobin nitrite reductase activity is strongly dependent on the oxidation state of the two surface-exposed cysteine residues...
November 8, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Oleg Palygin, Daria V Ilatovskaya, Vladislav Levchenko, Bradley T Endres, Aron M Geurts, Alexander Staruschenko
Nitric Oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator and vital signaling molecule, has been shown to contribute to the regulation of glomerular ultrafiltration. However, whether changes in NO occur in podocytes during the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension has not yet been thoroughly examined. We showed here that podocytes produce NO, and further hypothesized that hypertensive animals would exhibit reduced NO production in these cells in response to various paracrine factors, which might contribute to the damage of glomeruli filtration barrier and development of proteinuria...
November 8, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Tetsuya Okuyama, Richi Nakatake, Masaki Kaibori, Tadayoshi Okumura, Masanori Kon, Mikio Nishizawa
Natural antisense transcripts (asRNAs) that do not encode proteins are transcribed from rat, mouse, and human genes, encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which catalyzes the production of the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO). In septic shock, NO is excessively produced in hepatocytes and macrophages. The iNOS asRNA interacts with and stabilizes iNOS mRNA. We found that single-stranded 'sense' oligonucleotides corresponding to the iNOS mRNA sequence reduced iNOS mRNA levels by interfering with the mRNA-asRNA interactions in rat hepatocytes...
November 8, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Chien-Hung Chen, Szu-Hsien Wu, Yang-Ming Tseng, Ming-Feng Hou, Li-Yu Tsai, Shih-Meng Tsai
Breast cancer has a high incidence in Taiwanese women and worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that NO has multiple independent roles in carcinogenesis; genetic polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene could modify its transcription and endogenous NO production. Previous studies have reported conflicting results for the relationship between polymorphisms in the eNOS gene and breast cancer risk. Estrogen levels are associated with eNOS expression; accordingly, variation in estrogen levels may contribute to the discordant results...
November 2, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Eleni Dongó, Gabriella Beliczai-Marosi, Ane Stensønes Dybvig, Levente Kiss
Our knowledge about hydrogen sulfide (H2S) significantly changed over the last two decades. Today it is considered as not only a toxic gas but also as a gasotransmitter with diverse roles in different physiological and pathophysiological processes. H2S has pleiotropic effects and its possible mechanisms of action involve (1) a reversible protein sulfhydration which can alter the function of the modified proteins similar to nitrosylation or phosphorylation; (2) direct antioxidant effects and (3) interaction with metalloproteins...
October 30, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Philipp Hendrix, Paul M Foreman, Mark R Harrigan, Winfield S Fisher, Nilesh A Vyas, Robert H Lipsky, Minkuan Lin, Beverly C Walters, R Shane Tubbs, Mohammadali M Shoja, Jean-Francois Pittet, Mali Mathru, Christoph J Griessenauer
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac abnormalities are observed frequently after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). A subset of aSAH patients develops neurogenic cardiomyopathy, likely induced by catecholamine excess. Genetic polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene have been linked to decreased nitric oxide (NO) levels, coronary artery spasm, and myocardial infarction. The role of the eNOS single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -786 T/C in cardiac instability following aSAH has not been previously investigated...
October 24, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Ana Maria Milanez Azevedo, Guilhermo Brites-Anselmi, Lucas Cezar Pinheiro, Vanessa de Almeida Belo, Fernanda Borchers Coeli-Lacchini, Carlos Augusto Fernandes Molina, Murilo Ferreira de Andrade, Silvio Tucci, Emilio Hirsch, Jose Eduardo Tanus-Santos, Riccardo Lacchini
Sildenafil is the most used treatment of erectile dysfunction, however a large part of patients do not respond to therapy. This drug enhances nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and therefore factors that alter NO production may impact this drug responsiveness. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of all NO synthases, and is metabolized by Dimethylarginine Dimethilaminohydrolase (DDAH) 1 and 2. Here we aimed to assess the relationship between plasma levels of ADMA and nitrite (marker of nitric oxide production) with Sildenafil responsiveness...
October 23, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Kentaro Wada, Koji Osuka, Yasuo Watanabe, Nobuteru Usuda, Motoaki Fukasawa, Yoshio Araki, Sho Okamoto, Toshihiko Wakabayashi
INTRODUCTION: We previously demonstrated that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylates neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) at Ser(1412) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus after forebrain ischemia; this phosphorylation event activates NOS activity and might contribute to depression after cerebral ischemia. In this study, we revealed chronological and topographical changes in the phosphorylation of nNOS at Ser(1412) immediately after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: In a rat single-hemorrhage model of SAH, the hippocampus and adjacent cortex were collected up to 24 h after SAH...
October 23, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Marie-Lynda Bouressam, Benjamin Meyer, Ariane Boudier, Igor Clarot, Pierre Leroy, Alessandro Genoni, Manuel Ruiz-Lopez, Philippe Giummelly, Patrick Liminana, Valérie Salgues, Mostafa Kouach, Caroline Perrin-Sarrado, Isabelle Lartaud, François Dupuis
PURPOSE: In a previous work, we have synthetized a new dinitrosothiol, i.e. S,S'-dinitrosobucillamine BUC(NO)2 combining S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) and S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (NACNO) in its structure. When exposed to isolated aorta, we observed a 1.5-fold increase of (•)NO content and a more potent vasorelaxation (1 log higher pD2) compared to NACNO and SNAP alone or combined (Dahboul et al., 2014). In the present study, we analyzed the thermodynamics and kinetics for the release of (•)NO through computational modeling techniques and correlated it to plasma assays...
October 16, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Andrew F Cumpstey, Philip J Hennis, Edward T Gilbert-Kawai, Bernadette O Fernandez, Matthieu Poudevigne, Alexandra Cobb, Paula Meale, Kay Mitchell, Helen Moyses, Helmut Pöhnl, Monty G Mythen, Michael P W Grocott, Martin Feelisch, Daniel S Martin
Nitric oxide (NO) production plays a central role in conferring tolerance to hypoxia. Tibetan highlanders, successful high-altitude dwellers for millennia, have higher circulating nitrate and exhaled NO (ENO) levels than native lowlanders. Since nitrate itself can reduce the oxygen cost of exercise in normoxia it may confer additional benefits at high altitude. Xtreme Alps was a double-blinded randomised placebo-controlled trial to investigate how dietary nitrate supplementation affects physiological responses to hypoxia in 28 healthy adult volunteers resident at 4559 m for 1 week; 14 receiving a beetroot-based high-nitrate supplement and 14 receiving a low-nitrate 'placebo' of matching appearance/taste...
October 16, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Gabriela G Chavez, Gabriella Taylor, Jekaterina Garaliene, Guy P Richardson, Sergei A Korneev
Experimental work over the past several years has revealed an unexpected abundance of long natural antisense transcripts (NATs) in eukaryotic species. In light of the proposed role of such RNA molecules in the regulation of gene expression in the brain, attention is now focused on specific examples of neuronal NATs. Of particular interest are NATs that are complementary to mRNAs encoding nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the enzyme responsible for production of the important gaseous neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO)...
October 12, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Olcay Ergürhan Kıroğlu, Özlem Yorulmaz Özü, Mustafa Emre, İhsan Bayel, Eda Karabal Kumcu, M Ata Seçilmiş
Shear stress or vasocontriction causes endothelial nitric oxide (NO) release resulting in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone in small resistance arteries. Generation of NO is inhibited by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors. In this study, we investigated the effect of residual NO, released even in the presence of NOS inhibitors, on the membrane depolarization and phenylephrine-induced contractions of smooth muscle. For this purpose, we used hydroxocobalamin (HC), an NO scavenger, in the presence of NOS inhibitiors, Nω-nitro- L-arginine (L-NA) or Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in mesenteric arteries isolated from rats...
October 12, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Meric A Altinoz, İlhan Elmaci
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain cancer with no curative treatment. Targeting Nitric Oxide (NO) and glutamatergic pathways may help as adjunctive treatments in GBM. NO at low doses promotes tumorigenesis, while at higher levels (above 300 nM) triggers apoptosis. Gliomas actively secrete high amounts of glutamate which activates EGR signaling and mediates degradation of peritumoral tissues via excitotoxic injury. Memantine inhibits NMDA-subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDARs) and induces autophagic death of glioma cells in vitro and blocks glioma growth in vivo...
October 10, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Samantha L Malone Rubright, Linda L Pearce, Jim Peterson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Teerapat Yingchoncharoen, Teewin Rakyhao, Suporn Chuncharunee, Piyamitr Sritara, Pavit Pienvichit, Kittiphong Paiboonsukwong, Piyadon Sathavorasmith, Kanjana Sirirat, Thanaporn Sriwantana, Sirada Srihirun, Nathawut Sibmooh
Pulmonary hypertension is a life-threatening complication in β-thalassemia. Inhaled sodium nitrite has vasodilatory effect on pulmonary vasculature. However, its effect on pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in β-thalassemia subjects with pulmonary hypertension has never been reported. In this study, we investigated the change in PAP during inhalation of sodium nitrite in 5 β-thalassemia patients. We demonstrated that sodium nitrite administered by nebulization rapidly decreased PAP as measured by echocardiography and right heart catheterization...
September 27, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Cristiane J da-Silva, Débora C F Mollica, Mateus H Vicente, Lázaro E P Peres, Luzia V Modolo
High salinity greatly impact agriculture, particularly in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a crop that is a model to study this abiotic stress. This work investigated whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S) acts upstream or downstream of nitric oxide (NO) in the signaling cascade during tomato response to salt stress. An NO-donor incremented H2S levels by 12-18.9% while an H2S-donor yielded 10% more NO in roots. The NO accumulated in roots one-hour after NaCl treatment while H2S accumulation started two-hour later. The NO stimulated H2S accumulation in roots/leaves, but not the opposite (i...
September 26, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Anton Misak, Marian Grman, Zuzana Bacova, Ingeborg Rezuchova, Sona Hudecova, Elena Ondriasova, Olga Krizanova, Vlasta Brezova, Miroslav Chovanec, Karol Ondrias
Exogenous and endogenously produced sulfide derivatives, such as H2S/HS(-)/S(2-), polysulfides and products of the H2S/S-nitrosoglutathione interaction (S/GSNO), affect numerous biological processes in which superoxide anion (O2(-)) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals play an important role. Their cytoprotective-antioxidant and contrasting pro-oxidant-toxic effects have been reported. Therefore, the aim of our work was to contribute to resolving this apparent inconsistency by studying sulfide derivatives/free radical interactions and their consequent biological effects compared to the antioxidants glutathione (GSH) and Trolox...
September 23, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Zi-Chao Wang, Yuzhen Yan, Tanzeela Nisar, Lijun Sun, Ping Su, De-Wei Chen, Yurong Guo
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) has been recognized as pivotal for color and color stability of meat products and has an evident effect on inhibiting microbial growth in processed meat. The use of indirect NO (nitrate/nitrite) in industrial meat curing has potential deleterious effects and great concerns have been expressed over residual nitrite in meat after curing. To find a succedaneum, we have demonstrated the influence of direct NO (saturated NO solution) through euthanasia before slaughter on the fillets color of tilapia and the results suggested that direct NO treatment prior to slaughter is a good procedure to improve the color of tilapia fillets...
September 22, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
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