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Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry

Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Asghar Ghasemi, Mattias Carlström, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
BACKGROUND: There is no epidemiological study on the association between dietary nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2) and intakes and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was therefore to examine the potential effect of dietary NO3 and NO2 on the occurrence of T2D. DESIGN: This longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) on 2139 T2D-free adults, aged 20-70 years, followed for a median of 5...
December 1, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Thomas L Poulos, Huiying Li
Once it was discovered that the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is responsible for the biosynthesis of NO, NOS became a drug target. Particularly important is the over production of NO by neuronal NOS (nNOS) in various neurodegenerative disorders. After the various NOS isoforms were identified, inhibitor development proceeded rapidly. It soon became evident, however, that isoform selectivity presents a major challenge. All 3 human NOS isoforms, nNOS, eNOS (endothelial NOS), and iNOS (inducible NOS) have nearly identical active site structures thus making selective inhibitor design especially difficult...
November 23, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Urszula Krasuska, Katarzyna Ciacka, Agnieszka Gniazdowska
Nitric oxide (NO) and polyamines (PAs) belong to plant growth and development regulators. These compounds play a key role in numerous physiological processes e.g. seed germination. Based on the suggestion of overlapping of NO and PAs biosynthetic pathways, we demonstrated a cross-talk of NO and PAs in regulation of embryonic dormancy release. The aim of the work was to investigate an impact of PAs (Put, Spd and Spm) or NO short-term fumigation on nitrite, urea, Arg and ornithine (Orn) content, NO synthase-like (NOS-like) and arginase activity in axes of apple (Malus domestica Borkh...
November 23, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Iakovos Armenis, Vassiliki Kalotychou, Revekka Tzanetea, Panagoula Kollia, Zoi Kontogeorgiou, Dimitra Anastasopoulou, Marina Mantzourani, Michael Samarkos, Konstantinos Pantos, Kostas Konstantopoulos, Ioannis Rombos
Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) is crucial for vascular homeostasis. Polymorphisms T786C and G894T are reportedly affecting eNOS regulation and have been related to various diseases. Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), a clinically diverse chronic hemolytic anemia, implies impaired nitric oxide bioavailability. Aim of this study was to determine eNOS genotype for T786C and G894T polymorphisms in Greek patients with SCD and to elucidate its functional consequences and possible effects on clinical phenotype. Seventy nine steady state cases, most of them compound heterozygous for Sickle cell anemia/beta thalassemia and 48 controls were enrolled...
November 18, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Amanda de Carvalho Pereira, Alice Valença Araújo, Michele Paulo, Fernanda Aparecida de Andrade, Bruno Rodrigues Silva, Juliana Aparecida Vercesi, Roberto Santana da Silva, Lusiane Maria Bendhack
NO donors are compounds that release NO that can be used when the endogenous NO bioavailability is impaired. The compound cis-[Ru(bpy)2(py)(NO2)](PF6) (RuBPY) is a nitrite-ruthenium, since it has a NO2 in its molecule. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of RuBPY on arterial pressure, as well as on the vascular relaxation of different vascular arteries in renal hypertensive (2K-1C) and normotensive (2K) rats. We have evaluated the arterial pressure and heart rate changes as well as the RuBPY and SNP-induced relaxation (thoracic aorta, mesenteric resistance, coronary and basilar arteries)...
November 12, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Francisco J Corpas, Juan B Barroso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Urszula Krasuska, Olga Andrzejczak, Paweł Staszek, Wojciech Borucki, Agnieszka Gniazdowska
A non-protein amino acid (NPAA) - meta-Tyrosine (m-Tyr), is a harmful compound produced by fescue roots. Young (3-4 days old) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings were supplemented for 24-72 h with m-Tyr (50 or 250 μM) inhibiting root growth by 50 or 100%, without lethal effect. Fluorescence of DAF-FM and APF derivatives was determined to show reactive nitrogen species (RNS) localization and level in roots of tomato plants. m-Tyr-induced restriction of root elongation growth was related to formation of nitrated proteins described as content of 3-nitro tyrosine...
October 31, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Harry Jell, Jonathan Fulford, James Carter, Lara Nyman, Stephen J Bailey, Andrew M Jones
: The influence of dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation on indices of maximal sprint and intermittent exercise performance is unclear. PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of NO3(-) supplementation on sprint running performance, and cognitive function and exercise performance during the sport-specific Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 test (IR1). METHODS: In a double-blind, randomised, crossover study, 36 male team-sport players received NO3(-)-rich (BR; 70 mL·day(-1); 6...
October 21, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Ming-Jui Hung, Yu-Cheng Kao, Chun-Tai Mao, Tien-Hsin Chen, Wei-Siang Chen
Renin inhibitors enhance endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) bioavailability and have protective effects on endothelial function and atherosclerotic changes. This study was designed to investigate whether aliskiren attenuates the effects of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on eNOS and the eNOS-caveolin-1 interaction in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). In this study, we examined the effects of pretreatment with aliskiren on the changes of IL-6-induced expression and activation of eNOS and caveolin-1 in cultured HAECs...
October 20, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Helena Logotheti, Chryssa Pourzitaki, Georgia Tsaousi, Zoi Aidoni, Artemis Vekrakou, Amaniti Ekaterini, Konstantinos Gourgoulianis
BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) has been associated with major perioperative morbidities or mortalities, especially in surgical patients receiving general anesthesia. The severity of the COPD and the degree of bronchial hyperreactivity can determine the perioperative anesthetic risk; therefore they have to be assessed by a thorough preoperative evaluation in order to give the rationale on which to decide for optimum anesthetic management. OBJECTIVE: Aim of the study was to assess the predictive applicability of exhaled Nitric Oxide (NO) in smoking surgical population with COPD, on the basis of morbidity and mortality...
October 19, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Michaela L Sundqvist, Jon O Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg
The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a significant source of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate has a number of cardiovascular effects as well as a decrease in oxygen cost during exercise and a reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR). Oral bacteria have a key role in bioactivation of inorganic nitrate since they catalyse the conversion of salivary nitrate to the more reactive nitrite anion. Recent studies demonstrate that blood pressure increases with the use of an antiseptic mouthwash, indicating that endogenous, NO-synthase derived nitrate is recycled into nitrite and NO, sufficiently to modulate cardiovascular function...
October 18, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Stephen J Bailey, Jamie R Blackwell, Lee J Wylie, Terezia Holland, Paul G Winyard, Andrew M Jones
Dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate (NO3(-)) has been reported to improve cardiovascular health indices in healthy adults. Cigarette smoking increases circulating thiocyanate (SCN(-)), which has been suggested to competitively inhibit salivary nitrate (NO3(-)) uptake, a rate-limiting step in dietary NO3(-) metabolism. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that dietary NO3(-) supplementation would be less effective at increasing the circulating plasma nitrite concentration ([NO2(-)]) and lowering blood pressure in smokers (S) compared to non-smokers (NS)...
October 12, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Sarah L Wynia-Smith, Brian C Smith
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signaling molecule impacting many biological pathways. NO is produced in mammals by three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms: neuronal (nNOS), endothelial (eNOS), and inducible (iNOS). nNOS and eNOS produce low concentrations of NO for paracrine signaling; NO produced and released from one cell diffuses to a neighboring cell where it binds and activates soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). iNOS produces high concentrations of NO using NO toxicity to amplify the innate immune response...
October 5, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Halley C Oliveira, Bruna C R Gomes, Milena T Pelegrino, Amedea B Seabra
Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule involved in plant response to various abiotic stresses. However, the application of NO donors in agriculture is hampered by the instability of these compounds. Despite the successful uses of NO-releasing nanoparticles for biomedical purposes and the variety of nanomaterials developed as carrier systems of agrochemicals, the potential applications of nanocarriers for NO delivery in plants have not yet been tested. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs) containing the NO donor S-nitroso-mercaptosuccinic acid (S-nitroso-MSA)...
September 29, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Taís S Assmann, Letícia A Brondani, Ana P Bouças, Jakeline Rheinheimer, Bianca M de Souza, Luís H Canani, Andrea C Bauer, Daisy Crispim
BACKGROUND: Altered serum nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported by different studies; however, results are still controversial. Until this date, no meta-analysis evaluated the association of NO levels with DM. Thus, this paper describes a meta-analysis conducted to evaluate if there is a relationship between NO levels and type 1 DM (T1DM) or type 2 DM (T2DM). METHODS: A literature search was done to identify all studies that investigated NO levels between T1DM or T2DM patients (cases) and non-diabetic subjects (controls)...
September 24, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Lenka Tomasova, Leszek Dobrowolski, Halina Jurkowska, Maria Wróbel, Tomasz Huc, Karol Ondrias, Ryszard Ostaszewski, Marcin Ufnal
Research suggests that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important biological mediator involved in various physiological processes including the regulation of arterial blood pressure (BP). Although H2S is abundant in the colon, the effects of gut-derived H2S on the circulatory system have not yet been investigated. We studied the effects of intracolonic administration of Na2S, a H2S donor, on systemic hemodynamics. Hemodynamics were recorded in anesthetized, normotensive Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats at baseline and after intracolonic injection of either saline (controls) or Na2S·9H2O saline solution at a dose range of 10-300 mg/kg of BW...
September 22, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Guannan Zhang, Xiaodong Li, Chengyu Sheng, Xiaohui Chen, Yu Chen, Dingliang Zhu, Pingjin Gao
A large amount of NO is generated through the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway from the vascular adventitia in various vascular diseases. However, it is currently not fully understood how the iNOS signaling pathway is activated. In the present study, this question was addressed in the context of adventitial cellular interactions. A rat model of acute hypertension in the contralateral carotid arteries was established through transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery. In this model, activated macrophages were found surrounded by a large quantity of iNOS-expressing adventitial fibroblasts (AFs), suggesting a possible causal relationship between macrophages and iNOS activation of the neighboring AFs...
September 21, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Da-Bin Kuang, Ji-Peng Zhou, Lin-Yu Yu, Wen-Jing Zeng, Jian Xiao, Gang-Zhi Zhu, Zan-Lin Zhang, Xiao-Ping Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether microRNA (miRNA) miR-21 regulates dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1) expression through binding 3'-UTR region directly in human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore whether DDAH1-V2/V3 transcripts can function as microRNA sponge, thereby modulating DDAH1-V1 expression. METHODS: The DDAH1 3'-UTR containing miR-21 recognizing sequence was cloned into PmirGLO dual-luciferase miRNA target expression plasmid to construct PmirGLO-miR-21...
September 20, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Jérôme Santolini, François André, Sylvain Jeandroz, David Wendehenne
Over the past twenty years, nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as an important player in various plant physiological processes. Although many advances in the understanding of NO functions have been made, the question of how NO is produced in plants is still challenging. It is now generally accepted that the endogenous production of NO is mainly accomplished through the reduction of nitrite via both enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms which remain to be fully characterized. Furthermore, experimental arguments in favour of the existence of plant nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like enzymes have been reported...
September 19, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Tobias M Hedison, Sam Hay, Nigel S Scrutton
This perspective reviews single molecule and ensemble fluorescence spectroscopy studies of the three tissue specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoenzymes and the related diflavin oxidoreductase cytochrome P450 reductase. The focus is on the role of protein dynamics and the protein conformational landscape and we discuss how recent fluorescence-based studies have helped in illustrating how the nature of the NOS conformational landscape relates to enzyme turnover and catalysis.
September 9, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
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