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Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry

María Cristina Lombardo, Lorenzo Lamattina
Abscisic acid (ABA) and nitric oxide (NO) are two plant growth regulators that participate in many signaling cascades in different organs all along the plant life. Here, we were interested in deciphering the effects of ABA and NO on the cytoskeleton organization in a model of polarized cell growth like root hairs. Arabidopsis roots were exposed to different concentrations of ABA, and the length of primary root, epidermal cells and root hairs were measured. The NO concentration was detected with the NO-specific fluorescent probe DAF-FM DA...
September 17, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Xiaotian Sun, Wenshuo Wang, Jing Dai, Jiechun Huang, Meng Shi, Xianglin Chu, Fangrui Wang, Changfa Guo, Chunsheng Wang, Liewen Pang, Yiqing Wang
Cardiac transplantation has been limited by the inability to long preserve donor hearts safely. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) has been recognized as an important gasotransmitter exerting potent cardioprotection from ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). Herein we investigated the cardioprotective effects of a novel long-term and slow-releasing H2 S system, namely DATS-MSN, in heart preservation solution using a heart transplantation models. The release of H2 S from DATS-MSN was slow and continuous in the University of Wisconsin solution (UW), correspondingly, DATS-MSN application demonstrated superior cardioprotective effects over the control and traditional H2 S donors after 6 h heart preservation and 1 h reperfusion, associated with greater allograft performance including left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and dP/dt max , reduced plasmic CK-MB and troponin I levels, inhibited myocardial inflammation, increased antioxidant enzyme activities, preserved mitochondria structure and function, and decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis index...
September 11, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Teresa Tropea, Mark Wareing, Susan L Greenwood, Martin Feelisch, Colin P Sibley, Elizabeth C Cottrell
Adequate perfusion of the placental vasculature is essential to meet the metabolic demands of fetal growth and development. Lacking neural control, local tissue metabolites, circulating and physical factors contribute significantly to blood flow regulation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulator of fetoplacental vascular tone. Nitrite, previously considered an inert end-product of NO oxidation, has been shown to provide an important source of NO. Reduction of nitrite to NO may be particularly relevant in tissue when the oxygen-dependent NO synthase (NOS) activity is compromised, e...
September 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Júlia Ariana Souza Gomes, Marina C Oliveira, Pedro Henrique Gobira, Grazielle C Silva, Anna Paula Marçal, Giovanni Freitas Gomes, Carolina Zaniboni Ferrari, Virginia Soares Lemos, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Luciene Bruno Vieira, Adaliene V M Ferreira, Daniele C Aguiar
Obesity is characterized by abnormal adipose tissue expansion and is associated with chronic inflammation. Obesity itself may induce several comorbidities, including psychiatric disorders. It has been previously demonstrated that proinflammatory cytokines are able to up-regulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) release, which both have a role in compulsive related behaviors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether acute or chronic consumption of a high-refined carbohydrate-containing (HC) diet will modify burying-behavior in the Marble Burying Test (MBT) through augmentation of NO signaling in the striatum, a brain region related to the reward system...
August 17, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Joshua M Bock, David P Treichler, Samuel L Norton, Kenichi Ueda, William E Hughes, Darren P Casey
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is characterized by functional and vascular impairments as well as elevated levels of inflammation which are associated with reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Inorganic nitrate supplementation boosts NO bioavailability potentially improving functional and vasodilatory capacities and may reduce inflammation. Twenty-one patients with PAD were randomly assigned to sodium nitrate (NaNO3 ) or placebo supplementation groups for eight-weeks. Outcome measures included a 6-min walk test (6 MWT), blood flow and vasodilator function in the forearm and calf, as well as plasma inflammatory and adhesion biomarker concentrations...
August 15, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Li Wang, Luis E F Almeida, Sayuri Kamimura, Jack H van der Meulen, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Martha Quezado, Paul Wakim, Zenaide M N Quezado
Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients can have limited exercise capacity and muscle dysfunction characterized by decreased force, atrophy, microvascular abnormalities, fiber distribution changes, and skeletal muscle energetics abnormalities. Growing evidence suggests that in SCD there is alteration in nitric oxide (NO) availability/signaling and that nitrate/nitrite can serve as a NO reservoir and enhance muscle performance. Here, we examined effects of nitrite on muscle strength, exercise capacity, and on contractile properties of fast-(extensor digitorum longus, EDL) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles in SCD mice...
August 14, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Yasuko Nagasaka, Bernadette O Fernandez, Andrea U Steinbicker, Ester Spagnolli, Rajeev Malhotra, Donald B Bloch, Kenneth D Bloch, Warren M Zapol, Martin Feelisch
BACKGROUND: Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) may contribute to ischemic and anesthetic preconditioning while exogenous NO protects against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in the heart and other organs. Why those beneficial effects observed in animal models do not always translate into clinical effectiveness remains unclear. To mitigate reperfusion damage a source of NO is required. NO inhalation is known to increase tissue NO metabolites, but little information exists about the lifetime of these species...
August 13, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Hannah C Saternos, Wissam A AbouAlaiwi
New discoveries into the functional role of primary cilia are on the rise. In little more than 20 years, research has shown the once vestigial organelle is a signaling powerhouse involved in a vast number of essential cellular processes. In the same decade that interest in primary cilia was burgeoning, nitric oxide won molecule of the year and a Nobel prize for its role as a near ubiquitous signaling molecule. Although primary cilia and nitric oxide are both involved in signaling, a direct relationship has not been investigated; however, after a quick review of the literature, parallels between their functions can be drawn...
August 9, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Laura Ormesher, Jenny E Myers, Catherine Chmiel, Mark Wareing, Susan L Greenwood, Teresa Tropea, Jon O Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg, Carina Nihlen, Colin P Sibley, Edward D Johnstone, Elizabeth C Cottrell
Chronic hypertension in pregnancy is associated with significant adverse pregnancy outcomes, increasing the risk of pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. Dietary nitrate, abundant in green leafy vegetables and beetroot, is reduced in vivo to nitrite and subsequently nitric oxide, and has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure, improve vascular compliance and enhance blood flow in non-pregnant humans and animals. The primary aims of this study were to determine the acceptability and efficacy of dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of beetroot juice, to lower blood pressure in hypertensive pregnant women...
August 9, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Rastislav Rovný, Martin Marko, Stanislav Katina, Jana Murínová, Veronika Roháriková, Barbora Cimrová, Gabriela Repiská, Gabriel Minárik, Igor Riečanský
Research increasingly suggests that nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. One important line of evidence comes from genetic studies, which have repeatedly detected an association between the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or NOS1) and schizophrenia. However, the pathogenetic pathways linking nNOS, NO, and the disorder remain poorly understood. A deficit in sensorimotor gating is considered to importantly contribute to core schizophrenia symptoms such as psychotic disorganization and thought disturbance...
August 8, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Kamila Szymanska, Jaroslaw Calka, Slawomir Gonkowski
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic substance, which is commonly used in the production of plastic. It is known that BPA has the negative impact on the living organism, affecting among others the reproductive organs, nervous, endocrine and immune systems. Nevertheless the knowledge about the influence of BPA on the enteric nervous system (ENS) is extremely scanty. On the other hand, nitric oxide is considered to be one of the most important neuronal factors in the ENS. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of low and high doses of BPA on neuronal isoform nitric oxide synthase - like immunoreactive (nNOS-LI) nervous structures in the various parts of the porcine gastrointestinal (GI) tract using double immunofluorescence technique...
August 4, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Rana Ahmed Youness, Reem Amr Assal, Amira Abdel Motaal, Mohamed Zakaria Gad
Hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) gas has been recognized as an intracellular mediator influencing an array of signaling pathways. Yet, the role of H2 S in cancer progression has been controversial. This study aims to unravel the role of exogenous H2 S in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and to further investigate any possible association of H2 S mediated actions with the endogenous production of nitric oxide (NO) gas. A wide concentration range of NaHS (20-2000 μM) and a variable reaction time (2-72 h) were probed...
August 4, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Moshe Shashar, Tamar Hod, Tamara Chernichovski, Avital Angel, Shaul Kazan, Ayelet Grupper, Sivan Naveh, Orit Kliuk-Ben Bassat, Talia Weinstein, Idit F Schwartz
Blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MCR) has been shown to improve endothelial function far beyond blood pressure control. In the current studies we have looked at the effect of MCR antagonists on cationic amino acid transporter-1 (CAT-1), a major modulator of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) generation. Using radio-labeled arginine, {[3 H] l-arginine} uptake was determined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) following incubation with either spironolactone or eplerenone with or without silencing of MCR...
July 26, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Tomoya Kawakami, Atsushi Koike, Fumio Amano
Macrophages are known to play pivotal roles in host-defense through inflammation via both innate and acquired immune systems, and so on. In an earlier paper, we showed the influence of the type of culture medium, Ham's F-12 or DMEM, on activated macrophage phenotypes induced by LPS and IFNγ. The production of nitric oxide (NO), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-1β, as well as the induction of superoxide-generating activity of J774.1/JA-4 cells was different depending on the type of culture medium...
September 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
George T Mukosera, Taiming Liu, Abu Shufian Ishtiaq Ahmed, Qian Li, Matilda H-C Sheng, Trent E Tipple, David J Baylink, Gordon G Power, Arlin B Blood
Dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) are important intermediates in the metabolism of nitric oxide (NO). They have been considered to be NO storage adducts able to release NO, scavengers of excess NO during inflammatory hypotensive shock, and mediators of apoptosis in cancer cells, among many other functions. Currently, all studies of DNICs in biological matrices use electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) for both detection and quantification. EPR is limited, however, by its ability to detect only paramagnetic mononuclear DNICs even though EPR-silent binuclear are likely to be prevalent...
September 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Mai T Thao, Devi Kalyan Karumanchi, Sally M Yacout, Elizabeth R Gaillard
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease characterized by degenerative changes in the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. Inflammation is considered a major risk factor for the development and progression of AMD. Nitrite is a potent byproduct of inflammation and has been detected at elevated concentrations in AMD donor tissue. We hypothesize that nitrite chemically modifies the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Bruch's membrane as an initial step to degenerative changes observed in AMD. Non-enzymatically nitrated synthetic ECM peptides, fibronectin and laminin, were used as model systems for inflammation...
September 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Gregory J Buchan, Gustavo Bonacci, Marco Fazzari, Sonia R Salvatore, Stacy Gelhaus Wendell
Nitro-fatty acids (NO2 -FA) are pleiotropic modulators of redox signaling pathways. Their effects on inflammatory signaling have been studied in great detail in cell, animal and clinical models primarily using exogenously administered nitro-oleic acid. While we know a considerable amount regarding NO2 -FA signaling, endogenous formation and metabolism is relatively unexplored. This review will cover what is currently known regarding the proposed mechanisms of NO2 -FA formation, dietary modulation of endogenous NO2 -FA levels, pathways of NO2 -FA metabolism and the detection of NO2 -FA and corresponding metabolites...
September 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Kenji Obayashi, Norio Kurumatani, Keigo Saeki
The association between chronic kidney disease (CKD), serum levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and sleep quality has not been studied in large populations. In this cross-sectional study of 1115 elderly individuals (mean age, 71.9 years), we measured serum levels of ADMA, and objective and subjective sleep quality using actigraphy and a standardized self-reported questionnaire, respectively. Multivariable analysis adjusted for potential confounders revealed that in females, compared with the non-CKD/low-ADMA group (n=312), sleep efficiency was significantly lower in the CKD/high-ADMA group (n=52) by 3...
September 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Hiviny de Ataides Raquel, Nathalia Zerbinatti Ferreira, Bruno Fernando Cruz Lucchetti, Bárbara Falquetto, Phileno Pinge-Filho, Lisete Compagno Michelini, Marli Cardoso Martins-Pinge
Nitric oxide (NO), an intercellular signaling molecule is relevant for circulatory autonomic control. Brain NO synthase (NOS) and NO levels were downregulated in pathological conditions, but rescued after exercise training. We hypothesized that exercise training was also able to improve NO modulation within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of healthy rats. Male Wistar rats were submitted to two 4-weeks protocols: i) swimming training (T) or kept sedentary (S), ii) l-arginine (62,5 mg/mL, 1 mL/day p...
September 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Francisco J Schopfer, Dario A Vitturi, Diane K Jorkasky, Bruce A Freeman
Nitrated oleic acid (NO2 -OA) was first identified in 2003, and after the characterization of its formation and thiol reactivity, it was used as a prototypical molecule to investigate the physiological actions of endogenous nitrated fatty acids (NO2 -FA). Based on in vitro observations showing significant activation of cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory signaling responses by NO2 -FA, experiments were designed to determine their pharmacological potential. Supported by strong intellectual protection and favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data, 10-NO2 -OA (CXA-10) underwent pharmaceutical development as a drug to treat fibrotic and inflammatory diseases...
September 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
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