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Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry

Michael A Hollas, Manel Ben Aissa, Sue H Lee, Jesse M Gordon-Blake, Gregory R J Thatcher
The development of small molecule modulators of NO/cGMP signaling for use in the CNS has lagged far behind the use of such clinical agents in the periphery, despite the central role played by NO/cGMP in learning and memory, and the substantial evidence that this signaling pathway is perturbed in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. The NO-chimeras, NMZ and Nitrosynapsin, have yielded beneficial and disease-modifying responses in multiple preclinical animal models, acting on GABAA and NMDA receptors, respectively, providing additional mechanisms of action relevant to synaptic and neuronal dysfunction...
October 27, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Smriti Juriasingani, Masoud Akbari, Justin Yh Chan, Matthew Whiteman, Alp Sener
Renal transplantation is the preferred treatment for end-stage renal disease. Currently, there is a large gap between the supply and demand for transplantable kidneys. The use of sub-optimal grafts obtained via donation after cardiac death (DCD) is on the rise. While static cold storage (SCS) in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution on ice (4°C) is the clinical standard of care for renal graft preservation, cold storage has been associated with negative graft outcomes. The alternative, normothermic machine perfusion, involves mechanical perfusion of the organ at physiological or normothermic temperature (37°C) and this technique is expensive, complicated and globally inaccessible...
October 25, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Elie Nader, Marijke Grau, Romain Fort, Bianca Collins, Giovanna Cannas, Alexandra Gauthier, Katja Walpurgis, Cyril Martin, Wilhelm Bloch, Solène Poutrel, Arnaud Hot, Céline Renoux, Mario Thevis, Philippe Joly, Marc Romana, Nicolas Guillot, Philippe Connes
Hydroxyurea (HU) has been suggested to act as a nitric oxide (NO) donor in sickle cell anemia (SCA). However, little is known about the HU NO-related effects on red blood cell (RBC) physiology and NO signalling pathway. Thirty-four patients with SCA (22 under HU treatment (HU+) and 12 without (HU-)) and 17 healthy subjects (AA) were included. RBC nitrite content, deformability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured. RBC NO-synthase (RBC-NOS) signalling pathway was assessed by the measurement of RBC-NOS serine1177 and RBC-AKT serine473 phosphorylation...
October 19, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
María A Muñoz-Vargas, Salvador González-Gordo, Amanda Cañas, Javier López-Jaramillo, José M Palma, Francisco J Corpas
Like nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) has been recognized as a new gasotransmitter which plays an important role as a signaling molecule in many physiological processes in higher plants. Although fruit ripening is a complex process associated with the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen oxygen species (RNS), little is known about the potential involvement of endogenous H2 S. Using sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) as a model non-climacteric fruit during the green and red ripening stages, we studied endogenous H2 S content and cytosolic l-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES) activity which increased by 14% and 28%, respectively, in red pepper fruits...
October 13, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Hai-Tao Hou, Jun Wang, Xi Zhang, Zheng-Qing Wang, Tie-Nan Chen, Jian-Liang Zhang, Qin Yang, Guo-Wei He
Homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesized that the eNOS transcription enhancer AVE3085 may protect the endothelial function damaged by Hcy in the human internal mammary artery (IMA). Cumulative concentration-relaxation curves to acetylcholine (-10 to -4.5 log mol/L) or sodium nitroprusside were established in IMA from patients undergoing coronary artery surgery precontracted by U46619 (-8 log mol/L) in the absence/presence of Hcy (100 μmol/L) with/without AVE3085 (30 μmol/L) in vitro in a myograph...
October 6, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Ruixin Shao, Huifang Zheng, Jinliang Yang, Shuangjie Jia, Tianxue Liu, Yongchao Wang, Jiameng Guo, Qinghua Yang, Guozhang Kang
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important bioactive molecule that functions in regulating diverse abiotic stresses in plants, whereas its molecular mechanism remains obscure. In this study, treatment with 0.1 mM NO donor (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) significantly alleviated the inhibited growth induced by 15% polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-stimulated water deficiency (WD) for 3 days in maize seedlings, manifested by less decreased plant total fresh weight and dry weight. Comprehensive proteome analysis was further used to measure the expression profiles of leaf proteins of SNP-pretreated maize seedlings under WD conditions to explore the molecular mechanisms of NO-induced WD tolerance...
October 5, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Lin Yang, Hui Zhang, Peili Chen
OBJECTIVE: Sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of cardiovascular system. This study was aimed to investigate cardioprotective effects of SO2 on in the rat and the underlying mechanism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sepsis model induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rats were used. SO2 donor (NaHSO3 /Na2 SO3 , 1:3 M/M) was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 85 mg/kg. Primary neonatal rat cardiac ventricular myocytes (NRCMs) were stimulated with LPS (1 mg/mL) in presence or absence of different concentrations of SO2 (10, 50 and 100 μmol/L)...
September 28, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Xiaotian Sun, Wenshuo Wang, Jing Dai, Jiechun Huang, Meng Shi, Xianglin Chu, Fangrui Wang, Changfa Guo, Chunsheng Wang, Liewen Pang, Yiqing Wang
Cardiac transplantation has been limited by the inability to long preserve donor hearts safely. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) has been recognized as an important gasotransmitter exerting potent cardioprotection from ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). Herein we investigated the cardioprotective effects of a novel long-term and slow-releasing H2 S system, namely DATS-MSN, in heart preservation solution using a heart transplantation models. The release of H2 S from DATS-MSN was slow and continuous in the University of Wisconsin solution (UW), correspondingly, DATS-MSN application demonstrated superior cardioprotective effects over the control and traditional H2 S donors after 6 h heart preservation and 1 h reperfusion, associated with greater allograft performance including left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and dP/dt max , reduced plasmic CK-MB and troponin I levels, inhibited myocardial inflammation, increased antioxidant enzyme activities, preserved mitochondria structure and function, and decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis index...
September 11, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Eduardo D Costa, Josiane F Silva, Rosária D Aires, Daniela C Garcia, Milhem J Kansaon, Alberto J Wainstein, Bruno A Rezende, Mauro M Teixeira, Rafaela F Silva, Steyner F Cortes, Virginia S Lemos
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is expressed in the cardiovascular system and besides NO, generates H2 O2 . nNOS has been proposed to contribute to the control of blood pressure in healthy humans. The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that nNOS can contribute to the control of vascular relaxation and blood pressure in hypertensive patients undergoing drug treatment. The study was conducted in resistance mesenteric arteries from 63 individuals, as follows: 1) normotensive patients; 2) controlled hypertensive patients (patients on antihypertensive treatment with blood pressure normalized); 3) uncontrolled hypertensive patients (patients on antihypertensive treatment that remained hypertensive)...
November 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
María Cristina Lombardo, Lorenzo Lamattina
Abscisic acid (ABA) and nitric oxide (NO) are two plant growth regulators that participate in many signaling cascades in different organs all along the plant life. Here, we were interested in deciphering the effects of ABA and NO on the cytoskeleton organization in a model of polarized cell growth like root hairs. Arabidopsis roots were exposed to different concentrations of ABA, and the length of primary root, epidermal cells and root hairs were measured. The NO concentration was detected with the NO-specific fluorescent probe DAF-FM DA...
November 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Teresa Tropea, Mark Wareing, Susan L Greenwood, Martin Feelisch, Colin P Sibley, Elizabeth C Cottrell
Adequate perfusion of the placental vasculature is essential to meet the metabolic demands of fetal growth and development. Lacking neural control, local tissue metabolites, circulating and physical factors contribute significantly to blood flow regulation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulator of fetoplacental vascular tone. Nitrite, previously considered an inert end-product of NO oxidation, has been shown to provide an important source of NO. Reduction of nitrite to NO may be particularly relevant in tissue when the oxygen-dependent NO synthase (NOS) activity is compromised, e...
November 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Júlia Ariana Souza Gomes, Marina C Oliveira, Pedro Henrique Gobira, Grazielle C Silva, Anna Paula Marçal, Giovanni Freitas Gomes, Carolina Zaniboni Ferrari, Virginia Soares Lemos, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Luciene Bruno Vieira, Adaliene V M Ferreira, Daniele C Aguiar
Obesity is characterized by abnormal adipose tissue expansion and is associated with chronic inflammation. Obesity itself may induce several comorbidities, including psychiatric disorders. It has been previously demonstrated that proinflammatory cytokines are able to up-regulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) release, which both have a role in compulsive related behaviors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether acute or chronic consumption of a high-refined carbohydrate-containing (HC) diet will modify burying-behavior in the Marble Burying Test (MBT) through augmentation of NO signaling in the striatum, a brain region related to the reward system...
November 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Li Wang, Luis E F Almeida, Sayuri Kamimura, Jack H van der Meulen, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Martha Quezado, Paul Wakim, Zenaide M N Quezado
Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients can have limited exercise capacity and muscle dysfunction characterized by decreased force, atrophy, microvascular abnormalities, fiber distribution changes, and skeletal muscle energetics abnormalities. Growing evidence suggests that in SCD there is alteration in nitric oxide (NO) availability/signaling and that nitrate/nitrite can serve as a NO reservoir and enhance muscle performance. Here, we examined effects of nitrite on muscle strength, exercise capacity, and on contractile properties of fast-(extensor digitorum longus, EDL) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles in SCD mice...
November 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Yasuko Nagasaka, Bernadette O Fernandez, Andrea U Steinbicker, Ester Spagnolli, Rajeev Malhotra, Donald B Bloch, Kenneth D Bloch, Warren M Zapol, Martin Feelisch
BACKGROUND: Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) may contribute to ischemic and anesthetic preconditioning while exogenous NO protects against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in the heart and other organs. Why those beneficial effects observed in animal models do not always translate into clinical effectiveness remains unclear. To mitigate reperfusion damage a source of NO is required. NO inhalation is known to increase tissue NO metabolites, but little information exists about the lifetime of these species...
November 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Hannah C Saternos, Wissam A AbouAlaiwi
New discoveries into the functional role of primary cilia are on the rise. In little more than 20 years, research has shown the once vestigial organelle is a signaling powerhouse involved in a vast number of essential cellular processes. In the same decade that interest in primary cilia was burgeoning, nitric oxide won molecule of the year and a Nobel prize for its role as a near ubiquitous signaling molecule. Although primary cilia and nitric oxide are both involved in signaling, a direct relationship has not been investigated; however, after a quick review of the literature, parallels between their functions can be drawn...
November 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Tomoya Kawakami, Atsushi Koike, Fumio Amano
Macrophages are known to play pivotal roles in host-defense through inflammation via both innate and acquired immune systems, and so on. In an earlier paper, we showed the influence of the type of culture medium, Ham's F-12 or DMEM, on activated macrophage phenotypes induced by LPS and IFNγ. The production of nitric oxide (NO), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-1β, as well as the induction of superoxide-generating activity of J774.1/JA-4 cells was different depending on the type of culture medium...
September 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
George T Mukosera, Taiming Liu, Abu Shufian Ishtiaq Ahmed, Qian Li, Matilda H-C Sheng, Trent E Tipple, David J Baylink, Gordon G Power, Arlin B Blood
Dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) are important intermediates in the metabolism of nitric oxide (NO). They have been considered to be NO storage adducts able to release NO, scavengers of excess NO during inflammatory hypotensive shock, and mediators of apoptosis in cancer cells, among many other functions. Currently, all studies of DNICs in biological matrices use electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) for both detection and quantification. EPR is limited, however, by its ability to detect only paramagnetic mononuclear DNICs even though EPR-silent binuclear are likely to be prevalent...
September 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Mai T Thao, Devi Kalyan Karumanchi, Sally M Yacout, Elizabeth R Gaillard
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease characterized by degenerative changes in the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. Inflammation is considered a major risk factor for the development and progression of AMD. Nitrite is a potent byproduct of inflammation and has been detected at elevated concentrations in AMD donor tissue. We hypothesize that nitrite chemically modifies the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Bruch's membrane as an initial step to degenerative changes observed in AMD. Non-enzymatically nitrated synthetic ECM peptides, fibronectin and laminin, were used as model systems for inflammation...
September 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Gregory J Buchan, Gustavo Bonacci, Marco Fazzari, Sonia R Salvatore, Stacy Gelhaus Wendell
Nitro-fatty acids (NO2 -FA) are pleiotropic modulators of redox signaling pathways. Their effects on inflammatory signaling have been studied in great detail in cell, animal and clinical models primarily using exogenously administered nitro-oleic acid. While we know a considerable amount regarding NO2 -FA signaling, endogenous formation and metabolism is relatively unexplored. This review will cover what is currently known regarding the proposed mechanisms of NO2 -FA formation, dietary modulation of endogenous NO2 -FA levels, pathways of NO2 -FA metabolism and the detection of NO2 -FA and corresponding metabolites...
September 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Kenji Obayashi, Norio Kurumatani, Keigo Saeki
The association between chronic kidney disease (CKD), serum levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and sleep quality has not been studied in large populations. In this cross-sectional study of 1115 elderly individuals (mean age, 71.9 years), we measured serum levels of ADMA, and objective and subjective sleep quality using actigraphy and a standardized self-reported questionnaire, respectively. Multivariable analysis adjusted for potential confounders revealed that in females, compared with the non-CKD/low-ADMA group (n=312), sleep efficiency was significantly lower in the CKD/high-ADMA group (n=52) by 3...
September 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
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