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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation

J Rübenthaler, K Paprottka, J Marcon, E Hameister, K Hoffmann, N Joiko, M Reiser, D A Clevert
PURPOSE: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of unclear renal lesions to the histopathological outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 patients with a single unclear solid renal lesion with initial imaging studies between 2005 and 2015 were included. CEUS and MRI were used for determining malignancy or benignancy and initial findings were correlated with the histopathological outcome...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Walter H Reinhart
The hematocrit (Hct) determines the oxygen carrying capacity of blood, but also increases blood viscosity and thus flow resistance. From this dual role the concept of an optimum Hct for tissue oxygenation has been derived. Viscometric studies using the ratio Hct/blood viscosity at high shear rate showed an optimum Hct of 50-60% for red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in plasma. For the perfusion of an artificial microvascular network with 5-70μm channels the optimum Hct was 60-70% for high driving pressures. With lower shear rates or driving pressures the optimum Hct shifted towards lower values...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
A Priezzhev, K Lee
Laser trapping and manipulation of blood cells without mechanical contact have become feasible with implication of laser tweezers. They open up new horizons for the hemorheologic researches, offer new possibilities for studying live cells interactions on individual cell level under the influence of different endogenous and exogenous factors. The operation principle of laser tweezers is based on the property of strongly focused laser beam to act on a dielectric microparticle located in the vicinity of the beam waist with a force that drives the particle to the equilibrium location and holds it there...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
N Platz Batista da Silva, M Schauer, M Hornung, S Lang, L P Beyer, I Wiesinger, C Stroszczynski, E M Jung
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of strain elastography (SE) using semi-quantitative measurement methods compared to constrast enhanced ultrasound during liver tumor surgery (Io-CEUS) for dignity assessment of focal liver lesions(FLL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective data acquisition and retrospective analysis of US data of 100 patients (116 lesions) who underwent liver tumor surgery between 10/2010 and 03/2016. Retrospective reading of SE color patterns was performed establishing groups depending on dominant color (>50% blue = stiff, inhomogenous, >50% yellow/red/green = soft tissue)...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Carlota Saldanha
Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial cells interacts with erythrocyte through band 3 protein, being scavenged by haemoglobin. A signal transduction mechanism involving protein Gi and protein band 3 stimulates erythrocyte NO efflux when acetylcholine (ACh) binds to erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase. Binding of normal plasma fibrinogen (Fib) levels, to erythrocyte membrane CD47 decreases the NO efflux. When high Fib concentration and ACh were present the efflux of NO from erythrocytes was normalized...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Norbert Nemeth, Katalin Peto, Adam Deak, Viktoria Sogor, Gabor Varga, Bence Tanczos, Klaudia Balog, Adrienn Csiszko, Zoltan Godo, Zsolt Szentkereszty
BACKGROUND: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a life-threatening condition, of which pathomechanism hasn't been completely clarified, yet. Furthermore, surgical therapy still needs optimization. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate microcirculatory and micro-rheological alterations in ACS, using various temporary abdominal closure methods, including three settings of vacuum-assisted closure technique (negative pressure wound therapy, NPWT). METHODS: On anesthetized pigs, by intraabdominally placed and filled-up silicone bags, intraabdominal pressure at 30 mmHg was maintained for 3 hours, and afterwards, decompressive laparotomy happened...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Patrícia Napoleão, Ekaterina Potapova, Sara Moleirinho, Carlota Saldanha, António Messias
AIM: Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) has been considered as a marker of thrombosis and inflammation in several diseases, including sepsis. Recent studies challenge this view and point to a role of sCD40L in vascular and endothelial function. An indication of that association in sepsis has not been obtained so far. Therefore, herein we evaluated association between sCD40L and markers of hemorheology and inflammation on context of septic shock. METHODS: Time-changes of sCD40L levels over 72 hours of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) internment were assessed in 22 patients with septic shock and compared with 36 healthy volunteers...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Patrícia Napoleão, Teresa Freitas, Carlota Saldanha
AIMS: Oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) has been reported as an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated dilatation in microcirculation. Oxidized LDL effect on NO metabolism of erythrocytes is not known. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of ox-LDL on erythrocytes NO metabolism. METHODS: The effect of different concentrations of human purified ox-LDL (25, 50 and 100 μg/mL) on NO metabolism was evaluated on blood of healthy subjects. RESULTS: An inhibitory effect of higher concentrations of ox-LDL on erythrocyte NO efflux levels was verified...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Martin Rozanovic, Csaba Csontos, Lajos Bogár, Lívia Szélig, Tímea Bocskai, Patrícia Kovács, Marianna Matancic, Attila Miseta, Csaba Loibl
BACKGROUND: In polytrauma and burn injury Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) develops. SIRS is presented in many hospitalized patients, including those who never develop infection or sepsis. Both in SIRS and sepsis the leukocyte activation occurs. In acute phase reaction leukocytes' upward flotation i.e. leukocyte antisedimentation rate (LAR) can indicate infectious origin. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive power of LAR, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels regarding mortality risk and development of septic complications...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Jong Hwan Jung, Yoon Jung Chae, Dong Hwan Lee, Young I Cho, Mi Mi Ko, Sung Kwang Park, Won Kim
Whole blood viscosity (WBV) plays a role in hemorheology and is determined by many factors such as red blood cell factors, plasma protein and blood volume. As WBV changes during hemodialysis, mortality may be due to changes in WBV in patients on hemodialysis. However, there are few prospective data on the relationship between changes in WBV and overall mortality in dialysis patients. We tried to investigate the correlations between values of WBV at variable shear rates before and after hemodialysis and overall or atherosclerosis-related mortality in patients with end-stage kidney disease...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Catarina Duarte, Patrícia Napoleão, Teresa Freitas, Carlota Saldanha
INTRODUCTION: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is located on outer surface of erythrocyte membrane. Gender-related differences in erythrocyte AChE enzyme activity had been verified in young adults. It is also known that binding of acetylcholine (ACh) with AChE on erythrocyte membrane initiates a signal transduction mechanism that stimulates nitric oxide (NO) efflux. AIMS: This ex vivo study was done to compare the amount of NO efflux obtained from erythrocytes of healthy donors in males and females...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Helena Lenasi, Markos Klonizakis
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with cardiovascular complications. Impairment of glycemic control induces noxious glycations, an increase in oxydative stress and dearangement of various metabolic pathways. DM leads to dysfunction of micro and macrovessels, connected to metabolic, endothelial and autonomic nervous system. Thus, assessing vascular reactivity might be one of the clinical tools to evaluate the impact of harmful effects of DM and potential benefit of treatment; skin and skeletal muscle microcirculation have usually been tested...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Christian Lehmann, Nicholas B Fisher, Barna Tugwell, Anna Szczesniak, Mel Kelly, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is induced by invasion of immune cells causing pancreatic inflammation. Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid, derived from the plant, Cannabis sativa, was shown to lower the incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, an animal model of spontaneous T1D development. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of experimental CBD treatment on early pancreatic inflammation in T1D by intravital microscopy (IVM) in NOD mice...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
K Lee, A Priezzhev, S Shin, Y Francois, I Meglinski
BACKGROUND: The novel measure of the red blood cells (RBC) aggregation (RBC-A) - the critical (minimum) shear stress (CSS) to prevent the cells from aggregation was found to be a promising clinically significant parameter. However, the absolute values of this parameter were found to change significantly depending on the shearing geometry (cup-and-bob, cone-plate or microchannel-flow) and have different temperature dependences along with it. The direct confirmation of these dependences aimed to find out the correct values is still pending...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
S Jovtchev, S Alexandrov, N Hristova-Avakumova, S Miteva, L Traikov, D Gerasimova, S Stoeff
BACKGROUND: Different colloids are used as a part of solutions for fluid resuscitation and organ preservation: hydroxyethyl starches (HES), dextran (Dx), polyethylene glycols (PEG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Some of the problems associated with their application are addressed to alteration in erythrocyte (ERY) rheology. OBJECTIVE: We intended to estimate in vitro and compare the aggregation power (AP) of these molecules related to ERY interactions. METHODS: Washed human ERY are used during the study...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Maria das Graças Coelho de Souza, Luiz Guilherme Kraemer-Aguiar, Eliete Bouskela
Obesity is a crescent epidemic in the world, affecting more than half a billion of adults worldwide. Obesity is associated to main cardiovascular risk factors, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. The excessive adiposity causes a dysregulation of adipokines secretion by adipose tissue, upregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines and downregulating the anti-inflammatory ones. This scenario contributes for the appearance of atherosclerosis...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Brun Jean-Frédéric, Boulot Pierre, Varlet-Marie Emmanuelle
Physiological studies on fetal blood in narrow glass tubes have suggested that fetal optimal hematocrit (hct) might be as high as 60%. A theoretical 'ideal' hct can also be predicted with a theoretical curve of hematocrit/viscosity (h/η) ratio vs hct constructed with Quemada's model. We used the database of one of our previous papers on fetal hemorheology to reinterpret its results with this concept. A series of 28 intrauterine cord punctures (between 19 and 33 weeks gestation) with doppler measurements of resistance in umbilical arteries was studied...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Tommaso Gori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Joré Céline, Brun Jean-Frédéric, Varlet-Marie Emmanuelle
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a major regulator of blood viscosity. Its long lasting action analogue methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin-β (MIRCERA®) seems to be also employed in modern doping. We took the opportunity of a study aiming at developing a detection of recent MIRCERATM injection in the context of doping detection to assess the effects of this EPO analogue on red blood cells (RBC) aggregation. A single dose 200 μg of MIRCERA® was injected to 10 male volunteers and blood samplings were drawn over 24 days...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Brun Jean-Frédéric, Varlet-Marie Emmanuelle, Raynaud de Mauverger Eric
The hemorheological theory of optimal hematocrit suggests that the best value of hematocrit (hct) should be that which results in the highest value of the hematocrit/viscosity (h/η) ratio. Trained athletes compared to sedentary subjects have a lower hct, but a higher h/η, and endurance training reduces the discrepancy between the actual hct and the ⪡ideal⪢ hct that can be predicted with a theoretical curve of h/ηvs hct constructed with Quemada's model. In this study we investigated what becomes this homeostasis of h/η and hct during acute exercise in 19 athletes performing a 25 min exercise test...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
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