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Depression and Anxiety

Gal Arad, Rany Abend, Daniel S Pine, Yair Bar-Haim
BACKGROUND: Attention bias modification (ABM) therapy aims to modify threat-related attention patterns via computerized tasks. Despite showing medium clinical effect sizes for anxiety disorders, underlying neural-cognitive mechanisms of change remain unclear. We used visual mismatch negativity (vMMN), an event-related potential sensitive to violations of learned statistical contingencies, to assess therapy-related contingency extraction processes in healthy participants and in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD)...
November 8, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Jacklynn M Fitzgerald, Heide Klumpp, Scott Langenecker, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Individuals who suffer from anxiety and/or depression face difficulty in adaptively managing emotional responses, while accumulating evidence suggests impaired emotion regulation is a transdiagnostic feature of psychopathology. Effectual regulation in the context of negative stimuli is characterized by engagement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) coupled with reduced amygdala reactivity. In anxiety disorders and major depression, PFC underengagement and atypical PFC-amygdala connectivity has been observed, although patient findings based on case-control studies have been mixed with regard to magnitude, locality, and extent of dysfunction...
November 8, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Kerri L Kim, Rachel E Christensen, Amanda Ruggieri, Elana Schettini, Jennifer B Freeman, Abbe M Garcia, Christopher Flessner, Elyse Stewart, Christine Conelea, Daniel P Dickstein
BACKGROUND: Despite gains made in the study of childhood anxiety, differential diagnosis remains challenging because of indistinct boundaries between disorders and high comorbidity. This is certainly true for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as they share multiple cognitive processes (e.g., rumination, intolerance of uncertainty, and increased attention to threat). Disentangling such cognitive characteristics and, subsequently, underlying mechanisms could serve to inform assessment and treatment practices, and improve prognoses...
October 29, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Nancy De La Garza, A John Rush, Michael O Killian, Bruce D Grannemann, Thomas J Carmody, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND: The 12-item Concise Health Risk Tracking Self-Report (CHRT-SR12 ) is a brief, self-report measure that systematically assesses both suicidal thinking and associated thoughts that may indicate the propensity for suicidal acts. It can be used as a tool to both assess risk and guide treatment interventions targeting associated cognitions. METHODS: This report used acute treatment data from a clinically representative sample of outpatients with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder (N = 665) participating in the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes trial, who received up to 12 weeks of escitalopram, escitalopram plus bupropion SR, or venlafaxine XR plus mirtazapine...
October 29, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Greta A Bushnell, Bradley N Gaynes, Scott N Compton, Stacie B Dusetzina, M Alan Brookhart, Til Stürmer
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are one of the most common mental illnesses in children and associated with high healthcare utilization. We aimed to estimate 2-year cumulative incidence of mental health-related hospitalizations, treated self-harm, and emergency room (ER) visits in children newly diagnosed with anxiety disorders and, for context, in children without anxiety disorders. METHODS: We identified commercially insured treatment naïve children (3-17 years) with a new office-based anxiety disorder diagnosis (ICD-9-CM) from 2005-2014 in the MarketScan claims database...
October 24, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Lonneke I M Lenferink, Angela Nickerson, Jos de Keijser, Geert E Smid, Paul A Boelen
BACKGROUND: Previous latent trajectory studies in adult bereaved people have identified individual differences in reactions postloss. However, prior findings may not reflect the complete picture of distress postloss, because they were focused on depression symptoms following nonviolent death. We examined trajectories of symptom-levels of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD), depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a disaster-bereaved sample. We also investigated associations among these trajectories and background and loss-related factors, psychological support, and previous mental health complaints...
October 19, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Ioannis D Morres, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Afroditi Stathi, Nikos Comoutos, Chantal Arpin-Cribbie, Charalampos Krommidas, Yannis Theodorakis
Although exercise is associated with depression relief, the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) interventions on clinically depressed adult patients have not been clearly supported. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the antidepressant effects of AE versus nonexercise comparators exclusively for depressed adults (18-65 years) recruited through mental health services with a referral or clinical diagnosis of major depression. Eleven e-databases and bibliographies of 19 systematic reviews were searched for relevant randomized controlled clinical trials...
October 18, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Jaana I Halonen, Marko Merikukka, Mika Gissler, Martta Kerkelä, Marianna Virtanen, Tiina Ristikari, Heikki Hiilamo, Tea Lallukka
BACKGROUND: Parental mental disorders have been shown to predict offspring's mental health problems. We examined whether pathways from parental mental disorders to offspring's psychiatric work disability in early adulthood are mediated through offspring's mental disorders and social disadvantage in adolescence. METHODS: Study population consisted of the 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort. Data on parents' psychiatric care or work disability due to mental diagnosis between 1987 and 2000 and the cohort participants' health and social factors between 2001 and 2005 were derived from administrative national registers...
October 17, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Robert Stanton, Amanda Rebar, Simon Rosenbaum
BACKGROUND: Exercise is a well-established treatment for depression, and its use in clinical care is supported by consumers and clinicians. However, whether public health messages regarding the benefits of exercise for depression have translated to public knowledge remains unknown. This study aims to examine the community's mental health literacy, and views regarding exercise delivery for people with depression. METHODS: A vignette was presented as part of the telephone-based 2017 National Social Survey (n = 1,265)...
October 17, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Carolina Baeza-Velasco, Emilie Olié, Séverine Béziat, Sébastien Guillaume, Philippe Courtet
BACKGROUND: Major Depression (MD) is often a chronic condition requiring a long-term pharmacologic treatment. Despite the efficacy of antidepressants, the medication adherence in those affected is usually very poor. In this scenario, further research concerning drivers of suboptimal adherence is needed. We aimed to explore medication adherence in patients with a MD episode, and to identify sociodemographic, clinical (psychiatric antecedents, comorbidities, medication, pain, and medication side effects), and psychosocial factors (negative life events, childhood trauma, and attitudes to medication) related to adherence status...
October 17, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Ethan Moitra, Yovanska Duarte-Velez, Roberto Lewis-Fernández, Risa B Weisberg, Martin B Keller
BACKGROUND: Ataque de nervios (ataque) represents a cultural syndrome of paroxysmic symptoms that is described as an expression of distress among Latinx (gender-inclusive term for people of Latin-American descent). Some ataques are symptomatically similar to DSM-5-defined panic attacks, but also may include acute anger, grief, suicidal/violent behavior, or dissociation, and can last for hours or even days. Ataques usually occur after stressors and can trigger the mobilization of social support networks...
October 17, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Katharina Kircanski, Leanne M Williams, Ian H Gotlib
BACKGROUND: There is a need to identify biomarkers of treatment outcomes for major depressive disorder (MDD) that can be disseminated. We investigated the predictive utility of pretreatment heart rate variability (HRV) for outcomes of antidepressant medication in MDD, with pretreatment anxious depression as a hypothesized moderator of HRV effects. METHODS: A large, randomized, multicenter practical trial (International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression) in patients with current nonpsychotic MDD (N = 1,008; 722 completers) had three arms: escitalopram, sertraline, and venlafaxine-extended release...
October 12, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Mark Zimmerman, Jacob Martin, Patrick McGonigal, Lauren Harris, Sophie Kerr, Caroline Balling, Reina Kiefer, Kasey Stanton, Kristy Dalrymple
BACKGROUND: DSM-5 introduced the anxious distress specifier in recognition of the clinical significance of anxiety in depressed patients. Recent studies that supported the validity of the specifier did not use measures that were designed to assess the criteria of the specifier but instead approximated the DSM-5 criteria from scales that were part of an existing data base. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we examined the validity of the specifier diagnosed with a semistructured interview...
October 12, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Stephan Köhler, Sophia Chrysanthou, Anne Guhn, Philipp Sterzer
BACKGROUND: There is still uncertainty if and to what extent chronic depression (CD) presents with specific features especially in contrast to the nonchronic course of major depressive disorder (non-CD). This systematic review aims to summarize the existing literature regarding sociodemographic factors, psychopathology, and course of disease in patients with CD in comparison to patients with non-CD. METHODS: A structured database search (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CENTRAL) was performed...
October 9, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Maria Picó-Pérez, Jonathan Ipser, Paul Taylor, Pino Alonso, Clara López-Solà, Eva Real, Cinto Segalàs, Annerine Roos, José M Menchón, Dan J Stein, Carles Soriano-Mas
Despite emotion regulation being altered in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), no studies have investigated its relation to multimodal amygdala connectivity. We compared corticolimbic functional and structural connectivity between OCD patients and healthy controls (HCs), and correlated this with the dispositional use of emotion regulation strategies and with OCD severity. OCD patients (n = 73) and HCs (n = 42) were assessed for suppression and reappraisal strategies using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) and for OCD severity using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale...
September 25, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Miyabi Ishihara, Daphna Harel, Brooke Levis, Alexander W Levis, Kira E Riehm, Nazanin Saadat, Marleine Azar, Danielle B Rice, Tatiana A Sanchez, Matthew J Chiovitti, Pim Cuijpers, Simon Gilbody, John P A Ioannidis, Lorie A Kloda, Dean McMillan, Scott B Patten, Ian Shrier, Bruce Arroll, Charles H Bombardier, Peter Butterworth, Gregory Carter, Kerrie Clover, Yeates Conwell, Felicity Goodyear-Smith, Catherine G Greeno, John Hambridge, Patricia A Harrison, Marie Hudson, Nathalie Jetté, Kim M Kiely, Anthony McGuire, Brian W Pence, Alasdair G Rooney, Abbey Sidebottom, Adam Simning, Alyna Turner, Jennifer White, Mary A Whooley, Kirsty Winkley, Andrea Benedetti, Brett D Thombs
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a short form of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), a self-report questionnaire for assessing depressive symptomatology, using objective criteria. METHODS: Responses on the PHQ-9 were obtained from 7,850 English-speaking participants enrolled in 20 primary diagnostic test accuracy studies. PHQ unidimensionality was verified using confirmatory factor analysis, and an item response theory model was fit...
September 20, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Matthew J Knight, Bernhard T Baune
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with social cognitive deficits (e.g., poor affect recognition and impaired theory of mind). However, the contribution of social cognitive issues to psychosocial dysfunction in MDD (e.g., occupational functioning and interpersonal relationships) has not been investigated. The current study evaluated the relationship between specific social cognitive domains (e.g., prosody interpretation) and psychosocial dysfunction in subjects with lifetime MDD, as well as currently depressed, remitted, and healthy controls (HCs) subjects...
September 13, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Mirjam Faissner, Levente Kriston, Steffen Moritz, Lena Jelinek
Maladaptive cognitive beliefs as measured by the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) increase vulnerability to depression. Maladaptive metacognitive beliefs as measured by the Metacognitive Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30) are also thought to contribute to depression. However, the long-term stability of metacognitive beliefs in depression has not yet been investigated. It is unclear whether metacognitive beliefs can add explanatory power to depression above and beyond maladaptive cognitive beliefs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role and stability of cognitive and metacognitive maladaptive beliefs in depression...
September 12, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Marlene P Freeman, Lauren D Claypoole, Vivien K Burt, Alexandra Z Sosinsky, Danna Moustafa, Olivia B Noe, Laura J Cheng, Lee S Cohen
BACKGROUND: Maternal major depressive disorder (MDD) has an adverse effect on child development and increases risk for child psychopathology. It is paramount to understand the course of maternal depression during the childhood years particularly before, during, and after pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To follow the course of MDD in women with prior histories of depression followed during an index pregnancy. METHODS: Subjects were women with histories of MDD who had participated in prior prospective, observational studies during pregnancy...
September 7, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Edwin de Beurs, Ellen Vissers, Robert Schoevers, Ingrid V E Carlier, Albert M van Hemert, Ybe Meesters
BACKGROUND: Routine outcome monitoring (ROM) may enhance individual treatment and is also advocated as a means to compare the outcome of different treatment programs or providers. There is debate on the optimal instruments to be used for these separate tasks. METHODS: Three sets with longitudinal data from ROM were analyzed with correlational analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs, allowing for a head-to-head comparison of measures regarding their sensitivity to detect change...
September 6, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
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