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Depression and Anxiety

Igor Galynker, Zimri S Yaseen, Abigail Cohen, Ori Benhamou, Mariah Hawes, Jessica Briggs
BACKGROUND: We have developed the Suicide Crisis Inventory (SCI) to evaluate the intensity of the Suicidal Crisis Syndrome, an acute state hypothesized to precede suicide attempt. The psychometric properties of the SCI, including predictive validity for suicidal behavior (SB), were assessed. METHODS: Adult psychiatric patients (n = 201) hospitalized for high suicide risk were assessed. Logistic regression models assessed the SCI's predictive validity for SB in the 4-8 weeks following hospital discharge and its incremental predictive validity over traditional risk factors (n = 137, 64% f/u rate)...
October 6, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Bianca A Lever-van Milligen, Femke Lamers, Jan H Smit, Brenda W J H Penninx
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety have been related to poorer self-reported physical functioning over time; however, objective measures of physical function are less frequently examined. This study assessed the 6-year trajectory of hand-grip strength and lung function in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders. METHODS: At four waves (baseline, 2, 4, and 6 years) hand-grip strength and lung function were assessed in 2,480 participants, aged 18-65 years, of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety...
October 4, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Leanne M Williams
Complex emotional, cognitive and self-reflective functions rely on the activation and connectivity of large-scale neural circuits. These circuits offer a relevant scale of focus for conceptualizing a taxonomy for depression and anxiety based on specific profiles (or biotypes) of neural circuit dysfunction. Here, the theoretical review first outlines the current consensus as to what constitutes the organization of large-scale circuits in the human brain identified using parcellation and meta-analysis. The focus is on neural circuits implicated in resting reflection (default mode), detection of "salience," affective processing ("threat" and "reward"), "attention," and "cognitive control...
September 21, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Lauren Waterman, Sarah T Stahl, Daniel J Buysse, Eric J Lenze, Daniel Blumberger, Benoit Mulsant, Meryl Butters, Marie Anne Gebara, Charles F Reynolds, Jordan F Karp
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is frequently comorbid with late-life depression. The purpose of this project was to determine, using a sample of older adults with major depressive disorder, whether patient-reported diagnosis of OSA was associated with rate of response to venlafaxine. METHODS: Participants from this multisite study were adults ≥60 years old (n = 468) with major depressive disorder and a Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score of ≥15...
September 16, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Patrick Ip, David Chim, Ko Ling Chan, Tim M H Li, Frederick Ka Wing Ho, Benjamin W Van Voorhees, Agnes Tiwari, Anita Tsang, Charlie Wai Leung Chan, Matthew Ho, Winnie Tso, Wilfred Hing Sang Wong
BACKGROUND: Depression prevention among adolescents is crucial for reducing the global disease burden. Internet-based depression prevention approaches are found to be effective but they were mostly evaluated in a Western context. Grasping the Opportunity is a Chinese Internet intervention, which was translated and modified from CATCH-IT developed in the West. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Grasp the Opportunity in reducing depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, Chinese adolescents aged 13 to 17 years with mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms were recruited from three secondary schools in Hong Kong...
September 13, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Judith van der Waerden, Jonathan Y Bernard, Maria De Agostini, Marie-Josèphe Saurel-Cubizolles, Hugo Peyre, Barbara Heude, Maria Melchior
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the association between timing and course of maternal depression from pregnancy onwards and children's cognitive development at ages 5 to 6. Potential interaction effects with child sex and family socioeconomic status were explored. METHODS: One thousand thirty-nine mother-child pairs from the French EDEN mother-child birth cohort were followed from 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy onwards. Based on Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores assessed at six timepoints, longitudinal maternal depressive symptom trajectories were calculated with a group-based semiparametric method...
September 7, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Hugo Peyre, Nicolas Hoertel, Fabrice Rivollier, Benjamin Landman, Kibby McMahon, Astrid Chevance, Cédric Lemogne, Richard Delorme, Carlos Blanco, Frédéric Limosin
BACKGROUND: Little is known about differences in mental health comorbidity and quality of life in individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) according to the number and the types of feared situations. METHODS: Using a US nationally representative sample, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we performed latent class analysis to compare the prevalence rates of mental disorders and quality of life measures across classes defined by the number and the types of feared social situations among individuals with SAD...
August 30, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Michael R Liebowitz, Rita Hanover, Ann Draine, Rita Lemming, Jason Careri, Louis Monti
BACKGROUND: There are no medications approved for as-needed use for feared situations for individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD). In the present study, intranasal PH94B was provided for use as needed during stressful events. METHODS: Twenty-two subjects were randomized (double-blind) to 2 weeks of treatment with intranasal PH94B or placebo. Following self-administration of medication prior to a feared event, peak levels of anxiety were recorded using the Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS)...
August 25, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Jacklynn M Fitzgerald, Annmarie MacNamara, Amy E Kennedy, Christine A Rabinak, Sheila A M Rauch, Israel Liberzon, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit marked deficits in emotion regulation. Past research has demonstrated underengagement of the prefrontal cortex during regulation of negative affect in those with PTSD, but has been unable to find evidence of impaired downregulation of the amygdala. One possibility is that there exists variability in amygdala reactivity that cuts across diagnostic status and which can be characterized using a continuous measure of individual differences...
August 25, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Gaelle Douillard-Guilloux, David Lewis, Marianne L Seney, Etienne Sibille
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin (SST) is a neuropeptide expressed in a subtype of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons that target the dendrites of pyramidal neurons. We previously reported reduced levels of SST gene and protein expression in the postmortem amygdala of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). This reduction was specific to female subjects with MDD. METHODS: Here, we used in situ hybridization to examine the regional and cellular patterns of reductions in SST expression in a cohort of female MDD subjects with known SST deficits in the amygdala (N = 10/group)...
August 24, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Jessica L Jenness, Shari Jager-Hyman, Charlotte Heleniak, Aaron T Beck, Margaret A Sheridan, Katie A McLaughlin
BACKGROUND: Disruptions in emotion regulation are a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology. However, scant research has examined whether emotion regulation strategies are related to the onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among youths exposed to trauma. We investigated whether pretrauma emotion regulation strategies prospectively predicted PTSD symptom onset after the 2013 Boston Marathon terrorist attack among adolescents and whether these associations were moderated by the degree of exposure to media coverage of the attack...
August 24, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Samantha Swartzman, Josephine N Booth, Alastair Munro, Fabio Sani
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of serious illness as a potential traumatic stressor in the fourth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), research on the prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after cancer diagnosis has proliferated. Studies have reported widely varying estimates of the number of people with PTSD after cancer. The aim of this review is to synthesize quantitative data from studies reporting the proportion of people with PTSD among groups of cancer survivors...
July 28, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Michelle G Craske, Alicia E Meuret, Thomas Ritz, Michael Treanor, Halina J Dour
Anhedonia, or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities, is characteristic of depression, some types of anxiety, as well as substance abuse and schizophrenia. Anhedonia is a predictor of poor long-term outcomes, including suicide, and poor treatment response. Because extant psychological and pharmacological treatments are relatively ineffective for anhedonia, there is an unmet therapeutic need for this high-risk symptom. Current psychological and drug treatments for anxiety and depression focus largely on reducing excesses in negative affect rather than improving deficits in positive affect...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Diego A Pizzagalli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Judy Garber, Steven M Brunwasser, Argero A Zerr, Karen T G Schwartz, Karen Sova, V Robin Weersing
Anxiety and depression are highly comorbid and share several common etiological processes. Therefore, it may be more efficient to develop interventions that treat or prevent these problems together rather than as separate entities. The present meta-analytic review examined whether interventions for children and adolescents that explicitly targeted either anxiety or depression showed treatment specificity or also impacted the other outcome (i.e. cross-over effects). We addressed this question both within the same type of study (i...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Andrea L Gold, Tomer Shechner, Madeline J Farber, Carolyn N Spiro, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Jennifer C Britton
BACKGROUND: Amygdala-prefrontal cortex (PFC) functional connectivity may be influenced by anxiety and development. A prior study on anxiety found age-specific dysfunction in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), but not amygdala, associated with threat-safety discrimination during extinction recall (Britton et al.). However, translational research suggests that amygdala-PFC circuitry mediates responses following learned extinction. Anxiety-related perturbations may emerge in functional connectivity within this circuit during extinction recall tasks...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Karen Lynn Cassiday
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
William A Carlezon, Andrew D Krystal
Kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonists are currently being considered for the treatment of a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. A general ability to mitigate the effects of stress, which can trigger or exacerbate these conditions, may explain their putative efficacy across such a broad array of conditions. The discovery of their potentially therapeutic effects evolved from preclinical research designed to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which experience causes neuroadaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key element of brain reward circuitry...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Iva Dincheva, Niccola B Lynch, Francis S Lee
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a growth factor that is dynamically expressed in the brain across postnatal development, regulating neuronal differentiation and synaptic plasticity. The neurotrophic hypothesis of psychiatric mood disorders postulates that in the adult brain, decreased BDNF levels leads to altered neural plasticity, contributing to disease. Although BDNF has been established as a key factor regulating the critical period plasticity in the developing visual system, it has recently been shown to also play a role in fear circuitry maturation, which has implications for the emergence of fear-related mood disorders...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Natania A Crane, Lisanne M Jenkins, Catherine Dion, Kortni K Meyers, Anne L Weldon, Laura B Gabriel, Sara J Walker, David T Hsu, Douglas C Noll, Heide Klumpp, K Luan Phan, Jon-Kar Zubieta, Scott A Langenecker
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders often co-occur, with poorer treatment response and long-term outcomes. However, little is known about the shared and distinct neural mechanisms of comorbid MDD and anxiety (MDD+Anx). This study examined how MDD and MDD+Anx differentially impact cognitive control. METHODS: Eighteen MDD, 29 MDD+Anx, and 54 healthy controls (HC) completed the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG) during fMRI, including Target, Commission, and Rejection trials...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
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