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Depression and Anxiety

Steven H Jones, Dawn Knowles, Elizabeth Tyler, Fiona Holland, Sarah Peters, Fiona Lobban, Brian Langshaw, Claire Hilton, Rita Long, Kay Gantt, Rebecca Owen, Chris Roberts, Lisa Riste
BACKGROUND: Comorbid anxiety is common in bipolar disorder (BD) and associated with worse clinical outcomes including increased suicidality. Despite effective psychological treatments for anxiety, research into treating anxiety in BD is underdeveloped. This paper describes a novel psychological intervention to address anxiety in context of bipolar disorder (AIBD). METHODS: Adults with BD and clinically significant anxiety symptoms were randomized to AIBD plus treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU alone...
July 19, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Pablo Vidal-Ribas, Melissa A Brotman, Giovanni A Salum, Ariela Kaiser, Liana Meffert, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Argyris Stringaris
BACKGROUND: Although severe irritability is a predictor of future depression according to recent meta-analytic evidence, other mechanisms for this developmental transition remain unclear. In this study, we test whether deficits in emotion recognition may partially explain this specific association in youth with severe irritability, defined as disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). METHODS: Participants aged 8-20 years (M = 13.3, SD = 2.8) included youth with DMDD, split by low depressive (DMDD/LD; n = 52) and high depressive (DMDD/HD; n = 25) symptoms, and healthy controls (HC; n = 39)...
July 13, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Sarah Turner, Natalie Mota, James Bolton, Jitender Sareen
BACKGROUND: The comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders (MD and AD) with substance use disorders (SUD) is common. One explanation for this comorbidity is the self-medication hypothesis, which posits that individuals with MD or AD use substances to cope with the difficult symptoms associated with the disorder. Over time, self-medication (SM) can develop into an independent SUD. This narrative review will present the prevalence and correlates of SM with alcohol and/or drugs for MD and AD and the relationship between SM and subsequent SUD using both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological data...
July 12, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Bangshan Liu, Yunan He, Mi Wang, Jin Liu, Yumeng Ju, Yan Zhang, Tiebang Liu, Lingjiang Li, Qi Li
BACKGROUND: The concept "psychobiotics" claims potential beneficial effect of probiotics on anxiety, whereas findings from clinical trials are inconsistent. Thus, a meta-analysis is needed to clarify the effect of probiotics on anxiety. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of probiotics on anxiety were systematically retrieved from online databases and manually screened for references of relevant published literature through September 1, 2017...
July 11, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Lisa Hancock, Richard A Bryant
BACKGROUND: Although individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report poor tolerance for distress, the mechanisms underpinning this are unknown. Cognitive models of PTSD propose that appraisals of lacking or losing control impair adaptation to trauma. This study investigated whether avoidance of emotional distress was affected by loss of control in a web-based community sample with and without PTSD symptomatology, expecting that those with PTSD may show more detrimental effects following greater loss of control...
July 10, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Jin-Young Min, Kyoung-Bok Min
BACKGROUND: Noise is defined as "sound that is unwanted, unpleasant, or harmful to health." It may induce negative emotions and mental health problems and even may leads to increased suicide risk. Little attention has been paid so far to a potential link between noise and suicide. We investigated the association between nighttime environmental noise and suicide death in adults in the Republic of Korea. METHODS: We analyzed the data from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, with a 4-year baseline (2002-2005) and an 8-year follow-up (2006-2013) assessment...
June 28, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Laura B Bragdon, Brandon E Gibb, Meredith E Coles
BACKGROUND: Investigations of neuropsychological functioning in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have produced mixed results for deficits in executive functioning (EF), attention, and memory. One potential explanation for varied findings may relate to the heterogeneity of symptom presentations, and different clinical or neurobiological characteristics may underlie these different symptoms. METHODS: We investigated differences in neuropsychological functioning between two symptoms groups, obsessing/checking (O/C) and symmetry/ordering (S/O), based on data suggesting an association with different motivations: harm avoidance and incompleteness, respectively...
June 19, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Adrienne J Heinz, Brienna N Meffert, Max A Halvorson, Daniel Blonigen, Christine Timko, Ruth Cronkite
BACKGROUND: Depression is the leading cause of disability and represents a significant challenge to stable employment and professional success. Importantly, employment may also operate as a protective factor against more chronic courses of depression as it can function as a form of behavioral activation and scaffold recovery by facilitating community integration. The current study examined work-related characteristics as protective or risk factors for subsequent long-term depression trajectories...
June 7, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Dylan Johnson, Gabrielle Dupuis, Justin Piche, Zahra Clayborne, Ian Colman
BACKGROUND: Adolescent depression may increase risk for poor mental health outcomes in adulthood. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on the association between adolescent depression and adult anxiety and depressive disorders as well as suicidality. METHODS: EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PSYCinfo databases were searched and longitudinal cohort studies in which depression was measured in adolescence (age 10-19) and outcomes of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, or suicidality were measured in adulthood (age 21+), were selected...
June 7, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Brian A Primack, Meghan A Bisbey, Ariel Shensa, Nicholas D Bowman, Sabrina A Karim, Jennifer M Knight, Jaime E Sidani
BACKGROUND: Social media (SM) may confer emotional benefits via connection with others. However, epidemiologic studies suggest that overall SM is paradoxically associated with increased depressive symptoms. To better understand these findings, we examined the association between positive and negative experiences on SM and depressive symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,179 full-time students at the University of West Virginia, aged 18 to 30, in August 2016...
June 6, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Jordi Alonso, Philippe Mortier, Randy P Auerbach, Ronny Bruffaerts, Gemma Vilagut, Pim Cuijpers, Koen Demyttenaere, David D Ebert, Edel Ennis, Raul A Gutiérrez-García, Jennifer Greif Green, Penelope Hasking, Christine Lochner, Matthew K Nock, Stephanie Pinder-Amaker, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
BACKGROUND: College entrance is a stressful period with a high prevalence of mental disorders. AIMS: To assess the role impairment associated with 12-month mental disorders among incoming first-year college students within a large cross-national sample. METHODS: Web-based self-report surveys assessing the prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders and health-related role impairment (Sheehan Disability Scale) were obtained and analyzed from 13,984 incoming first-year college students (Response = 45...
May 30, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
David L Dickinson, Alexander P Wolkow, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Sean P A Drummond
BACKGROUND: Sleep duration and chronotype (i.e., morningness-eveningness) are associated with increased depression and anxiety risk, but differences in individual sleep need and lifestyle may mean these sleep parameters do not present the same risk across all individuals. This study explored the mediating role of sleep debt and daytime sleepiness in the relationship between sleep and mental health symptoms in young adults, a particularly vulnerable population. METHODS: Young adult university students (n = 2,218) and young adults from the general population in the United States (n = 992) provided estimates of actual and optimal sleep duration, and completed validated measures of sleepiness, chronotype, and depression and anxiety risk...
May 22, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
M Soledad Cepeda, Jenna Reps, Patrick Ryan
BACKGROUND: Treatment for depressive disorders often requires subsequent interventions. Patients who do not respond to antidepressants have treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Predicting who will develop TRD may help healthcare providers make more effective treatment decisions. We sought to identify factors that predict TRD in a real-world setting using claims databases. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a US claims database of adult subjects with newly diagnosed and treated depression with no mania, dementia, and psychosis...
May 22, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Marie Anne Gebara, Nalyn Siripong, Elizabeth A DiNapoli, Rachel D Maree, Anne Germain, Charles F Reynolds, John W Kasckow, Patricia M Weiss, Jordan F Karp
BACKGROUND: Insomnia is frequently co-morbid with depression, with a bidirectional relationship between these disorders. There is evidence that insomnia-specific interventions, such as cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, may lead to improvements in depression. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine whether treatment of insomnia leads to improved depression outcomes in individuals with both insomnia and depression. METHODS: We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the effect of treatment for insomnia disorder on depression in patients with both disorders...
May 21, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Eleanor Murphy, James E Gangwisch, Janet T Matsunaga, Ruth Ottman
BACKGROUND: African Americans (AAs) with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience more impairment and poorer treatment outcomes relative to Whites, yet are underrepresented in family studies of MDD. This is the first study to investigate the familial aggregation of major depression among AAs. METHODS: Participants' reports of depression from clinical and family history (FH) interviews were used to examine depression rates among 435 first-degree relatives and half-siblings of 63 depressed cases and 222 relatives of 33 nondepressed controls...
May 21, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Yi Deng, Douglas R McQuoid, Guy G Potter, David C Steffens, Kimberly Albert, Meghan Riddle, John L Beyer, Warren D Taylor
BACKGROUND: Late-life depression (LLD) is associated with a fragile antidepressant response and high recurrence risk. This study examined what measures predict recurrence in remitted LLD. METHODS: Individuals of age 60 years or older with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - IV (DSM-IV) diagnosis of major depressive disorder were enrolled in the neurocognitive outcomes of depression in the elderly study. Participants received manualized antidepressant treatment and were followed longitudinally for an average of 5 years...
May 10, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Craig J Bryan, Alexis M May, David C Rozek, Sean R Williams, Tracy A Clemans, Jim Mintz, Bruce Leeson, T Scott Burch
BACKGROUND: Previous research supports the efficacy of the crisis response plan (CRP) for the reduction of suicidal behaviors as compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Patient perspectives and use of the CRP, and their relationship to later suicidal thoughts, remain unknown. METHODS: A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial comparing a standard CRP (S-CRP), a CRP enhanced with reasons for living (E-CRP), and TAU in a sample of 97 active-duty U.S. Army personnel was conducted...
May 10, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Maria M Steenkamp, Nida H Corry, Meng Qian, Meng Li, Hope Seib McMaster, John A Fairbank, Valerie A Stander, Laura Hollahan, Charles R Marmar
BACKGROUND: Approximately half of US service members are married, equating to 1.1 million military spouses, yet the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among military spouses remains understudied. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of eight mental health conditions in spouses of service members with 2-5 years of service. METHOD: We employed baseline data from the Millennium Cohort Family Study, a 21-year longitudinal survey following 9,872 military-affiliated married couples representing all US service branches and active duty, Reserve, and National Guard components...
May 10, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Gregory L Hanna, Yanni Liu, Yona E Isaacs, Angela M Ayoub, Alice Brosius, Zachary Salander, Paul D Arnold, William J Gehring
BACKGROUND: The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential following a mistake that is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The relationship of the ERN to comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) has not been examined in adolescents with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes in OCD patients with MDD (OCD + MDD), OCD patients without MDD (OCD - MDD), MDD patients, and healthy controls (HC). METHOD: The ERN, correct response negativity, and accuracy were measured during a flanker task to assess performance monitoring in 53 adolescents with a lifetime diagnosis of OCD, 36 adolescents with a lifetime diagnosis of MDD, and 89 age-matched HC of 13-18 years...
May 7, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Cong Zhou, Jian Xu, Liangliang Ping, Fengrui Zhang, Wei Chen, Zonglin Shen, Linling Jiang, Xiufeng Xu, Yuqi Cheng
BACKGROUND: Cerebral morphological abnormalities may play a key role in pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have used multimodal imaging strategies to investigate alterations of cortical morphometry and white matter (WM) integrity. This study aimed to evaluate cortical thickness, cortical and subcortical volume, and WM integrity characteristics in OCD patients comprehensively. METHODS: We acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 52 OCD patients and 46 well-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
May 7, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
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