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Depression and Anxiety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921352/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-associated-with-unexpected-death-of-a-loved-one-cross-national-findings-from-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#1
Lukoye Atwoli, Dan J Stein, Andrew King, Maria Petukhova, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Evelyn J Bromet, Giovanni de Girolamo, Koen Demyttenaere, Silvia Florescu, Josep Maria Haro, Elie G Karam, Norito Kawakami, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Siobhan O'Neill, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, Jose Posada-Villa, Nancy A Sampson, Margreet Ten Have, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Unexpected death of a loved one (UD) is the most commonly reported traumatic experience in cross-national surveys. However, much remains to be learned about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after this experience. The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative provides a unique opportunity to address these issues. METHODS: Data from 19 WMH surveys (n = 78,023; 70.1% weighted response rate) were collated. Potential predictors of PTSD (respondent sociodemographics, characteristics of the death, history of prior trauma exposure, history of prior mental disorders) after a representative sample of UDs were examined using logistic regression...
December 6, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921349/repeated-trauma-exposure-does-not-impair-distress-reduction-during-imaginal-exposure-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#2
Alissa B Jerud, Frank J Farach, Michele Bedard-Gilligan, Hillary Smith, Lori A Zoellner, Norah C Feeny
BACKGROUND: Based on experimental research on threat extinction, individuals exposed to repeated traumatic events may have impaired outcome in exposure therapy compared to those who have experienced a single trauma (Lang & McTeague, ). This study examined whether repeated trauma exposure predicts smaller changes in self-reported distress during imaginal exposure and worse outcomes for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Adults (N = 116) with chronic PTSD received up to 10 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy...
December 6, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921340/brain-activation-during-fear-extinction-predicts-exposure-success
#3
Tali Manber Ball, Sarah E Knapp, Martin P Paulus, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Exposure therapy, a gold-standard treatment for anxiety disorders, is assumed to work via extinction learning, but this has never been tested. Anxious individuals demonstrate extinction learning deficits, likely related to less ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and more amygdala activation, but the relationship between these deficits and exposure outcome is unknown. We tested whether anxious individuals who demonstrate better extinction learning report greater anxiety reduction following brief exposure...
December 6, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921338/melancholic-and-atypical-depression-as-predictor-and-moderator-of-outcome-in-cognitive-behavior-therapy-and-pharmacotherapy-for-adult-depression
#4
Pim Cuijpers, Erica Weitz, Femke Lamers, Brenda W Penninx, Jos Twisk, Robert J DeRubeis, Sona Dimidjian, Boadie W Dunlop, Robin B Jarrett, Zindel V Segal, Steven D Hollon
BACKGROUND: Melancholic and atypical depression are widely thought to moderate or predict outcome of pharmacological and psychological treatments of adult depression, but that has not yet been established. This study uses the data from four earlier trials comparing cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) versus antidepressant medications (ADMs; and pill placebo when available) to examine the extent to which melancholic and atypical depression moderate or predict outcome in an "individual patient data" meta-analysis...
December 6, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862643/the-moderating-effects-of-sex-on-insula-subdivision-structure-in-youth-with-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms
#5
Megan Klabunde, Carl F Weems, Mira Raman, Victor G Carrion
BACKGROUND: The insula is involved in interoceptive processing, emotion awareness, and attention to salient stimuli. Research suggests that these functions are specific-albeit overlapping-within insula subdivisions. Additional studies also imply that sexual dimorphism and different rates of development occur within these subdivisions in youth. The purpose of this study was to examine potential insula subdivision structure differences in youth with PTSD symptoms as compared to controls and test sex as a moderator of these differences...
November 11, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802585/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-partial-crossover-trial
#6
Giordano D'Urso, Andre R Brunoni, Maria Pia Mazzaferro, Annalisa Anastasia, Andrea de Bartolomeis, Antonio Mantovani
BACKGROUND: Presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) hyperactivity has been detected in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. However, it is not understood whether this is a putative primary cause or a compensatory mechanism in OCD pathophysiology. Considering the polarity-dependent effects on cortical excitability of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), we applied cathodal and/or anodal tDCS to the pre-SMA of OCD patients to test which current polarity might better improve symptoms...
November 1, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787928/what-people-with-ptsd-symptoms-do-and-do-not-know-about-ptsd-a-national-survey
#7
Juliette M Harik, Rebecca A Matteo, Barbara A Hermann, Jessica L Hamblen
BACKGROUND: If people do not recognize posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, they may not realize they are suffering from the disorder. Likewise, if people do not know that effective treatments exist, they may be unlikely to seek care. This study examined what people with PTSD symptoms know about PTSD and its treatment. We hypothesized that military service and prior receipt of PTSD treatment would be associated with greater PTSD knowledge. METHODS: We conducted an online survey assessing knowledge in three domains: trauma, PTSD symptoms, and effective PTSD treatments...
October 27, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781362/spared-internal-but-impaired-external-reward-prediction-error-signals-in-major-depressive-disorder-during-reinforcement-learning
#8
Jasmina Bakic, Gilles Pourtois, Marieke Jepma, Romain Duprat, Rudi De Raedt, Chris Baeken
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) creates debilitating effects on a wide range of cognitive functions, including reinforcement learning (RL). In this study, we sought to assess whether reward processing as such, or alternatively the complex interplay between motivation and reward might potentially account for the abnormal reward-based learning in MDD. METHODS: A total of 35 treatment resistant MDD patients and 44 age matched healthy controls (HCs) performed a standard probabilistic learning task...
October 26, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781337/a-simple-attention-test-in-the-acute-phase-of-a-major-depressive-episode-is-predictive-of-later-functional-remission
#9
Marie-Laure Cléry-Melin, Philip Gorwood
BACKGROUND: Functional recovery after a major depressive episode (MDE) requires both clinical remission and preservation of cognitive skills. As attentional deficit may persist after remission, leading to functional impairment, its role as a prognosis marker needs to be considered. METHODS: Five hundred eight depressed outpatients (DSM-IV) were assessed at baseline for clinical symptoms (QIDS-SR), social functioning (Sheehan Disability Scale, SDS) and attention through the d2 test of attention and the trail making test, simple tests, respectively, requiring to quote or to interconnect relevant items...
October 26, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775828/cross-national-epidemiology-of-panic-disorder-and-panic-attacks-in-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#10
Peter de Jonge, Annelieke M Roest, Carmen C W Lim, Silvia E Florescu, Evelyn J Bromet, Dan J Stein, Meredith Harris, Vladimir Nakov, Jose Miguel Caldas-de-Almeida, Daphna Levinson, Ali O Al-Hamzawi, Josep Maria Haro, Maria Carmen Viana, Guilherme Borges, Siobhan O'Neill, Giovanni de Girolamo, Koen Demyttenaere, Oye Gureje, Noboru Iwata, Sing Lee, Chiyi Hu, Aimee Karam, Jacek Moskalewicz, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Mark Oakley Browne, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Yolanda Torres, Margreet L Ten Have, Ronald C Kessler, Kate M Scott
CONTEXT: The scarcity of cross-national reports and the changes in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version 5 (DSM-5) regarding panic disorder (PD) and panic attacks (PAs) call for new epidemiological data on PD and PAs and its subtypes in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To present representative data about the cross-national epidemiology of PD and PAs in accordance with DSM-5 definitions. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3...
October 24, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775823/improving-outcomes-for-patients-with-medication-resistant-anxiety-effects-of-collaborative-care-with-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#11
Laura Campbell-Sills, Peter P Roy-Byrne, Michelle G Craske, Alexander Bystritsky, Greer Sullivan, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Many patients with anxiety disorders remain symptomatic after receiving evidence-based treatment, yet research on treatment-resistant anxiety is limited. We evaluated effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on outcomes of patients with medication-resistant anxiety disorders using data from the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) trial. METHODS: Primary care patients who met study entry criteria (including DSM-IV diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, or social anxiety disorder) despite ongoing pharmacotherapy of appropriate type, dose, and duration were classified as medication resistant (n = 227)...
October 24, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712028/prediction-of-suicidal-behavior-in-high-risk-psychiatric-patients-using-an-assessment-of-acute-suicidal-state-the-suicide-crisis-inventory
#12
Igor Galynker, Zimri S Yaseen, Abigail Cohen, Ori Benhamou, Mariah Hawes, Jessica Briggs
BACKGROUND: We have developed the Suicide Crisis Inventory (SCI) to evaluate the intensity of the Suicidal Crisis Syndrome, an acute state hypothesized to precede suicide attempt. The psychometric properties of the SCI, including predictive validity for suicidal behavior (SB), were assessed. METHODS: Adult psychiatric patients (n = 201) hospitalized for high suicide risk were assessed. Logistic regression models assessed the SCI's predictive validity for SB in the 4-8 weeks following hospital discharge and its incremental predictive validity over traditional risk factors (n = 137, 64% f/u rate)...
October 6, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701790/six-year-trajectory-of-objective-physical-function-in-persons-with-depressive-and-anxiety-disorders
#13
Bianca A Lever-van Milligen, Femke Lamers, Jan H Smit, Brenda W J H Penninx
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety have been related to poorer self-reported physical functioning over time; however, objective measures of physical function are less frequently examined. This study assessed the 6-year trajectory of hand-grip strength and lung function in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders. METHODS: At four waves (baseline, 2, 4, and 6 years) hand-grip strength and lung function were assessed in 2,480 participants, aged 18-65 years, of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety...
October 4, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653321/defining-biotypes-for-depression-and-anxiety-based-on-large-scale-circuit-dysfunction-a-theoretical-review-of-the-evidence-and-future-directions-for-clinical-translation
#14
Leanne M Williams
Complex emotional, cognitive and self-reflective functions rely on the activation and connectivity of large-scale neural circuits. These circuits offer a relevant scale of focus for conceptualizing a taxonomy for depression and anxiety based on specific profiles (or biotypes) of neural circuit dysfunction. Here, the theoretical review first outlines the current consensus as to what constitutes the organization of large-scale circuits in the human brain identified using parcellation and meta-analysis. The focus is on neural circuits implicated in resting reflection (default mode), detection of "salience," affective processing ("threat" and "reward"), "attention," and "cognitive control...
September 21, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636232/self-reported-obstructive-sleep-apnea-is-associated-with-nonresponse-to-antidepressant-pharmacotherapy-in-late-life-depression
#15
Lauren Waterman, Sarah T Stahl, Daniel J Buysse, Eric J Lenze, Daniel Blumberger, Benoit Mulsant, Meryl Butters, Marie Anne Gebara, Charles F Reynolds, Jordan F Karp
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is frequently comorbid with late-life depression. The purpose of this project was to determine, using a sample of older adults with major depressive disorder, whether patient-reported diagnosis of OSA was associated with rate of response to venlafaxine. METHODS: Participants from this multisite study were adults ≥60 years old (n = 468) with major depressive disorder and a Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score of ≥15...
September 16, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618799/effectiveness-of-a-culturally-attuned-internet-based-depression-prevention-program-for-chinese-adolescents-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Patrick Ip, David Chim, Ko Ling Chan, Tim M H Li, Frederick Ka Wing Ho, Benjamin W Van Voorhees, Agnes Tiwari, Anita Tsang, Charlie Wai Leung Chan, Matthew Ho, Winnie Tso, Wilfred Hing Sang Wong
BACKGROUND: Depression prevention among adolescents is crucial for reducing the global disease burden. Internet-based depression prevention approaches are found to be effective but they were mostly evaluated in a Western context. Grasping the Opportunity is a Chinese Internet intervention, which was translated and modified from CATCH-IT developed in the West. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Grasp the Opportunity in reducing depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, Chinese adolescents aged 13 to 17 years with mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms were recruited from three secondary schools in Hong Kong...
September 13, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699943/treatment-for-anhedonia-a-neuroscience-driven-approach
#17
Michelle G Craske, Alicia E Meuret, Thomas Ritz, Michael Treanor, Halina J Dour
Anhedonia, or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities, is characteristic of depression, some types of anxiety, as well as substance abuse and schizophrenia. Anhedonia is a predictor of poor long-term outcomes, including suicide, and poor treatment response. Because extant psychological and pharmacological treatments are relatively ineffective for anhedonia, there is an unmet therapeutic need for this high-risk symptom. Current psychological and drug treatments for anxiety and depression focus largely on reducing excesses in negative affect rather than improving deficits in positive affect...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699942/psychobiology-of-the-intersection-and-divergence-of-depression-and-anxiety
#18
EDITORIAL
Diego A Pizzagalli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699941/treatment-and-prevention-of-depression-and-anxiety-in-youth-test-of-cross-over-effects
#19
Judy Garber, Steven M Brunwasser, Argero A Zerr, Karen T G Schwartz, Karen Sova, V Robin Weersing
Anxiety and depression are highly comorbid and share several common etiological processes. Therefore, it may be more efficient to develop interventions that treat or prevent these problems together rather than as separate entities. The present meta-analytic review examined whether interventions for children and adolescents that explicitly targeted either anxiety or depression showed treatment specificity or also impacted the other outcome (i.e. cross-over effects). We addressed this question both within the same type of study (i...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699940/amygdala-cortical-connectivity-associations-with-anxiety-development-and-threat
#20
Andrea L Gold, Tomer Shechner, Madeline J Farber, Carolyn N Spiro, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Jennifer C Britton
BACKGROUND: Amygdala-prefrontal cortex (PFC) functional connectivity may be influenced by anxiety and development. A prior study on anxiety found age-specific dysfunction in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), but not amygdala, associated with threat-safety discrimination during extinction recall (Britton et al.). However, translational research suggests that amygdala-PFC circuitry mediates responses following learned extinction. Anxiety-related perturbations may emerge in functional connectivity within this circuit during extinction recall tasks...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
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