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Trends in Cognitive Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031663/advances-in-fmri-real-time-neurofeedback
#1
REVIEW
Takeo Watanabe, Yuka Sasaki, Kazuhisa Shibata, Mitsuo Kawato
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback in which real-time online fMRI signals are used to self-regulate brain function. Since its advent in 2003 significant progress has been made in fMRI neurofeedback techniques. Specifically, the use of implicit protocols, external rewards, multivariate analysis, and connectivity analysis has allowed neuroscientists to explore a possible causal involvement of modified brain activity in modified behavior. These techniques have also been integrated into groundbreaking new neurofeedback technologies, specifically decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) and functional connectivity-based neurofeedback (FCNef)...
October 11, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969963/numerical-cognition-learning-binds-biology-to-culture
#2
LETTER
Tom Verguts, Qi Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964655/smiles-as-multipurpose-social-signals
#3
REVIEW
Jared Martin, Magdalena Rychlowska, Adrienne Wood, Paula Niedenthal
The human smile is highly variable in both its form and the social contexts in which it is displayed. A social-functional account identifies three distinct smile expressions defined in terms of their effects on the perceiver: reward smiles reinforce desired behavior; affiliation smiles invite and maintain social bonds; and dominance smiles manage hierarchical relationships. Mathematical modeling uncovers the appearance of the smiles, and both human and Bayesian classifiers validate these distinctions. New findings link laughter to reward, affiliation, and dominance, and research suggests that these functions of smiles are recognized across cultures...
September 27, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967533/disruption-of-conscious-access-in-schizophrenia
#4
REVIEW
Lucie Berkovitch, Stanislas Dehaene, Raphaël Gaillard
Schizophrenia is a severe and complex psychiatric disorder resulting in delusions, hallucinations, and cognitive impairments. Across a variety of paradigms, an elevated threshold for conscious perception has been repeatedly observed in persons with schizophrenia. Remarkably, even subtle measures of subliminal processing appear to be preserved. We argue here that the dissociation between impaired conscious access and intact unconscious processing may be due to a specific disruption of top-down attentional amplification...
September 26, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958646/the-split-brain-phenomenon-revisited-a-single-conscious-agent-with-split-perception
#5
REVIEW
Yair Pinto, Edward H F de Haan, Victor A F Lamme
The split-brain phenomenon is caused by the surgical severing of the corpus callosum, the main route of communication between the cerebral hemispheres. The classical view of this syndrome asserts that conscious unity is abolished. The left hemisphere consciously experiences and functions independently of the right hemisphere. This view is a cornerstone of current consciousness research. In this review, we first discuss the evidence for the classical view. We then propose an alternative, the 'conscious unity, split perception' model...
September 25, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939332/on-global-fmri-signals-and-simulations
#6
LETTER
Jonathan D Power, Timothy O Laumann, Mark Plitt, Alex Martin, Steven E Petersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939331/reading-faces-from-features-to-recognition
#7
J Swaroop Guntupalli, M Ida Gobbini
Chang and Tsao recently reported that the monkey face patch system encodes facial identity in a space of facial features as opposed to exemplars. Here, we discuss how such coding might contribute to face recognition, emphasizing the critical role of learning and interactions with other brain areas for optimizing the recognition of familiar faces.
September 19, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927634/flexible-planning-in-ravens
#8
Jonathan Redshaw, Alex H Taylor, Thomas Suddendorf
Across two different contexts, Kabadayi and Osvath found that ravens preferentially selected items that could be used to obtain future rewards. Do these results demand a rethink of the evolution of flexible planning, or are there leaner alternative explanations for the performance of ravens?
September 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916140/an-integrative-interdisciplinary-perspective-on-social-dominance-hierarchies
#9
REVIEW
Chen Qu, Romain Ligneul, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Jean-Claude Dreher
In the course of evolution, social dominance has been a strong force shaping the organization of social systems in many species. Individuals with a better ability to represent social dominance relationships and to adapt their behavior accordingly usually achieve better access to resources, hence providing benefits in terms of reproduction, health, and wellbeing. Understanding how and to what extent our brains are affected by social dominance requires interdisciplinary efforts. Here, we integrate findings from social neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and developmental psychology to highlight how social hierarchies are learned and represented in primates...
September 12, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899609/constructing-experience-event-models-from-perception-to-action
#10
REVIEW
Lauren L Richmond, Jeffrey M Zacks
Mental representations of everyday experience are rich, structured, and multimodal. In this article we consider the adaptive pressures that led to human construction of such representations, arguing that structured event representations enable cognitive systems to more effectively predict the trajectory of naturalistic everyday activity. We propose an account of how cortical systems and the hippocampus (HPC) interact to construct, maintain, and update event representations. This analysis throws light on recent research on story comprehension, event segmentation, episodic memory, and action planning...
September 9, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882383/serial-dependence-in-audition-free-fast-and-featureless
#11
LETTER
Benjamin James Dyson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864312/why-do-the-children-pretend-play
#12
REVIEW
Angeline S Lillard
Pretend play appears to be an evolved behavior because it is universal and appears on a set schedule. However, no specific functions have been determined for pretend play and empirical tests for its functions in humans are elusive. Yet animal play fighting can serve as an analog, as both activities involve as-if, metacommunicative signaling and symbolism. In the rat and some other animals, adaptive functions of play fighting include assisting social behavior and emotion regulation. Research is presented suggesting that pretend play might serve similar functions for humans...
August 29, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869186/neural-noise-hypothesis-of-developmental-dyslexia-trends-in-cognitive-sciences-21-434-448-2017
#13
Roeland Hancock, Kenneth R Pugh, Fumiko Hoeft
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803699/crowdsourcing-samples-in-cognitive-science
#14
REVIEW
Neil Stewart, Jesse Chandler, Gabriele Paolacci
Crowdsourcing data collection from research participants recruited from online labor markets is now common in cognitive science. We review who is in the crowd and who can be reached by the average laboratory. We discuss reproducibility and review some recent methodological innovations for online experiments. We consider the design of research studies and arising ethical issues. We review how to code experiments for the web, what is known about video and audio presentation, and the measurement of reaction times...
August 10, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802806/comparing-parietal-quantity-processing-mechanisms-between-humans-and-macaques
#15
REVIEW
Ben M Harvey, Stefania Ferri, Guy A Orban
Quantity processing studies typically assume functional homology between regions within macaque and human intraparietal sulcus (IPS), where apparently similar locations respond to broadly similar tasks. However, macaque single cell neurophysiology is difficult to compare to human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); particularly in multivoxel pattern analysis and adaptation paradigms, or where different tasks are used. fMRI approaches incorporating neural tuning models allow closer comparison, revealing human numerosity-selective responses only outside the IPS...
August 9, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789831/how-linguistic-metaphor-scaffolds-reasoning
#16
REVIEW
Paul H Thibodeau, Rose K Hendricks, Lera Boroditsky
Language helps people communicate and think. Precise and accurate language would seem best suited to achieve these goals. But a close look at the way people actually talk reveals an abundance of apparent imprecision in the form of metaphor: ideas are 'light bulbs', crime is a 'virus', and cancer is an 'enemy' in a 'war'. In this article, we review recent evidence that metaphoric language can facilitate communication and shape thinking even though it is literally false. We first discuss recent experiments showing that linguistic metaphor can guide thought and behavior...
August 5, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774684/reevaluating-the-sensory-account-of-visual-working-memory-storage
#17
REVIEW
Yaoda Xu
Recent human fMRI pattern-decoding studies have highlighted the involvement of sensory areas in visual working memory (VWM) tasks and argue for a sensory account of VWM storage. In this review, evidence is examined from human behavior, fMRI decoding, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies, as well as from monkey neurophysiology studies. Contrary to the prevalent view, the available evidence provides little support for the sensory account of VWM storage. Instead, when the ability to resist distraction and the existence of top-down feedback are taken into account, VWM-related activities in sensory areas seem to reflect feedback signals indicative of VWM storage elsewhere in the brain...
July 31, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821382/sex-linked-behavior-evolution-stability-and-variability
#18
REVIEW
Cordelia Fine, John Dupré, Daphna Joel
Common understanding of human sex-linked behaviors is that proximal mechanisms of genetic and hormonal sex, ultimately shaped by the differential reproductive challenges of ancestral males and females, act on the brain to transfer sex-linked predispositions across generations. Here, we extend the debate on the role of nature and nurture in the development of traits in the lifetime of an individual, to their role in the cross-generation transfer of traits. Advances in evolutionary theory that posit the environment as a source of trans-generational stability, and new understanding of sex effects on the brain, suggest that the cross-generation stability of sex-linked patterns of behavior are sometimes better explained in terms of inherited socioenvironmental conditions, with biological sex fostering intrageneration variability...
July 29, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754595/mapping-the-consequences-of-impaired-synaptic-plasticity-in-schizophrenia-through-development-an-integrative-model-for-diverse-clinical-features
#19
REVIEW
Jennifer K Forsyth, David A Lewis
Schizophrenia is associated with alterations in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions that emerge before psychosis onset; identifying pathogenic processes that can account for this multi-faceted phenotype remains a challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity is impaired in schizophrenia. Given the role of synaptic plasticity in learning, memory, and neural circuit maturation, impaired plasticity may underlie many features of the schizophrenia syndrome. Here, we summarize the neurobiology of synaptic plasticity, review evidence that plasticity is impaired in schizophrenia, and explore a framework in which impaired synaptic plasticity interacts with brain maturation to yield the emergence of sensory, motor, cognitive, and psychotic features at different times during development in schizophrenia...
October 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693961/agency-and-the-calibration-of-motivated-behavior
#20
REVIEW
Justin M Moscarello, Catherine A Hartley
The controllability of positive or negative environmental events has long been recognized as a critical factor determining their impact on an organism. In studies across species, controllable and uncontrollable reinforcement have been found to yield divergent effects on subsequent behavior. Here we present a model of the organizing influence of control, or a lack thereof, on the behavioral repertoire. We propose that individuals derive a generalizable estimate of agency from controllable and uncontrollable outcomes, which serves to calibrate their behavioral strategies in a manner that is most likely to be adaptive given their prior experience...
October 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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