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Trends in Cognitive Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625355/meta-reasoning-monitoring-and-control-of-thinking-and-reasoning
#1
REVIEW
Rakefet Ackerman, Valerie A Thompson
Meta-Reasoning refers to the processes that monitor the progress of our reasoning and problem-solving activities and regulate the time and effort devoted to them. Monitoring processes are usually experienced as feelings of certainty or uncertainty about how well a process has, or will, unfold. These feelings are based on heuristic cues, which are not necessarily reliable. Nevertheless, we rely on these feelings of (un)certainty to regulate our mental effort. Most metacognitive research has focused on memorization and knowledge retrieval, with little attention paid to more complex processes, such as reasoning and problem solving...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625354/foraging-cognition-reviving-the-ecological-intelligence-hypothesis
#2
REVIEW
Alexandra G Rosati
What are the origins of intelligent behavior? The demands associated with living in complex social groups have been the favored explanation for the evolution of primate cognition in general and human cognition in particular. However, recent comparative research indicates that ecological variation can also shape cognitive abilities. I synthesize the emerging evidence that 'foraging cognition' - skills used to exploit food resources, including spatial memory, decision-making, and inhibitory control - varies adaptively across primates...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625353/a-closer-look-at-the-hippocampus-and-memory
#3
REVIEW
Joel L Voss, Donna J Bridge, Neal J Cohen, John A Walker
Current interpretations of hippocampal memory function are blind to the fact that viewing behaviors are pervasive and complicate the relationships among perception, behavior, memory, and brain activity. For example, hippocampal activity and associative memory demands increase with stimulus complexity. Stimulus complexity also strongly modulates viewing. Associative processing and viewing thus are often confounded, rendering interpretation of hippocampal activity ambiguous. Similar considerations challenge many accounts of hippocampal function...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619240/what-is-language-and-how-could-it-have-evolved
#4
LETTER
Martin B H Everaert, Marinus A C Huybregts, Robert C Berwick, Noam Chomsky, Ian Tattersall, Andrea Moro, Johan J Bolhuis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610804/mechanisms-of-connectome-development
#5
REVIEW
Marcus Kaiser
At the centenary of D'Arcy Thompson's seminal work 'On Growth and Form', pioneering the description of principles of morphological changes during development and evolution, recent experimental advances allow us to study change in anatomical brain networks. Here, we outline potential principles for connectome development. We will describe recent results on how spatial and temporal factors shape connectome development in health and disease. Understanding the developmental origins of brain diseases in individuals will be crucial for deciding on personalized treatment options...
June 10, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606431/how-does-social-network-position-influence-prosocial-behavior
#6
Oriel FeldmanHall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601536/leaps-of-faith-a-reply-to-everaert-et-al
#7
LETTER
Michael C Corballis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601535/origins-of-the-belief-in-good-true-selves
#8
Julian De Freitas, Mina Cikara, Igor Grossmann, Rebecca Schlegel
Despite differences in beliefs about the self across cultures and relevant individual differences, recent evidence suggests that people universally believe in a 'true self' that is morally good. We propose that this belief arises from a general tendency: psychological essentialism (PE).
June 7, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583416/retrieval-as-a-fast-route-to-memory-consolidation
#9
James W Antony, Catarina S Ferreira, Kenneth A Norman, Maria Wimber
Retrieval-mediated learning is a powerful way to make memories last, but its neurocognitive mechanisms remain unclear. We propose that retrieval acts as a rapid consolidation event, supporting the creation of adaptive hippocampal-neocortical representations via the 'online' reactivation of associative information. We describe parallels between online retrieval and offline consolidation and offer testable predictions for future research.
June 2, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578977/the-dorsal-frontoparietal-network-a-core-system-for-emulated-action
#10
REVIEW
Radek Ptak, Armin Schnider, Julia Fellrath
The dorsal frontoparietal network (dFPN) of the human brain assumes a puzzling variety of functions, including motor planning and imagery, mental rotation, spatial attention, and working memory. How can a single network engage in such a diversity of roles? We propose that cognitive computations relying on the dFPN can be pinned down to a core function underlying offline motor planning: action emulation. Emulation creates a dynamic representation of abstract movement kinematics, sustains the internal manipulation of this representation, and ensures its maintenance over short time periods...
June 1, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552378/default-rules-are-better-than-active-choosing-often
#11
REVIEW
Cass R Sunstein
In recent years, governments have become keenly interested in behavioral science; new findings in psychology and behavioral economics have led to bold initiatives in areas that involve poverty, consumer protection, savings, health, the environment, and much more. Private institutions have used behavioral findings as well. But there is a pervasive and insufficiently explored question: when is it best to ask people to make active choices, and when is it best to use a default rule, which means that people need not make any choice at all? The answer depends on a form of cost-benefit analysis, which means that it is necessary to investigate whether choosing is a burden or a pleasure, whether learning is important, and whether a default rule would satisfy the informed preferences or all of most people...
May 25, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551107/neurobiology-of-schemas-and-schema-mediated-memory
#12
REVIEW
Asaf Gilboa, Hannah Marlatte
Schemas are superordinate knowledge structures that reflect abstracted commonalities across multiple experiences, exerting powerful influences over how events are perceived, interpreted, and remembered. Activated schema templates modulate early perceptual processing, as they get populated with specific informational instances (schema instantiation). Instantiated schemas, in turn, can enhance or distort mnemonic processing from the outset (at encoding), impact offline memory transformation and accelerate neocortical integration...
May 24, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551106/evolution-in-mind-evolutionary-dynamics-cognitive-processes-and-bayesian-inference
#13
REVIEW
Jordan W Suchow, David D Bourgin, Thomas L Griffiths
Evolutionary theory describes the dynamics of population change in settings affected by reproduction, selection, mutation, and drift. In the context of human cognition, evolutionary theory is most often invoked to explain the origins of capacities such as language, metacognition, and spatial reasoning, framing them as functional adaptations to an ancestral environment. However, evolutionary theory is useful for understanding the mind in a second way: as a mathematical framework for describing evolving populations of thoughts, ideas, and memories within a single mind...
May 24, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549826/serial-dependence-across-perception-attention-and-memory
#14
Anastasia Kiyonaga, Jason M Scimeca, Daniel P Bliss, David Whitney
Information that has been recently perceived or remembered can bias current processing. This has been viewed as both a corrupting (e.g., proactive interference in short-term memory) and stabilizing (e.g., serial dependence in perception) phenomenon. We hypothesize that this bias is a generally adaptive aspect of brain function that leads to occasionally maladaptive outcomes.
May 23, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545935/social-fear-learning-from-animal-models-to-human-function
#15
REVIEW
Jacek Debiec, Andreas Olsson
Learning about potential threats is critical for survival. Learned fear responses are acquired either through direct experiences or indirectly through social transmission. Social fear learning (SFL), also known as vicarious fear learning, is a paradigm successfully used for studying the transmission of threat information between individuals. Animal and human studies have begun to elucidate the behavioral, neural and molecular mechanisms of SFL. Recent research suggests that social learning mechanisms underlie a wide range of adaptive and maladaptive phenomena, from supporting flexible avoidance in dynamic environments to intergenerational transmission of trauma and anxiety disorders...
May 22, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622849/the-sampling-brain
#16
LETTER
Adam N Sanborn, Nick Chater
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522379/the-coding-question
#17
REVIEW
C R Gallistel
Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward...
May 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499741/the-origins-of-social-categorization
#18
REVIEW
Zoe Liberman, Amanda L Woodward, Katherine D Kinzler
Forming conceptually-rich social categories helps people to navigate the complex social world by allowing them to reason about the likely thoughts, beliefs, actions, and interactions of others, as guided by group membership. Nevertheless, social categorization often has nefarious consequences. We suggest that the foundation of the human ability to form useful social categories is in place in infancy: social categories guide the inferences infants make about the shared characteristics and social relationships of other people...
May 9, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499740/metastability-in-senescence
#19
REVIEW
Shruti Naik, Arpan Banerjee, Raju S Bapi, Gustavo Deco, Dipanjan Roy
The brain during healthy aging exhibits gradual deterioration of structure but maintains a high level of cognitive ability. These structural changes are often accompanied by reorganization of functional brain networks. Existing neurocognitive theories of aging have argued that such changes are either beneficial or detrimental. Despite numerous empirical investigations, the field lacks a coherent account of the dynamic processes that occur over our lifespan. Taking advantage of the recent developments in whole-brain computational modeling approaches, we hypothesize that the continuous process of aging can be explained by the concepts of metastability - a theoretical framework that gives a systematic account of the variability of the brain...
May 9, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495311/an-update-on-memory-reconsolidation-updating
#20
REVIEW
Jonathan L C Lee, Karim Nader, Daniela Schiller
The reactivation of a stored memory in the brain can make the memory transiently labile. During the time it takes for the memory to restabilize (reconsolidate) the memory can either be reduced by an amnesic agent or enhanced by memory enhancers. The change in memory expression is related to changes in the brain correlates of long-term memory. Many have suggested that such retrieval-induced plasticity is ideally placed to enable memories to be updated with new information. This hypothesis has been tested experimentally, with a translational perspective, by attempts to update maladaptive memories to reduce their problematic impact...
May 8, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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