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Trends in Cognitive Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919697/apes-submentalise
#1
Cecilia Heyes
Making subtle and extensive use of eye-tracking technology, Krupenye and colleagues showed that, like human infants, great apes - chimpanzees, bonobos and orangutans - can accurately anticipate the goal-directed behaviour of an agent that holds a false belief. How do they do it, by mentalising or by submentalising?
December 2, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916513/empathy-and-its-discontents
#2
REVIEW
Paul Bloom
What role does the experience of feeling what you think others are feeling - often known as 'empathy' - have in moral deliberation and moral action? Empathy has many fans and there is abundant evidence that it can motivate prosocial behavior. However, empathy is narrow in its focus, rendering it innumerate and subject to bias. It can motivate cruelty and aggression and lead to burnout and exhaustion. Compassion is distinct from empathy in its neural instantiation and its behavioral consequences and is a better prod to moral action, particularly in the modern world we live in...
December 1, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865787/the-emerging-social-neuroscience-of-justice-motivation
#3
REVIEW
Jean Decety, Keith J Yoder
Humans from a very early age are deeply sensitive to issues of justice and fairness, both in their own lives and in the lives of others. Most people are highly motivated to pursue justice and condemn injustice. Where does this concern for justice come from? Here we integrate findings in evolution, development, psychology, behavioral economics, and social neuroscience to highlight multiple potential drivers of justice motivation. We argue that justice motivation arises from complementary rapid heuristics and deliberation, each utilizing distinct and interacting neural circuitry...
November 16, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865786/human-connectomics-across-the-life-span
#4
REVIEW
Xi-Nian Zuo, Ye He, Richard F Betzel, Stan Colcombe, Olaf Sporns, Michael P Milham
Connectomics has enhanced our understanding of neurocognitive development and decline by the integration of network sciences into studies across different stages of the human life span. However, these studies commonly occurred independently, missing the opportunity to test integrated models of the dynamical brain organization across the entire life span. In this review article, we survey empirical findings in life-span connectomics and propose a generative framework for computationally modeling the connectome over the human life span...
November 16, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692992/neurobiology-of-congenital-amusia
#5
Isabelle Peretz
The past decade of research has provided compelling evidence that musical engagement is a fundamental human trait, and its biological basis is increasingly scrutinized. In this endeavor, the detailed study of individuals who have musical deficiencies is instructive because of likely neurogenetic underpinnings. Such individuals have 'congenital amusia', an umbrella term for lifelong musical disabilities that cannot be attributed to intellectual disability, lack of exposure, or brain damage after birth. Key points are reviewed here that have emerged during recent years regarding the neurobiology of the disorder, focusing on the importance of recurrent processing between the right inferior frontal cortex and the auditory cortex for conscious monitoring of musical pitch, and how this relates to developmental cognitive disorders in general...
September 29, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692852/pragmatic-language-interpretation-as-probabilistic-inference
#6
Noah D Goodman, Michael C Frank
Understanding language requires more than the use of fixed conventions and more than decoding combinatorial structure. Instead, comprehenders make exquisitely sensitive inferences about what utterances mean given their knowledge of the speaker, language, and context. Building on developments in game theory and probabilistic modeling, we describe the rational speech act (RSA) framework for pragmatic reasoning. RSA models provide a principled way to formalize inferences about meaning in context; they have been used to make successful quantitative predictions about human behavior in a variety of different tasks and situations, and they explain why complex phenomena, such as hyperbole and vagueness, occur...
September 28, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686390/decision-activity-in-parietal-cortex-leader-or-follower
#7
Sashank Pisupati, Lital Chartarifsky, Anne K Churchland
Katz and colleagues demonstrate that inactivating the primate lateral intraparietal area (LIP) spares visual motion decisions, even though these same decisions strongly modulate LIP neurons. This work is the latest addition to an intense effort spanning sensory modalities, animals, and techniques to understand which structures comprise the circuits responsible for interpreting sensory signals to make decisions.
September 26, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666660/representing-something-out-of-nothing-the-dawning-of-zero
#8
Andreas Nieder
Zero stands for emptiness, for nothing, and yet it is considered to be one of the greatest achievements of humankind. This review first recapitulates the discovery of the number zero in human history, then follows its progression in human development, traces its evolution in the animal kingdom, and finally elucidates how the brain transforms 'nothing' into an abstract zero category. It is argued that the emergence of zero passes through four corresponding representations in all of these interrelated realms: first, sensory 'nothing'; then categorical 'something'; then quantitative empty sets; and finally the number zero...
September 22, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646117/on-the-self-organizing-origins-of-agency-trends-in-cognitive-sciences-20-490-499-june-14-2016
#9
J A Scott Kelso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863886/cognitive-control-as-a-double-edged-sword
#10
REVIEW
Tarek Amer, Karen L Campbell, Lynn Hasher
Cognitive control, the ability to limit attention to goal-relevant information, aids performance on a wide range of laboratory tasks. However, there are many day-to-day functions which require little to no control and others which even benefit from reduced control. We review behavioral and neuroimaging evidence demonstrating that reduced control can enhance the performance of both older and, under some circumstances, younger adults. Using healthy aging as a model, we demonstrate that decreased cognitive control benefits performance on tasks ranging from acquiring and using environmental information to generating creative solutions to problems...
December 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836778/what-do-monkey-calls-mean
#11
REVIEW
Philippe Schlenker, Emmanuel Chemla, Klaus Zuberbühler
A field of primate linguistics is gradually emerging. It combines general questions and tools from theoretical linguistics with rich data gathered in experimental primatology. Analyses of several monkey systems have uncovered very simple morphological and syntactic rules and have led to the development of a primate semantics that asks new questions about the division of semantic labor between the literal meaning of monkey calls, additional mechanisms of pragmatic enrichment, and the environmental context. We show that comparative studies across species may validate this program and may in some cases help in reconstructing the evolution of monkey communication over millions of years...
December 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825537/functional-connectivity-of-the-human-brain-in-utero
#12
REVIEW
Marion I van den Heuvel, Moriah E Thomason
The brain is subject to dramatic developmental processes during the prenatal period. Nevertheless, information about the development of functional brain networks during gestation is scarce. Until recently it has not been possible to probe function in the living human fetal brain. Advances in functional MRI have changed the paradigm, making it possible to measure spontaneous activity in the fetal brain and to cross-correlate functional signals to attain information about neural connectional architecture across human gestation...
December 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814958/expanding-the-language-network-direct-contributions-from-the-hippocampus
#13
Natalie V Covington, Melissa C Duff
New research suggests that the same hippocampal computations used in support of memory are also used for language processing, providing direct neurophysiological evidence of a shared neural mechanism for memory and language. This work expands classic memory and language models and represents a new opportunity for studying the memory-language interface.
December 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765517/does-consciousness-disappear-in-dreamless-sleep
#14
REVIEW
Jennifer M Windt, Tore Nielsen, Evan Thompson
Consciousness is often said to disappear in deep, dreamless sleep. We argue that this assumption is oversimplified. Unless dreamless sleep is defined as unconscious from the outset there are good empirical and theoretical reasons for saying that a range of different types of sleep experience, some of which are distinct from dreaming, can occur in all stages of sleep. We introduce a novel taxonomy for describing different kinds of dreamless sleep experiences and suggest research methods for their investigation...
December 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743685/oscillatory-dynamics-of-prefrontal-cognitive-control
#15
REVIEW
Randolph F Helfrich, Robert T Knight
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) provides the structural basis for numerous higher cognitive functions. However, it is still largely unknown which mechanisms provide the functional basis for flexible cognitive control of goal-directed behavior. Here, we review recent findings that suggest that the functional architecture of cognition is profoundly rhythmic and propose that the PFC serves as a conductor to orchestrate task-relevant large-scale networks. We highlight several studies that demonstrated that oscillatory dynamics, such as phase resetting, cross-frequency coupling (CFC), and entrainment, support PFC-dependent recruitment of task-relevant regions into coherent functional networks...
December 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769727/making-sense-of-real-world-scenes
#16
REVIEW
George L Malcolm, Iris I A Groen, Chris I Baker
To interact with the world, we have to make sense of the continuous sensory input conveying information about our environment. A recent surge of studies has investigated the processes enabling scene understanding, using increasingly complex stimuli and sophisticated analyses to highlight the visual features and brain regions involved. However, there are two major challenges to producing a comprehensive framework for scene understanding. First, scene perception is highly dynamic, subserving multiple behavioral goals...
November 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769726/issues-or-identity-cognitive-foundations-of-voter-choice
#17
Libby Jenke, Scott A Huettel
Voter choice is one of the most important problems in political science. The most common models assume that voting is a rational choice based on policy positions (e.g., key issues) and nonpolicy information (e.g., social identity, personality). Though such models explain macroscopic features of elections, they also reveal important anomalies that have been resistant to explanation. We argue for a new approach that builds upon recent research in cognitive science and neuroscience; specifically, we contend that policy positions and social identities do not combine in merely an additive manner, but compete to determine voter preferences...
November 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707588/brain-networks-and-%C3%AE-oscillations-structural-and-functional-foundations-of-cognitive-control
#18
Sepideh Sadaghiani, Andreas Kleinschmidt
The most salient electrical signal measured from the human brain is the α-rhythm, neural activity oscillating at ∼100ms intervals. Recent findings challenge the longstanding dogma of α-band oscillations as the signature of a passively idling brain state but diverge in terms of interpretation. Despite firm correlations with behavior, the mechanistic role of the α-rhythm in brain function remains debated. We suggest that three large-scale brain networks involved in different facets of top-down cognitive control differentially modulate α-oscillations, ranging from power within and synchrony between brain regions...
November 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671888/thinking-about-thinking-28-years-on
#19
Nick Chater, Rebecca F Schwarzlose
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615805/-what-is-happening-in-the-dorsal-visual-pathway
#20
REVIEW
Erez Freud, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
The cortical visual system is almost universally thought to be segregated into two anatomically and functionally distinct pathways: a ventral occipitotemporal pathway that subserves object perception, and a dorsal occipitoparietal pathway that subserves object localization and visually guided action. Accumulating evidence from both human and non-human primate studies, however, challenges this binary distinction and suggests that regions in the dorsal pathway contain object representations that are independent of those in ventral cortex and that play a functional role in object perception...
October 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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