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Trends in Cognitive Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229206/frontal-cortex-and-the-hierarchical-control-of-behavior
#1
REVIEW
David Badre, Derek Evan Nee
The frontal lobes are important for cognitive control, yet their functional organization remains controversial. An influential class of theory proposes that the frontal lobes are organized along their rostrocaudal axis to support hierarchical cognitive control. Here, we take an updated look at the literature on hierarchical control, with particular focus on the functional organization of lateral frontal cortex. Our review of the evidence supports neither a unitary model of lateral frontal function nor a unidimensional abstraction gradient...
December 8, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233478/consciousness-representation-action-the-importance-of-being-goal-directed
#2
REVIEW
Cyriel M A Pennartz
Recent years have witnessed fierce debates on the dependence of consciousness on interactions between a subject and the environment. Reviewing neuroscientific, computational, and clinical evidence, I will address three questions. First, does conscious experience necessarily depend on acute interactions between a subject and the environment? Second, does it depend on specific perception-action loops in the longer run? Third, which types of action does consciousness cohere with, if not with all of them? I argue that conscious contents do not necessarily depend on acute or long-term brain-environment interactions...
December 7, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203085/large-scale-gradients-in-human-cortical-organization
#3
REVIEW
Julia M Huntenburg, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Daniel S Margulies
Recent advances in mapping cortical areas in the human brain provide a basis for investigating the significance of their spatial arrangement. Here we describe a dominant gradient in cortical features that spans between sensorimotor and transmodal areas. We propose that this gradient constitutes a core organizing axis of the human cerebral cortex, and describe an intrinsic coordinate system on its basis. Studying the cortex with respect to these intrinsic dimensions can inform our understanding of how the spectrum of cortical function emerges from structural constraints...
December 1, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191511/the-role-of-inhibition-in-avoiding-distraction-by-salient-stimuli
#4
REVIEW
Nicholas Gaspelin, Steven J Luck
Researchers have long debated whether salient stimuli can involuntarily 'capture' visual attention. We review here evidence for a recently discovered inhibitory mechanism that may help to resolve this debate. This evidence suggests that salient stimuli naturally attempt to capture attention, but capture can be avoided if the salient stimulus is suppressed before it captures attention. Importantly, the suppression process can be more or less effective as a result of changing task demands or lapses in cognitive control...
November 27, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183655/predicting-violent-behavior-what-can-neuroscience-add
#5
REVIEW
Russell A Poldrack, John Monahan, Peter B Imrey, Valerie Reyna, Marcus E Raichle, David Faigman, Joshua W Buckholtz
The ability to accurately predict violence and other forms of serious antisocial behavior would provide important societal benefits, and there is substantial enthusiasm for the potential predictive accuracy of neuroimaging techniques. Here, we review the current status of violence prediction using actuarial and clinical methods, and assess the current state of neuroprediction. We then outline several questions that need to be addressed by future studies of neuroprediction if neuroimaging and other neuroscientific markers are to be successfully translated into public policy...
November 25, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150414/constraints-on-statistical-learning-across-species
#6
REVIEW
Chiara Santolin, Jenny R Saffran
Both human and nonhuman organisms are sensitive to statistical regularities in sensory inputs that support functions including communication, visual processing, and sequence learning. One of the issues faced by comparative research in this field is the lack of a comprehensive theory to explain the relevance of statistical learning across distinct ecological niches. In the current review we interpret cross-species research on statistical learning based on the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms that characterize the human and nonhuman models under investigation...
November 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126772/data-driven-methods-to-diversify-knowledge-of-human-psychology
#7
Rachael E Jack, Carlos Crivelli, Thalia Wheatley
Psychology aims to understand real human behavior. However, cultural biases in the scientific process can constrain knowledge. We describe here how data-driven methods can relax these constraints to reveal new insights that theories can overlook. To advance knowledge we advocate a symbiotic approach that better combines data-driven methods with theory.
November 7, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167088/network-neuroscience-theory-of-human-intelligence
#8
REVIEW
Aron K Barbey
An enduring aim of research in the psychological and brain sciences is to understand the nature of individual differences in human intelligence, examining the stunning breadth and diversity of intellectual abilities and the remarkable neurobiological mechanisms from which they arise. This Opinion article surveys recent neuroscience evidence to elucidate how general intelligence, g, emerges from individual differences in the network architecture of the human brain. The reviewed findings motivate new insights about how network topology and dynamics account for individual differences in g, represented by the Network Neuroscience Theory...
November 2, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100738/parallel-distributed-processing-theory-in-the-age-of-deep-networks
#9
REVIEW
Jeffrey S Bowers
Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models in psychology are the precursors of deep networks used in computer science. However, only PDP models are associated with two core psychological claims, namely that all knowledge is coded in a distributed format and cognition is mediated by non-symbolic computations. These claims have long been debated in cognitive science, and recent work with deep networks speaks to this debate. Specifically, single-unit recordings show that deep networks learn units that respond selectively to meaningful categories, and researchers are finding that deep networks need to be supplemented with symbolic systems to perform some tasks...
October 31, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100737/segregated-systems-of-human-brain-networks
#10
REVIEW
Gagan S Wig
The organization of the brain network enables its function. Evaluation of this organization has revealed that large-scale brain networks consist of multiple segregated subnetworks of interacting brain areas. Descriptions of resting-state network architecture have provided clues for understanding the functional significance of these segregated subnetworks, many of which correspond to distinct brain systems. The present report synthesizes accumulating evidence to reveal how maintaining segregated brain systems renders the human brain network functionally specialized, adaptable to task demands, and largely resilient following focal brain damage...
October 31, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100736/single-neuron-correlates-of-awareness-during-attentional-blinks
#11
Zhongzheng Fu, Ueli Rutishauser
A recent single-neuron study revealed an anatomical anterior-to-posterior gradient of awareness-related responses by 'concept neurons' in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL). Delayed and weaker responses were indicative of the failure of a stimulus to reach awareness, suggesting that reliable fast responses are a critical aspect of the neural mechanisms of consciousness.
October 31, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054336/network-design-and-the-brain
#12
REVIEW
Saket Navlakha, Ziv Bar-Joseph, Alison L Barth
Neural circuits have evolved to accommodate similar information processing challenges as those faced by engineered systems. Here, we compare neural versus engineering strategies for constructing networks. During circuit development, synapses are overproduced and then pruned back over time, whereas in engineered networks, connections are initially sparse and are then added over time. We provide a computational perspective on these two different approaches, including discussion of how and why they are used, insights that one can provide the other, and areas for future joint investigation...
October 17, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050827/visual-working-memory-storage-recruits-sensory-processing-areas
#13
LETTER
Surya Gayet, Chris L E Paffen, Stefan Van der Stigchel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969963/numerical-cognition-learning-binds-biology-to-culture
#14
LETTER
Tom Verguts, Qi Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964655/smiles-as-multipurpose-social-signals
#15
REVIEW
Jared Martin, Magdalena Rychlowska, Adrienne Wood, Paula Niedenthal
The human smile is highly variable in both its form and the social contexts in which it is displayed. A social-functional account identifies three distinct smile expressions defined in terms of their effects on the perceiver: reward smiles reinforce desired behavior; affiliation smiles invite and maintain social bonds; and dominance smiles manage hierarchical relationships. Mathematical modeling uncovers the appearance of the smiles, and both human and Bayesian classifiers validate these distinctions. New findings link laughter to reward, affiliation, and dominance, and research suggests that these functions of smiles are recognized across cultures...
September 27, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939332/on-global-fmri-signals-and-simulations
#16
LETTER
Jonathan D Power, Timothy O Laumann, Mark Plitt, Alex Martin, Steven E Petersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150000/towards-a-unitary-approach-to-human-action-control
#17
REVIEW
Bernhard Hommel, Reinout W Wiers
From its academic beginnings the theory of human action control has distinguished between endogenously driven, intentional action and exogenously driven, habitual, or automatic action. We challenge this dual-route model and argue that attempts to provide clear-cut and straightforward criteria to distinguish between intentional and automatic action have systematically failed. Specifically, we show that there is no evidence for intention-independent action, and that attempts to use the criterion of reward sensitivity and rationality to differentiate between intentional and automatic action are conceptually unsound...
December 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149999/expansion-and-renormalization-of-human-brain-structure-during-skill-acquisition
#18
REVIEW
Elisabeth Wenger, Claudio Brozzoli, Ulman Lindenberger, Martin Lövdén
Research on human brain changes during skill acquisition has revealed brain volume expansion in task-relevant areas. However, the large number of skills that humans acquire during ontogeny militates against plasticity as a perpetual process of volume growth. Building on animal models and available theories, we promote the expansion-renormalization model for plastic changes in humans. The model predicts an initial increase of gray matter structure, potentially reflecting growth of neural resources like neurons, synapses, and glial cells, which is followed by a selection process operating on this new tissue leading to a complete or partial return to baseline of the overall volume after selection has ended...
December 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149998/computational-complexity-and-human-decision-making
#19
REVIEW
Peter Bossaerts, Carsten Murawski
The rationality principle postulates that decision-makers always choose the best action available to them. It underlies most modern theories of decision-making. The principle does not take into account the difficulty of finding the best option. Here, we propose that computational complexity theory (CCT) provides a framework for defining and quantifying the difficulty of decisions. We review evidence showing that human decision-making is affected by computational complexity. Building on this evidence, we argue that most models of decision-making, and metacognition, are intractable from a computational perspective...
December 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031663/advances-in-fmri-real-time-neurofeedback
#20
REVIEW
Takeo Watanabe, Yuka Sasaki, Kazuhisa Shibata, Mitsuo Kawato
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback in which real-time online fMRI signals are used to self-regulate brain function. Since its advent in 2003 significant progress has been made in fMRI neurofeedback techniques. Specifically, the use of implicit protocols, external rewards, multivariate analysis, and connectivity analysis has allowed neuroscientists to explore a possible causal involvement of modified brain activity in modified behavior. These techniques have also been integrated into groundbreaking new neurofeedback technologies, specifically decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) and functional connectivity-based neurofeedback (FCNef)...
December 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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