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Trends in Cognitive Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063663/why-good-is-more-alike-than-bad-processing-implications
#1
REVIEW
Hans Alves, Alex Koch, Christian Unkelbach
Humans process positive information and negative information differently. These valence asymmetries in processing are often summarized under the observation that 'bad is stronger than good', meaning that negative information has stronger psychological impact (e.g., in feedback, learning, or social interactions). This stronger impact is usually attributed to people's affective or motivational reactions to evaluative information. We present an alternative interpretation of valence asymmetries based on the observation that positive information is more similar than negative information...
January 4, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063662/brain-oscillations-and-the-importance-of-waveform-shape
#2
REVIEW
Scott R Cole, Bradley Voytek
Oscillations are a prevalent feature of brain recordings. They are believed to play key roles in neural communication and computation. Current analysis methods for studying neural oscillations often implicitly assume that the oscillations are sinusoidal. While these approaches have proven fruitful, we show here that there are numerous instances in which neural oscillations are nonsinusoidal. We highlight approaches to characterize nonsinusoidal features and account for them in traditional spectral analysis...
January 4, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063661/the-distributed-nature-of-working-memory
#3
REVIEW
Thomas B Christophel, P Christiaan Klink, Bernhard Spitzer, Pieter R Roelfsema, John-Dylan Haynes
Studies in humans and non-human primates have provided evidence for storage of working memory contents in multiple regions ranging from sensory to parietal and prefrontal cortex. We discuss potential explanations for these distributed representations: (i) features in sensory regions versus prefrontal cortex differ in the level of abstractness and generalizability; and (ii) features in prefrontal cortex reflect representations that are transformed for guidance of upcoming behavioral actions. We propose that the propensity to produce persistent activity is a general feature of cortical networks...
January 4, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040334/moving-beyond-stereotypes-of-empathy
#4
LETTER
Jamil Zaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027909/how-do-we-keep-information-online
#5
David Soto
New magnetoencephalography (MEG) results indicate that a putative marker of conscious processes - namely, the global broadcasting of information across large-scale cortical networks - can also operate during the maintenance of non-conscious input. I discuss the implications for the theoretical linkage between conscious awareness and working memory functions.
December 24, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108280/cognition-in-the-modern-era
#6
EDITORIAL
Rebecca F Schwarzlose
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025007/brain-rhythms-of-pain
#7
REVIEW
Markus Ploner, Christian Sorg, Joachim Gross
Pain is an integrative phenomenon that results from dynamic interactions between sensory and contextual (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and motivational) processes. In the brain the experience of pain is associated with neuronal oscillations and synchrony at different frequencies. However, an overarching framework for the significance of oscillations for pain remains lacking. Recent concepts relate oscillations at different frequencies to the routing of information flow in the brain and the signaling of predictions and prediction errors...
December 23, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025006/empathy-schmempathy-response-to-zaki
#8
LETTER
Paul Bloom
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007482/gradients-of-connectivity-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#9
Fenna M Krienen, Chet C Sherwood
The human neocortex is organized with distributed networks that connect distant regions together, but what determines their spatial layout? A recent study sheds light on the topological placement of regions along the cortical surface in relation to gradients of connectivity in both humans and macaques.
December 19, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089524/how-oral-contraceptives-impact-social-emotional-behavior-and-brain-function
#10
REVIEW
Estrella R Montoya, Peter A Bos
Millions of women worldwide use oral contraceptives ('the pill'; OCs), often starting at a pubertal age when their brains are in a crucial developmental stage. Research into the social-emotional effects of OCs is of utmost importance. In this review, we provide an overview of studies that have emerged over the past decade investigating how OCs, and their main ingredients estradiol (E) and progesterone (P), influence social-emotional behaviors and underlying brain functions. Based on this overview, we present a heuristic model that postulates that OCs modulate core social-emotional behaviors and brain systems...
December 14, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108281/emojis-insights-affordances-and-possibilities-for-psychological-science
#11
Linda K Kaye, Stephanie A Malone, Helen J Wall
We live in a digital society that provides a range of opportunities for virtual interaction. Consequently, emojis have become popular for clarifying online communication. This presents an exciting opportunity for psychologists, as these prolific online behaviours can be used to help reveal something unique about contemporary human behaviour.
November 18, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107838/emojis-insights-affordances-and-possibilities-for-psychological-science
#12
Linda K Kaye, Stephanie A Malone, Helen J Wall
We live in a digital society that provides a range of opportunities for virtual interaction. Consequently, emojis have become popular for clarifying online communication. This presents an exciting opportunity for psychologists, as these prolific online behaviours can be used to help reveal something unique about contemporary human behaviour.
February 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107837/cognition-in-the-modern-era
#13
EDITORIAL
Rebecca F Schwarzlose
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041836/the-neurobiology-of-human-attachments
#14
REVIEW
Ruth Feldman
Attachment bonds are a defining feature of mammals. A conceptual framework on human attachments is presented, integrating insights from animal research with neuroimaging studies. Four mammalian bonds are described, including parent-infant, pair-bonds, peers, and conspecifics, all built upon systems shaped by maternal provisions during sensitive periods, and evolution from rodents to humans is detailed. Bonding is underpinned by crosstalk of oxytocin and dopamine in striatum, combining motivation and vigor with social focus, and their time sensitivity/pulsatility enables reorganization of neural networks...
February 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979604/differences-in-behavior-and-brain-activity-during-hypothetical-and-real-choices
#15
REVIEW
Colin Camerer, Dean Mobbs
Real behaviors are binding consequential commitments to a course of action, such as harming another person, buying an Apple watch, or fleeing from danger. Cognitive scientists are generally interested in the psychological and neural processes that cause such real behavior. However, for practical reasons, many scientific studies measure behavior using only hypothetical or imagined stimuli. Generalizing from such studies to real behavior implicitly assumes that the processes underlying the two types of behavior are similar...
January 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931847/mind-the-brain-the-mediating-and-moderating-role-of-neurophysiology
#16
Siobhán Harty, Francesco Sella, Roi Cohen Kadosh
Most studies involving experimental manipulations or interventions tailored to modulate behavior do not account for variability in the critical antecedent of behavior, the brain. Here, we describe elegant approaches to model the role that neurophysiology can play in mediating or moderating relationships in this context. We highlight the capacity for these approaches to improve the inferential power of research, bridge the gap between neural and behavioral levels of analysis, and bolster the prospects for reproducibility...
January 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931846/gaze-control-as-prediction
#17
REVIEW
John M Henderson
The recent study of overt attention during complex scene viewing has emphasized explaining gaze behavior in terms of image properties and image salience independently of the viewer's intentions and understanding of the scene. In this Opinion article, I outline an alternative approach proposing that gaze control in natural scenes can be characterized as the result of knowledge-driven prediction. This view provides a theoretical context for integrating and unifying many of the disparate phenomena observed in active scene viewing, offers the potential for integrating the behavioral study of gaze with the neurobiological study of eye movements, and provides a theoretical framework for bridging gaze control and other related areas of perception and cognition at both computational and neurobiological levels of analysis...
January 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919697/apes-submentalise
#18
Cecilia Heyes
Making subtle and extensive use of eye-tracking technology, Krupenye and colleagues showed that, like human infants, great apes - chimpanzees, bonobos and orangutans - can accurately anticipate the goal-directed behaviour of an agent that holds a false belief. How do they do it, by mentalising or by submentalising?
January 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916513/empathy-and-its-discontents
#19
REVIEW
Paul Bloom
What role does the experience of feeling what you think others are feeling - often known as 'empathy' - have in moral deliberation and moral action? Empathy has many fans and there is abundant evidence that it can motivate prosocial behavior. However, empathy is narrow in its focus, rendering it innumerate and subject to bias. It can motivate cruelty and aggression and lead to burnout and exhaustion. Compassion is distinct from empathy in its neural instantiation and its behavioral consequences and is a better prod to moral action, particularly in the modern world we live in...
January 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865787/the-emerging-social-neuroscience-of-justice-motivation
#20
REVIEW
Jean Decety, Keith J Yoder
Humans from a very early age are deeply sensitive to issues of justice and fairness, both in their own lives and in the lives of others. Most people are highly motivated to pursue justice and condemn injustice. Where does this concern for justice come from? Here we integrate findings in evolution, development, psychology, behavioral economics, and social neuroscience to highlight multiple potential drivers of justice motivation. We argue that justice motivation arises from complementary rapid heuristics and deliberation, each utilizing distinct and interacting neural circuitry...
January 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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