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Trends in Cognitive Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402737/anxiety-and-threat-related-attention-cognitive-motivational-framework-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Karin Mogg, Brendan P Bradley
Research in experimental psychopathology and cognitive theories of anxiety highlight threat-related attention biases (ABs) and underpin the development of a computer-delivered treatment for anxiety disorders: attention-bias modification (ABM) training. Variable effects of ABM training on anxiety and ABs generate conflicting research recommendations, novel ABM training procedures, and theoretical controversy. This article summarises an updated cognitive-motivational framework, integrating proposals from cognitive models of anxiety and attention, as well as evidence of ABs...
February 2, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366643/a-dynamic-structure-of-social-trait-space
#2
Ryan M Stolier, Eric Hehman, Jonathan B Freeman
Facial appearance evokes robust impressions of other people's personality traits. Recent research suggests that the trait space arising from face-based impressions shifts due to context and social cognitive factors. We suggest a novel framework in which multiple bottom-up and top-down processes mutually determine a dynamic rather than fixed trait space.
January 20, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361383/how-primate-brains-vary-and-evolve
#3
Aida Gómez-Robles
Studies of brain evolution tend to focus on differences across species rather than on variation within species. A new study measures and compares intraspecific variation in macaque and human brain anatomy to explore the effect that short-term diversity has on long-term evolution.
January 17, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361382/modeling-the-predictive-social-mind
#4
REVIEW
Diana I Tamir, Mark A Thornton
The social mind is tailored to the problem of predicting the mental states and actions of other people. However, social cognition researchers have only scratched the surface of the predictive social mind. We discuss here a new framework for explaining how people organize social knowledge and use it for social prediction. Specifically, we propose a multilayered framework of social cognition in which two hidden layers - the mental states and traits of others - support predictions about the observable layer - the actions of others...
January 17, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305206/beyond-functional-connectivity-investigating-networks-of-multivariate-representations
#5
REVIEW
Stefano Anzellotti, Marc N Coutanche
For over two decades, interactions between brain regions have been measured in humans by asking how the univariate responses in different regions co-vary ('Functional Connectivity'). Thousands of Functional Connectivity studies have been published investigating the healthy brain and how it is affected by neural disorders. The advent of multivariate fMRI analyses showed that patterns of responses within regions encode information that is lost by averaging. Despite this, connectivity methods predominantly continue to focus on univariate responses...
January 2, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373283/nature-of-emotion-categories-comment-on-cowen-and-keltner
#6
Lisa Feldman Barrett, Zulqarnain Khan, Jennifer Dy, Dana Brooks
Cowen and Keltner (2017) published the latest installment in a longstanding debate about whether measures of emotion organize themselves into categories or array themselves more continuously along affective dimensions. We discuss several notable features of the study and suggest future studies should consider asking questions more directly about physical and psychological variation within emotion categories as well as similarities between categories.
December 22, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277256/individual-differences-in-language-acquisition-and-processing
#7
REVIEW
Evan Kidd, Seamus Donnelly, Morten H Christiansen
Humans differ in innumerable ways, with considerable variation observable at every level of description, from the molecular to the social. Traditionally, linguistic and psycholinguistic theory has downplayed the possibility of meaningful differences in language across individuals. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that there is significant variation among speakers at any age as well as across the lifespan. Here, we review recent research in psycholinguistics, and argue that a focus on individual differences (IDs) provides a crucial source of evidence that bears strongly upon core issues in theories of the acquisition and processing of language; specifically, the role of experience in language acquisition, processing, and attainment, and the architecture of the language system...
December 22, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269195/forecasting-faces-in-the-cortex-comment-on-high-level-prediction-signals-in-a-low-level-area-of-the-macaque-face-processing-hierarchy-by-schwiedrzik-and-freiwald-neuron-2017
#8
Lucy S Petro, Lars Muckli
Although theories of predictive coding in the brain abound, we lack key pieces of neuronal data to support these theories. Recently, Schwiedrzik and Freiwald found neurophysiological evidence for predictive codes throughout the face-processing hierarchy in macaque cortex. We highlight how these data enhance our knowledge of cortical information processing, and the impact of this more broadly.
December 18, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29254899/are-we-face-experts
#9
REVIEW
Andrew W Young, A Mike Burton
According to a widely used theoretical perspective, our everyday experiences lead us to become natural experts at perceiving and recognising human faces. However, there has been considerable debate about this view. We discuss criteria for expertise and show how the debate over face expertise has often missed key points concerning the role and nature of face familiarity. For identity recognition, most of us show only limited expertise with unfamiliar faces. Carefully evaluating the senses in which it is appropriate or inappropriate to assert that we are face experts leads to the conclusion that we are, in effect, familiar face experts...
December 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249603/negotiating-the-traffic-can-cognitive-science-help-make-autonomous-vehicles-a-reality
#10
Nick Chater, Jennifer Misyak, Derrick Watson, Nathan Griffiths, Alex Mouzakitis
To drive safely among human drivers, cyclists and pedestrians, autonomous vehicles will need to mimic, or ideally improve upon, humanlike driving. Yet, driving presents us with difficult problems of joint action: 'negotiating' with other users over shared road space. We argue that autonomous driving provides a test case for computational theories of social interaction, with fundamental implications for the development of autonomous vehicles.
December 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233478/consciousness-representation-action-the-importance-of-being-goal-directed
#11
REVIEW
Cyriel M A Pennartz
Recent years have witnessed fierce debates on the dependence of consciousness on interactions between a subject and the environment. Reviewing neuroscientific, computational, and clinical evidence, I will address three questions. First, does conscious experience necessarily depend on acute interactions between a subject and the environment? Second, does it depend on specific perception-action loops in the longer run? Third, which types of action does consciousness cohere with, if not with all of them? I argue that conscious contents do not necessarily depend on acute or long-term brain-environment interactions...
December 7, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389352/memory-as-perception-of-the-past-compressed-time-inmind-and-brain
#12
REVIEW
Marc W Howard
In the visual system retinal space is compressed such that acuity decreases further from the fovea. Different forms of memory may rely on a compressed representation of time, manifested as decreased accuracy for events that happened further in the past. Neurophysiologically, "time cells" show receptive fields in time. Analogous to the compression of visual space, time cells show less acuity for events further in the past. Behavioral evidence suggests memory can be accessed by scanning a compressed temporal representation, analogous to visual search...
February 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229206/frontal-cortex-and-the-hierarchical-control-of-behavior
#13
REVIEW
David Badre, Derek Evan Nee
The frontal lobes are important for cognitive control, yet their functional organization remains controversial. An influential class of theory proposes that the frontal lobes are organized along their rostrocaudal axis to support hierarchical cognitive control. Here, we take an updated look at the literature on hierarchical control, with particular focus on the functional organization of lateral frontal cortex. Our review of the evidence supports neither a unitary model of lateral frontal function nor a unidimensional abstraction gradient...
February 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273112/the-anatomy-of-friendship
#14
REVIEW
R I M Dunbar
Friendship is the single most important factor influencing our health, well-being, and happiness. Creating and maintaining friendships is, however, extremely costly, in terms of both the time that has to be invested and the cognitive mechanisms that underpin them. Nonetheless, personal social networks exhibit many constancies, notably in their size and their hierarchical structuring. Understanding the processes that give rise to these patterns and their evolutionary origins requires a multidisciplinary approach that combines social and neuropsychology as well as evolutionary biology...
January 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203085/large-scale-gradients-in-human-cortical-organization
#15
REVIEW
Julia M Huntenburg, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Daniel S Margulies
Recent advances in mapping cortical areas in the human brain provide a basis for investigating the significance of their spatial arrangement. Here we describe a dominant gradient in cortical features that spans between sensorimotor and transmodal areas. We propose that this gradient constitutes a core organizing axis of the human cerebral cortex, and describe an intrinsic coordinate system on its basis. Studying the cortex with respect to these intrinsic dimensions can inform our understanding of how the spectrum of cortical function emerges from structural constraints...
January 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167088/network-neuroscience-theory-of-human-intelligence
#16
REVIEW
Aron K Barbey
An enduring aim of research in the psychological and brain sciences is to understand the nature of individual differences in human intelligence, examining the stunning breadth and diversity of intellectual abilities and the remarkable neurobiological mechanisms from which they arise. This Opinion article surveys recent neuroscience evidence to elucidate how general intelligence, g, emerges from individual differences in the network architecture of the human brain. The reviewed findings motivate new insights about how network topology and dynamics account for individual differences in g, represented by the Network Neuroscience Theory...
January 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150000/towards-a-unitary-approach-to-human-action-control
#17
REVIEW
Bernhard Hommel, Reinout W Wiers
From its academic beginnings the theory of human action control has distinguished between endogenously driven, intentional action and exogenously driven, habitual, or automatic action. We challenge this dual-route model and argue that attempts to provide clear-cut and straightforward criteria to distinguish between intentional and automatic action have systematically failed. Specifically, we show that there is no evidence for intention-independent action, and that attempts to use the criterion of reward sensitivity and rationality to differentiate between intentional and automatic action are conceptually unsound...
December 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149999/expansion-and-renormalization-of-human-brain-structure-during-skill-acquisition
#18
REVIEW
Elisabeth Wenger, Claudio Brozzoli, Ulman Lindenberger, Martin Lövdén
Research on human brain changes during skill acquisition has revealed brain volume expansion in task-relevant areas. However, the large number of skills that humans acquire during ontogeny militates against plasticity as a perpetual process of volume growth. Building on animal models and available theories, we promote the expansion-renormalization model for plastic changes in humans. The model predicts an initial increase of gray matter structure, potentially reflecting growth of neural resources like neurons, synapses, and glial cells, which is followed by a selection process operating on this new tissue leading to a complete or partial return to baseline of the overall volume after selection has ended...
December 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149998/computational-complexity-and-human-decision-making
#19
REVIEW
Peter Bossaerts, Carsten Murawski
The rationality principle postulates that decision-makers always choose the best action available to them. It underlies most modern theories of decision-making. The principle does not take into account the difficulty of finding the best option. Here, we propose that computational complexity theory (CCT) provides a framework for defining and quantifying the difficulty of decisions. We review evidence showing that human decision-making is affected by computational complexity. Building on this evidence, we argue that most models of decision-making, and metacognition, are intractable from a computational perspective...
December 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100738/parallel-distributed-processing-theory-in-the-age-of-deep-networks
#20
REVIEW
Jeffrey S Bowers
Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models in psychology are the precursors of deep networks used in computer science. However, only PDP models are associated with two core psychological claims, namely that all knowledge is coded in a distributed format and cognition is mediated by non-symbolic computations. These claims have long been debated in cognitive science, and recent work with deep networks speaks to this debate. Specifically, single-unit recordings show that deep networks learn units that respond selectively to meaningful categories, and researchers are finding that deep networks need to be supplemented with symbolic systems to perform some tasks...
December 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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