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Trends in Cognitive Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549826/serial-dependence-across-perception-attention-and-memory
#1
Anastasia Kiyonaga, Jason M Scimeca, Daniel P Bliss, David Whitney
Information that has been recently perceived or remembered can bias current processing. This has been viewed as both a corrupting (e.g., proactive interference in short-term memory) and stabilizing (e.g., serial dependence in perception) phenomenon. We hypothesize that this bias is a generally adaptive aspect of brain function that leads to occasionally maladaptive outcomes.
May 23, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545935/social-fear-learning-from-animal-models-to-human-function
#2
REVIEW
Jacek Debiec, Andreas Olsson
Learning about potential threats is critical for survival. Learned fear responses are acquired either through direct experiences or indirectly through social transmission. Social fear learning (SFL), also known as vicarious fear learning, is a paradigm successfully used for studying the transmission of threat information between individuals. Animal and human studies have begun to elucidate the behavioral, neural and molecular mechanisms of SFL. Recent research suggests that social learning mechanisms underlie a wide range of adaptive and maladaptive phenomena, from supporting flexible avoidance in dynamic environments to intergenerational transmission of trauma and anxiety disorders...
May 22, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522379/the-coding-question
#3
REVIEW
C R Gallistel
Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward...
May 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499741/the-origins-of-social-categorization
#4
REVIEW
Zoe Liberman, Amanda L Woodward, Katherine D Kinzler
Forming conceptually-rich social categories helps people to navigate the complex social world by allowing them to reason about the likely thoughts, beliefs, actions, and interactions of others, as guided by group membership. Nevertheless, social categorization often has nefarious consequences. We suggest that the foundation of the human ability to form useful social categories is in place in infancy: social categories guide the inferences infants make about the shared characteristics and social relationships of other people...
May 9, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499740/metastability-in-senescence
#5
REVIEW
Shruti Naik, Arpan Banerjee, Raju S Bapi, Gustavo Deco, Dipanjan Roy
The brain during healthy aging exhibits gradual deterioration of structure but maintains a high level of cognitive ability. These structural changes are often accompanied by reorganization of functional brain networks. Existing neurocognitive theories of aging have argued that such changes are either beneficial or detrimental. Despite numerous empirical investigations, the field lacks a coherent account of the dynamic processes that occur over our lifespan. Taking advantage of the recent developments in whole-brain computational modeling approaches, we hypothesize that the continuous process of aging can be explained by the concepts of metastability - a theoretical framework that gives a systematic account of the variability of the brain...
May 9, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495311/an-update-on-memory-reconsolidation-updating
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan L C Lee, Karim Nader, Daniela Schiller
The reactivation of a stored memory in the brain can make the memory transiently labile. During the time it takes for the memory to restabilize (reconsolidate) the memory can either be reduced by an amnesic agent or enhanced by memory enhancers. The change in memory expression is related to changes in the brain correlates of long-term memory. Many have suggested that such retrieval-induced plasticity is ideally placed to enable memories to be updated with new information. This hypothesis has been tested experimentally, with a translational perspective, by attempts to update maladaptive memories to reduce their problematic impact...
May 8, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549827/commentary-on-sanborn-and-chater-posterior-modes-are-attractor-basins
#7
LETTER
Phillip M Alday, Matthias Schlesewsky, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476348/the-importance-of-falsification-in-computational-cognitive-modeling
#8
REVIEW
Stefano Palminteri, Valentin Wyart, Etienne Koechlin
In the past decade the field of cognitive sciences has seen an exponential growth in the number of computational modeling studies. Previous work has indicated why and how candidate models of cognition should be compared by trading off their ability to predict the observed data as a function of their complexity. However, the importance of falsifying candidate models in light of the observed data has been largely underestimated, leading to important drawbacks and unjustified conclusions. We argue here that the simulation of candidate models is necessary to falsify models and therefore support the specific claims about cognitive function made by the vast majority of model-based studies...
May 2, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526317/number-biological-enculturation-beyond-natural-selection
#9
LETTER
Rafael E Núñez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526318/is-there-really-an-evolved-capacity-for-number
#10
REVIEW
Rafael E Núñez
Humans and other species have biologically endowed abilities for discriminating quantities. A widely accepted view sees such abilities as an evolved capacity specific for number and arithmetic. This view, however, is based on an implicit teleological rationale, builds on inaccurate conceptions of biological evolution, downplays human data from non-industrialized cultures, overinterprets results from trained animals, and is enabled by loose terminology that facilitates teleological argumentation. A distinction between quantical (e...
April 29, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461113/mixed-signals-on-separating-brain-signal-from-noise
#11
Lucina Q Uddin
Accurate description of human brain function requires the separation of true neural signal from noise. Recent work examining spatial and temporal properties of whole-brain fMRI signals demonstrates how artifacts from a variety of sources can persist after rigorous processing, and highlights the lack of consensus on how to address this challenge.
April 28, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461112/a-neural-model-of-mind-wandering-trends-in-cognitive-sciences-20-570-578-2016
#12
Matthias Mittner, Guy E Hawkins, Wouter Boekel, Birte U Forstmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454719/prioritizing-information-during-working-memory-beyond-sustained-internal-attention
#13
REVIEW
Nicholas E Myers, Mark G Stokes, Anna C Nobre
Working memory (WM) has limited capacity. This leaves attention with the important role of allowing into storage only the most relevant information. It is increasingly evident that attention is equally crucial for prioritizing representations within WM as the importance of individual items changes. Retrospective prioritization has been proposed to result from a focus of internal attention highlighting one of several representations. Here, we suggest an updated model, in which prioritization acts in multiple steps: first orienting towards and selecting a memory, and then reconfiguring its representational state in the service of upcoming task demands...
April 25, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462815/brain-mechanisms-of-reality-monitoring
#14
REVIEW
Jon S Simons, Jane R Garrison, Marcia K Johnson
Reality monitoring processes are necessary for discriminating between internally generated information and information that originated in the outside world. They help us to identify our thoughts, feelings, and imaginations, and to distinguish them from events we may have experienced or have been told about by someone else. Reality monitoring errors range from confusions between real and imagined experiences, that are byproducts of normal cognition, to symptoms of mental illness such as hallucinations. Recent advances support an emerging neurocognitive characterization of reality monitoring that provides insights into its underlying operating principles and neural mechanisms, the differing ways in which impairment may occur in health and disease, and the potential for rehabilitation strategies to be devised that might help those who experience clinically significant reality monitoring disruption...
April 24, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442279/avoiding-catastrophic-forgetting
#15
Michael E Hasselmo
Humans regularly perform new learning without losing memory for previous information, but neural network models suffer from the phenomenon of catastrophic forgetting in which new learning impairs prior function. A recent article presents an algorithm that spares learning at synapses important for previously learned function, reducing catastrophic forgetting.
April 22, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526316/number-faculty-is-rooted-in-our-biological-heritage
#16
LETTER
Andreas Nieder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400089/neural-noise-hypothesis-of-developmental-dyslexia
#17
REVIEW
Roeland Hancock, Kenneth R Pugh, Fumiko Hoeft
Developmental dyslexia (decoding-based reading disorder; RD) is a complex trait with multifactorial origins at the genetic, neural, and cognitive levels. There is evidence that low-level sensory-processing deficits precede and underlie phonological problems, which are one of the best-documented aspects of RD. RD is also associated with impairments in integrating visual symbols with their corresponding speech sounds. Although causal relationships between sensory processing, print-speech integration, and fluent reading, and their neural bases are debated, these processes all require precise timing mechanisms across distributed brain networks...
April 8, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385461/the-cerebellum-adaptive-prediction-for-movement-and-cognition
#18
REVIEW
Arseny A Sokolov, R Chris Miall, Richard B Ivry
Over the past 30 years, cumulative evidence has indicated that cerebellar function extends beyond sensorimotor control. This view has emerged from studies of neuroanatomy, neuroimaging, neuropsychology, and brain stimulation, with the results implicating the cerebellum in domains as diverse as attention, language, executive function, and social cognition. Although the literature provides sophisticated models of how the cerebellum helps refine movements, it remains unclear how the core mechanisms of these models can be applied when considering a broader conceptualization of cerebellar function...
April 3, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385460/task-selectivity-as-a-comprehensive-principle-for-brain-organization
#19
Amir Amedi, Shir Hofstetter, Shachar Maidenbaum, Benedetta Heimler
How do the anatomically consistent functional selectivities of the brain emerge? A new study by Bola and colleagues reveals task selectivity in auditory rhythm-selective areas in congenitally deaf adults perceiving visual rhythm sequences. Here, we contextualize this result with accumulating evidence from animal and human studies supporting sensory-independent task specializations as a comprehensive principle shaping brain (re)organization.
April 3, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372879/drd2-bridging-the-genome-and-ingestive-behavior
#20
REVIEW
Xue Sun, Serge Luquet, Dana M Small
Recent work highlights the importance of genetic variants that influence brain structure and function in conferring risk for polygenic obesity. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) has a pivotal role in energy balance by integrating metabolic signals with circuits supporting cognitive, perceptual, and appetitive functions that guide feeding. It has also been established that diet and obesity alter DA signaling, leading to compulsive-like feeding and neurocognitive impairments. This raises the possibility that genetic variants that influence DA signaling and adaptation confer risk for overeating and cognitive decline...
March 31, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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