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Trends in Cognitive Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104140/using-anesthesia-to-reveal-the-elements-of-consciousness
#1
Ken Solt
General anesthesia provides an invaluable experimental tool to probe the essential neural circuits that underlie consciousness. A new study reports that cholinergic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex restores wake-like behaviors in anesthetized rodents, suggesting that cholinergic inputs to the prefrontal cortex play a fundamental role in modulating consciousness.
August 10, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104139/integration-despite-fractionation-continuous-flash-suppression
#2
LETTER
Asael Y Sklar, Leon Y Deouell, Ran R Hassin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097305/priors-in-animal-and-artificial-intelligence-where-does-learning-begin
#3
Elisabetta Versace, Antone Martinho-Truswell, Alex Kacelnik, Giorgio Vallortigara
A major goal for the next generation of artificial intelligence (AI) is to build machines that are able to reason and cope with novel tasks, environments, and situations in a manner that approaches the abilities of animals. Evidence from precocial species suggests that driving learning through suitable priors can help to successfully face this challenge.
August 7, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093313/approximating-bayesian-inference-through-model-simulation
#4
REVIEW
Brandon M Turner, Trisha Van Zandt
The ultimate test of the validity of a cognitive theory is its ability to predict patterns of empirical data. Cognitive models formalize this test by making specific processing assumptions that yield mathematical predictions, and the mathematics allow the models to be fitted to data. As the field of cognitive science has grown to address increasingly complex problems, so too has the complexity of models increased. Some models have become so complex that the mathematics detailing their predictions are intractable, meaning that the model can only be simulated...
August 6, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060916/finding-consistency-in-boredom-by-appreciating-its-instability
#5
Caitlin Mills, Kalina Christoff
Boredom has recently piqued cognitive neuroscientific interest, but remains a challenge to scientific investigation in this field. We propose that to advance this research, we should (i) seek greater consistency of operationalization and measurement across studies and participants; and (ii) appreciate the temporal instability of boredom and its ensuing dynamics.
July 27, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041865/rewarding-research-transparency
#6
Morton Ann Gernsbacher
Cognitive scientists are increasingly enthusiastic about research transparency. However, their enthusiasm could be tempered if the research reward system fails to acknowledge and compensate these efforts. This article suggests ways to reward greater research transparency during academic job searches, academic promotion and tenure evaluations, and society and national award selections.
July 21, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041864/social-origins-of-cortical-face-areas
#7
REVIEW
Lindsey J Powell, Heather L Kosakowski, Rebecca Saxe
Recently acquired fMRI data from human and macaque infants provide novel insights into the origins of cortical networks specialized for perceiving faces. Data from both species converge: cortical regions responding preferentially to faces are present and spatially organized early in infancy, although fully selective face areas emerge much later. What explains the earliest cortical responses to faces? We review two proposed mechanisms: proto-organization for simple shapes in visual cortex, and an innate subcortical schematic face template...
July 21, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031670/how-the-brain-s-navigation-system-shapes-our-visual-experience
#8
REVIEW
Matthias Nau, Joshua B Julian, Christian F Doeller
We explore the environment not only by navigating, but also by viewing our surroundings with our eyes. Here we review growing evidence that the mammalian hippocampal formation, extensively studied in the context of navigation and memory, mediates a representation of visual space that is stably anchored to the external world. This visual representation puts the hippocampal formation in a central position to guide viewing behavior and to modulate visual processing beyond the medial temporal lobe (MTL). We suggest that vision and navigation share several key computational challenges that are solved by overlapping and potentially common neural systems, making vision an optimal domain to explore whether and how the MTL supports cognitive operations beyond navigation...
July 18, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097304/face-space-representations-in-deep-convolutional-neural-networks
#9
REVIEW
Alice J O'Toole, Carlos D Castillo, Connor J Parde, Matthew Q Hill, Rama Chellappa
Inspired by the primate visual system, deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) have made impressive progress on the complex problem of recognizing faces across variations of viewpoint, illumination, expression, and appearance. This generalized face recognition is a hallmark of human recognition for familiar faces. Despite the computational advances, the visual nature of the face code that emerges in DCNNs is poorly understood. We review what is known about these codes, using the long-standing metaphor of a 'face space' to ground them in the broader context of previous-generation face recognition algorithms...
July 17, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017252/striatal-microstructure-and-its-relevance-for-cognitive-control
#10
Christian Beste, Christian K E Moll, Monika Pötter-Nerger, Alexander Münchau
The relevance of the striatum for cognitive control processes is increasingly appreciated. The striatum is not a homogenous structure but instead is compartmentalized into the 'matrix' and 'striosomes'. Here, we discuss experiments on a model disease of striosomal dysfunction and provide evidence for the importance of the striatal microstructure for cognitive control in humans.
July 13, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29954710/if-you-become-evil-do-you-die
#11
LETTER
Christina Starmans, Paul Bloom
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29954709/moral-goodness-is-the-essence-of-personal-identity
#12
LETTER
Julian De Freitas, Mina Cikara, Igor Grossmann, Rebecca Schlegel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903692/neurons-that-update-representations-of-the-future
#13
Peggy Seriès
A recent article shows that the brain automatically estimates the probabilities of possible future actions before it has even received all the information necessary to decide what to do next.
June 11, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903691/with-great-data-comes-great-theoretical-opportunity
#14
Michael C Frank
Is there a 'critical period' for language? Using a viral online grammar test, Hartshorne, Tenenbaum, and Pinker (2018) collected a new massive dataset on the relationship between age and language learning. Their data highlight both the importance - and the challenges - of creating quantitative theories linking 'big data' to cognitive models.
June 11, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032744/development-of-walking-15-suggestions
#15
REVIEW
Karen E Adolph, Justine E Hoch, Whitney G Cole
Although a fundamental goal of developmental science is to identify general processes of change, developmental scientists rarely generalize beyond their specific content domains. As a first step toward a more unified approach to development, we offer 15 suggestions gleaned from a century of research on infant walking. These suggestions collectively address the multi-leveled nature of change processes, cascades of real-time and developmental events, the diversity of developmental trajectories, inter- and intraindividual variability, starting and ending points of development, the natural input for learning, and the roles of body, environment, and sociocultural context...
August 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937320/the-mythical-dual-process-typology
#16
LETTER
Gordon Pennycook, Wim De Neys, Jonathan St B T Evans, Keith E Stanovich, Valerie A Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937319/the-insidious-number-two
#17
LETTER
David E Melnikoff, John A Bargh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934029/hippocampal-maturation-drives-memory-from-generalization-to-specificity
#18
REVIEW
Attila Keresztes, Chi T Ngo, Ulman Lindenberger, Markus Werkle-Bergner, Nora S Newcombe
During early ontogeny, the rapid and cumulative acquisition of world knowledge contrasts with slower improvements in the ability to lay down detailed and long-lasting episodic memories. This emphasis on generalization at the expense of specificity persists well into middle childhood and possibly into adolescence. During this period, recognizing regularities, forming stable representations of recurring episodes, predicting the structure of future events, and building up semantic knowledge may be prioritized over remembering specific episodes...
August 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914734/flexible-redistribution-in-cognitive-networks
#19
REVIEW
Gesa Hartwigsen
Previous work has emphasized that cognitive functions in the human brain are organized into large-scale networks. However, the mechanisms that allow these networks to compensate for focal disruptions remain elusive. I suggest a new perspective on the compensatory flexibility of cognitive networks. First, I demonstrate that cognitive networks can rapidly change the functional weight of the relative contribution of different regions. Second, I argue that there is an asymmetry in the compensatory potential of different kinds of networks...
August 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908765/collective-memory-from-a-psychological-perspective-trends-in-cognitive-sciences-22-438-451-2018
#20
William Hirst, Jeremy K Yamashiro, Alin Coman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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