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Trends in Cognitive Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803699/crowdsourcing-samples-in-cognitive-science
#1
REVIEW
Neil Stewart, Jesse Chandler, Gabriele Paolacci
Crowdsourcing data collection from research participants recruited from online labor markets is now common in cognitive science. We review who is in the crowd and who can be reached by the average laboratory. We discuss reproducibility and review some recent methodological innovations for online experiments. We consider the design of research studies and arising ethical issues. We review how to code experiments for the web, what is known about video and audio presentation, and the measurement of reaction times...
August 10, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802806/comparing-parietal-quantity-processing-mechanisms-between-humans-and-macaques
#2
REVIEW
Ben M Harvey, Stefania Ferri, Guy A Orban
Quantity processing studies typically assume functional homology between regions within macaque and human intraparietal sulcus (IPS), where apparently similar locations respond to broadly similar tasks. However, macaque single cell neurophysiology is difficult to compare to human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); particularly in multivoxel pattern analysis and adaptation paradigms, or where different tasks are used. fMRI approaches incorporating neural tuning models allow closer comparison, revealing human numerosity-selective responses only outside the IPS...
August 9, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789831/how-linguistic-metaphor-scaffolds-reasoning
#3
REVIEW
Paul H Thibodeau, Rose K Hendricks, Lera Boroditsky
Language helps people communicate and think. Precise and accurate language would seem best suited to achieve these goals. But a close look at the way people actually talk reveals an abundance of apparent imprecision in the form of metaphor: ideas are 'light bulbs', crime is a 'virus', and cancer is an 'enemy' in a 'war'. In this article, we review recent evidence that metaphoric language can facilitate communication and shape thinking even though it is literally false. We first discuss recent experiments showing that linguistic metaphor can guide thought and behavior...
August 5, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774684/reevaluating-the-sensory-account-of-visual-working-memory-storage
#4
REVIEW
Yaoda Xu
Recent human fMRI pattern-decoding studies have highlighted the involvement of sensory areas in visual working memory (VWM) tasks and argue for a sensory account of VWM storage. In this review, evidence is examined from human behavior, fMRI decoding, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies, as well as from monkey neurophysiology studies. Contrary to the prevalent view, the available evidence provides little support for the sensory account of VWM storage. Instead, when the ability to resist distraction and the existence of top-down feedback are taken into account, VWM-related activities in sensory areas seem to reflect feedback signals indicative of VWM storage elsewhere in the brain...
July 31, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821382/sex-linked-behavior-evolution-stability-and-variability
#5
REVIEW
Cordelia Fine, John Dupré, Daphna Joel
Common understanding of human sex-linked behaviors is that proximal mechanisms of genetic and hormonal sex, ultimately shaped by the differential reproductive challenges of ancestral males and females, act on the brain to transfer sex-linked predispositions across generations. Here, we extend the debate on the role of nature and nurture in the development of traits in the lifetime of an individual, to their role in the cross-generation transfer of traits. Advances in evolutionary theory that posit the environment as a source of trans-generational stability, and new understanding of sex effects on the brain, suggest that the cross-generation stability of sex-linked patterns of behavior are sometimes better explained in terms of inherited socioenvironmental conditions, with biological sex fostering intrageneration variability...
July 29, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754595/mapping-the-consequences-of-impaired-synaptic-plasticity-in-schizophrenia-through-development-an-integrative-model-for-diverse-clinical-features
#6
REVIEW
Jennifer K Forsyth, David A Lewis
Schizophrenia is associated with alterations in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions that emerge before psychosis onset; identifying pathogenic processes that can account for this multi-faceted phenotype remains a challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity is impaired in schizophrenia. Given the role of synaptic plasticity in learning, memory, and neural circuit maturation, impaired plasticity may underlie many features of the schizophrenia syndrome. Here, we summarize the neurobiology of synaptic plasticity, review evidence that plasticity is impaired in schizophrenia, and explore a framework in which impaired synaptic plasticity interacts with brain maturation to yield the emergence of sensory, motor, cognitive, and psychotic features at different times during development in schizophrenia...
July 25, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735708/brain-and-social-networks-fundamental-building-blocks-of-human-experience
#7
REVIEW
Emily B Falk, Danielle S Bassett
How do brains shape social networks, and how do social ties shape the brain? Social networks are complex webs by which ideas spread among people. Brains comprise webs by which information is processed and transmitted among neural units. While brain activity and structure offer biological mechanisms for human behaviors, social networks offer external inducers or modulators of those behaviors. Together, these two axes represent fundamental contributors to human experience. Integrating foundational knowledge from social and developmental psychology and sociology on how individuals function within dyads, groups, and societies with recent advances in network neuroscience can offer new insights into both domains...
July 20, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735707/do-intelligent-robots-need-emotion
#8
Luiz Pessoa
What is the place of emotion in intelligent robots? Researchers have advocated the inclusion of some emotion-related components in the information-processing architecture of autonomous agents. It is argued here that emotion needs to be merged with all aspects of the architecture: cognitive-emotional integration should be a key design principle.
July 20, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729068/submentalizing-cannot-explain-belief-based-action-anticipation-in-apes
#9
LETTER
Fumihiro Kano, Christopher Krupenye, Satoshi Hirata, Josep Call, Michael Tomasello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711322/intuitive-physics-current-research-and-controversies
#10
REVIEW
James R Kubricht, Keith J Holyoak, Hongjing Lu
Early research in the field of intuitive physics provided extensive evidence that humans succumb to common misconceptions and biases when predicting, judging, and explaining activity in the physical world. Recent work has demonstrated that, across a diverse range of situations, some biases can be explained by the application of normative physical principles to noisy perceptual inputs. However, it remains unclear how knowledge of physical principles is learned, represented, and applied to novel situations. In this review we discuss theoretical advances from heuristic models to knowledge-based, probabilistic simulation models, as well as recent deep-learning models...
July 12, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821381/evidence-from-blindness-for-a-cognitively-pluripotent-cortex
#11
REVIEW
Marina Bedny
Cognitive neuroscience seeks to discover how cognitive functions are implemented in neural circuits. Studies of plasticity in blindness suggest that this mind-brain mapping is highly flexible during development. In blindness, 'visual' cortices take on higher-cognitive functions, including language and mathematics, becoming sensitive to the grammatical structure of spoken sentences and the difficulty of math equations. Visual cortex activity at rest becomes synchronized with higher-cognitive networks. Such repurposing is striking in light of the cognitive and evolutionary differences between vision, language, and mathematics...
July 8, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693961/agency-and-the-calibration-of-motivated-behavior
#12
REVIEW
Justin M Moscarello, Catherine A Hartley
The controllability of positive or negative environmental events has long been recognized as a critical factor determining their impact on an organism. In studies across species, controllable and uncontrollable reinforcement have been found to yield divergent effects on subsequent behavior. Here we present a model of the organizing influence of control, or a lack thereof, on the behavioral repertoire. We propose that individuals derive a generalizable estimate of agency from controllable and uncontrollable outcomes, which serves to calibrate their behavioral strategies in a manner that is most likely to be adaptive given their prior experience...
July 7, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690078/continuous-flash-suppression-stimulus-fractionation-rather-than-integration
#13
Pieter Moors, Guido Hesselmann, Johan Wagemans, Raymond van Ee
Recent studies using continuous flash suppression suggest that invisible stimuli are processed as integrated, semantic entities. We challenge the viability of this account, given recent findings on the neural basis of interocular suppression and replication failures of high-profile CFS studies. We conclude that CFS reveals stimulus fractionation in visual cortex.
July 6, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676283/chinese-versus-english-insights-on-cognition-during-reading
#14
Lili Yu, Erik D Reichle
Chinese reading experiments have introduced important caveats to theories of reading that have been largely informed by studies of English reading - especially in relation to our understanding of lexical processing and eye-movement control. This article provides a brief primer on Chinese reading and examples of questions that arise from its study.
July 1, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668210/associative-learning-should-go-deep
#15
Esther Mondragón, Eduardo Alonso, Niklas Kokkola
Conditioning, how animals learn to associate two or more events, is one of the most influential paradigms in learning theory. It is nevertheless unclear how current models of associative learning can accommodate complex phenomena without ad hoc representational assumptions. We propose to embrace deep neural networks to negotiate this problem.
June 28, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655498/mind-games-game-engines-as-an-architecture-for-intuitive-physics
#16
REVIEW
Tomer D Ullman, Elizabeth Spelke, Peter Battaglia, Joshua B Tenenbaum
We explore the hypothesis that many intuitive physical inferences are based on a mental physics engine that is analogous in many ways to the machine physics engines used in building interactive video games. We describe the key features of game physics engines and their parallels in human mental representation, focusing especially on the intuitive physics of young infants where the hypothesis helps to unify many classic and otherwise puzzling phenomena, and may provide the basis for a computational account of how the physical knowledge of infants develops...
June 24, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625355/meta-reasoning-monitoring-and-control-of-thinking-and-reasoning
#17
REVIEW
Rakefet Ackerman, Valerie A Thompson
Meta-Reasoning refers to the processes that monitor the progress of our reasoning and problem-solving activities and regulate the time and effort devoted to them. Monitoring processes are usually experienced as feelings of certainty or uncertainty about how well a process has, or will, unfold. These feelings are based on heuristic cues, which are not necessarily reliable. Nevertheless, we rely on these feelings of (un)certainty to regulate our mental effort. Most metacognitive research has focused on memorization and knowledge retrieval, with little attention paid to more complex processes, such as reasoning and problem solving...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625354/foraging-cognition-reviving-the-ecological-intelligence-hypothesis
#18
REVIEW
Alexandra G Rosati
What are the origins of intelligent behavior? The demands associated with living in complex social groups have been the favored explanation for the evolution of primate cognition in general and human cognition in particular. However, recent comparative research indicates that ecological variation can also shape cognitive abilities. I synthesize the emerging evidence that 'foraging cognition' - skills used to exploit food resources, including spatial memory, decision-making, and inhibitory control - varies adaptively across primates...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625353/a-closer-look-at-the-hippocampus-and-memory
#19
REVIEW
Joel L Voss, Donna J Bridge, Neal J Cohen, John A Walker
Current interpretations of hippocampal memory function are blind to the fact that viewing behaviors are pervasive and complicate the relationships among perception, behavior, memory, and brain activity. For example, hippocampal activity and associative memory demands increase with stimulus complexity. Stimulus complexity also strongly modulates viewing. Associative processing and viewing thus are often confounded, rendering interpretation of hippocampal activity ambiguous. Similar considerations challenge many accounts of hippocampal function...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619240/what-is-language-and-how-could-it-have-evolved
#20
LETTER
Martin B H Everaert, Marinus A C Huybregts, Robert C Berwick, Noam Chomsky, Ian Tattersall, Andrea Moro, Johan J Bolhuis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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