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Trends in Cognitive Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214132/language-evolution-a-changing-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Michael C Corballis
From ancient times, religion and philosophy have regarded language as a faculty bestowed uniquely and suddenly on our own species, primarily as a mode of thought with communication as a byproduct. This view persists among some scientists and linguists and is counter to the theory of evolution, which implies that the evolution of complex structures is incremental. I argue here that language derives from mental processes with gradual evolutionary trajectories, including the generative capacities to travel mentally in time and space and into the minds of others...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214131/social-decision-making-and-the-brain-a-comparative-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Sébastien Tremblay, K M Sharika, Michael L Platt
The capacity and motivation to be social is a key component of the human adaptive behavioral repertoire. Recent research has identified social behaviors remarkably similar to our own in other animals, including empathy, consolation, cooperation, and strategic deception. Moreover, neurobiological studies in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents have identified shared brain structures (the so-called 'social brain') apparently specialized to mediate such functions. Neuromodulators may regulate social interactions by 'tuning' the social brain, with important implications for treating social impairments...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214130/stability-of-sensory-topographies-in-adult-cortex
#3
REVIEW
Tamar R Makin, Sliman J Bensmaia
Textbooks teach us that the removal of sensory input to sensory cortex, for example, following arm amputation, results in massive reorganisation in the adult brain. In this opinion article, we critically examine evidence for functional reorganisation of sensory cortical representations, focusing on the sequelae of arm amputation on somatosensory topographies. Based on literature from human and non-human primates, we conclude that the cortical representation of the limb remains remarkably stable despite the loss of its main peripheral input...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173998/emotion-perception-from-face-voice-and-touch-comparisons-and-convergence
#4
REVIEW
Annett Schirmer, Ralph Adolphs
Historically, research on emotion perception has focused on facial expressions, and findings from this modality have come to dominate our thinking about other modalities. Here we examine emotion perception through a wider lens by comparing facial with vocal and tactile processing. We review stimulus characteristics and ensuing behavioral and brain responses and show that audition and touch do not simply duplicate visual mechanisms. Each modality provides a distinct input channel and engages partly nonoverlapping neuroanatomical systems with different processing specializations (e...
February 4, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173997/social-learning-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#5
Matthew A J Apps, Jérôme Sallet
The ACC, and neighbouring areas, are among the most controversial and investigated brain areas in cognitive neuroscience. Despite the wealth of studies, there has been a significant absence of studies recording from the gyrus of the ACC (ACCg). In their recent study Hill and colleagues provide a rare examination of the properties of the ACCg. We highlight the emerging role of this region in signalling the key computations that drive social learning processes.
February 4, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161289/climbing-brain-levels-of-organisation-from-genes-to-consciousness
#6
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Changeux
Given the tremendous complexity of brain organisation, here I propose a strategy that dynamically links stages of brain organisation from genes to consciousness, at four privileged structural levels: genes; transcription factors (TFs)-gene networks; synaptic epigenesis; and long-range connectivity. These structures are viewed as nested and reciprocally inter-regulated, with a hierarchical organisation that proceeds on different timescales during the course of evolution and development. Interlevel bridging mechanisms include intrinsic variation-selection mechanisms, which offer a community of bottom-up and top-down models linking genes to consciousness in a stepwise manner...
February 1, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161288/the-depressed-brain-an-evolutionary-systems-theory
#7
REVIEW
Paul B Badcock, Christopher G Davey, Sarah Whittle, Nicholas B Allen, Karl J Friston
Major depression is a debilitating condition characterised by diverse neurocognitive and behavioural deficits. Nevertheless, our species-typical capacity for depressed mood implies that it serves an adaptive function. Here we apply an interdisciplinary theory of brain function to explain depressed mood and its clinical manifestations. Combining insights from the free-energy principle (FEP) with evolutionary theorising in psychology, we argue that depression reflects an adaptive response to perceived threats of aversive social outcomes (e...
February 1, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159355/neural-perspectives-on-cognitive-control-development-during-childhood-and-adolescence
#8
REVIEW
Eveline A Crone, Nikolaus Steinbeis
Since the discovery that patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) show similar deficits in cognitive control as young children, the PFC model of cognitive control development has been a popular description of how cognitive control emerges over time. In this review, we show that not only do many studies support this model, but also that more specific models of PFC development can be formulated, according to the functional roles of subregions and by taking into account the distinctions within ventral-dorsal and lateral-medial PFC...
January 31, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159354/working-memory-maintenance-sustained-firing-or-synaptic-mechanisms
#9
Juha Silvanto
According to conventional views, holding information in working memory (WM) involves elevated and persistent neuronal firing. This has been challenged by models in which WM maintenance is implemented by activity-silent synaptic mechanisms. A new study suggests that both have a role, consistent with cognitive models positing several states of WM. However, do these states reflect the operation of attention or awareness?
January 31, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063663/why-good-is-more-alike-than-bad-processing-implications
#10
REVIEW
Hans Alves, Alex Koch, Christian Unkelbach
Humans process positive information and negative information differently. These valence asymmetries in processing are often summarized under the observation that 'bad is stronger than good', meaning that negative information has stronger psychological impact (e.g., in feedback, learning, or social interactions). This stronger impact is usually attributed to people's affective or motivational reactions to evaluative information. We present an alternative interpretation of valence asymmetries based on the observation that positive information is more similar than negative information...
January 4, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063662/brain-oscillations-and-the-importance-of-waveform-shape
#11
REVIEW
Scott R Cole, Bradley Voytek
Oscillations are a prevalent feature of brain recordings. They are believed to play key roles in neural communication and computation. Current analysis methods for studying neural oscillations often implicitly assume that the oscillations are sinusoidal. While these approaches have proven fruitful, we show here that there are numerous instances in which neural oscillations are nonsinusoidal. We highlight approaches to characterize nonsinusoidal features and account for them in traditional spectral analysis...
January 4, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027909/how-do-we-keep-information-online
#12
David Soto
New magnetoencephalography (MEG) results indicate that a putative marker of conscious processes - namely, the global broadcasting of information across large-scale cortical networks - can also operate during the maintenance of non-conscious input. I discuss the implications for the theoretical linkage between conscious awareness and working memory functions.
December 24, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108280/cognition-in-the-modern-era
#13
EDITORIAL
Rebecca F Schwarzlose
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025006/empathy-schmempathy-response-to-zaki
#14
LETTER
Paul Bloom
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007482/gradients-of-connectivity-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#15
Fenna M Krienen, Chet C Sherwood
The human neocortex is organized with distributed networks that connect distant regions together, but what determines their spatial layout? A recent study sheds light on the topological placement of regions along the cortical surface in relation to gradients of connectivity in both humans and macaques.
December 19, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107838/emojis-insights-affordances-and-possibilities-for-psychological-science
#16
Linda K Kaye, Stephanie A Malone, Helen J Wall
We live in a digital society that provides a range of opportunities for virtual interaction. Consequently, emojis have become popular for clarifying online communication. This presents an exciting opportunity for psychologists, as these prolific online behaviours can be used to help reveal something unique about contemporary human behaviour.
February 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107837/cognition-in-the-modern-era
#17
EDITORIAL
Rebecca F Schwarzlose
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089524/how-oral-contraceptives-impact-social-emotional-behavior-and-brain-function
#18
REVIEW
Estrella R Montoya, Peter A Bos
Millions of women worldwide use oral contraceptives ('the pill'; OCs), often starting at a pubertal age when their brains are in a crucial developmental stage. Research into the social-emotional effects of OCs is of utmost importance. In this review, we provide an overview of studies that have emerged over the past decade investigating how OCs, and their main ingredients estradiol (E) and progesterone (P), influence social-emotional behaviors and underlying brain functions. Based on this overview, we present a heuristic model that postulates that OCs modulate core social-emotional behaviors and brain systems...
February 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063661/the-distributed-nature-of-working-memory
#19
REVIEW
Thomas B Christophel, P Christiaan Klink, Bernhard Spitzer, Pieter R Roelfsema, John-Dylan Haynes
Studies in humans and non-human primates have provided evidence for storage of working memory contents in multiple regions ranging from sensory to parietal and prefrontal cortex. We discuss potential explanations for these distributed representations: (i) features in sensory regions versus prefrontal cortex differ in the level of abstractness and generalizability; and (ii) features in prefrontal cortex reflect representations that are transformed for guidance of upcoming behavioral actions. We propose that the propensity to produce persistent activity is a general feature of cortical networks...
February 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041836/the-neurobiology-of-human-attachments
#20
REVIEW
Ruth Feldman
Attachment bonds are a defining feature of mammals. A conceptual framework on human attachments is presented, integrating insights from animal research with neuroimaging studies. Four mammalian bonds are described, including parent-infant, pair-bonds, peers, and conspecifics, all built upon systems shaped by maternal provisions during sensitive periods, and evolution from rodents to humans is detailed. Bonding is underpinned by crosstalk of oxytocin and dopamine in striatum, combining motivation and vigor with social focus, and their time sensitivity/pulsatility enables reorganization of neural networks...
February 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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