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Parasitology International

Rie Kubota, Katsuki Matsubara, Kenichi Tamukai, Kazunori Ike, Toshihiro Tokiwa
Long-tailed chinchillas Chinchilla lanigera are a popular rodent species kept both in households, where they are hand-raised as pets, and in zoological facilities. From January 2016 to February 2017, 13 juvenile chinchillas from five facilities in Japan were diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis at the animal hospital. Eight of the cases were fatal. All of the animals were imported from the Czech Republic by the same vendor. Histopathological and multilocus sequence analyses using 18S ribosomal RNA, actin, 70-kDa heat shock protein, and 60-kDa glycoprotein genes confirmed Cryptosporidium ubiquitum of subtype XIId as the etiological agent...
September 18, 2018: Parasitology International
Boye Liu, Zhuqing Deng, Wei Huang, Lu Dong, Yanyun Zhang
Avian haemosporidian parasites are highly diverse, have a wide range of host specificity, and reveal diverse compatibility with regard to host range and geographical distribution. Therefore, understanding haemosporidian parasite diversity in different host species and different regions is crucial. A survey of the haemosporidian parasite in 186 Godlewski's buntings in Beijing was conducted to compare infection patterns between Godlewski's bunting, local passerines and the global avian host. High prevalence (88...
September 18, 2018: Parasitology International
Hudson Alves Pinto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2018: Parasitology International
Tetsuya Mitsunaga, Kazumi Norose, Fumie Aosai, Hiroshi Horie, Naomi Ohnuma, Akihiko Yano
Toxoplasma gondii is a common perorally transmitted parasite; however, its immunopathogenesis in gut-associated tissues remains unclear. Here, we compared disease manifestation in C57BL/6 immunocompetent wild type (WT) mice and immunocompromised interferon (IFN)-γ-deficient (GKO) mice after peroral infection (PI) with T. gondii cysts (Fukaya strain). Strong PI-induced Th1 cytokine production was detected in WT mice. Moreover, bradyzoite-specific T.g.HSP30/bag1 mRNA was detected in the ileum parenchyma and Peyer's patches (PP), but not in the mesenteric lymph nodes, at 7 days post-infection in WT mice, and was significantly higher than that in GKO mice...
September 3, 2018: Parasitology International
Moritoshi Iwagami, Noppadon Tangpukdee, Polrat Wilairatana, Srivicha Krudsood, Le Duc Dao, Shusuke Nakazawa, Muth Sinuon, Duong Socheat, Junko Yasuoka, Masamine Jimba, Hisami Watanabe, Jun Kobayashi, Hiromu Toma, Viengxay Vanisaveth, Bouasy Hongvanthong, Paul T Brey, Shigeyuki Kano
Malaria morbidity and mortality have decreased gradually in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Presently, WHO sets a goal to eliminate malaria by 2030 in the GMS. However, drug-resistant malaria has been reported from several endemic areas. To achieve the goal of elimination, the status of the emergence and spread of drug resistance should be monitored. In this study, the genotype of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) and 6 microsatellite DNA loci flanking the gene were examined...
December 2018: Parasitology International
Ai-Rada Pintong, Suparat Sunyanusin, Rapeepan Prasertbun, Aongart Mahittikorn, Hirotake Mori, Tanasak Changbunjong, Chalit Komalamisra, Yaowalark Sukthana, Supaluk Popruk
Blastocystis is a unicellular protist most commonly detected in humans and a variety of animals. The predominant mode of its transmission is the fecal-oral route, but its zoonotic potential is not completely understood. The objective of this study was to determine the presence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis on pig farms in Nakhon Pathom Province, Central Thailand. A total of 154 human and 90 pig stool samples were collected and analyzed. Nested PCR detected Blastocystis in 35.55% of the pig samples and 6...
December 2018: Parasitology International
David Nderu, Francis Kimani, Kelvin Thiong'o, Maureen Akinyi, Evaline Karanja, Christian G Meyer, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are valuable tools that support prudent and timely use of antimalarial drugs, particularly if reliable microscopy is not available. However, the performance and reliability of these tests vary between and within geographical regions. The present study evaluated the performance of routine malaria RDT in Kenyan febrile patients in Busia County, Kenya. A cross sectional study design was employed to recruit febrile patients attending health facilities between August and November 2016...
December 2018: Parasitology International
YuRong Yang, Hui Dong, RuiJing Su, YingHua Wang, RongHua Wang, YiBao Jiang, ZongXi Tong
Myocardium and diaphragm samples of cattle (n = 521) from HeNan Province (China) were screened for Sarcocystis sarcocysts by histological examination, pepsin digestion, and molecular assays. Morphology and molecular assays were used for identification. The prevalence of Sarcocystis infection in cattle was 41.5% (216/521). Histological examination identified sarcocysts in the myocardium (49.4%, 200/405) and diaphragm (13.8%, 16/116) of cattle. Two species were identified, namely S. cruzi (41.3%, 215/521) and S...
December 2018: Parasitology International
Sofi Imtiyaz Ali, B Gopalakrishnan, V Venkatesalu
Vector-borne diseases transmitted by mosquitoes cause globally important diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and filariasis. The incidence of these diseases can be reduced through mosquito control programs but these control programs currently rely on synthetic insecticides that can impact the environment, and has selected widespread mosquito resistance. Environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides discovered in plants offer an alternative approach to mosquito control. Here, we investigated extracts from root or aerial parts of Chicory (Cichorium intybus) and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) against the early 4th instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi (malaria vector), Aedes aegypti (dengue fever vector), and Culex quinquefasciatus (filariasis vector)...
December 2018: Parasitology International
Wanwipa Ittarat, Wichai Pornthanakasem, Mathirut Mungthin, Nantana Suwandittakul, Saovanee Leelayoova, Bongkoch Tarnchompoo, Yongyuth Yuthavong, Darin Kongkasuriyachai, Ubolsree Leartsakulpanich
Malaria caused by an infection of Plasmodium knowlesi can result in high parasitemia and deaths. Therefore, effective and prompt treatment is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality. The study aims to characterize P. knowlesi dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase enzyme (PkDHFR-TS) and its sensitivity to antifolates. The putative Pkdhfr gene was PCR amplified from field isolates collected from the Southern Thailand. Molecular analysis showed 11 polymorphisms in the dhfr domain of the bifunctional dhfr-ts gene...
December 2018: Parasitology International
Scott C Cutmore, Thomas H Cribb, Russell Q-Y Yong
Fishes of the elasmobranch superorder Batoidea and the basal teleost superorder Elopomorpha were assessed for blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) during a parasitological survey conducted in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. A new blood fluke genus and species, Ogawaia glaucostegi n. gen., n. sp., is described from the Giant shovelnose ray, Glaucostegus typus (Anonymous [Bennett]) (Rhinopristiformes: Glaucostegidae). Ogawaia glaucostegi differs from species of all other aporocotylid genera in the combination of the absence of anterior caeca and oral sucker, having a pronounced distal oesophageal chamber, a strongly coiled testis and a common genital pore...
December 2018: Parasitology International
Tatsunori Masatani, Ragab M Fereig, Konosuke Otomaru, Shingo Ishikawa, Isshu Kojima, Seiji Hobo, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
Cryptosporidium parvum and Neospora caninum are common parasites in domesticated cattle worldwide, including in Japan. We carried out a serological survey to detect C. parvum and N. caninum infection among cattle in the southern Kyushu region of Japan-including the small islands-by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on recombinant antigens. We found that total seropositivity in 570 Japanese black cattle was 96.3% for C. parvum and 18.4% for N. caninum. Although seroprevalence was correlated with cattle age, differences in the seroprevalence of C...
December 2018: Parasitology International
Michael J Andres, Eric E Pulis, Stephen S Curran, Robin M Overstreet
Megasolena mikra sp. nov. is described from the queen angelfish, Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus), off Florida, USA. The new species can be differentiated from all other species of Megasolena Linton, 1910 except Megasolena littoralis Muñoz, George-Nascimento, and Bray, 2017 in possessing testes that are smaller in diameter than the ovary. The new species can be differentiated from M. littoralis in lacking tegumental spines and possessing oral sucker papillae. Molecular data are provided for two species each of Cadenatella Dollfus, 1946, Hapladena Linton, 1910, and Megasolena Linton, 1910...
December 2018: Parasitology International
Doaa Naguib, Adel H El-Gohary, Amro A Mohamed, Dawn M Roellig, Nagah Arafat, Lihua Xiao
Little is known of the occurrence and age patterns of species/genotypes and subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in calves in Egypt. In this study, 248 fecal specimens were collected from dairy calves aged 1 day to 6 months on eight farms in three provinces during March 2015 to April 2016. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected and genotyped by using PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene, while G. duodenalis was detected and genotyped by using PCR and sequence analyses of the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and β-giardin (bg) genes...
December 2018: Parasitology International
Guoliang Xiao, Xinghuo Li, Hongyin Jiang, Zhanghua Peng, Wei Liu, Quqin Lu
Intestinal schistosomiasis caused by S. japonicum has long been a threat to the health of residents within endemic areas, especially along the mid-tier of the Yangtze River basin as well as the Dongting and Poyang lakes. Therefore, we collected monitoring data from 2005 to 2014 in Lushan City, Jiujiang City, Jiangxi Province, which is located downstream of Poyang Lake. We conducted a logistic regression analysis in 2005 and in 2008 and then conducted a time series analysis from 2005 to 2014 in Lushan city. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that after integrated measures were implemented in Lushan city in 2004, the infection rate of intestinal schistosomiasis decreased sharply in different populations, but fishermen had a greater risk of contracting intestinal schistosomiasis in both 2005 and 2008...
December 2018: Parasitology International
P Tůmová, L Mazánek, L Lecová, J Dluhošová, H Typovská, V Kotrašová, V Ticháčková, E Nohýnková
Here, we report a case of direct zoonotic transmission of giardiasis between a pet chinchilla and a human. Microscopic and molecular examinations of stool samples from a child and samples of chinchilla droppings revealed cysts/DNA of Giardia intestinalis. The transmission from the chinchilla to the child has been confirmed as coprophagous after the 1-year-old toddler ingested pet chinchilla droppings. Molecular analysis of the gdh gene from both hosts classified the G. intestinalis cysts into the assemblage B genetic group, which has been previously shown to be characteristic of both human and chinchilla giardiasis...
December 2018: Parasitology International
Daniel C Huston, Scott C Cutmore, Thomas H Cribb
A rich fauna of digenetic trematodes has been documented from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), yet little is known of the complex life-cycles of these parasites which occur in this diverse marine ecosystem. At Heron Island, a small coral cay at the southern end of the GBR, the intertidal marine gastropod Clypeomorus batillariaeformis Habe & Kusage (Cerithiidae) is especially abundant. This gastropod serves as an intermediate host for 12 trematode species utilising both fish and avian definitive hosts. However, 11 of these species have been characterised solely with morphological data...
December 2018: Parasitology International
Daniela Leles, Paula Cascardo, Elisa Pucu, Beatriz Brener, Adriana Sudré, Elizabeth Alves, Flávia Uchoa, Priscilla Fajardo, Patrícia Millar, Danuza Mattos, Márcia Chame, Castor Cartelle
The use of diagnostic methods that prevent irreplaceable samples (from museum collections, archaeological and paleontological samples) of being consumed or that increase their yield is relevant. For museum collections, archaeological and paleontological samples it is essential to conserve samples, subsamples or portions for future research. We are addressing methods for conservation of irreplaceable samples that could be fully consumed. Innovations in methodologies that are used in studies of Paleoparasitology and Paleomicrobiology will contribute to the preservation of collections...
December 2018: Parasitology International
Sara López-Osorio, Liliana M R Silva, Anja Taubert, Jenny J Chaparro-Gutiérrez, Carlos R Hermosilla
Eimeria zuernii and E. bovis are host-specific apicomplexan parasites of cattle causing haemorrhagic typhlocolitis in young animals worldwide. During first merogony, both Eimeria species form giant macromeronts (>300 μm) in host endothelial cells containing >120,000 merozoites I in vivo. During the massive intracellular replication of macromeronts, large amounts of cholesterol and fatty acids are indispensable for enormous merozoite I-derived membrane production. From a metabolic perspective, host endothelial cells might be of advantage to the parasite, as transcription of several genes involved in both, cholesterol de novo biosynthesis and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-mediated uptake, are up-regulated in Eimeria macromeront-carrying host endothelial cells...
December 2018: Parasitology International
Khadija Khan, Wajihullah Khan
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite which is known to infect one-third of the total world population chronically though it is asymptomatic in immunocompetent patients. However, in an immunocompromised patient or an infected fetus, it may cause devastating effects. The parasite may cross the placenta of an infected pregnant woman and probably infect the fetus congenitally. The severity of the infection depends on the gestational age at which the infection has occurred i.e., if it has occurred in the early phase, the rate of transmission is low but the severity is high if the fetus is infected and if it has occurred in the later phase then transmission rate is higher while the severity would be low...
December 2018: Parasitology International
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