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Parasitology International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435029/activity-of-carboxylesterases-glutathione-s-transferase-and-monooxygenase-on-rhipicephalus-microplus-exposed-to-fluazuron
#1
Fabrício Nascimento Gaudêncio, Guilherme Marcondes Klafke, Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves, Thaís Paes Ferreira, Cristiane Nunes Coelho, Adivaldo Henrique da Fonseca, Isabele da Costa Angelo, Jairo Pinheiro
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the exposure to fluazuron on the activity of common pesticide detoxification enzyme groups in the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus). Engorged females of a susceptible strain (POA) and a resistant strain (Jaguar) were exposed in vitro to fluazuron and their eggs and larvae were used to compare the activities of the general esterases, mixed-function oxidases (MFO) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The results showed significant elevation in MFO contents and esterases activity in the resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain, in eggs and larvae respectively...
April 20, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408356/possible-antifibrotic-effect-of-gdc-0449-vismodegib-a-hedgehog-pathway-inhibitor-in-mice-model-of-schistosoma-induced-liver-fibrosis
#2
Abeer A Elhenawy, Rehab H Ashour, Nairmen Nabih, Naglaa M Shalaby, Nirmeen Megahed
Liver fibrosis is a pathological process complicating schistosomiasis. It is an active process of continuous extracellular matrix accumulation. In Egypt, schistosomiasis re-infection is a continuing problem especially in rural areas. In this study we examined the antifibrotic effect of GDC-0449 (Vismodegib), a hedgehog-pathway inhibitor as a new molecular target for Schistosoma-induced liver fibrosis, in addition to exploring its effect as antischistosomal drug. The effect of GDC-0449 alone or combined with Praziquantel was tried experimentally in infected mice with Schistosoma mansoni...
April 10, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396295/molecular-characterization-of-fasciola-flukes-obtained-from-wild-sika-deer-and-domestic-cattle-in-hokkaido-japan
#3
Madoka Ichikawa-Seki, Tomoko Shiroma, Tatsuya Kariya, Ryo Nakao, Yuma Ohari, Kei Hayashi, Shinya Fukumoto
The number of wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) continues to increase in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. The major concern for the livestock industry is the transmission of pathogens between sika deer and cattle. Fasciolosis is an important disease that can occur in both animals. The aim of this study was to examine the possible mutual transmission of this disease in Hokkaido Prefecture. A total of 105 Fasciola flukes were obtained from sika deer and 96 from domestic cattle. The Fasciola flukes in Japan are reported to possess no mature sperm...
April 7, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389349/bifunctional-activity-of-fused-plasmodium-falciparum-orotate-phosphoribosyltransferase-and-orotidine-5-monophosphate-decarboxylase
#4
Patsarawadee Paojinda, Waranya Imprasittichai, Sudaratana R Krungkrai, Nirianne Marie Q Palacpac, Toshihiro Horii, Jerapan Krungkrai
Fusion of the last two enzymes in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in the inversed order by having a COOH-terminal orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and an NH2-terminal orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), as OMPDC-OPRT, are described in many organisms. Here, we produced gene fusions of Plasmodium falciparum OMPDC-OPRT and expressed the bifunctional protein in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using affinity and anion-exchange chromatography, exhibited enzymatic activities and functioned as a dimer...
April 4, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385590/characterization-and-expression-pattern-of-a-novel-frizzled-8-receptor-gene-in-schistosoma-japonicum
#5
Jingxiu Xu, Xingang Feng, Yingying Jia, Yang Hong, Hao Li, Ke Lu, Jiaojiao Lin, Chunxiu Yuan, Mingxin Song
Wnt signaling as mediated by the Frizzled family receptors plays a vital role in the early development of animal embryos, organ formation, tissue regeneration and other physiological processes. In the present study, a novel Frizzled member, SjFz8, was isolated and characterized in Schistosoma japonicum. SjFz8 encodes an 1162-amino-acid protein with typical characteristics of Frizzled proteins. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that SjFz8 transcript level was highest in 7-day-old schistosomula...
April 3, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385589/lymphocyte-responses-of-rats-vaccinated-with-cdna-encoding-a-phosphoglycerate-kinase-of-fasciola-hepatica-fhpgk-and-f-hepatica-infection
#6
Agnieszka Wesołowska, Anna Zawistowska-Deniziak, Luke J Norbury, Przemysław Wilkowski, Anna M Pyziel, Wojciech Zygner, Halina Wędrychowicz
Lymphocyte responses in the blood, peritoneal fluid and both mesenteric and hepatic lymph nodes of cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV vaccinated and/or Fasciola hepatica infected rats of both sexes were investigated to provide an insight into the immune responses that develop in different body compartments. The immune response that developed in cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV vaccinated females contributed to partial protection against F. hepatica infection (54% reduction in fluke recovery), while more liver flukes were found in the livers and bile ducts of cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV vaccinated male rats than in unvaccinated animals (increase of 13%)...
April 3, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377050/deciphering-the-effects-of-nelfinavir-and-lopinavir-on-epimastigote-forms-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#7
Leandro Stefano Sangenito, Arthur A de Guedes, Diego S Gonçalves, Sergio H Seabra, Claudia M d'Avila-Levy, André L S Santos, Marta H Branquinha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366788/identification-and-characterization-of-guanosine-5-monophosphate-reductase-of-trypanosoma-congolense-as-a-drug-target
#8
Albertus Eka Yudistira Sarwono, Keisuke Suganuma, Shinya Mitsuhashi, Tadashi Okada, Simon Peter Musinguzi, Kengo Shigetomi, Noboru Inoue, Makoto Ubukata
Trypanosoma congolense is one of the most prevalent pathogens which causes trypanosomosis in African animals, resulting in a significant economic loss. In its life cycle, T. congolense is incapable of synthesizing purine nucleotides via a de novo pathway, and thus relies on a salvage pathway to survive. In this study, we identified a gene from T. congolense, TcIL3000_5_1940, as a guanosine 5'-monophosphate reductase (GMPR), an enzyme that modulates the concentration of intracellular guanosine in the pathogen...
March 30, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359900/phylogenetic-position-of-the-genus-gonocerca-manter-1925-trematoda-hemiuroidea-based-on-partial-sequences-of-28s-rrna-gene-and-a-reconsideration-of-taxonomic-status-of-gonocercinae-skrjabin-et-guschanskaja-1955
#9
Sergey G Sokolov, Dmitry M Atopkin, Ilya I Gordeev, Marina B Shedko
Adult trematodes of the genus Gonocerca Manter, 1925, are parasites of marine fishes. Identification of the phylogenetic positions and a revision of the taxonomic status of the subfamily Gonocercinae Skrjabin et Guschanskaja, 1955 (Derogenidae) are the main purposes of this research article. Four Gonocerca species were used in the study, including the type-species G. phycidis Manter, 1925. Molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on partial sequences of 28S rRNA gene, revealed that Gonocerca spp. are phylogenetically distant from other hemiuroid trematodes, including Derogenes varicus (Müller, 1784), representative of the type-genus of the family Derogenidae...
March 27, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359899/il-33-st2-contributes-to-severe-symptoms-in-plasmodium-chabaudi-infected-balb-c-mice
#10
Takenori Seki, Kazushige Obata-Ninomiya, Rieko Shimogawara-Furushima, Toshio Arai, Nobuaki Akao, Tomoaki Hoshino, Nobuo Ohta
It has been reported that IL-33 contributes to potentiation of Th2 inflammatory diseases and protection against helminth infection. Increased plasma IL-33 levels have been observed in patients with severe falciparum malaria, however, the role of IL-33 in malaria remains unclear. Here we report that IL-33 enhances inflammatory responses in malaria infection. ST2-deficiency altered severity of inflammation in the liver and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6, and IL-13 that is a Th2 cytokine during Plasmodium chabaudi infection...
March 27, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351721/a-rapid-simple-and-sensitive-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-method-to-detect-anaplasma-bovis-in-sheep-and-goats-samples
#11
Jinhong Wang, Yan Zhang, Yanyan Cui, Yaqun Yan, Xiaoxing Wang, Rongjun Wang, Fuchun Jian, Longxian Zhang, Changshen Ning
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique has been widely used in detecting the nucleic acid of various pathogenic bacteria. In this study, a set of four LAMP primers was designed to specifically test Anaplasma bovis. The LAMP assay was performed at 62°C for 60min in a water bath. The specificity was confirmed by amplifying A. bovis isolate, while no cross reaction was observed with other five pathogens (Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Theileria luwenshuni, Babesia motasi and Schistosoma japonicum)...
March 25, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344154/characterization-of-toxoplasma-gondii-isolates-from-herds-of-sheep-in-southern-brazil-reveals-the-archetypal-type-ii-genotype-and-new-non-archetypal-genotypes
#12
Tatiana da Silva Ramos, Hilda Fátima de Jesus Pena, Alceu Gonçalves Dos Santos Junior, Laura Maria Jorge de Faria Santos, Beatris Gonzales Cademartori, Solange Oliveira, Solange Maria Gennari, Andréa da Silva Ramos Rocha, Nara Amélia da Rosa Farias
Recent studies have demonstrated that, in Brazil and South America, strains of Toxoplasma gondii are often genotypically and biologically different from those found in countries on other continents. The objective of this study was to genotypically characterize T. gondii isolates from naturally infected sheep in herds in the southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, by means of the polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Five T. gondii isolates obtained from sheep in five municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were used...
March 23, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344153/plant-hormone-cytokinins-control-cell-cycle-progression-and-plastid-replication-in-apicomplexan-parasites
#13
Syed Bilal Ahmad Andrabi, Michiru Tahara, Ryuma Matsubara, Tomoko Toyama, Hiroka Aonuma, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Makoto Suematsu, Kazuyuki Tanabe, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Kisaburo Nagamune
Cytokinins are plant hormones that are involved in regulation of cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cell and plastid development. Here, we show that the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium berghei, an opportunistic human pathogen and a rodent malaria agent, respectively, produce cytokinins via a biosynthetic pathway similar to that in plants. Cytokinins regulate the growth and cell cycle progression of T. gondii by mediating expression of the cyclin gene TgCYC4. A natural form of cytokinin, trans-zeatin (t-zeatin), upregulated expression of this cyclin, while a synthetic cytokinin, thidiazuron, downregulated its expression...
March 23, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336417/demonstrating-the-value-and-importance-of-combining-dna-barcodes-and-discriminant-morphological-characters-for-polystome-taxonomy-platyhelminthes-monogenea
#14
Laurent Héritier, Olivier Verneau, Kevin G Smith, Carina Coetzer, Louis H Du Preez
Polystomes are monogenean parasites that infest mainly semi aquatic vertebrates, such as amphibians and chelonians. Owing to the lack of discriminative morphological characters and because polystomes are considered to be strictly host- and site-specific, host identity is often used as an additional character for parasite identification. Recent genetic studies, however, show that polystomes infecting freshwater turtles in outdoor turtle enclosures and natural environments, are not strictly host-specific. Therefore, we proposed a new procedure for turtle polystome taxonomy based on the combination of Cytochrome c Oxydase I sequences and two discriminant morphological characters, namely the number of genital spines and the testis shape...
March 20, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288843/non-invasive-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-by-the-direct-boil-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-method-and-minion%C3%A2-nanopore-sequencing
#15
Kazuo Imai, Norihito Tarumoto, Kiyoko Amo, Makoto Takahashi, Naoya Sakamoto, Atsushi Kosaka, Yasuyuki Kato, Kei Mikita, Jun Sakai, Takashi Murakami, Yutaka Suzuki, Shigefumi Maesaki, Takuya Maeda
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is gaining attention as a public health problem. We present two cases of CL imported from Syria and Venezuela in Japan. We diagnosed them as CL non-invasively by the direct boil loop-mediated isothermal amplification method and an innovative sequencing method using the MinION™ sequencer. This report demonstrates that our procedure could be useful for the diagnosis of CL in both clinical and epidemiological settings.
March 11, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263882/two-new-species-of-elopicola-digenea-aporocotylidae-from-hawaiian-ladyfish-elops-hawaiensis-eastern-sea-and-atlantic-tarpon-megalops-atlanticus-gulf-of-mexico-with-a-comment-on-monophyly-of-elopomorph-blood-flukes
#16
Raphael Orélis-Ribeiro, Kenneth M Halanych, Binh T Dang, Micah D Bakenhaster, Cova R Arias, Stephen A Bullard
Elopicola bristowi sp. n. infects the blood vascular system of Hawaiian ladyfish, Elops hawaiensis, in the Eastern Sea. It differs from the only nominal congener Elopicola nolancribbi by the combination of having rows of ventrolateral tegumental spines, a proportionally long oesophagus, anterior caeca, vasa efferentia coalescing ventral to the posterodextral margin of the testis, a post-testicular metraterm, a dextral common genital pore lateral to the oötype, and genitalia that are enantiomorphic relative to those of E...
March 3, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263883/asymptomatic-plasmodium-malariae-infections-in-children-from-suburban-areas-of-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon
#17
Dongang Nana Rodrigue Roman, Ngono Ngane Annie Rosalie, Amit Kumar, Koanga Mogtomo Martin Luther, Vineeta Singh, Mouelle Sone Albert
The gold standard for malaria diagnosis is the microscopic examination of Giemsa stained thick blood smears though microscopy mostly may not detect the presence of Plasmodium species infections in asymptomatic samples. In the reported study, we used two diagnostic methods viz. the conventional microscopic examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to analyse the asymptomatic malaria samples. PCR assay amplifying 18S small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene of Plasmodium in 122 samples confirmed 68% of isolates as asymptomatic P...
March 2, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257952/in-vitro-immunomodulatory-effects-of-microemulsions-with-levamisole-delivery-systems-on-blood-phagocytes-interacting-with-giardia-lamblia
#18
Mara Rosa Gil Hernandes, Lucélia Campelo Albuquerque Moraes, Elton Brito Ribeiro, Danny Laura Gomes Fagundes, Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França, Eduardo Luzía França
BACKGROUND: Giardiasis is one of the main parasites that infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans, affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Antiparasitics administered to treat giardiasis are inefficient in 20% of the cases, usually because of parasite resistance and side effects. In this scenario, microemulsions are a promising pharmaceutical alternative as carriers of molecules with therapeutic action that stimulate the immune system...
February 28, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257951/gobioecetes-biwaensis-n-g-n-sp-monogenea-dactylogyridae-from-the-gills-of-a-freshwater-gobiid-fish-rhinogobius-sp-bw-takahashi-okazaki-2002-with-a-redescription-of-parancyrocephaloides-daicoci-yamaguti-1938
#19
Kazuo Ogawa, Naoki Itoh
A description is given of Gobioecetes biwaensis n. g., n. sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) on the gills of a freshwater gobiid fish, Rhinogobius sp. BW Takahashi & Okazaki, 2002 from Lake Biwa, Shiga Prefecture and Rhinogobius sp. from Sento Imperial Palace, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. This monogenean is most similar to Parancyrocephaloides rhinogobius Ling, 1973, proposed here as Gobioecetes rhinogobius n. comb., collected from the gills of Rhinogobius giurinus (Rutter, 1897) in Hupei Province, China, but can be differentiated from it in that ventral hamuli of G...
February 28, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257950/redescription-and-molecular-characterization-of-anoplocephala-manubriata-railliet-et-al-1914-cestoda-anoplocephalidae-from-a-sri-lankan-wild-elephant-elephas-maximus
#20
K U E Perera, Susiji Wickramasinghe, B V P Perera, K B A T Bandara, R P V J Rajapakse
The present work provides a detailed morphological and molecular description of Anoplocephala manubriata in elephants. Adult worms were recovered during an autopsy of a wild elephant in Elephant Transit Home, Udawalawe, Sri Lanka. Necropsy findings revealed a severe cestode infection in the small intestine. These tapeworms were tightly attached to the intestinal mucosae, resulted in hyperemic thickened intestinal mucosae, variable size irregular well-demarcated multifocal ulcerative regions sometimes covered with necrotic membranes and variable size, diffuse, well-demarcated raised nodular masses were evident in the small intestine...
February 28, 2017: Parasitology International
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