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Parasitology International

Dina M Abou Rayia, Abeer E Saad, Dalia S Ashour, Radwa M Oreiby
Benzimidazole drugs are used for treatment of trichinellosis, but they have a limited effect against encapsulated larval stages of Trichinella spiralis. Hence, there is a considerable interest in developing new anthelmintic drugs. Our aim is to investigate the possible effect of artemisinin on T. spiralis in in vitro and in vivo studies. T. spiralis worms were isolated from infected mice and transferred to 3 culture media; group I: with no drugs, group II: contained artemisinin and group III: contained mebendazole, then they were subjected to electron microscopic study...
November 25, 2016: Parasitology International
Fernando J R Magalhães, Müller Ribeiro-Andrade, Fátima M Souza, Carlos D F Lima Filho, Alexander Welker Biondo, Odilon Vidotto, Italmar Teodorico Navarro, Rinaldo A Mota
Little is known about toxoplasmosis in animals of the Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the total population of pet cats (n=348), dogs (n=320), pigs (n=27), equines (n=101), as well as a significant portion of the population of feral cats (n=247) of the Island by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 71.26%, 54.74%, 48.75%, 51.85% and 22.7%, of the pet and feral cats, dogs, pigs and equines, respectively, demonstrating a high prevalence of T...
November 25, 2016: Parasitology International
Banchob Sripa, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Thinnakorn Sangnikul
Opisthorchiasis caused by the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a major foodborne parasitic zoonotic disease in Thailand and neighboring Mekong countries. The infection is associated with several hepatobiliary diseases including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The rates of CCA in regions where the parasite is endemic are unprecedented. Extensive research on various aspects of opisthorchiasis has been conducted in recent decades. However, the current status of O. viverrini infection in the country is approaching 85% prevalence in certain endemic areas even after more than 30years of control programs in Thailand...
November 24, 2016: Parasitology International
Paula Ferreira Brasil, Júlia Araújo de Freitas, Anna Léa Silva Barreto, Camila Marques Adade, Leandro Figueira Reis de Sá, Pamella Constantino-Teles, Fabiano Travanca Toledo, Bruno A de Sousa, Augusto Cesar Gonçalves, Maria Teresa Villela Romanos, João V Comasseto, Alcindo A Dos Santos, Ana Claudia Tessis, Thais Souto-Padrón, Rosangela Maria A Soares, Antonio Ferreira-Pereira
Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi is one of the agents that cause visceral leishmaniasis. This disease occurs more frequently in third world countries, such as Brazil. The treatment is arduous, and is dependent on just a few drugs like the antimonial derivatives and amphotericin B. Moreover, these drugs are not only expensive, but they can also cause severe side effects and require long-term treatment. Therefore, it is very important to find new compounds that are effective against leishmaniasis. In the present work we evaluated a new group of synthetic amides against the promastigote and amastigote forms of L...
November 22, 2016: Parasitology International
Victor Hugo Borba Nunes, Josep Antoni Alcover, Valmir Laurentino Silva, Paula Borba Cruz, José Roberto Machado-Silva, Adauto José Gonçalves de Araújo
Myotragus balearicus (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) is an extinct caprine endemic of the Eastern Balearic Islands or Gymnesics (i.e., Mallorca, Menorca and surrounding islets, Western Mediterranean Sea). In spite of its small size, c. 50cm height at the shoulder, it was the largest mammal inhabiting these islands until the human arrival, and it had peculiar short legs and frontal vision. It disappeared between 2830 and 2210calBCE. The coprolites here studied were recovered from Cova Estreta, in Pollença, Mallorca...
November 18, 2016: Parasitology International
Martín García-Varela, Jesús S Henández-Orts, Carlos D Pinacho-Pinacho
Pseudocorynosoma tepehuanesi n. sp., is described from the intestine of the ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis Gmelin, 1789 from single locality from northern Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished morphologically from the other five described species of Pseudocorynosoma from the Americas (P. constrictum, type species, P. peposacae, P. anatarium, P. enrietti and P. iheringi) associated with waterfowl species by possessing a proboscis with 15 longitudinal rows with 7-8 hooks each, a trunk expanded anteriorly and by having smaller lemniscus...
November 16, 2016: Parasitology International
Nicholas Q-X Wee, Thomas H Cribb, Rodney A Bray, Scott C Cutmore
Species of Proctoeces Odhner, 1911 (Trematoda: Fellodistomidae) have been reported from a wide range of marine animals globally. Members of the genus tend to lack strongly distinguishing morphological features for diagnosis, making identification difficult and the true number of species in the genus contentious. Combined morphological and molecular analyses were used to characterise three species of Proctoeces from Moreton Bay and the southern Great Barrier Reef. Data for two ribosomal regions and one mitochondrial region were generated for specimens collected from Australia...
November 15, 2016: Parasitology International
Eun-Min Kim, Hak Sun Yu, Yan Jin, Min-Ho Choi, Young Mee Bae, Sung-Tae Hong
Although Clonorchis sinensis lives in the bile duct, few studies have investigated the local immune response in the liver and bile duct. To investigate the local immune response to C. sinensis, we investigated the activation and recruitment of various immune cells and cytokine levels in the liver and bile duct lymph nodes (BLN) in FVB mice after primary infection and re-infection. Male 4-week-old FVB mice were divided into 6 experimental groups: uninfected controls, primary infection lasting 1week (PI 1w), primary infection lasting 4weeks (PI 4w), praziquantel treatment after PI 4w (Tx), re-infection lasting 1week after Tx (RI 1w), and re-infection lasting 4weeks after Tx (RI 4w)...
November 14, 2016: Parasitology International
Ran He, Nengxing Shen, Hai Lin, Xiaobin Gu, Weimin Lai, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
Scabies, caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, is a highly contagious parasitic disease that affects millions of people and other mammals worldwide. Calmodulin (CaM) is an important calcium sensor that participates in various critical physiological processes. In this study, the CaM of Sarcoptes scabiei (SsCaM) was cloned and expressed, and sequence analyses were performed using bioinformatics tools. Recombinant SsCaM (rSsCaM) was used to detect antigenicity using immunoblotting assays, and the serodiagnostic potential of rSsCaM was assessed by indirect enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA)...
November 10, 2016: Parasitology International
Zouhour El Mouna Ayadi, Delphine Gey, Jean-Lou Justine, Fadila Tazerouti
We collected specimens of Microcotyle spp. from two species of scorpaeniform fishes off Algeria, namely Scorpaena notata and Helicolenus dactylopterus. The identification of both fishes was confirmed by molecular barcoding of the COI gene. Sequences of COI gene were also obtained for both parasite species. The species from S. notata is described as Microcotyle algeriensis n. sp., on the basis of morphological differences from other species (number of clamps, number of spines in genital atrium, number of testes)...
November 10, 2016: Parasitology International
Hideo Hasegawa, Miho Shigyo, Yuka Yanai, Matthew R McLennan, Shiho Fujita, Patrice Makouloutou, Sayaka Tsuchida, Chieko Ando, Hiroshi Sato, Michael A Huffman
Species composition of Necator hookworms was surveyed in (i) Ugandan chimpanzees living around farms and villages at Bulindi, (ii) Gabonese gorillas under habituation in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park (MDNP), and (iii) Gabonese villagers living adjacent to MDNP. Internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of rDNA and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) gene of mtDNA were analyzed from larvae obtained by coproculture. Three ITS types (I, II and III) and three Cox1 haplotype groups (A, B and C) were demonstrated...
November 10, 2016: Parasitology International
P G Shumenko, Y V Tatonova, V V Besprozvannykh
The trematode from the Russian Southern Far East, earlier defined as M. yokogawai Katsuradai, 1912, was determined as a representative of the new species Metagonimus suifunensis sp. n. The life cycle of this trematode was experimentally studied and morphometric data for the cercariae, metacercariae and adult worm stages were obtained. The molecular data for samples from six Russian localities were received using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and 28S gene nuclear ribosomal DNA. The results revealed that M. suifunensis sp...
November 9, 2016: Parasitology International
Kazuo Ogawa, Sho Shirakashi, Kazuki Tani, Sang Phil Shin, Katsuya Ishimaru, Tomoki Honryo, Yukitaka Sugihara, Hiro'omi Uchida
Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan...
November 8, 2016: Parasitology International
Neelagiri Soumya, Mitesh N Panara, Kishore Babu Neerupudi, Sushma Singh
Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease is endemic in 98 countries and >350 million people are at risk of getting the infection. The existing chemotherapy of Leishmaniasis is limited due to adverse effects, resistance to existing drugs and increasing cases of HIV-Leishmaniasis co-infection. Hence, there is a need to identify novel metabolic pathways for design of new chemical entities. Acetyl-CoA synthetase (AceCS) is an enzyme of acetate metabolic pathway whose functions are unknown in Leishmania parasite...
November 5, 2016: Parasitology International
Suganya Yongkiettrakul, Jantana Kampeera, Wanwisa Chareanchim, Roonglawan Rattanajak, Wichai Pornthanakasem, Wansika Kiatpathomchai, Darin Kongkasuriyachai
The significant strides made in reducing global malaria burden over the past decades are being threatened by the emergence of multi-drug resistant malaria. Mechanisms of resistance to several classes of antimalarial drugs have been linked to key mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum genes. Pyrimethamine targets the dihydrofolate reductase of the bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS), and specific point mutations in the dhfr-ts gene have been assigned to resistant phenotypes. Several molecular methods are available to detect the mutant genotypes including DNA sequencing and PCR-based methods...
November 2, 2016: Parasitology International
Hadi Mirahmadi, Alireza Maleki, Raheleh Hasanzadeh, Mohammad Bagher Ahoo, Iraj Mobedi, Ali Rostami
This report describes a rare case of ophthalmic dirofilariasis in a 2-year-old boy with redness, irritation, pain and foreign body sensation in the right eye. Slit lamp examination demonstrated a thread-like whitish nematode in the anterior chamber of the right eye that twisted around itself. The nematode worm (35mm long and 150-200μm width) was removed surgically. The presence of the smooth cuticular surface without longitudinal ridges and the vulva showed that it could be a female Diroflariaimmitis. PCR amplification was done to verify the Diroflaria species...
November 1, 2016: Parasitology International
Adrian P Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee D Ybañez, MaxFrancis G Talle, Mingming Liu, Paul Franck Adjou Moumouni, Xuenan Xuan
Babesia canis vogeli is a tick-borne protozoan pathogen infecting erythrocytes. In Southeast Asia, this pathogen has only been reported in Thailand. In this study, 9 dogs presented at 3 different veterinary clinics in Cebu City, Philippines were found positive for B. canis vogeli. DNAs from blood samples were extracted at the University of Philippines Cebu, Philippines and were tested using the Babesia genus screening PCR and B. canis vogeli-specific PCRs (based on the 18S rRNA gene). Common findings of the infected dogs include paleness of mucous membranes, inappetence, lethargy, tick infestation, anemia and thrombocytopenia...
November 1, 2016: Parasitology International
Meng Qi, Bo Jing, Fuchun Jian, Rongjun Wang, Sumei Zhang, Haiyan Wang, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common microsporidia species in humans and has a variety of animal hosts. To assess the prevalence and molecular characteristics of E. bieneusi in dairy calves in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China, 514 fecal samples were collected from 15 farms and examined by polymerase chain reaction based on the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal RNA gene of E. bieneusi. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in calves was 16.5% (85/514). No significant difference in prevalence was observed between pre- and post-weaned calves...
October 26, 2016: Parasitology International
Eline Rouault, Hervé Lecoeur, Asma Ben Meriem, Paola Minoprio, Sophie Goyard, Thierry Lang
Characterizing the clinical, immunological and parasitological features associated with visceral leishmaniasis is complex. It involves recording in real time and integrating quantitative multi-parametric data sets from parasite infected host tissues. Although several models have been used, hamsters are considered the bona fide experimental model for Leishmania donovani studies. To study visceral leishmaniasis in hamsters we generated virulent transgenic L. donovani that stably express a reporter luciferase protein...
October 26, 2016: Parasitology International
Reza Nabie, Adel Spotin, Soheila Rouhani
A rare case of human subconjunctival setariasis due to Setaria equina infection is reported herein. A 15-years old girl was referred with a 24h history of edema and redness in her left eye. On slit lamp examination, a thread-like cylindrical worm was moving in the subconjunctival area. The worm was extracted, stained and measured 110mm in length 510μm in width. The isolated worm was identified as adult female S. equina based on morphometric criteria. Identification of the species of the worm was confirmed using molecular methods...
October 26, 2016: Parasitology International
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