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Parasitology International

Aya Masuda, Toshiaki Sumiyoshi, Tadatoshi Ohtaki, Jun Matsumoto
Blastocystis is an intestinal protist, commonly found in the human population and in a wide range of animals globally. Currently, isolates from mammalian and avian hosts are classified into 17 subtypes (STs) based on phylogeny of the small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA), of which ten (ST1-9, 12) are reported in humans. ST10 is a major ST reported from livestock cattle. However, other STs including ST1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, which have the potential to be transmitted to humans, are also reported from cattle in several countries...
July 12, 2018: Parasitology International
Petr Heneberg, Jiljí Sitko, Miroslav Těšínský, Izabella Rząd, Jiří Bizos
Strigeidae Railliet, 1919 are digenean parasites of birds and mammals that are characteristic by their cup-shaped forebody and bilobed holdfast organ. Despite that the family is taxonomically unsettled, particularly due to a very limited number of visible autapomorphic identification features, molecular phylogenetics have never been applied to analyze the relationships among European members of Strigeidae except for the genus Ichthyocotylurus. Here, we analyze the Strigeidae found during the examination of Czech birds performed from 1962 to 2017, and we provide comparative measurements and host spectra, including prevalence and intensity; we also provide and analyze sequences of four DNA loci of 12 of the Strigeidae species...
July 9, 2018: Parasitology International
Natalia Rodríguez-Valero, Daniel Camprubí, Elena García-Guijarro, Jara Llenas-García, Izaskun Alejo-Cancho, Pau Cisteró, Alfredo Mayor, José Muñoz, Himanshu Gupta
An expatriate to Ivory Coast (supposedly allergic to artemether-lumefantrine) was diagnosed with severe malaria in Spain. Parasitemia increased from 2% up to 21% within 24 h under quinine (10 mg/kg) and clindamycin (450 mg/8 h) combination treatment. Molecular profiling of the patient revealed the presence of molecular markers of quinine and other antimalarials resistance. Additionally, multiple copies of pfpm2 gene were also noticed in the patient sample, despite the absence of piperaquine drug pressure in Ivory Coast...
July 7, 2018: Parasitology International
Shola David Ola-Fadunsin, Fufa Ido Gimba, Donea Abdurazak Abdullah, Reuben Sunil Kumar Sharma, Faez Jesse Firdaus Abdullah, Rehana Abdullah Sani
Bovine anaplasmosis is a major concern to cattle farming in most parts of the world. Anaplasmosis negatively impacts the profitability of cattle farming by reducing the production, reproduction, and draft ability of cattle. Here, we report results from a one-year cross sectional study to determine the epidemiology and the risk factors for Anaplasma marginale infection of cattle in Peninsular Malaysia. Examination of one thousand and forty five blood samples of apparently healthy cattle from forty-three farms in all the states of Peninsular Malaysia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay revealed an overall prevalence of A...
June 27, 2018: Parasitology International
Huanping Guo, Chunsheng Yin, Eloiza May Galon, Jige Du, Yang Gao, Paul Franck Adjou Moumouni, Mingming Liu, Artemis Efstratiou, Seung-Hun Lee, Jixu Li, Aaron Edmond Ringo, Guanbo Wang, Yongchang Li, Maria Agnes Tumwebaze, Xuenan Xuan
Theileriosis and ehrlichiosis are two important tick-borne diseases affecting cattle farming in China. However, limited information is available regarding prevalence and molecular characterization of Theileria annulata and Ehrlichia ruminantium in cattle in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), northwestern China. In this study, a total of 176 blood samples of cattle from three rural areas of XUAR were collected in June 2017 and were tested by nested-PCR. A total of 34 (19.3%) samples were found to be infected with one or two pathogens...
June 26, 2018: Parasitology International
Hanan H Abdelbaky, Ragab M Fereig, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
Dense granule protein 7 (NcGRA7) is a potent diagnostic antigen of Neospora caninum. Some studies have reported on the difficult expression, low yield, and variable degree of solubility of recombinant NcGRA7. We aimed to unravel the possible causes for these issues and tested NcGRA7 antigenicity in enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The NcGRA7 coding sequence (217 amino acids) was split into five amino acid regions: NcGRA7m (27-217), NcGRA7m3 (27-160), NcGRA7m4 (27-135), NcGRA7m5 (161-190), and NcGRA7m6 (188-217)...
June 26, 2018: Parasitology International
Masato Nitta, Kazuya Nagasawa
Gyrodactylus medaka n. sp. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) is described from the skin, fins, and gills of medaka Oryzias latipes (Beloniformes: Adrianichthyidae) from Japan. This new species was collected from wild medaka in Hiroshima, Aichi, Saga, and Kumamoto prefectures, and laboratory-reared medaka in Chiba and Aichi prefectures. The small marginal hook sickle (≤4 μm) and the length of the marginal hook of the new species are the diagnostic morphological characters differentiated from other gyrodactylids reported from Asia...
June 22, 2018: Parasitology International
Luca Villa, Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Gema Álvarez-García, Carlos Diezma-Díaz, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Maria Teresa Manfredi
Among Apicomplexa protozoa infecting equids, Besnoitia spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. represent important issues from a sanitary and zootechnical viewpoint. However, only scarce epidemiological data are available on the spread of the infections in horses and donkeys in Europe. Therefore, a serosurvey was planned to estimate the prevalence of these Sarcocystidae species in Italian equids. Serum samples from 268 horses and 18 donkeys raised in Italy were collected and serologically analyzed to detect anti-Besnoitia spp...
June 20, 2018: Parasitology International
Alana A S Gonçalves, Camila A de Lopes, Henrique T Gonzaga, Ana Lúcia R Gonçalves, Marcelo A Levenhagen, Luiz Carlos M de Oliveira, Julia M Costa-Cruz
Strongyloidiasis is a human parasitosis that is considered a public health problem. Early diagnosis of this infection is extremely important in immunocompromised patients (i.e. subjects with alcoholism). This study aimed to evaluate anti-Strongyloides immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA), assess levels of circulating immune complexes (IC) and determine IgG avidity in serum samples from alcoholic and nonalcoholic individuals. A total of 140 blood samples were collected from male individuals (70 alcoholic and 70 nonalcoholic subjects)...
June 19, 2018: Parasitology International
Eman M Hussein, Shahira A Ahmed, Amira B Mokhtar, Sherine M Elzagawy, Samah H Yahi, Abdalla M Hussein, Farid Al-Tantawey
Outbreaks of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection have been linked to consumption of food and water contaminated by oocysts that can survive both physical and chemical disinfectants. Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles (NPs) can be potentially used in food as bactericides. In this study, C. cayetanensis pre- and post-sporulated oocysts were exposed to MgO NPs with different doses ranging from 1.25-25 mg/ml. With comparison to control, the antiprotozoal activity of MgO NPs was evaluated by identifying the median effective concentration dose (EC50 ), lethal concentration dose (LC90 ), microscopically changes on treated oocysts and rates of sporulation...
June 19, 2018: Parasitology International
Zhenzhen Wang, Miho Shibata, Yen Thi Hoang Nguyen, Yayoi Hayata, Nariaki Nonaka, Haruhiko Maruyama, Ayako Yoshida
Ascarid Larva Migrans Syndrome (ascarid LMS) is a clinical syndrome in humans, caused by the migration of animal roundworm larvae such as Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Ascaris suum. Humans may acquire infection by ingesting embryonated eggs, or infective larvae of these parasites in contaminated meat and organ meats. To detect these pathogenic contaminations, a novel nested multiplex PCR system was developed. Our novel nested multiplex PCR assay showed specific amplification of T. canis, T. cati and Ascaris spp...
June 16, 2018: Parasitology International
Indira Singh Chauhan, G SubbaRao, Jai Shankar, Lalit Kumar Singh Chauhan, Govind J Kapadia, Neeloo Singh
Curcumin is the major phenolic compound found in turmeric, a dry powder of rhizomes and roots of the plant, Curcuma longa L., which is widely used as spice and food colorant around the world, and in herbal medicinal practice in Asian countries. The present study reports the leishmanicidal activity of trans-dibenzalacetone (DBA), a synthetic monoketone analog of curcumin, against Leishmania donovani parasites. We for the first time report the antiproliferative effect of a curcumin analog (DBA) on the intracellular amastigotes of L...
June 15, 2018: Parasitology International
Suellen A Zatti, Stephen D Atkinson, Antônio A M Maia, Lincoln L Corrêa, Jerri L Bartholomew, Edson A Adriano
We describe two novel myxosporean parasites from Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, an economically important freshwater catfish from the Amazon basin, Brazil. Myxobolus tapajosi n. sp., was found in the gill filaments of 23.5% of 17 fish, with myxospores round to oval in frontal view and biconvex in lateral view: length 15 (13.5-17) μm and width 10.7 (9.6-11.4) μm; polar capsules equal, length 5.8 (4.6-7.1) μm and width 3 (2.3-3.8) μm containing polar tubules with 6-7 turns. Ellipsomyxa amazonensis n. sp. myxospores were found floating freely or inside plasmodia in the gall bladder of 23...
June 13, 2018: Parasitology International
Hiroki Maeda, Takeshi Hatta, Daigo Tsubokawa, Fusako Mikami, Toshiyuki Nishimaki, Takeshi Nakamura, Anisuzzaman, Makoto Matsubayashi, Motoyuki Ogawa, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa, Naotoshi Tsuji
Parasite-induced behavioral changes in their hosts favor to complete the lifecycle of parasites. Schistosome infection is also known to cause physiological changes in infected freshwater snail intermediate hosts. Here, we report, a novel phenomenon in which Schistosoma mansoni, a highly debilitating worm affecting millions of people worldwide, alters the phototropic behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata, the vector snail. S. mansoni-infection enhanced positive phototropism of vector snails and infected snails spent significantly more time in light...
June 9, 2018: Parasitology International
Tongchai Payungwoung, Naoaki Shinzawa, Akina Hino, Tubasa Nishi, Yuho Murata, Masao Yuda, Shiroh Iwanaga
The CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease system is a powerful method to genetically modify the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Currently, this method is carried out by co-transfection with two plasmids, one containing the Cas9 nuclease gene, and another encoding the sgRNA and the donor template DNA. However, the efficiency of modification is currently low owing to the low frequency of these plasmids in the parasites. To improve the CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease system for P. falciparum, we developed a novel method using the transgenic parasite, PfCAS9, which stably expresses the Cas9 nuclease using the centromere plasmid...
June 8, 2018: Parasitology International
Hideyuki Iriko, Tomoko Ishino, Hitoshi Otsuki, Daisuke Ito, Mayumi Tachibana, Motomi Torii, Takafumi Tsuboi
Apical organellar proteins in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites play important roles upon invasion. To date, dense granule, the least studied apical organelle, secretes parasite proteins across the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) to remodel the infected erythrocyte. Although this phenomenon is key to parasite growth and virulence, only five proteins so far have been identified as dense granule proteins. Further elucidation of dense granule molecule(s) is therefore required. P. falciparum Exported Protein (EXP) 1, previously reported as a parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) protein, is considered essential for parasite growth...
June 8, 2018: Parasitology International
Takahiro Tougan, Nobuko Arisue, Sawako Itagaki, Yuko Katakai, Yasuhiro Yasutomi, Toshihiro Horii
The asexual blood stages of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite are responsible for inducing the clinical symptoms and the most severe presentations of malaria infection that causes frequent mortality and morbidity in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, making the blood stages of infection a key target of new malaria treatment and prevention strategies. Progress towards the development of more effective treatment and prevention strategies has been hindered by the limited availability of infection models that permit the sequential analysis of blood stage parasites in vitro followed by in vivo analysis to confirm therapeutic benefits...
May 25, 2018: Parasitology International
Elisa de A N Azevedo, Silvana Barreto, Raul Emídio de Lima, Romero Henrique Teixeira, George Diniz, Wilson Oliveira, Maria da Glória A M Cavalcanti, Yara M Gomes, Patrícia M M de F Moura, Clarice N L Morais
Chagas disease (CD) is a global problem. Currently, it affects approximately 15 million individuals in Latin America. It is well know that the human immune response is related to different clinical manifestations. Mannose binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in innate immunity, and it mediates the phagocytosis and complement-mediated destruction of pathogens. The binding capacity is enhanced by the oligomerization of MBL. In this study, we evaluated the serum concentration and the binding capacity of MBL in patients with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy...
May 24, 2018: Parasitology International
Shokoofeh Shamsi, Panayiotis Loukopoulos, Kate McSpadden, Sara Baker, David Jenkins
Tongue worms utilise herbivorous mammals as intermediate hosts and reside in the nasopharynx of carnivores as their definitive hosts. A recent study in south eastern Australia showed an unexpectedly high infection (67%) of wild dogs with these parasites. The present study aimed at determining the pathogenicity of the parasite in both definitive (dog) and intermediate (cattle) hosts by histopathology. The definitive host showed multifocal haemorrhage of the interstitium of the nasal mucosa, multifocal mucosal erosion, congestion and haemorrhage, with haemosiderin laden macrophages present in those foci and distortion and destruction of the nasal mucosa...
May 23, 2018: Parasitology International
Yuji Taniguchi, Cornelia Appiah-Kwarteng, Mami Murakami, Junpei Fukumoto, Kisaburo Nagamune, Tomohide Matsuo, Tatsunori Masatani, Hirotaka Kanuka, Tokio Hoshina, Katsuya Kitoh, Yasuhiro Takashima
The virulence of a type III Toxoplasma gondii strain isolated in Japan and designated here as TgCatJpGi1/TaJ was examined in mice and micro minipigs in this study. Despite its type III genotype, oral or intraperitoneal inoculation of cysts from it resulted in severe virulence in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice. In contrast, mice inoculated with a high dose of TgCatJpGi1/TaJ tachyzoites showed no obvious clinical signs of infection, and all of them survived for >21 days post-inoculation. Furthermore, no clinical signs of infection were seen when micro minipigs were inoculated with 900 cysts...
May 22, 2018: Parasitology International
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