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Parasitology International

Yuji Taniguchi, Cornelia Appiah-Kwarteng, Mami Murakami, Junpei Fukumoto, Kisaburo Nagamune, Tomohide Matsuo, Tatsunori Masatani, Hirotaka Kanuka, Tokio Hoshina, Katsuya Kitoh, Yasuhiro Takashima
The virulence of a type III Toxoplasma gondii strain isolated in Japan and designated here as TgCatJpGi1/TaJ was examined in mice and micro minipigs in this study. Despite its type III genotype, oral or intraperitoneal inoculation of cysts from it resulted in severe virulence in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice. In contrast, mice inoculated with a high dose of TgCatJpGi1/TaJ tachyzoites showed no obvious clinical signs of infection, and all of them survived for >21 days post-inoculation. Furthermore, no clinical signs of infection were seen when micro minipigs were inoculated with 900 cysts...
May 15, 2018: Parasitology International
Elisa de A N Azevedo, Silvana Barreto, Raul Emídio de Lima, Romero Henrique Teixeira, George Diniz, Wilson Oliveira, Maria da Glória A M Cavalcanti, Yara M Gomes, Patrícia M M de F Moura, Clarice N L Morais
Chagas disease (CD) is a global problem. Currently, it affects approximately 15 million individuals in Latin America. It is well know that the human immune response is related to different clinical manifestations. Mannose binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in innate immunity, and it mediates the phagocytosis and complement-mediated destruction of pathogens. The binding capacity is enhanced by the oligomerization of MBL. In this study, we evaluated the serum concentration and the binding capacity of MBL in patients with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy...
May 15, 2018: Parasitology International
Shabnam Asfaram, Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi, Mahdi Fakhar, Elham Sadat Banimostafavi, Masoud Soosaraei
Visualization of amastigotes in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and other tissues samples remains the gold standard method for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in humans. This gold standard diagnostic method uses a technically challenging microscopy procedure that is often not accessible in many places in the world where VL is endemic. Here, we report the current systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether urine is a reliable clinical sample for diagnosis of human VL. Data were extracted from ten available databases during the period from 2002 to 2017...
May 15, 2018: Parasitology International
Qasim Ali, Imran Rashid, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Haroon Akbar, Kashif Shahzad, Kamran Ashraf, Neil Sargison, Umer Chaudhry
More than 70 species of the Superfamily Paramphistomoidea, have been identified in ruminants in different parts of the world. Most are pathogenic, causing amphistomosis. Adult flukes within this family have a predilection for the forestomach (rumen) or bile duct of the liver, where they may cause epithelial damage. Identification of adult Paramphistomum, Calicophoron, Gastrothylax and Fischoederius at the species level based on morphology requires specialised expertise, whereas molecular genetic marker analysis is more precise and transferable...
May 11, 2018: Parasitology International
Zhi-Guo Cao, Si Li, Ya-E Zhao, Tian-Ping Wang, Robert Bergquist, Yin-Yin Huang, Feng-Hua Gao, Yi Hu, Zhi-Jie Zhang
Anhui Province has been one of typical epidemic areas of schistosomiasis in East China as a wide range of large lake and marshland regions provide an ideal environment for growth and reproduction of the intermediate snail host. With the completion of the Yangtze River-Huaihe River Water Transfer Project (YHWTP), launched by the end of 2016, the epidemic areas are expected to expand and controlling schistosomiasis remains a challenge. Based on annual surveillance data at the county level in Anhui for the period 2006-2015, spatial and temporal cluster analyses were conducted to assess the pattern of risk through spatial (Local Moran's I and flexible scan statistic) and space-time scan statistic (Kulldorff)...
May 9, 2018: Parasitology International
Soraya A Machado, Yuriy Kuzmin, Vasyl V Tkach, Jeannie Nascimento Dos Santos, Evonnildo Costa Gonçalves, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo
A new species of the genus Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin et Snyder, 2014, S. moi n. sp., is described from a colubroid snake Chironius exoletus from Caxiuanã National Forest, State of Pará, Brazil. The species is characterised by having a triangular oral opening, absence of the buccal capsule, presence of six minute onchia in the oesophastome, and excretory glands of approximately the same length as the oesophagus. These qualitative morphological characters, as well as some measurements, differentiate the new species from other Neotropical and Nearctic Serpentirhabdias spp...
May 9, 2018: Parasitology International
Orkhontuul Shirmen, Batbold Batchuluun, Avaajigmed Lkhamjav, Tugbayar Tseveen, Tsetsegdelger Munkhjargal, Tsogtsaikhan Sandag, Enkhsaikhan Lkhagvasuren, Tetsuya Yanagida, Yuji Nishikawa, Akira Ito
Recent molecular re-evaluation of Echinococcus granulosus, which causes cystic echinococcosis (CE), has revealed that it is not a single species, but instead consists of 5 cryptic species. Among them, E. granulosus (dog-sheep strain) is predominant (75%) followed by Echinococcus canadensis (22%). The major affected organs, in humans, are the liver (88%) and lungs (11%). Primary cerebral CE comprises less than 1% of all cases. As cerebral CE cases are rare, there are few reports with molecular confirmation of the causative species...
May 9, 2018: Parasitology International
J R P T Castanheira, R E P Castanho, H Rocha, C Pagliari, M I S Duarte, A L S Therezo, E F B Chagas, L P A Martins
Trypanosoma cruzi infection stimulates inflammatory mediators which cause oxidative stress, and the use of antioxidants can minimize the sequelae of Chagas disease. In order to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin C in minimizing oxidative damage in Chagas disease, we orally administered ascorbic acid to Swiss mice infected with 5.0 × 104 trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi QM2 strain. These animals were treated for 60 days to investigate the acute phase and 180 days for the chronic phase. During the acute phase, the animals in the infected and treated groups demonstrated lower parasitemia and inflammatory processes were seen in more mice in these groups, probably due to the higher concentration of nitric oxide, which led to the formation of peroxynitrite...
May 4, 2018: Parasitology International
Jan Phillip Leitinger, Stefan Richter
The Great Cormorant is a widespread bird species with almost worldwide distribution. Accordingly, its general biology has been investigated thoroughly. Less well known, however, are the chewing lice that live inside the plumage of this diving bird. We examined the two known species of Great Cormorant chewing lice, Eidmanniella pellucida (Rudow, 1869) (Amblycera: Menoponidae) and Pectinopygus gyricornis (Denny, 1842) (Ischnocera: Philopteridae). Taking advantage of the autofluorescence of the cuticle, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to explore the external morphology of all developmental stages of P...
May 4, 2018: Parasitology International
Marwa A Hasby Saad, Haidy S M Khalil
PURPOSE: To detect co-infections in the culture-proven acanthamoebic keratitis (AK) cases, and to test the capability of biofilm formation in the isolated microbiota. The clinical findings, habit of wearing contact lens and in-vitro antibiotic resistance were analyzed further according to the biofilm formation capability. METHODS: After clinical examination, corneal scraps and swabs were taken from 240 clinically suspected AK cases, for Acanthamoeba and microbiological cultures...
May 3, 2018: Parasitology International
Bo Zhang, Zemao Gu, Yang Liu
Three Myxobolus species were obtained from silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Valenciennes and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Richardson in China. In the present study, we supplemented their taxonomic characteristics by the morphological, histological and molecular methods. Myxobolus kiuchowensis Chen in Chen et Ma, 1998 formed small ellipsoidal plasmodia in the intestinal wall of bighead carp. Its spores appeared asymmetrical obovate in frontal view and fusiform in lateral view. Tiny mamillary protrusion in the anterior of some spores was observed...
May 1, 2018: Parasitology International
Minoru Nakao, Mizuki Sasaki, Tsukasa Waki, Jason L Anders, Hirotaka Katahira
In the 1970's and 1980's, an unknown species of the genus Brachylaima (Trematoda: Brachylaimidae) had been recorded from the intestines of Rattus norvegicus and Apodemus speciosus in Hokkaido, Japan. The rodent fluke was characteristic in extending a bilateral vitellarium till the level of posterior margin of anterior testis and in keeping almost the same-sized spherical ovary and testes. In this study, the rodent fluke was rediscovered from A. speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, and Myodes rufocanus in Hokkaido...
April 26, 2018: Parasitology International
Vasyl V Tkach, Tyler J Achatz, Joanna Hildebrand, Stephen E Greiman
The Dicrocoeliidae is a highly diverse family of digeneans parasitic in amniotic tetrapods. Detailed molecular phylogenetic analysis of dicrocoeliids is lacking and only a few dicrocoeliids from mammals have been included in previous studies. Sequence data were previously absent for the Anenterotrematidae that shares several morphological characteristics with dicrocoeliids. We examined phylogenetic affinities of several newly sequenced (nuclear 28S rDNA) taxa of dicrocoeliids and anenterotrematids collected from small mammals in Ecuador, Panama, Peru, USA and Vietnam...
April 26, 2018: Parasitology International
Naoya Sata
To clarify how the species diversity of highly dispersible parasites has developed, molecular phylogenetic analyses of Meteterakis spp., multi-host endoparasitic nematodes of reptiles and amphibians from the East Asian islands, were conducted. The results demonstrated the existence of two major clades, the J- and A-groups, with exclusive geographic ranges that are discordant with the host faunal province. However, diversification within the J-group was concordant with the host biogeography and suggested co-divergence of this group with vicariance of the host fauna...
April 24, 2018: Parasitology International
Vasiliki Papanikolopoulou, Djamel Baroudi, Yaqiong Guo, Yuanfei Wang, Elias Papadopoulos, Shwakat Q Lafi, Mohamed M Abd El-Tawab, Anastasia Diakou, Nektarios D Giadinis, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Inconsistent data exist on the distribution of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in sheep and goats in European countries, and few such data are available from Greece. In this study, 280 fecal specimens were collected from 132 diarrheic lambs and 148 diarrheic goat kids aged 4 to 15 days on 15 farms in northern Greece, and examined for Cryptosporidium spp. using microscopy of Ziehl-Neelsen-stained fecal smears. Cryptosporidium spp. in 80 microscopy-positive fecal specimens (39 from lambs and 41 from goat kids) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene and subtyped by sequence analysis the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene...
April 23, 2018: Parasitology International
Ryo Mihara, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Yasuyuki Abe, Tomohide Matsuo, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Suguru Kawano, Kozo Fujisaki, Hiroshi Suzuki
Haemaphysalis longicornis is an important vector of various pathogens in domestic animals and humans. The tick is a unique species with bisexual and parthenogenetic races. Although mating induces oocyte development, it is possible in the parthenogenetic race to complete oogenesis without copulation. Here we examined the developmental process of oocytes from unfed to the oviposition period in parthenogenetic H. longicornis. We classified the developmental stages of oocytes into five stages: stage I, germinal vesicle occupies more than half of the cytoplasm; stage II, germinal vesicle occupies less than half of the cytoplasm; stage III, germinal vesicle migrates from the center in the oocyte to the vicinity of the pedicel cells; stage IV, the cytoplasm is filled with yolk granules of various sizes; stage V, the cytoplasm is occupied by large yolk granules...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology International
Kwame Kumi Asare, Miako Sakaguchi, Amuza Byaruhanga Lucky, Masahito Asada, Shinya Miyazaki, Yuko Katakai, Satoru Kawai, Chihong Song, Kazuyoshi Murata, Kazuhide Yahata, Osamu Kaneko
During development within the host erythrocyte malaria parasites generate nascent membranous structures which serve as a pathway for parasite protein transport to modify the host cell. The molecular basis of such membranous structures is not well understood, particularly for malaria parasites other than Plasmodium falciparum. To characterize the structural basis of protein trafficking in the Plasmodium knowlesi-infected erythrocyte, we identified a P. knowlesi ortholog of MAHRP2, a marker of the tether structure that connects membranous structures in the P...
April 16, 2018: Parasitology International
Michael D Hammond, Thomas H Cribb, Nathan J Bott
We surveyed 30 individuals of Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau) (Belonidae) collected from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, and describe three new species of Prosorhynchoides Dollfus, 1929 from them. The new species are morphologically distinct from existing Prosorhynchoides spp. and 28S and ITS-2 ribosomal DNA data further supports our morphological findings. We also conduct the first mitochondrial DNA analysis of species of Prosorhynchoides. The new species from T. gavialoides form a strongly supported clade on the basis of the two ribosomal markers, further supporting the emerging hypothesis that bucephaline clades are strongly associated with host groups...
April 16, 2018: Parasitology International
Elibeth Mirasol-Meléndez, Luis G Brieba-de Castro, Corina Díaz-Quezada, Marisol López-Hidalgo, Elisa E Figueroa-Angulo, Leticia Ávila-González, Rossana Arroyo-Verástegui, Claudia G Benítez-Cardoza
Trichomonas vaginalis is the protist parasite that causes the most common, non-viral sexually transmitted infection called trichomonosis. Enolase is a moonlighting protein that apart from its canonical function as a glycolytic enzyme, serves as a plasminogen receptor on the cell surface of T. vaginalis and, in consequence, it has been stablished as a virulence factor in this parasite. In the Trichomonas vaginalis sequence database there are nine genes annotated as enolase. In this work, we analyzed these genes as well as their products...
April 13, 2018: Parasitology International
Ying Zhang, Jin Guo, Li He, Hong-Ying Zong, Guo-Bin Cai
Serine proteinase inhibitor (Serpin, SPI) is a vital superfamily of endogenous inhibitors that monitor proteolytic events active in a number of biological functions. In this study, we isolated a full length gene encoding a novel serine protease inhibitor of Schistosoma japonicum (SjSPI) and characterized its molecular properties. Our result showed that SjSPI contained an open reading frame of 1,218 bp, which encoded 405 amino acid residues. Chromosomal structure analysis showed that SjSPI gene was comprised of six exons separated by five introns...
April 9, 2018: Parasitology International
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