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International Journal of Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587557/bile-acids-as-potential-biomarkers-to-assess-liver-impairment-in-polycystic-kidney-disease
#1
William J Brock, James J Beaudoin, Jason R Slizgi, Mingming Su, Wei Jia, Sharin E Roth, Kim L R Brouwer
Polycystic kidney disease is characterized by the progressive development of kidney cysts and declining renal function with frequent development of cysts in other organs including the liver. The polycystic kidney (PCK) rat is a rodent model of polycystic liver disease that has been used to study hepatorenal disease progression and evaluate pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Biomarkers that describe the cyst progression, liver impairment, and/or hepatic cyst burden could provide clinical utility for this disease...
March 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587556/editor-s-note
#2
Mary Beth Genter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357766/a-toxicological-assessment-of-creatyl-l-leucine
#3
Robin A Reddeman, Róbert Glávits, John R Endres, Timothy S Murbach, Gábor Hirka, Adél Vértesi, Erzsébet Béres, Ilona Pasics Szakonyiné
A battery of toxicological studies was conducted to investigate the genotoxicity and repeated-dose oral toxicity of creatyl-l-leucine, a synthetic compound, in rats in accordance with internationally accepted guidelines. There was no evidence of mutagenicity in a bacterial reverse mutation test and in an in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test. There was no genotoxic activity observed in an in vivo mammalian micronucleus test at concentrations up to the limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg bw/d. Creatyl-l-leucine did not cause mortality or toxic effects in Hsd...
March 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357765/accessible-mirnas-as-novel-toxicity-biomarkers
#4
Wendy J Bailey, Warren E Glaab
Novel tissue injury biomarkers have recently been identified that outperform or add value to the conventional safety biomarkers. These novel biomarkers have enhanced sensitivity and/or specificity in monitoring drug-induced tissue injury in a variety of tissues, included liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle. Among these novel biomarkers, microRNAs (miRNAs) are one type in particular that have received much attention in recent years. These microRNAs are short, endogenous noncoding nucleic acids that are involved in modulation and regulation of mRNA transcripts...
March 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357719/role-of-risk-of-bias-in-systematic-review-for-chemical-risk-assessment-a-case-study-in-understanding-the-relationship-between-congenital-heart-defects-and-exposures-to-trichloroethylene
#5
Daniele Wikoff, Jon D Urban, Seneca Harvey, Laurie C Haws
The National Academy of Science has recommended that a risk of bias (RoB; credibility of the link between exposure and outcome) assessment be conducted on studies that are used as primary data sources for hazard identification and dose-response assessment. Few applications of such have been conducted. Using trichloroethylene and congenital heart defects (CHDs) as a case study, we explore the role of RoB in chemical risk assessment using the National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation RoB tool...
March 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642729/safety-evaluation-of-soy-leghemoglobin-protein-preparation-derived-from-pichia-pastoris-intended-for-use-as-a-flavor-catalyst-in-plant-based-meat
#6
Rachel Z Fraser, Mithila Shitut, Puja Agrawal, Odete Mendes, Sue Klapholz
The leghemoglobin protein (LegH) from soy ( Glycine max) expressed in Pichia pastoris (LegH preparation, LegH Prep) imparts a meat-like flavor profile onto plant-based food products. The safety of LegH Prep was evaluated through a series of in vitro and in vivo tests. The genotoxic potential of LegH Prep was assessed using the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) and the in vitro chromosome aberration test. LegH Prep was nonmutagenic and nonclastogenic in each test, respectively. Systemic toxicity was assessed in a 28-day dietary study in male and female Sprague Dawley rats...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575954/ototoxicity-the-radical-drum-beat-and-rhythm-of-cochlear-hair-cell-life-and-death
#7
David V Gauvin, Joshua Yoder, Zachary J Zimmermann, Rachel Tapp
The function and structure of the auditory information processing system establishes a unique sensory environment for the "perfect storm." The battle between life and death pits the cascade of an apoptotic storm, programmed cell death cascades, against simple cell death (necrosis) pathways. Live or die, the free radical biology of oxygen and hydroxylation, and the destruction of transition metal migration through the mechanical gate sensory processes of the hair cell lead to direct access to the cytoplasm, cytoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria of the inner workings of the hair cells...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554825/genotoxic-effects-due-to-exposure-to-chromium-and-nickel-among-electroplating-workers
#8
Amal Mohamed Kamal El Safty, Aisha Mohamed Samir, Mona Kamal Mekkawy, Marwa Mohamed Fouad
Using chromium and nickel for electroplating is important in many industries. This process induces variable adverse health effects among exposed workers. The aim of this study is to detect the genotoxic effects of combined exposure to chromium and nickel among electroplating workers. This study was conducted on 41 male workers occupationally exposed to chromium and nickel in the electroplating section of a factory compared to 41 male nonexposed individuals, where full history and clinical examination were performed...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554824/trichloroethylene-alters-th1-th2-th17-treg-paradigm-in-mice-a-novel-mechanism-for-chemically-induced-autoimmunity
#9
Shu-Long Li, Yun Yu, Peng Yang, Hui Wang, Cheng Zhang, Min Liu, Jia-Xiang Zhang, Tong Shen, Changhao Wu, Qi-Xing Zhu
The role of environmental factors in autoimmune diseases has been increasingly recognized. While major advance has been made in understanding biological pathogen-induced autoimmune diseases, chemically triggered autoimmunity is poorly understood. Trichloroethylene (TCE), a common environmental pollutant, has recently been shown to induce autoimmunity. This study explored whether TCE could cause imbalance of T helper (Th) cell subsets which would contribute to the pathogenesis of TCE-induced medicamentosa-like dermatitis...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554823/age-related-memory-impairment-associated-with-decreased-endogenous-estradiol-in-the-hippocampus-of-female-rats
#10
Siriporn Chamniansawat, Chattraporn Sawatdiyaphanon
It is widely known that not only the gonadal estradiol (E2) but also hippocampal E2 plays an essential role in memory process. However, the role of hippocampal E2-enhanced memory mechanism during aging is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of age on E2 concentration, the expression level of its receptors, and key steroidogenic enzymes in hippocampus. We also investigated the effect of microglia activation on E2 synthesis in hippocampal neurons. The results showed that serum E2 was higher in 19-month-old (aged) rats, which exhibited spatial memory decline in the Morris water maze (MWM) test when compared to the younger rats...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554822/evidence-for-the-involvement-of-the-dopaminergic-system-in-seizure-and-oxidative-damage-induced-by-tramadol
#11
Behnaz Bameri, Fatemeh Shaki, Nematollah Ahangar, Ramin Ataee, Mahedeh Samadi, Hamidreza Mohammadi
Tramadol (TR) is a synthetic analgesic drug with central function that can induce seizures even at therapeutic doses. The exact mechanism of TR effect on seizure generation is not clear, but inhibition of the serotonin and nitric oxide pathways and inhibitory effects on GABA receptors are the most common hypotheses about the seizure-inducing mechanism of the TR. This study aimed to evaluate the role of dopaminergic system on the seizure and oxidative damage induced by TR using agonist and antagonist drugs of this system in the Albino mice...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554821/renal-and-hematologic-comparative-effects-of-dissociated-agonist-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-prednisone-in-dogs-with-and-without-food-restriction
#12
Zaher A Radi, W Mark Vogel, Timothy LaBranche, Joseph A Dybowski, Marjorie A Peraza, Susan S Portugal, Daniel J Lettiere
Glomerulopathy and body weight gain were noted after chronic oral administration of a novel nonsteroidal dissociated agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor compound, fosdagrocorat, to beagle dogs fed an ad libitum diet. To further investigate the role of diet and treatment with either fosdagrocorat or the glucocorticoid comparator, prednisone, on renal safety, a 13-week investigative study was conducted in beagle dogs. Renal histopathology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), body weight, heart rate, blood pressure (BP), and hematology were investigated in restricted- and ad libitum-fed dogs administered prednisone (2...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382289/editor-s-note
#13
Mary Beth Genter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382288/american-college-of-toxicology-2017-annual-meeting-poster-abstracts
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356587/biochemical-oxidative-and-physiological-changes-caused-by-acute-exposure-of-fentanyl-and-its-3-analogs-in-rodents
#15
Shiv Kumar Yadav, Deo Kumar, Pravin Kumar, Pradeep Kumar Gupta, Rahul Bhattacharya
Synthesis and bioefficacy of fentanyl and its 8 new 1-substituted analogs (1-8) were earlier reported by us. Of these 8 compounds, N-(1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-4-piperidinyl)propionanilide (2), N-isopropyl-3-(4-( N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (5), and N- t-butyl-3-(4-( N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl) propanamide (6) were found to be more effective and less toxic compared to fentanyl. The present study reports the acute effect of fentanyl (0.50 Median Lethal Dose (LD50 ); intraperitoneal) and its 3 analogs (2, 5, and 6) on various biochemical and oxidative parameters in mice and various physiological parameters in rats...
January 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303016/a-toxicological-evaluation-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-a-green-algae
#16
Timothy S Murbach, Róbert Glávits, John R Endres, Gábor Hirka, Adél Vértesi, Erzsébet Béres, Ilona Pasics Szakonyiné
There is a current worldwide interest in developing novel sustainable nonanimal nutritional sources, and one such source is the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the only green algae that has been studied as a model organism for many biological processes ranging from photosynthesis to flagellar movement. However, its potential as a safe nutritional source for use in various foods has not been thoroughly investigated. To assess the safety of C reinhardtii for use as a nutritional human food ingredient, in accordance with internationally accepted standards, the genotoxic potential and repeated-dose oral toxicity of the dried C reinhardtii (THN 6) algal biomass was investigated...
January 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29264927/toxicology-evaluation-of-drugs-administered-via-uncommon-routes-intranasal-intraocular-intrathecal-intraspinal-and-intra-articular
#17
Armaghan Emami, Jeff Tepper, Brian Short, Tony L Yaksh, Alison M Bendele, Thulasi Ramani, Alvaro F Cisternas, Jay H Chang, R Daniel Mellon
As the need for nasal, ocular, spinal, and articular therapeutic compounds increases, toxicology assessments of drugs administered via these routes play an important role in human safety. This symposium outlined the local and systemic evaluation to support safety during the development of these drugs in nonclinical models with some case studies. Discussions included selection of appropriate species for the intended route; conducting nonclinical studies that closely mimic the intended use with adequate duration; functional assessment, if deemed necessary; evaluation of local tissues with special histological staining procedure; and evaluations of safety margins based on local and systemic toxicity...
January 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29254395/oxidative-stress-as-a-mechanism-involved-in-kidney-damage-after-subchronic-exposure-to-vanadium-inhalation-and-oral-sweetened-beverages-in-a-mouse-model
#18
Maribel Espinosa-Zurutuza, Adriana González-Villalva, Juan Carlos Albarrán-Alonso, Laura Colín-Barenque, Patricia Bizarro-Nevares, Marcela Rojas-Lemus, Nelly López-Valdéz, Teresa I Fortoul
Kidney diseases have notably increased in the last few years. This is partially explained by the increase in metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and systemic blood hypertension. However, there is a segment of the population that has neither of the previous risk factors, yet suffers kidney damage. Exposure to atmospheric pollutants has been suggested as a possible risk factor. Air-suspended particles carry on their surface a variety of fuel combustion-related residues such as metals, and vanadium is one of these. Vanadium might produce oxidative stress resulting in the damage of some organs such as the kidney...
January 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130832/developmental-toxicity-assay-for-food-additive-tartrazine-using-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryo-cultures
#19
Vani Joshi, Pancharatna Katti
Tartrazine (TTZ) is an azo dye used as a colorant in food products, drugs, and cosmetics. The present study evaluates the impacts of TTZ on embryonic development of zebrafish ( Danio rerio). Laboratory-raised D. rerio embryos (n = 20/concentration) were exposed to graded dilutions of TTZ (0, 0.1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 75, and 100 mM) from gastrulation stage (5.25 hours postfertilization [hpf]) until hatching and developmental trajectory was traced up to day 7. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC), median lethal concentration (LC50 ), median effective concentration (EC50 ), and teratogenic index (TI) were calculated...
January 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243542/safety-assessment-of-dimethiconol-and-its-esters-and-reaction-products-as-used-in-cosmetics
#20
Wilbur Johnson, Bart Heldreth, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
Dimethiconol and its esters and reaction products are used in cosmetics as either skin-conditioning agents or hair-conditioning agents. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel reviewed relevant data and concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment. While there is an absence of data on reproductive and developmental toxicity and limited tumorigenicity and toxicokinetics data, the Panel reasoned that these ingredients would not be absorbed through the skin, obviating concern over potential reproductive and developmental toxicity or carcinogenicity...
November 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
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