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International Journal of Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913788/safety-assessment-of-achillea-millefolium-as-used-in-cosmetics
#1
Lillian C Becker, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
Cosmetic ingredients derived from Achillea millefolium function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, skin-conditioning agents-humectants, and fragrance ingredients. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed relevant animal and human data to determine their safety in cosmetics and raised concerns about cosmetics containing linalool, thujone, quercetin, hydroquinone, or α-peroxyachifolid. Because final product formulations may contain multiple botanicals, each containing similar constituents of concern, formulators are advised to be aware of these components and to avoid reaching levels that may be hazardous to consumers...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913787/safety-assessment-of-polyquaternium-22-and-polyquarternium-39-as-used-in-cosmetics
#2
Wilbur Johnson, Bart Heldreth, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
Polyquaternium-22 and polyquaternium-39 are polymers that function as antistatic agents, film formers, and hair fixatives in cosmetic products. These ingredients are being used at concentrations up to 2% (polyquaternium-22, in a rinse-off product) and up to 3% (polyquaternium-39, in rinse-off and leave-on products). The unreacted monomer content of these ingredients was considered low and of no toxicological concern. Limited data showed no skin irritation/sensitization. Although these ingredients were nongenotoxic in bacterial assays, mammalian genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity data were not available...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913786/safety-assessment-of-dialkyl-sulfosuccinate-salts-as-used-in-cosmetics
#3
Monice M Fiume, Bart Heldreth, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 8 dialkyl sulfosuccinate salts for use in cosmetics, finding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating. The dialkyl sulfosuccinate salts primarily function as surfactants in cosmetics. The Panel reviewed the new and existing available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety. The Panel found it appropriate to extrapolate the data on diethylhexyl sodium sulfosuccinate to assess the safety of the entire group because all of the diesters are of a similar alkyl chain length, all are symmetrically substituted, and all have similar functions in cosmetic formulations...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913785/safety-assessment-of-alumina-and-aluminum-hydroxide-as-used-in-cosmetics
#4
Lillian C Becker, Ivan Boyer, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
This is a safety assessment of alumina and aluminum hydroxide as used in cosmetics. Alumina functions as an abrasive, absorbent, anticaking agent, bulking agent, and opacifying agent. Aluminum hydroxide functions as a buffering agent, corrosion inhibitor, and pH adjuster. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) evaluated the safe use of alumina in several medical devices and aluminum hydroxide in over-the-counter drugs, which included a review of human and animal safety data. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel considered the FDA evaluations as part of the basis for determining the safety of these ingredients as used in cosmetics...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913772/safety-assessment-of-formic-acid-and-sodium-formate-as-used-in-cosmetics
#5
Wilbur Johnson, Bart Heldreth, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
Formic acid functions as a fragrance ingredient, preservative, and pH adjuster in cosmetic products, whereas sodium formate functions as a preservative. Because of its acidic properties, formic acid is a dermal and ocular irritant. However, when used as a pH adjuster in cosmetic formulations, formic acid will be neutralized to yield formate salts, for example, sodium formate, thus minimizing safety concerns. Formic acid and sodium formate have been used at concentrations up to 0.2% and 0.34%, respectively, with hair care products accounting for the highest use concentrations of both ingredients...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913771/safety-assessment-of-methyl-glucose-polyethers-and-esters-as-used-in-cosmetics
#6
Wilbur Johnson, Bart Heldreth, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of methyl glucose polyethers and esters which function in cosmetics as skin/hair-conditioning agents, surfactants, or viscosity increasing agents. The esters included in this assessment are mono-, di-, or tricarboxyester substituted methyl glucosides, and the polyethers are mixtures of various chain lengths. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, including the molecular weights, log Kows, and other properties in making its determination of safety on these ingredients...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765881/oral-toxicity-of-2-4-dinitroanisole-in-rats
#7
Emily May Lent, Lee C B Crouse, Shannon M Wallace
Subacute and subchronic studies were conducted to assess the toxicity of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and to provide information important for protecting the health of military and civilian personnel. In the subchronic study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with DNAN via oral gavage at 0, 1.25, 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg/d. Likely owing to its conversion to 2,4-dinitrophenol, an inhibitor of energy homeostasis, DNAN caused an apparent increase in metabolism, leading to reduced feed efficiency ratios and body mass gains in males...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733446/a-28-day-repeated-dose-toxicological-study-of-an-aqueous-extract-of-morus-alba-l
#8
Tennille K Marx, Róbert Glávits, John R Endres, Philip A Palmer, Amy E Clewell, Timothy S Murbach, Gábor Hirka, Ilona Pasics
Morus alba L. (white mulberry) leaves are one of the oldest recognized traditional Chinese medicines. More recently, M alba leaves and their constituents, particularly iminosugars (or azasugars), have garnered attention for their ability to maintain normal blood glucose concentrations, an effect identified in both animal studies and human clinical trials. Reducose (Phynova Group Limited) is a commercial water-soluble extract of M alba leaves standardized to 5% 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an iminosugar with α-glucosidase inhibition properties...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733445/the-hen-s-egg-test-on-chorioallantoic-membrane-an-alternative-assay-for-the-assessment-of-the-irritating-effect-of-vaccine-adjuvants
#9
Alexander Batista-Duharte, Gisela Jorge Murillo, Ulpiano Marqués Pérez, Enieyis Naranjo Tur, Deivys Fuentes Portuondo, Bruno Téllez Martínez, Damiana Téllez-Martínez, Juan E Betancourt, Oliver Pérez
Local reactions are the most frequent adverse event associated with vaccines. Adjuvants are major constituents of many vaccines and they are frequently involved in these reactions, associated with their irritating effect and the stimulation of local inflammation. The hen's egg test on chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) is an alternative toxicological method widely used to determine ocular irritation potential, but very few studies have demonstrated the utility of this method for assessing the irritant properties of vaccine adjuvants...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694306/mycophenolic-acid-induced-developmental-defects-in-zebrafish-embryos
#10
Ling-Ling Jiang, Mei-Hui Liu, Jian-Ying Li, Zhi-Heng He, Huan Li, Ning Shen, Ping Wei, Ming-Fang He
With the increasing use of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in solid organ transplantation, some clinical studies indicate that it is also a human teratogen. However, it is unknown by which mechanism MPA acts as a teratogen. Mycophenolic acid was a selective blocker of de novo purine synthesis, and its immunosuppressive effect is mediated by the inhibition of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, which could be a target for MPA-induced toxicity as well. The aim of our study was to examine the direct influence of MPA exposure on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503939/evaluation-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-on-the-generation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-cytotoxicity-in-hacat-cells-induced-by-nanosized-titanium-dioxide-under-uva-irradiation
#11
Chengbin Xue, Xiaonan Li, Guozhen Liu, Wei Liu
Nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) is widely used in the chemical, electrical, and electronic industries. Nanosized TiO2 has been reported to be an efficient photocatalyst, which is able to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) under UVA irradiation. In the present work, we evaluate the effect of mitochondrial respiratory chain on the generation of ROS and cytotoxicity in keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells induced by nano-TiO2 under UVA irradiation. HaCaT cells were pretreated with different inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory chain and followed by treatment with 200 µg/mL nano-TiO2, then exposed to UVA (365 nm) for 1 hour and cultured for 24 hours...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488826/safety-assessment-of-hydroxypropyl-bis-n-hydroxyethyl-p-phenylenediamine-hcl-as-used-in-cosmetics
#12
Lillian C Becker, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (CIR Panel) reviewed the safety of hydroxypropyl bis(N-Hydroxyethyl-p-Phenylenediamine) HCl, which functions as an oxidative hair dye ingredient. The Panel considered relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment and concluded that hydroxypropyl bis(N-hydroxyethyl-p-phenylenediamine) HCl is safe for use in oxidative hair dye formulations as described in this safety assessment.
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466346/antiproliferative-effect-of-synadenium-grantii-hook-f-stems-euphorbiaceae-and-a-rare-phorbol-diterpene-ester
#13
Adriana Campos, Débora Barbosa Vendramini-Costa, Giovanna Barbarini Longato, Tailyn Zermiani, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois Ruiz, João Ernesto de Carvalho, Atanasio Pandiella, Valdir Cechinel Filho
Synadenium grantii is frequently used for the treatment of various diseases such as allergies, gastric disorders, and especially cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible antiproliferative potential of the methanol extract, fractions, and pure compounds from the stems of S grantii Phytochemical analysis was carried out by conventional chromatographic techniques, and the antiproliferative activity was analyzed using the sulforhodamine B assay and an MTT-based assay. Nonpolar fraction and its subfractions from the stems of S grantii exhibited promising cytostatic effect against several human tumor cell lines (glioma, breast, kidney, and lung), with total grown inhibition values ranging from 0...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461214/cytotoxicity-of-manganese-iii-complex-in-human-breast-adenocarcinoma-cell-line-is-mediated-by-the-generation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-followed-by-mitochondrial-damage
#14
Qudes Al-Anbaky, Zeiyad Al-Karakooly, Surya P Kilaparty, Megha Agrawal, Yahya M Albkuri, Ambar B RanguMagar, Anindya Ghosh, Nawab Ali
Manganese (Mn) complexes are widely studied because of their important catalytic properties in synthetic and biochemical reactions. A Mn (III) complex of an amidoamine ligand was synthesized using a tetradentate amidoamine ligand. In this study, the Mn (III) complex was evaluated for its biological activity by measuring its cytotoxicity in human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Cytotoxic effects of the Mn (III) complex were determined using established biomarkers in an attempt to delineate the mechanism of action and the utility of the complex as a potential anticancer drug...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451051/hepatic-overexpression-of-annexin-a1-and-a2-in-thioacetamide-primed-mice-protects-them-against-acetaminophen-induced-liver-failure-and-death
#15
Vivekkumar P Dadhania, Levan Muskhelishvili, John R Latendresse, Harihara M Mehendale
Compensatory tissue repair (CTR) in thioacetamide (TA)-primed rats protects them against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced lethality. This study was aimed at investigating the mechanisms of CTR-mediated heteroprotection in mice. Male Swiss Webster mice received a priming dose of TA (40 mg/kg body weight [BW] in 10 mL distilled water [DW]/kg BW, intraperitoneally [IP]). Thioacetamide-induced liver injury, CTR, and expression of annexin A1 and A2 (ANX1 and ANX2), the endogenous inhibitors of the death protein secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), were measured over a time course of 84 hours after TA priming...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306319/intravenous-administration-of-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-aggravates-high-fat-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#16
Yu-Ying Xu, Juan Ge, Mo-Han Zhang, Wen-Jie Sun, Jun Zhang, Pei-Lin Yu, Yi-Fan Zheng, Jun Yang, Xin-Qiang Zhu
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been explored in pharmaceutical applications such as tumor targeting and delivery of drugs, in which MWCNTs are given through intravenous injection. However, the biosafety of MWCNTs is of concern for such application. Therefore, in the current study, we used a fatty liver model to investigate the possible toxicity of MWCNTs to the liver, as MWCNTs were retained mainly in the liver of mice after intravenous injection. Male Sprague Dawley rats were used to generate the fatty liver model, and the effects of intravenous administration of MWCNTs on fatty liver were studied...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654982/robert-m-diener
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402775/the-first-cut-is-the-deepest-the-history-and-development-of-safe-treatments-for-wound-healing-and-tissue-repair
#18
David W Hobson, JoAnn C L Schuh, Daniel V Zurawski, Jianyong Wang, Sam Arbabi, Maralee McVean, Kathleen A Funk
As the skin is the primary barrier to infection, the importance of wound healing has been understood since ancient times. This article provides a synopsis on the symposium presentations focusing on how wounds were traditionally treated, what models and pathology endpoints exist to study wound healing, special considerations for wound healing studies, an overview of regulatory aspects of new pharmaceutical and medical device development, and the clinical relevance of such models. The clinical treatment of small and large wounds is also considered...
September 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381384/current-topics-in-postnatal-behavioral-testing
#19
Judith W Henck, Ikram Elayan, Charles Vorhees, J Edward Fisher, LaRonda L Morford
The study of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) continues to be an important component of safety evaluation of candidate therapeutic agents and of industrial and environmental chemicals. Developmental neurotoxicity is considered to be an adverse change in the central and/or peripheral nervous system during development of an organism and has been primarily evaluated by studying functional outcomes, such as changes in behavior, neuropathology, neurochemistry, and/or neurophysiology. Neurobehavioral evaluations are a component of a wide range of toxicology studies in laboratory animal models, whereas neurochemistry and neurophysiology are less commonly employed...
September 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358239/toxicological-evaluation-of-%C3%AE-caryophyllene-oil-subchronic-toxicity-in-rats
#20
D Schmitt, R Levy, B Carroll
In a subchronic toxicity study, administration of β-caryophyllene (BCP) oil by oral gavage to Wistar rats at dosages of 0, 150, 450, or 700 mg/kg/d for 90 days, including a 21-day recovery period, did not produce any significant toxicologic manifestations. The study design also included a 28-day interim sacrifice in the control and high-dose groups. The BCP oil test article was well tolerated as evidenced by the absence of major treatment-related changes in the general condition and appearance of the rats, neurobehavioral end points, growth, feed and water intake, ophthalmoscopic examinations, routine hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, urinalysis, and necropsy findings...
September 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
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