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International Journal of Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016916/how-did-i-ever-get-here-the-2018-mildred-s-christian-award-winner
#1
Linda S Birnbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016915/editor-s-note
#2
Mary Beth Genter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916280/similar-and-differential-canonical-pathways-and-biological-processes-associated-with-multiwalled-carbon-nanotube-and-asbestos-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-1-year-postexposure-study
#3
Julian M Dymacek, Brandi N Snyder-Talkington, Rebecca Raese, Chunlin Dong, Salvi Singh, Dale W Porter, Barbara Ducatman, Michael G Wolfarth, Michal E Andrew, Lori Battelli, Vincent Castranova, Yong Qian, Nancy L Guo
Respiratory exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) or asbestos results in fibrosis; however, the mechanisms to reach this end point may be different. A previous study by our group identified pulmonary effects and significantly altered messenger RNA (mRNA) signaling pathways following exposure to 1, 10, 40, and 80 µg MWCNT and 120 µg crocidolite asbestos on mouse lungs over time at 1-month, 6-month, and 1-year postexposure following pulmonary aspiration. As a continuation to the above study, this current study took an in-depth look at the signaling pathways involved in fibrosis development at a single time point, 1 year, and exposure, 40 µg MWCNT, the lowest exposure at which fibrosis was pathologically evident...
July 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898631/development-of-a-phototoxicity-testing-strategy-for-accurate-photosafety-evaluation-of-pharmaceuticals-based-on-the-assessment-of-possible-melanin-binding-effects
#4
Jelle Reinen, Pieter van Sas, Ton van Huygevoort, Leticia Rubio, Kevin Scase, Mira Wenker
Drug-induced phototoxicity occurs when drugs absorb natural sunlight, leading to chemical reactions causing cellular damage. Distribution to light-exposed tissues is critical and is enhanced by binding to melanin. The International Council on Harmonization S10 guidance document on photosafety evaluation of pharmaceuticals states that although nonpigmented skin tends to be more sensitive than pigmented skin, pigmented skin models should be considered for drugs that bind significantly to melanin. In this study, an in vitro melanin-binding assay was evaluated as prescreening tool for animal model selection...
July 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890881/comparative-assessment-on-mechanism-underlying-renal-toxicity-of-commercial-formulation-of-roundup-herbicide-and-glyphosate-alone-in-male-albino-rat
#5
Gabriel A Dedeke, Folarin O Owagboriaye, Kehinde O Ademolu, Olanrewaju O Olujimi, Adeyinka A Aladesida
There have been major concerns that the nephrotoxicity of commercial formulations of Roundup herbicide is due to the active ingredient glyphosate. We therefore investigated and compared the mechanisms underlining the nephrotoxicity of Roundup herbicide and glyphosate alone in rat. Fifty-six adult male rats randomized into 7 groups of 8 rats per group were exposed to Roundup formulation and glyphosate alone daily by gavage at 3.6, 50.4, and 248.4 mg/kg body weight (bw) of glyphosate concentrations for 12 weeks with distilled water administered to the control group...
July 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862868/inhibition-of-mast-cell-degranulation-with-cromolyn-sodium-exhibits-organ-specific-effects-in-polycystic-kidney-pck-rats
#6
Lu Jiang, Pingping Fang, Seth Septer, Udayan Apte, Michele T Pritchard
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a monogenic disease characterized by development of hepatorenal cysts, pericystic fibrosis, and inflammation. Previous studies show that mast cell (MC) mediators such as histamine induce proliferation of cholangiocytes. We observed robust MC accumulation around liver cysts, but not kidney cysts, in polycystic kidney (PCK) rats (an animal model of ARPKD). Therefore, we hypothesized that MCs contribute to hepatic cyst growth in ARPKD. To test this hypothesis, we treated PCK rats with 1 of 2 different MC stabilizers, cromolyn sodium (CS) or ketotifen, or saline...
July 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862856/toxicological-assessment-of-venlafaxine-acute-and-subchronic-toxicity-study-in-rats
#7
Melad G Paulis, Essam M Hafez, Nashwa F El-Tahawy, Mohmed K M Aly
Antidepressants are the most commonly prescribed drugs for psychiatric treatment, and venlafaxine (VEN) is one of the most popular options. Venlafaxine is a nontricyclic dual-acting serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Although an increased incidence of acute toxicity and addiction has been reported, controlled studies examining its toxic effects on different organs are still lacking. This study investigated the possible toxic effects of VEN on the liver, kidney, and gastric tissues. Three groups of rats were administered saline, a single LD50 dose (350 mg/kg), or 100 mg/kg VEN daily, followed by increases in the dose of 50 mg/kg every 10 days for 30 days (about 10 times the therapeutic doses)...
July 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734825/skin-and-eye-irritation-assessment-of-oil-palm-elaeis-guineensis-leaf-extract-for-topical-application
#8
Nor Zuliana Yusof, Siti Salwa Abd Gani, Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan, Zainab Idris
Many types of phytochemicals have been found to be present in oil palm leaf and could potentially be used as functional ingredients for skincare product. However, as of today, there is no published report on hazard identification and safety assessment of oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis) leaf extract (OPLE), particularly on skin and eye irritation. In this study, potential hazard of OPLE on skin and eye irritation was evaluated as an initial step to the safety assessment of OPLE. In vitro cell viability study of OPLE on normal human dermal fibroblasts showed that OPLE was nontoxic to the cells with percentage viability more than 90% after 24 and 48 hours of incubation...
July 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761732/safety-assessment-of-polyether-lanolins-as-used-in-cosmetics
#9
Lillian C Becker, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen, Bart Heldreth
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 39 polyether lanolin ingredients as used in cosmetics. These ingredients function mostly as hair conditioning agents, skin conditioning agent-emollients, and surfactant-emulsifying agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, from previous CIR safety assessments of related ingredients and components. The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group...
May 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761731/safety-assessment-of-alkyl-betaines-as-used-in-cosmetics
#10
Christina L Burnett, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen, Bart Heldreth
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 11 alkyl betaines as used in cosmetics. These ingredients are reported to function as hair and skin conditioning agents, antistatic agents, surfactants-cleansing agents, and viscosity-increasing agents in cosmetic products. Although there are data gaps, the shared chemical core structure, similar functions and concentrations of use in cosmetics, and the expected similarities in physicochemical properties enabled grouping these ingredients and reading across the available toxicological data to support the safety assessment of each individual compound in the entire group...
May 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761730/safety-assessment-of-tromethamine-aminomethyl-propanediol-and-aminoethyl-propanediol-as-used-in-cosmetics
#11
Lillian C Becker, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, Lillian J Gill, Bart Heldreth
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of tromethamine, aminomethyl propanediol, and aminoethyl propanediolas used in cosmetics. All 3 ingredients are reported to function in cosmetics as pH adjusters, and tromethamine and aminomethyl propanediol are also reported to function as fragrance ingredients. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to these ingredients, along with a previous safety assessment of aminomethyl propanediol. The Panel concluded that tromethamine, aminomethyl propanediol, and aminoethyl propanediol are safe in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment...
May 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761729/safety-assessment-of-magnesium-sulfate-as-used-in-cosmetics
#12
Wilbur Johnson, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen, Bart Heldreth
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of magnesium sulfate, which functions as a bulking agent in cosmetic products and is reportedly used at concentrations up to 11% and 25% in leave-on and rinse-off products, respectively. The Panel noted that the history of safe medical use of magnesium sulfate provides further confidence that there are no significant toxicity concerns relating to systemic exposure to this ingredient after cosmetic product application. Furthermore, the extensive clinical experience of the Panel, including the results of numerous patch tests, indicates that magnesium salts do not have the potential to induce sensitization...
May 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761728/safety-assessment-of-hydrolyzed-wheat-protein-and-hydrolyzed-wheat-gluten-as-used-in-cosmetics
#13
Christina Burnett, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen, Bart Heldreth
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the product use, formulation, and safety data on hydrolyzed wheat protein and hydrolyzed wheat gluten, which function as skin- and hair-conditioning agents. The Panel determined that data from clinical and laboratory studies were sufficient to demonstrate that these ingredients will not elicit type 1 immediate hypersensitivity reactions in sensitized individuals and will not induce sensitization when the polypeptide lengths of the hydrolysates do not exceed 30 amino acids...
May 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727252/investigation-of-the-genotoxicity-of-aluminum-oxide-%C3%AE-tricalcium-phosphate-and-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-in-vitro
#14
Giray Buğra Akbaba, Hasan Türkez
The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxicity of aluminum oxide (Al2 O3 ), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) (Ca3 (PO4 )2 ), and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) that were 4.175, 9.058, and 19.8 nm sized, respectively, on human peripheral blood lymphocytes using micronucleus (MN) and chromosome aberration (CA) techniques. Aluminum oxide and β-TCP NPs did not show genotoxic effects on human peripheral blood cultures in vitro, even at the highest concentrations; therefore, these materials may be suitable for use as biocompatible materials...
May 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642729/safety-evaluation-of-soy-leghemoglobin-protein-preparation-derived-from-pichia-pastoris-intended-for-use-as-a-flavor-catalyst-in-plant-based-meat
#15
Rachel Z Fraser, Mithila Shitut, Puja Agrawal, Odete Mendes, Sue Klapholz
The leghemoglobin protein (LegH) from soy ( Glycine max) expressed in Pichia pastoris (LegH preparation, LegH Prep) imparts a meat-like flavor profile onto plant-based food products. The safety of LegH Prep was evaluated through a series of in vitro and in vivo tests. The genotoxic potential of LegH Prep was assessed using the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) and the in vitro chromosome aberration test. LegH Prep was nonmutagenic and nonclastogenic in each test, respectively. Systemic toxicity was assessed in a 28-day dietary study in male and female Sprague Dawley rats...
May 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575954/ototoxicity-the-radical-drum-beat-and-rhythm-of-cochlear-hair-cell-life-and-death
#16
David V Gauvin, Joshua Yoder, Zachary J Zimmermann, Rachel Tapp
The function and structure of the auditory information processing system establishes a unique sensory environment for the "perfect storm." The battle between life and death pits the cascade of an apoptotic storm, programmed cell death cascades, against simple cell death (necrosis) pathways. Live or die, the free radical biology of oxygen and hydroxylation, and the destruction of transition metal migration through the mechanical gate sensory processes of the hair cell lead to direct access to the cytoplasm, cytoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria of the inner workings of the hair cells...
May 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554825/genotoxic-effects-due-to-exposure-to-chromium-and-nickel-among-electroplating-workers
#17
Amal Mohamed Kamal El Safty, Aisha Mohamed Samir, Mona Kamal Mekkawy, Marwa Mohamed Fouad
Using chromium and nickel for electroplating is important in many industries. This process induces variable adverse health effects among exposed workers. The aim of this study is to detect the genotoxic effects of combined exposure to chromium and nickel among electroplating workers. This study was conducted on 41 male workers occupationally exposed to chromium and nickel in the electroplating section of a factory compared to 41 male nonexposed individuals, where full history and clinical examination were performed...
May 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554823/age-related-memory-impairment-associated-with-decreased-endogenous-estradiol-in-the-hippocampus-of-female-rats
#18
Siriporn Chamniansawat, Chattraporn Sawatdiyaphanon
It is widely known that not only the gonadal estradiol (E2) but also hippocampal E2 plays an essential role in memory process. However, the role of hippocampal E2-enhanced memory mechanism during aging is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of age on E2 concentration, the expression level of its receptors, and key steroidogenic enzymes in hippocampus. We also investigated the effect of microglia activation on E2 synthesis in hippocampal neurons. The results showed that serum E2 was higher in 19-month-old (aged) rats, which exhibited spatial memory decline in the Morris water maze (MWM) test when compared to the younger rats...
May 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554821/renal-and-hematologic-comparative-effects-of-dissociated-agonist-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-prednisone-in-dogs-with-and-without-food-restriction
#19
Zaher A Radi, W Mark Vogel, Timothy LaBranche, Joseph A Dybowski, Marjorie A Peraza, Susan S Portugal, Daniel J Lettiere
Glomerulopathy and body weight gain were noted after chronic oral administration of a novel nonsteroidal dissociated agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor compound, fosdagrocorat, to beagle dogs fed an ad libitum diet. To further investigate the role of diet and treatment with either fosdagrocorat or the glucocorticoid comparator, prednisone, on renal safety, a 13-week investigative study was conducted in beagle dogs. Renal histopathology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), body weight, heart rate, blood pressure (BP), and hematology were investigated in restricted- and ad libitum-fed dogs administered prednisone (2...
May 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587557/bile-acids-as-potential-biomarkers-to-assess-liver-impairment-in-polycystic-kidney-disease
#20
William J Brock, James J Beaudoin, Jason R Slizgi, Mingming Su, Wei Jia, Sharin E Roth, Kim L R Brouwer
Polycystic kidney disease is characterized by the progressive development of kidney cysts and declining renal function with frequent development of cysts in other organs including the liver. The polycystic kidney (PCK) rat is a rodent model of polycystic liver disease that has been used to study hepatorenal disease progression and evaluate pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Biomarkers that describe the cyst progression, liver impairment, and/or hepatic cyst burden could provide clinical utility for this disease...
March 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
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