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Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159683/interaction-rates-vital-rates-background-fitness-and-replicator-dynamics-how-to-embed-evolutionary-game-structure-into-realistic-population-dynamics
#1
K Argasinski, M Broom
In this paper we are concerned with how aggregated outcomes of individual behaviours, during interactions with other individuals (games) or with environmental factors, determine the vital rates constituting the growth rate of the population. This approach needs additional elements, namely the rates of event occurrence (interaction rates). Interaction rates describe the distribution of the interaction events in time, which seriously affects the population dynamics, as is shown in this paper. This leads to the model of a population of individuals playing different games, where focal game affected by the considered trait can be extracted from the general model, and the impact on the dynamics of other events (which is not neutral) can be described by an average background fertility and mortality...
November 20, 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147851/bijective-codon-transformations-show-genetic-code-symmetries-centered-on-cytosine-s-coding-properties
#2
Hervé Seligmann
Homology of some RNAs with template DNA requires systematic exchanges between nucleotides. Such exchanges produce 'swinger' RNA along 23 bijective transformations (nine symmetric, X ↔ Y; and 14 asymmetric, X → Y → Z → X, for example A ↔ C and A → C → G → A, respectively). Here, analyses compare amino acids coded by swinger-transformed codons to those coded by untransformed codons, defining coding invariance after transformations. Swinger transformations cluster according to coding invariance in four groups characterized by transformations into cytosine (C = C, T → C, A → C, and G → C)...
November 16, 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086163/process-analysis-of-carcinogenesis-concept-derivation-of-the-tissue-function-preservation-of-a-homogeneous-gene-expression
#3
Thomas Löser
A new system for maintaining homogeneous gene expression in tissue and for destroying through apoptosis nonconforming cells is introduced. This functionality is called the "similarity comparison." Accordingly, the survival of mutated cells is hindered due to reduced gene expression. That, in turn, maintains the homogeneity of the tissue and prevents tumors from developing. The concept of the similarity comparison is that every stationary cell in every tissue constantly screens the gene expression of its neighbors...
October 30, 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963715/addition-to-special-issue-in-commemoration-of-olaf-breidbach-part-ii
#4
EDITORIAL
Sabine Schwarz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776127/on-the-global-stability-of-an-epidemic-model-of-computer-viruses
#5
Mohammad Reza Parsaei, Reza Javidan, Narges Shayegh Kargar, Hassan Saberi Nik
In this paper, we study the global properties of a computer virus propagation model. It is, interesting to note that the classical method of Lyapunov functions combined with the Volterra-Lyapunov matrix properties, can lead to the proof of the endemic global stability of the dynamical model characterizing the spread of computer viruses over the Internet. The analysis and results presented in this paper make building blocks towards a comprehensive study and deeper understanding of the fundamental mechanism in computer virus propagation model...
December 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721495/diversity-and-survival-of-artificial-lifeforms-under-sedimentation-and-random-motion
#6
Nicolas Glade, Olivier Bastien, Pascal Ballet
Cellular automata are often used to explore the numerous possible scenarios of what could have occurred at the origins of life and before, during the prebiotic ages, when very simple molecules started to assemble and organise into larger catalytic or informative structures, or to simulate ecosystems. Artificial self-maintained spatial structures emerge in cellular automata and are often used to represent molecules or living organisms. They converge generally towards homogeneous stationary soups of still-life creatures...
December 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631149/vigor-of-survival-determinism-subtle-evolutionary-gradualism-interspersed-with-robust-phylogenetic-leaping
#7
Pavle Krsmanovic
Discussions of the survival determinism concept have previously focused on its primary role in the evolution of early unicellular organisms in the light of findings which have been reported on a number of diseases. The rationale for such parallel was in the view according to which multicellular organisms could be regarded as sophisticated colonies of semi-autonomous, single-celled entities, whereby various diseases were described as conditions arising upon the activation of the respective survival mechanisms in a milieu unsuitable for such robust stress response...
December 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612184/autopolyploidy-leads-to-rapid-genomic-changes-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
Shihong Liu, Yan Yang, Fang Wei, Jifa Duan, Janeen Braynen, Baoming Tian, Gangqiang Cao, Gongyao Shi, Jiachen Yuan
Polyploidy is a widespread feature of plant genomes. As a typical model of polyploidy, autopolyploidy has been postulated evolutionary dead ends and received little attention compared with allopolyploidy. For the limited data available so far, the evolutionary outcome of genome diversity in autopolyploids remains controversial in comparison with its diploid ancestors. In the present study, the effects of autopolyploidy on genome diversity were revealed at a genome-wide scale by comparative analyses of polymorphism between Arabidopsis autopolyploids (autotetraploids and autotriploids) and related diploids within the first ten successive inbred generations using amplified fragment length polymorphism...
December 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597395/correlates-and-catalysts-of-hominin-evolution-in-africa
#9
Jeffrey K McKee
Hominin evolution in the African Pliocene and Pleistocene was accompanied and mediated by changes in the abiotic and biotic spheres. It has been hypothesized that such environmental changes were catalysts of hominin morphological evolution and speciations. Whereas there is little doubt that ecological changes were relevant to shaping the trajectories of mammalian evolution, testing specific hypotheses with data from the fossil record has yielded ambiguous results regarding environmental disruption as a primary catalyst...
December 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578464/efficient-modelling-of-foliage-distribution-and-crown-dynamics-in-monolayer-tree-species
#10
Robert Beyer
In response to the computational limitations of individual leaf-based tree growth models, this article presents a new approach for the efficient characterisation of the spatial distribution of foliage in monolayered trees in terms of 2D foliage surfaces. Much like the recently introduced 3D leaf area density, this concept accommodates local crown plasticity, which is a common weak point in large-scale growth models. Recognizing phototropism as the predominant driver of spatial crown expansion, we define the local light gradient on foliage surfaces...
December 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527128/introduction-to-the-second-special-issue-in-commemoration-of-olaf-breidbach
#11
EDITORIAL
Jürgen Jost
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497196/an-objective-view-of-biological-diversity-how-history-and-epistemology-shaped-current-treatment
#12
Anderson A Eduardo, Ricardo Carmo
The concept of biological diversity has inspired important discussions throughout the history of ecology. Although its meaning and usefulness have been questioned, it is currently one of the key artifacts of ecology. One way to try to understand why such a concept has undergone so many discussions is to examine its emergence and history from the epistemology perspective. In the present work, we investigated how the emergence of mechanical objectivity (as an epistemic virtue) and trained judgment affected how ecologists address the concept of biological diversity...
December 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488159/arbitrariness-is-not-enough-towards-a-functional-approach-to-the-genetic-code
#13
Ľudmila Lacková, Vladimír Matlach, Dan Faltýnek
Arbitrariness in the genetic code is one of the main reasons for a linguistic approach to molecular biology: the genetic code is usually understood as an arbitrary relation between amino acids and nucleobases. However, from a semiotic point of view, arbitrariness should not be the only condition for definition of a code, consequently it is not completely correct to talk about "code" in this case. Yet we suppose that there exist a code in the process of protein synthesis, but on a higher level than the nucleic bases chains...
December 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470443/a-simple-game-theoretic-model-for-upstream-fish-migration
#14
Hidekazu Yoshioka
A simple game-theoretic model for upstream fish migration, which is a key element in life history of diadromous fishes, is proposed. Foundation of the model is a minimization problem on the cost of migration with the swimming speed and school size as the variables to be simultaneously optimized. Finding the optimizer ultimately reduces to solving a self-consistency equation without explicit solutions. Mathematical analytical results lead to the sufficient condition that the self-consistency equation has a unique solution, which turns out to be identified with the condition where the unique optimizer exists...
December 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160202/the-invariance-of-production-per-unit-of-food-consumed-in-fish-populations
#15
R Wiff, M A Barrientos, A M Segura, A C Milessi
The amount of biomass production per unit of food consumed (P/Q) represents an important quantity in ecosystem functioning, because it indicates how efficient a population transforms ingested food into biomass. Several investigations have noticed that P/Q remains relatively constant (or invariant) across fish population that feed at the same food-type level (carnivorous/herbivorous). Nevertheless, theoretical explanation for this invariant is still lacking. In this paper, we demonstrate that P/Q remains invariant across fish populations with stable-age distribution...
December 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995440/the-hologenome-concept-we-need-to-incorporate-function
#16
Francesco Catania, Ulrich Krohs, Marco Chittò, Diana Ferro, Kevin Ferro, Gildas Lepennetier, Hans-Dieter Görtz, Rebecca S Schreiber, Joachim Kurtz, Jürgen Gadau
Are we in the midst of a paradigm change in biology and have animals and plants lost their individuality, i.e., are even so-called 'typical' organisms no longer organisms in their own right? Is the study of the holobiont-host plus its symbiotic microorganisms-no longer optional, but rather an obligatory path that must be taken for a comprehensive understanding of the ecology and evolution of the individual components that make up a holobiont? Or are associated microbes merely a component of their host's environment, and the holobiont concept is just a beautiful idea that does not add much or anything to our understanding of evolution? This article explores different aspects of the concept of the holobiont...
December 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569346/relations-and-dependencies-between-morphological-characters
#17
Jürgen Jost
In biological classification, a character is a property of a taxon that can distinguish it from other taxa. Characters are not independent, and the relations between characters can arise from structural constraints, developmental pathways or functional constraints. That has lead to famous controversies in the history of biology. In addition, a character as a tool of data analysis has some subjective aspects. In this contribution, I develop algebraic and geometric schemes to address these issues in a mathematical framework...
June 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229335/knowledge
#18
Jürgen Jost
We investigate the basic principles of structural knowledge. Structural knowledge underlies cognition, and it organizes, selects and assigns meaning to information. It is the result of evolutionary, cultural and developmental processes. Because of its own constraints, it needs to discover and exploit regularities and thereby achieve a complexity reduction.
June 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224466/the-biogenetic-law-in-zoology-from-ernst-haeckel-s-formulation-to-current-approaches
#19
Lennart Olsson, Georgy S Levit, Uwe Hoßfeld
150 years ago, in 1866, Ernst Haeckel published a book in two volumes called "Generelle Morphologie der Organismen" (General Morphology of Organisms) in which he formulated his biogenetic law, famously stating that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. Here we describe Haeckel's original idea and follow its development in the thinking of two scientists inspired by Haeckel, Alexei Sewertzoff and Adolf Naef. Sewertzoff and Naef initially approached the problem of reformulating Haeckel's law in similar ways, and formulated comparable hypotheses at a purely descriptive level...
June 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766483/beyond-borders-on-the-influence-of-the-creationist-movement-on-the-educational-landscape-in-the-usa-and-russia
#20
Elizabeth Watts, Uwe Hossfeld, Irina Tolstikova, Georgy S Levit
This paper provides a detailed look at how creationism originated in the United States and then explores how this evangelical trend was exported to Russia by American missionaries following the fall of the USSR. The comparison between these two countries is particularly interesting since the rivalry between the US and the USSR during the race to space caused both countries to revamp their science education. Yet, while political interests led both governments to focus on science education, creationist activities were simultaneously focused on diminishing the coverage of evolution in science classrooms...
June 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
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