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Transcultural Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956478/pharmacological-treatment-of-refugees-with-trauma-related-disorders-what-do-we-know-today
#1
REVIEW
Charlotte Sonne, Jessica Carlsson, Per Bech, Erik Lykke Mortensen
There is a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment for refugees with trauma-related disorders. The present paper provides an overview of available literature on the subject and discusses the transferability of results from studies on other groups of patients with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted a systematic review of published treatment outcome studies on PTSD and depression among refugees. Fifteen studies were identified and reviewed. Most studies focused on the use of antidepressants...
December 12, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157448/the-lived-experience-of-paroled-offenders-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-and-comorbid-psychiatric-disorder
#2
Caroline L Tait, Mansfield Mela, Garth Boothman, Melissa A Stoops
This case study presents the life history and postincarceration experiences of two forensic psychiatric patients diagnosed with comorbid mental illness and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The men first met in prison and a few years after their release became roommates at the suggestion of their community support worker and parole officer. With shared and coordinated clinical and mentorship supports, the men were able to establish stability in their lives and manage their mental illness. However, changes in support and gaps within the continuum of care contributed to a sudden breakdown in their stability...
February 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157447/can-we-really-use-available-scales-for-child-and-adolescent-psychopathology-across-cultures-a-systematic-review-of-cross-cultural-measurement-invariance-data
#3
Dejan Stevanovic, Peyman Jafari, Rajna Knez, Tomislav Franic, Olayinka Atilola, Nikolina Davidovic, Zahra Bagheri, Aneta Lakic
In this systematic review, we assessed available evidence for cross-cultural measurement invariance of assessment scales for child and adolescent psychopathology as an indicator of cross-cultural validity. A literature search was conducted using the Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. Cross-cultural measurement invariance data was available for 26 scales. Based on the aggregation of the evidence from the studies under review, none of the evaluated scales have strong evidence for cross-cultural validity and suitability for cross-cultural comparison...
February 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157446/implementation-of-the-cultural-formulation-through-a-newly-developed-brief-cultural-interview-pilot-data-from-the-netherlands
#4
Simon P N Groen, Annemiek Richters, Cornelis J Laban, Walter L J M Devillé
The Outline for a Cultural Formulation (OCF) has remained underutilized in clinical practice since its publication in the DSM-IV in 1994. In the Netherlands, a Cultural Interview (CI) was developed in 2002 as a tool to facilitate use of the OCF in clinical practice. The time needed to conduct the interview, however, prevented its systematic implementation within mental health institutions. This article presents the development of a shortened and adapted version, the Brief Cultural Interview (BCI), and a pilot study on the feasibility, acceptability, and utility of its implementation with refugee and asylum seeking patients in a Dutch centre for transcultural psychiatry...
February 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121243/local-terms-and-understandings-of-mental-health-problems-in-burundi
#5
Pacifique Irankunda, Laurie Heatherington, Jessica Fitts
A pilot study and two intensive studies were conducted to document the local vocabularies used by Burundians to describe mental health problems and their understandings about the causes. The pilot study-in which 14 different large groups of community members awaiting appointments at a village health clinic were engaged in open-ended discussions of the local terminology and causal beliefs about mental health problems-suggested three key syndromes: akabonge (a set of depression-like symptoms), guhahamuka (a set of trauma-related symptoms), and ibisigo (a set of psychosis-like symptoms)...
February 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116981/pastoral-care-of-mental-illness-and-the-accommodation-of-african-christian-beliefs-and-practices-by-uk-clergy
#6
Gerard Leavey, Kate Loewenthal, Michael King
Faith-based organisations, especially those related to specific ethnic or migrant groups, are increasingly viewed by secular Western government agencies as potential collaborators in community health and welfare programmes. Although clergy are often called upon to provide mental health pastoral care, their response to such problems remains relatively unexamined. This paper examines how clergy working in multiethnic settings do not always have the answers that people want, or perhaps need, to problems of misfortune and suffering...
February 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550374/-it-comes-down-to-just-how-human-someone-can-be-a-qualitative-study-with-young-people-from-refugee-backgrounds-about-their-experiences-of-australian-mental-health-services
#7
Madeleine C Valibhoy, Ida Kaplan, Josef Szwarc
While much literature documents the mental health needs of young people from refugee backgrounds, and the barriers they face in accessing mental health services, researchers have yet to document the perspectives of service users from this population about their contacts with clinicians and services. We therefore individually interviewed 16 young people (aged 18-25 years) who were refugees about their experiences of seeing mental health professionals. Participants were born in 9 different countries and had lived in Australia for an average of 5...
February 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317669/mental-health-treatment-outcome-expectancies-in-burundi
#8
Pacifique Irankunda, Laurie Heatherington
Best practices in global mental health stress the importance of understanding local values and beliefs. Research demonstrates that expectancies about the effectiveness of a given treatment significantly predicts outcome, beyond the treatment effect itself. To help inform the development of mental health interventions in Burundi, we studied expectancies about the effectiveness of four treatments: spiritual healing, traditional healing, medication, and selected evidence-based psychosocial treatments widely used in the US...
February 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815437/special-competencies-for-psychological-assessment-of-torture-survivors
#9
Kirby Huminuik
In spite of the absolute prohibition against torture in international law, this grave human rights abuse is still practiced systematically and with impunity in the majority of countries around the world. Mental health professionals can play a positive role in the fight against torture and impunity, by developing competencies to assess the psychological sequelae of torture. High-quality psychological evidence can help to substantiate allegations of torture, thereby increasing the likelihood of success in civil, administrative, and criminal proceedings...
November 4, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777280/ground-zero-ontology-recognition-and-the-elusiveness-of-care-in-american-eating-disorders-treatment
#10
Rebecca J Lester
This paper reflects upon questions of ontological contingency when the stark, visceral reality of a person's relentless self-destruction unfolds within institutional mechanisms that systematically withhold certain kinds of care. I consider these issues through the lens of "manipulation" as it is elaborated within an American eating disorders treatment center, where the notion of manipulation does particular kinds of affective and pragmatic work. Specifically, it serves to render clients as, paradoxically, both hyper-agentic and "agentically challenged" in ways that legitimate the withholding of their recognition as full subjects and therefore deserving of care...
October 24, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756829/eliezer-witztum-nimrod-grisaru-eds-social-cultural-and-clinical-aspects-of-ethiopian-immigrants-in-israel
#11
Maya Fennig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516469/indigenous-identity-transformations-the-pivotal-role-of-student-to-student-abuse-in-indian-residential-schools
#12
Kimberly Matheson, Amy Bombay, S Alexander Haslam, Hymie Anisman
Embracing a shared social identity typically serves to protect group members in the face of threats. However, under some conditions, intragroup dynamics are diverted so that instead, they contribute to disturbances in collective well-being. The present analysis applies a social identity framework to understand how intragroup processes elicited in Indian Residential Schools (IRS) altered the capacity of Indigenous peoples to overcome damage to their identity and collective functioning. With the alleged goal of assimilating the Indigenous population, residential schools in Canada entailed the forced removal of Indigenous children from their communities...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510926/does-culture-impact-on-notions-of-criminal-responsibility-and-action-the-case-of-spirit-possession
#13
Ayesha Ahmad, Simon Dein
Multicultural societies such as the United Kingdom are host to people with diverse belief systems and behavioral norms. Whilst a country requires that all members of society conform to standardized legal requirements, cases arise that involve certain complexities related to the cultural or religious context in which a certain action was committed. This paper addresses the impact of culture on notions of criminal responsibility and action. Through a case study of a recent event in the United Kingdom, we explore whether a cultural defense is relevant for contextualizing incidents in which an individual commits a criminal action during an alleged period of spirit possession From this analysis, we suggest that using a cultural defense can aid understanding of an individual's relationship to the society that he or she identifies with and facilitate the practice of justice in a multicultural society...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507761/contextualizing-afghan-refugee-views-of-depression-through-narratives-of-trauma-resettlement-stress-and-coping
#14
Qais Alemi, Sigrid James, Susanne Montgomery
This qualitative study explored how Afghan refugees conceptualize frames of mind that may reflect depression in general and as it relates to trauma they experienced. We performed in-depth interviews with 18 Afghans residing in the San Diego area. Views regarding the causes, symptoms, and perceived treatments of depression were gathered through free-listing techniques, and supplemented with narratives relating to pre- and post-resettlement stressors and coping mechanisms. Data were analyzed with standard qualitative content analysis methods...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507760/a-xhosa-language-translation-of-the-core-om-using-south-african-university-student-samples
#15
Megan M Campbell, Charles Young
The translation of well established psychometric tools from English into Xhosa may assist in improving access to psychological services for Xhosa speakers. The aim of this study was to translate the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), a measure of general distress and dysfunction developed in the UK, into Xhosa for use at South African university student counselling centres. The CORE-OM and embedded CORE-10 were translated into Xhosa using a five-stage translation design. This design included (a) forward-translation, (b) back-translation, (c) committee approach, (d) qualitative piloting, and (e) quantitative piloting on South African university students...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470483/political-and-economic-transformations-in-ukraine-the-view-from-psychiatry
#16
Shelly Yankovskyy
This article examines contemporary Ukrainian psychiatry through the voices of patients, practitioners, and advocates, focusing on shifting objects of knowledge, interventions, and institutional transitions. Currently, we are witnessing the reconfiguration of psychiatry on a global scale through neoliberal rhetoric combined with the call for global mental health. The goal of the movement for global mental health is to scale up psychiatric treatments through greater access to psychiatric drugs, justified through the framing of distress as an illness...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460986/pathways-to-mental-healthcare-in-south-eastern-nigeria
#17
Ugo Ikwuka, Niall Galbraith, Ken Manktelow, Josephine Chen-Wilson, Femi Oyebode, Rosemary Chizobam Muomah, Anulika Igboaka
In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional and faith healers provide competing services alongside biomedical professionals. This may be associated with delays in reaching specialised mental health services, and hence with longer duration of untreated illness. As first line care constitutes a crucial stage in accessing of psychiatric care, investigating pathways to mental healthcare can highlight help-seeking choices. This study explored the pathways to care for mental illness preferred by a non-clinical sample of the population in south-eastern Nigeria...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460985/how-patients-and-clinicians-make-meaning-of-physical-suffering-in-mental-health-evaluations
#18
Nicholas J Carson, Arlene M Katz, Margarita AlegrĂ­a
Clinicians in community mental health settings frequently evaluate individuals suffering from physical health problems. How patients make meaning of such "comorbidity" can affect mental health in ways that may be influenced by cultural expectations and by the responses of clinicians, with implications for delivering culturally sensitive care. A sample of 30 adult mental health intakes exemplifying physical illness assessment was identified from a larger study of patient-provider communication. The recordings of patient-provider interactions were coded using an information checklist containing 21 physical illness items...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330026/healing-through-giving-testimony-an-empirical-study-with-sri-lankan-torture-survivors
#19
Teresa S Puvimanasinghe, Ian R Price
Sri Lanka has recently emerged from a three decade long civil war between government forces and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Behind the actual arena of conflict, forms of organised violence were often perpetrated on ordinary Sri Lankans who came into contact with law enforcement officials and other state authorities. The effects of these encounters on mental health, well-being, and community participation can be severe and long-lasting. Considering the generally poor availability of mental health services in many low-income countries, brief efficient interventions are required to enhance the lives of individuals and their families affected by torture, trauma, or displacement...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510925/disappearing-the-asylum-modernizing-psychiatry-and-generating-manpower-in-india
#20
Saiba Varma
In recent years, the Movement for Global Mental Health (MGMH) and the World Health Organization have worked closely with governments across the global South to redress major treatment gaps to improve access to mental health services. In India, recent reforms include transforming public psychiatric institutions from sites of treatment to research and training institutes, known as "Centres of Excellence," to combat acute manpower shortages and modernize psychiatry. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork at a public psychiatric hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir, one of the institutions selected to be a future "Centre of Excellence," this article focuses on how these reforms have affected psychiatric institutions themselves...
August 10, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
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