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Transcultural Psychiatry

Yi-Feng Carol Lan, Diane C Zelman, Wen-Tao Chao
Bipolar disorder (BD) affects a significant proportion of Taiwanese individuals (Weissman et al., 1996; Yang, Yeh, & Hwu, 2012). Psychotropic medications are typically the mainstay of treatment for BD, and there is an abundance of international research on biological etiology and medication options. However, there is comparatively little research on psychosocial aspects of BD, including how it is understood and managed within families. As culture provides the context in which psychiatric disease is managed, there is a need to identify distinct Chinese psychosocial perspectives that might shed light on intervention options...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Tambri Housen, Annick Lenglet, Cono Ariti, Shabnum Ara, Showkat Shah, Maqbool Dar, Arshad Hussain, Altaf Paul, Zahoor Wagay, Kerri Viney, Simon Janes, Giovanni Pintaldi
The present study aimed to culturally adapt, translate, and validate the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Checklist (HTQ-16) prior to use in a cross-sectional mental health population survey in the Kashmir Valley. Cultural adaptation and translation of the HSCL-25 and the HTQ-16 employed multiple forms of transcultural validity check. The HSCL-25 and HTQ-16 were compared against a "gold standard" structured psychiatric interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Vladimir D Mendelevich
This article examines the psychiatric and political issues surrounding the case of the controversial Russian performance artist Pyotr Pavlensky, who received a number of court-ordered psychiatric evaluations as part of the legal actions initiated subsequent to his political protest actions. The author presents the results of his own clinical investigation into Pavlensky's case, arguing that previous diagnoses made by psychiatrists were unwarranted and unreasonable. This case draws the attention of experts to a problem: the need for more accurate criteria for the differentiation of behavioral disorders from behavior understood locally as socially-deviant...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Marco Aurélio Vinhosa Bastos, Paulo Roberto Haidamus de Oliveira Bastos, Igraíne Helena Scholz Osório, Sérgio Augusto Monteiro Pinheiro, Décio Iandoli, Giancarlo Lucchetti
Mediumship and spirit possession are cultural phenomena found in many societies worldwide. In Brazil, Spiritism (a tradition in which mediumship is emphasized) is the third largest religious denomination. The present study aimed to investigate physiologic correlates of nonpathological dissociative experiences by comparing 20 female spiritist mediums with several years of socially sanctioned practice to 20 female nonmedium control subjects from the same religious context. We measured plasma levels of hormones and neuroactive substances, as well as vital signs and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters, before and immediately after spirit communication...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Abdelwahed Mekki-Berrada
Morocco has become a permanent transit country for tens of thousands of sub-Saharan migrants heading to Europe. Many of these migrants are women who have a precarious legal status and can no longer reach Europe, whose borders have been considerably securitized since September 11, 2001. They also have no wish to risk their lives again returning south across the Sahara Desert. This paper discusses the results of an exploratory research project conducted in Morocco on the relationships between the sub-Saharan migrant women's traumatic experiences, social invisibility, and emotional distress in the context of a massive securitization of Euro-Mediterranean borders...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Ashley E Nordsletten, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, Elena Aluco, Pino Alonso, Clara López-Solà, José M Menchón, Tomohiro Nakao, Masumi Kuwano, Satoshi Yamada, Leonardo F Fontenelle, André Luís Campos-Lima, David Mataix-Cols
Though problematic hoarding is believed to be a universal human behavior, investigations of clinically-defined hoarding disorder (HD) have been confined almost exclusively to Western countries. The current investigation sought to describe and directly compare the features of individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for HD across four distinct cultural settings. Participants were 82 individuals meeting DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for HD, recruited and assessed by trained clinicians at one of four project sites: London, Barcelona, Fukuoka, and Rio de Janeiro...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Rebecca S Hock, Tamar Mendelson, Pamela J Surkan, Judith K Bass, Catherine P Bradshaw, Michelle J Hindin
Incidence of depressive disorders and symptoms increases during the transition to adulthood. The parenting relationship is a potential target for interventions to reduce risk for depression in offspring during this time period, and a four-category typology of parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, and neglectful) has been found to correlate with offspring psychological functioning. The majority of studies, however, have examined this four-category parenting style typology in Western populations...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Melissa Taitimu, John Read, Tracey McIntosh
This project explored how Māori understand experiences commonly labelled "schizophrenic" or "psychotic". Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 57 Māori participants who had either personal experiences labelled as "psychosis" or "schizophrenia", or who work with people with such experiences; including tangata whaiora (users of mental health services), tohunga (traditional healers), kaumatua/kuia (elders), Māori clinicians, cultural support workers and students...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Bianca Brijnath, Josefine Antoniades
This article applies the framework of moral experience to examine the cultural experience of stigma with Indian-Australians and Anglo-Australians living with depression in Melbourne, Australia. To date few studies have examined this dynamic in relation to mental illness and culture, and no studies have applied this framework in a culturally comparative way. Based on 58 in-depth interviews with people with depression recruited from the community, we explicate how stigma modulates what is at stake upon disclosure of depression, participants' lived experience following that disclosure, and how practices of health-seeking become stigmatised...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Jill Murphy, Elliot Goldner, Kitty K Corbett, Marina Morrow, Vu Cong Nguyen, Dang Thuy Linh, Pham Thi Oanh
The purpose of this qualitative study was to elicit the explanatory models (EMs) of primary healthcare providers (PHPs) in Vietnam in order to (a) understand if and how the concept of depression is understood in Vietnam from the perspective of nonspecialist providers and community members, and (b) to inform the process of introducing services for depression in primary care in Vietnam. We conducted semistructured interviews with 30 PHPs in one rural and one urban district of Hanoi, Vietnam in 2014. We found that although PHPs possess low levels of formal knowledge about depression, they provide consistent accounts of its symptoms and aetiology among their patient population, suggesting that depression is a relevant concept in Vietnam...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Lonzozou Kpanake
People in different cultures have different concepts of the person that underlie self-understanding and self-representation. These concepts influence many aspects of individuals' life experience, including illness and expectations toward recovery. Psychotherapies aim to promote adaptive change in experience and behavior. This goal is embedded in a social and cultural context that promotes or sanctions a particular notion of personhood. If every system of psychotherapy depends on implicit models of personhood, which varies cross-culturally, then the goals and methods of therapeutic change must consider the cultural concept of the person...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Sarah L Fraser, Valérie Parent, Véronique Dupéré
Inuit communities of Canada experience many disparities in health and psychosocial context. Research in community psychology has shown associations between such socio-ecological factors and individual well-being. The objective of the study was to explore how community-level determinants of well-being influence family well-being in a northern community of Nunavik, Quebec. A total of 14 participants were interviewed. A thematic inductive analysis was conducted to extract community determinants of family well-being from the data...
February 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Tania Salvo, Amanda C de C Williams
Lack of proficiency in the language of the host country predicts distress among refugees, but many refugees and asylum seekers in the United Kingdom have less than functional English. This study examined how learning English affected refugees' and asylum seekers' lives, particularly their emotional wellbeing, to explore what factors, particularly psychological ones, facilitated or impeded their learning English. We recruited 16 refugees and asylum seekers from an inner-city National Health Service trauma service and from a charity providing one-to-one English classes...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
Hinuga Sandahl, Erik Vindbjerg, Jessica Carlsson
Sleep disturbances are often referred to as the hallmark of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Although PTSD is prevalent in refugees, studies on sleep disturbances in trauma-affected refugees are scarce. This article presents the results of two studies: a systematic review of the literature on treatment of sleep disturbances in adult trauma-affected refugees and a study of the role of sleep disturbances in the PTSD symptom structure. Study 1, the literature review, identified five studies on treatment of sleep disturbances: four studies were on pharmacological treatment and one study on music therapy...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
Yok-Fong Paat, Rachel Green
The debates on the mental health benefits associated with immigration are mixed. On the one hand, immigrants are provided with more opportunities not available in their home countries. On the other hand, they are far away from home and may have been exposed to traumatic experiences on their journeys to the receiving country. Even after settling down in the receiving country, most continue to face legal battles associated with their immigration status, as shown in this study. This study examined the risk and protective factors associated with the mental health conditions in a sample of 39 immigrants and refugees seeking legal services on the US-Mexico border...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
Hyojin Im, Aidan Ferguson, Margaret Hunter
Westernized approaches to mental health care often place limited emphasis on refugees' own experiences and cultural explanations of symptoms and distress. In order to effectively assess community mental health needs and develop interventions grounded in local needs, mental health programs need to be informed by an understanding of cultural features of mental health, including cultural idioms of distress (CIDs). The current study aims to explore CIDs among Somali refugees displaced in Kenya to understand mental health needs in cultural context and serve the community in a culturally responsive and sensitive manner...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
F Jackie June Ter Heide, Marieke Sleijpen, Niels van der Aa
The clinical relevance of negative changes in cognitions about oneself, others, and the world is reflected in the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the DSM-5 and complex posttraumatic stress disorder in the ICD-11. Although such changes in cognition have been posited to be especially relevant for traumatised refugees, few studies have examined this in refugee populations. The present study used a cross-sectional design to compare negative cognitions among 213 adult treatment-seeking refugees with those in previously published samples from the general population, veterans with combat-related PTSD, and whiplash victims...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
Lindokuhle Thela, Andrew Tomita, Varsha Maharaj, Mpho Mhlongo, Jonathan K Burns
There are few studies on the role of migration within sub-Saharan Africa and its relation to the development of mental illness. We investigated post-resettlement adaptation and mental health challenges of African refugees/migrants in Durban, South Africa. We interviewed 335 African help-seeking refugees/migrants for anxiety, depression (25-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (30-item Harvard Trauma Questionnaire). Socio-demographic and migration history, focusing on post-migration circumstances and experiences of discrimination in the host country, were obtained...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
Maria Belz, Michael Belz, Ibrahim Özkan, Iris T Graef-Calliess
In 2015, a large number of refugees arrived in Germany, mostly driven to emigrate by devastating circumstances in their countries of origin. Arriving refugees are distributed to reception centers within the German federal states, frequently facing marginal conditions in terms of overcrowding or waiting time of several months until their application for asylum is processed. Most of these refugees underwent numerous traumatizing experiences-both in their country of origin and while fleeing from their country of origin...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
Naama Kiat, Rafael Youngmann, Ido Lurie
Israel has become a destination for asylum seekers. Asylum seekers often experience emotional distress, but have limited access to health services and rarely use psychiatric services. This study sought to understand and characterize the use of psychiatric versus medical services by asylum seekers in Israel. We compared the emotional distress, stressful life events and previous treatment consultations of 21 psychiatric service users (PSU) and 55 medical service users (MSU) at the Open Clinic of Physicians for Human Rights in Tel-Aviv...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
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