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Transcultural Psychiatry

Maya Fennig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Madeleine C Valibhoy, Ida Kaplan, Josef Szwarc
While much literature documents the mental health needs of young people from refugee backgrounds, and the barriers they face in accessing mental health services, researchers have yet to document the perspectives of service users from this population about their contacts with clinicians and services. We therefore individually interviewed 16 young people (aged 18-25 years) who were refugees about their experiences of seeing mental health professionals. Participants were born in 9 different countries and had lived in Australia for an average of 5...
August 22, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Saiba Varma
In recent years, the Movement for Global Mental Health (MGMH) and the World Health Organization have worked closely with governments across the global South to redress major treatment gaps to improve access to mental health services. In India, recent reforms include transforming public psychiatric institutions from sites of treatment to research and training institutes, known as "Centres of Excellence," to combat acute manpower shortages and modernize psychiatry. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork at a public psychiatric hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir, one of the institutions selected to be a future "Centre of Excellence," this article focuses on how these reforms have affected psychiatric institutions themselves...
August 10, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Kimberly Matheson, Amy Bombay, S Alexander Haslam, Hymie Anisman
Embracing a shared social identity typically serves to protect group members in the face of threats. However, under some conditions, intragroup dynamics are diverted so that instead, they contribute to disturbances in collective well-being. The present analysis applies a social identity framework to understand how intragroup processes elicited in Indian Residential Schools (IRS) altered the capacity of Indigenous peoples to overcome damage to their identity and collective functioning. With the alleged goal of assimilating the Indigenous population, residential schools in Canada entailed the forced removal of Indigenous children from their communities...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Ayesha Ahmad, Simon Dein
Multicultural societies such as the United Kingdom are host to people with diverse belief systems and behavioral norms. Whilst a country requires that all members of society conform to standardized legal requirements, cases arise that involve certain complexities related to the cultural or religious context in which a certain action was committed. This paper addresses the impact of culture on notions of criminal responsibility and action. Through a case study of a recent event in the United Kingdom, we explore whether a cultural defense is relevant for contextualizing incidents in which an individual commits a criminal action during an alleged period of spirit possession From this analysis, we suggest that using a cultural defense can aid understanding of an individual's relationship to the society that he or she identifies with and facilitate the practice of justice in a multicultural society...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Qais Alemi, Sigrid James, Susanne Montgomery
This qualitative study explored how Afghan refugees conceptualize frames of mind that may reflect depression in general and as it relates to trauma they experienced. We performed in-depth interviews with 18 Afghans residing in the San Diego area. Views regarding the causes, symptoms, and perceived treatments of depression were gathered through free-listing techniques, and supplemented with narratives relating to pre- and post-resettlement stressors and coping mechanisms. Data were analyzed with standard qualitative content analysis methods...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Megan M Campbell, Charles Young
The translation of well established psychometric tools from English into Xhosa may assist in improving access to psychological services for Xhosa speakers. The aim of this study was to translate the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), a measure of general distress and dysfunction developed in the UK, into Xhosa for use at South African university student counselling centres. The CORE-OM and embedded CORE-10 were translated into Xhosa using a five-stage translation design. This design included (a) forward-translation, (b) back-translation, (c) committee approach, (d) qualitative piloting, and (e) quantitative piloting on South African university students...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Shelly Yankovskyy
This article examines contemporary Ukrainian psychiatry through the voices of patients, practitioners, and advocates, focusing on shifting objects of knowledge, interventions, and institutional transitions. Currently, we are witnessing the reconfiguration of psychiatry on a global scale through neoliberal rhetoric combined with the call for global mental health. The goal of the movement for global mental health is to scale up psychiatric treatments through greater access to psychiatric drugs, justified through the framing of distress as an illness...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Ugo Ikwuka, Niall Galbraith, Ken Manktelow, Josephine Chen-Wilson, Femi Oyebode, Rosemary Chizobam Muomah, Anulika Igboaka
In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional and faith healers provide competing services alongside biomedical professionals. This may be associated with delays in reaching specialised mental health services, and hence with longer duration of untreated illness. As first line care constitutes a crucial stage in accessing of psychiatric care, investigating pathways to mental healthcare can highlight help-seeking choices. This study explored the pathways to care for mental illness preferred by a non-clinical sample of the population in south-eastern Nigeria...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Nicholas J Carson, Arlene M Katz, Margarita Alegría
Clinicians in community mental health settings frequently evaluate individuals suffering from physical health problems. How patients make meaning of such "comorbidity" can affect mental health in ways that may be influenced by cultural expectations and by the responses of clinicians, with implications for delivering culturally sensitive care. A sample of 30 adult mental health intakes exemplifying physical illness assessment was identified from a larger study of patient-provider communication. The recordings of patient-provider interactions were coded using an information checklist containing 21 physical illness items...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Teresa S Puvimanasinghe, Ian R Price
Sri Lanka has recently emerged from a three decade long civil war between government forces and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Behind the actual arena of conflict, forms of organised violence were often perpetrated on ordinary Sri Lankans who came into contact with law enforcement officials and other state authorities. The effects of these encounters on mental health, well-being, and community participation can be severe and long-lasting. Considering the generally poor availability of mental health services in many low-income countries, brief efficient interventions are required to enhance the lives of individuals and their families affected by torture, trauma, or displacement...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Neely Anne Laurenzo Myers
Moral agency has been loosely defined as the freedom to aspire to a "good life" that makes possible intimate relationships with others. This article uses ethnographic research to further the discussion of the role of moral agency in mental health recovery. This article attends to the ebb and flow of moral agency in the life stories of three people diagnosed with a serious psychiatric disability at different stages in their individual recoveries to illustrate particular aspects of moral agency relevant for recovery...
August 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Neely Myers, Rebecca Lester, Kim Hopper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Angela Garcia, Brian Anderson
Informal, coercive residential centers for the treatment of addiction are widespread and growing throughout Latin America. In Mexico these centers are called "anexos" and they are run and utilized by low-income individuals and families with problems related to drugs and alcohol. This article draws on findings from a 3-year anthropological study of anexos in Mexico City. Participant observation and in-depth interviews were used to describe and analyze anexos, their therapeutic practices, and residents' own accounts of addiction and recovery...
August 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Nev Jones, Timothy Kelly, Mona Shattell
There is a growing literature on what contemporary cultural theorists have broadly termed the "postsecular": the abandonment of clear-cut boundaries between the secular and nonsecular in the industrialized West and an embrace of a complex understanding of what is real that neither accepts nor rejects the supernatural. These new cultural currents may affect not only philosophers and theologians, but also the ways in which individuals with psychosis make sense of their experiences. This paper reports on the key findings of an in-depth qualitative analysis of 19 interviews of individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorders...
August 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Sonia Mendoza, Allyssa S Rivera-Cabrero, Helena Hansen
Growing nonmedical prescription opioid analgesic use among suburban and rural Whites has changed the public's perception of the nature of opioid addiction, and of appropriate interventions. Opioid addiction has been recast as a biological disorder in which patients are victims of their neurotransmitters and opioid prescribers are irresponsible purveyors of dangerous substances requiring controls. This framing has led to a different set of policy responses than the "War on Drugs" that has focused on heroin trade in poor urban communities; in response to prescription opioid addiction, prescription drug monitoring programs and tamper-resistant opioid formulations have arisen as primary interventions in place of law enforcement...
August 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Leah G Pope, Lauren Cubellis, Kim Hopper
As applied anthropologists used to working at arm's length from public psychiatry, we step out of the daily grind to take stock of the challenges of taking on ethnography entrained-harnessed to the implementation of a new program. These include the loss of critical distance, the struggles to negotiate locally viable forms of authority and relevance, the necessity of sustaining a Janus-faced relation with principal players, the urgency of seeing time-sensitive information converted into corrective feedback, and the undeniable attraction of being part of "committed work" with game-changing potential...
August 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Ghayda Hassan, Abdelwahed Mekki-Berrada, Cécile Rousseau, Gabrielle Lyonnais-Lafond, Uzma Jamil, Janet Cleveland
This paper discusses results from a pilot study conducted in the spring of 2014 among young adults living in Montreal. The main objective of this study was to assess the relation between perception of the Charter of Quebec Values,(1) self-identification, perception of intercommunity relations, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in young students enrolled in undergraduate or graduate programs of a francophone university in Montreal. A total of 441 students (30.5% male, 69.5% female) took part in a web survey designed by the research team...
July 14, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Pacifique Irankunda, Laurie Heatherington
Best practices in global mental health stress the importance of understanding local values and beliefs. Research demonstrates that expectancies about the effectiveness of a given treatment significantly predicts outcome, beyond the treatment effect itself. To help inform the development of mental health interventions in Burundi, we studied expectancies about the effectiveness of four treatments: spiritual healing, traditional healing, medication, and selected evidence-based psychosocial treatments widely used in the US...
June 17, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Emmanuel Delille
Henri Ellenberger (1905-1993) wrote the first French-language synthesis of transcultural psychiatry ("Ethno-psychiatrie") for the French Encyclopédie Médico-Chirurgicale in 1965. His work casts new light on the early development of transcultural psychiatry in relation to scientific communities and networks, particularly on the role of Georges Devereux (1908-1985). The Ellenberger archives offer the possibility of comparing published texts with archival ones to create a more nuanced account of the history of transcultural psychiatry, and notably of the psychological treatment of Native Americans...
June 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
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