Read by QxMD icon Read

Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions

Stephan Christel, Jimmy Fridlund, Elizabeth L Watkin, Mark Dopson
Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans is an acidophilic bacterium that represents a substantial proportion of the microbial community in a low temperature mining waste stream. Due to its ability to grow at temperatures below 15 °C, it has previously been classified as 'psychrotolerant'. Low temperature-adapted microorganisms have strategies to grow at cold temperatures such as the production of cold acclimation proteins, DEAD/DEAH box helicases, and compatible solutes plus increasing their cellular membrane fluidity...
October 25, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Masahiro Ito, Yuka Takahashi
Prior to 2008, all previously studied conventional bacterial flagellar motors appeared to utilize either H(+) or Na(+) as coupling ions. Membrane-embedded stator complexes support conversion of energy using transmembrane electrochemical ion gradients. The main H(+)-coupled stators, known as MotAB, differ from Na(+)-coupled stators, PomAB of marine bacteria, and MotPS of alkaliphilic Bacillus. However, in 2008, a MotAB-type flagellar motor of alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii KSM-K16 was revealed as an exception with the first dual-function motor...
October 22, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Lachin Mokhtarnejad, Mahdi Arzanlou, Asadollah Babai-Ahari, Simone Di Mauro, Andrea Onofri, Pietro Buzzini, Benedetta Turchetti
Urmia Lake, located in northwest Iran, is an oligotrophic and extremely hypersaline habitat that supports diverse forms of life. Owing to its unique biodiversity and special environmental conditions, Urmia Lake National Park has been designated as one of the biosphere reserves by UNESCO. This study was aimed to characterize basidiomycetous yeasts in hypersaline soils surrounding the Urmia Lake National Park using a polyphasic combination of molecular and physiological data. Soil samples were collected from eight sites in Lake Basin and six islands insides the lake...
October 21, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Tetsuo Kubota, Hajime Matsushita, Takeo Tomita, Saori Kosono, Minoru Yoshida, Tomohisa Kuzuyama, Makoto Nishiyama
Regulation of amino acid metabolism (RAM) domains are widely distributed among prokaryotes. In most cases, a RAM domain fuses with a DNA-binding domain to act as a transcriptional regulator. The extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus, only carries a single gene encoding a RAM domain-containing protein on its genome. This protein is a stand-alone RAM domain protein (SraA) lacking a DNA-binding domain. Therefore, we hypothesized that SraA, which senses amino acids through its RAM domain, may interact with other proteins to modify its functions...
October 19, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Yoichiro Sogame, Jun Okada, Shingo Kikuta, Yugo Miyata, Richard Cornette, Oleg Gusev, Takahiro Kikawada
Larvae of the African midge Polypedilum vanderplanki show extreme desiccation tolerance, known as anhydrobiosis. Recently, the cultured cell line Pv11 was derived from this species; Pv11 cells can be preserved in the dry state for over 6 months and retain their proliferation potential. Here, we attempted to expand the use of Pv11 cells as a model to investigate the mechanisms underlying anhydrobiosis in P. vanderplanki. A newly developed vector comprising a constitutive promoter for the PvGapdh gene allowed the expression of exogenous proteins in Pv11 cells...
October 18, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Asmaa R Abdel-Hamed, Dina M Abo-Elmatty, Juergen Wiegel, Noha M Mesbah
An extracellular, halophilic, alkalithermophilic serine protease from the halo-alkaliphilic Alkalibacillus sp. NM-Da2 was purified to homogeneity by ethanol precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protease was a monomeric enzyme with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa and exhibited maximal activity at 2.7 M NaCl, pH(55 °C) 9 and 56 °C. The protease showed great temperature stability, retaining greater than 80 % of initial activity after 2 h incubation at 55 °C. The protease was also extremely pH tolerant, retaining 80 % of initial activity at pH(55 °C) 10...
October 18, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Tamotsu Kanai, Ayako Yasukochi, Jan-Robert Simons, Joseph Walker Scott, Wakao Fukuda, Tadayuki Imanaka, Haruyuki Atomi
The maturation of [NiFe]-hydrogenases requires a number of accessory proteins, which include hydrogenase-specific endopeptidases. The endopeptidases carry out the final cleavage reaction of the C-terminal regions of [NiFe]-hydrogenase large subunit precursors. The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis harbors two [NiFe]-hydrogenases, a cytoplasmic Hyh and a membrane-bound Mbh, along with two putative hydrogenase-specific endopeptidase genes. In this study, we carried out a genetic examination on the two endopeptidase genes, TK2004 and TK2066...
October 13, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
D Y Sorokin, N A Chernyh
Propionate can be directly oxidized anaerobically with sulfate as e-acceptor at haloalkaline conditions either incompletely to acetate (an example is Desulfobulbus alkaliphilus), or completely (for example by the members of genus Desulfonatronobacter). An enrichment with propionate at methanogenic conditions (without sulfate) inoculated with mixed sediments from hypersaline soda lakes in Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) resulted in a domination of a new member of Syntrophobacteraceae (Deltaproteobacteria) in a consortium with the haloalkaliphilic lithotrophic methanogen Methanocalculus alkaliphilus...
October 12, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Masato Morino, Shinichiro Ogoda, Terry Ann Krulwich, Masahiro Ito
Mrp antiporters are the sole antiporters in the Cation/Proton Antiporter 3 family of transporter databases because of their unusual structural complexity, 6-7 hydrophobic proteins that function as a hetero-oligomeric complex. The two largest and homologous subunits, MrpA and MrpD, are essential for antiport activity and have direct roles in ion transport. They also show striking homology with proton-conducting, membrane-embedded Nuo subunits of respiratory chain complex I of bacteria, e.g., Escherichia coli...
October 5, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Rafael José Marques Peixoto, Karla Rodrigues Miranda, Leandro Araujo Lobo, Alessandra Granato, Pedro de Carvalho Maalouf, Hugo Emiliano de Jesus, Caio T C C Rachid, Saulo Roni Moraes, Henrique Fragoso Dos Santos, Raquel Silva Peixoto, Alexandre Soares Rosado, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto Domingues
The Antarctic soil microbial community has a crucial role in the growth and stabilization of higher organisms, such as vascular plants. Analysis of the soil microbiota composition in that extreme environmental condition is crucial to understand the ecological importance and biotechnological potential. We evaluated the efficiency of isolation and abundance of strict anaerobes in the vascular plant Deschampsia antarctica rhizosphere collected in the Antarctic's Admiralty Bay and associated biodiversity to metabolic perspective and enzymatic activity...
October 5, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Kazuo Tori, Francine Perler
Inteins are the protein equivalent of introns. They are seamlessly removed during post-translational maturation of their host protein (extein). Inteins from extremophiles played a key role in understanding intein-mediated protein splicing. There are currently three classes of inteins defined by catalytic mechanism and sequence signatures. This study demonstrates splicing of three class 3 mini-inteins: Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 Bvi IcmO intein, Mycobacterium smegmatis MC2 155 Msm DnaB-1 intein and Mycobacterium leprae strain TN Mle DnaB intein...
October 4, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Mirko Basen, Volker Müller
Thermophilic microorganisms as well as acetogenic bacteria are both considered ancient. Interestingly, only a few species of bacteria, all belonging to the family Thermoanaerobacteraceae, are described to conserve energy from acetate formation with hydrogen as electron donor and carbon dioxide as electron acceptor. This review reflects the metabolic differences between Moorella spp., Thermoanaerobacter kivui and Thermacetogenium phaeum, with focus on the biochemistry of autotrophic growth and energy conservation...
September 13, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Luís França, Ciro Sannino, Benedetta Turchetti, Pietro Buzzini, Rosa Margesin
The effect of altitude and season on abundance and diversity of the culturable heterotrophic bacterial and yeast community was examined at four forest sites in the Italian Alps along an altitude gradient (545-2000 m). Independently of altitude, bacteria isolated at 0 °C (psychrophiles) were less numerous than those recovered at 20 °C. In autumn, psychrophilic bacterial population increased with altitude. The 1194 bacterial strains were primarily affiliated with the classes Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Spingobacteriia and Flavobacteriia...
September 12, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Kento Takahashi, Fumika Nakanishi, Takeo Tomita, Nagisa Akiyama, Kerstin Lassak, Sonja-Verena Albers, Tomohisa Kuzuyama, Makoto Nishiyama
Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, a hyperthermoacidophilic archaeon, possesses two β-decarboxylating dehydrogenase genes, saci_0600 and saci_2375, in its genome, which suggests that it uses these enzymes for three similar reactions in lysine biosynthesis through 2-aminoadipate, leucine biosynthesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. To elucidate their roles, these two genes were expressed in Escherichia coli in the present study and their gene products were characterized. Saci_0600 recognized 3-isopropylmalate as a substrate, but exhibited slight and no activity for homoisocitrate and isocitrate, respectively...
September 2, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Sonali Majumdar, Marianne Ligon, William Colby Skinner, Rebecca M Terns, Michael P Terns
CRISPR-Cas immune systems defend prokaryotes against viruses and plasmids. CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) associate with various CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein modules to form structurally and functionally diverse (Type I-VI) crRNP immune effector complexes. Previously, we identified three, co-existing effector complexes in Pyrococcus furiosus -Type I-A (Csa), Type I-G (Cst), and Type III-B (Cmr)-and demonstrated that each complex functions in vivo to eliminate invader DNA. Here, we reconstitute functional Cst crRNP complexes in vitro from recombinant Cas proteins and synthetic crRNAs and investigate mechanisms of crRNP assembly and invader DNA recognition and destruction...
August 31, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Gurdeep Rattu, Swati Joshi, T Satyanarayana
The thermostable bifunctional CMCase and xylanase encoding gene (rBhcell-xyl) from Bacillus halodurans TSLV1 has been expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant E. coli produced rBhcell-xyl (CMCase 2272 and 910 U L(-1) xylanase). The rBhcell-xyl is a ~62-kDa monomeric protein with temperature and pH optima of 60 °C and 6.0 with T1/2 of 7.0 and 3.5 h at 80 °C for CMCase and xylanase, respectively. The apparent K m values (CMC and Birchwood xylan) are 3.8 and 3.2 mg mL(-1). The catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m ) values of xylanase and CMCase are 657 and 171 mL mg(-1) min(-1), respectively...
August 24, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Tahira Bibi, Sumera Perveen, Iram Aziz, Qamar Bashir, Naeem Rashid, Tadayuki Imanaka, Muhammad Akhtar
Analysis of the genome sequence of Pyrobaculum calidifontis revealed the presence of an open reading frame Pcal_1127 annotated as ribose-5-phosphate pyrophosphokinase. To examine the properties of Pcal_1127 the coding gene was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified gene product was characterized. Pcal_1127 exhibited higher activity when ATP was replaced by dATP as pyrophosphate donor. Phosphate and EDTA activated the enzyme activity and equivalent amount of activity was detected with ATP and dATP in their presence...
August 12, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Catarina Ferreira, Ana R Soares, Pedro Lamosa, Manuel A Santos, Milton S da Costa
Gimesia maris and Rubinisphaera brasiliensis are slightly halophilic representatives of the deep-branching phylum Planctomycetes. For osmoadaptation both species accumulated α-glutamate, sucrose, ectoine and hydroxyectoine. A major role was found for ectoine, hydroxyectoine as well as sucrose under hyper-osmotic shock conditions. Nevertheless, the levels of sucrose were up-regulated by the increased salinity levels and also by low nitrogen availability. Additionally, G. maris accumulated glucosylglycerate (GG) as major solute specifically under low nitrogen levels, which prompted us to analyse the transcript abundance of two homologues genes known for the biosynthesis of GG, namely glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase (GpgS) and glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate phosphatase (GpgP)...
August 9, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
A Martinez, I Cavello, G Garmendia, C Rufo, S Cavalitto, S Vero
Various microbial groups are well known to produce a range of extracellular enzymes and other secondary metabolites. However, the occurrence and importance of investment in such activities have received relatively limited attention in studies of Antarctic soil microbiota. Sixty-one yeasts strains were isolated from King George Island, Antarctica which were characterized physiologically and identified at the molecular level using the D1/D2 region of rDNA. Fifty-eight yeasts (belonging to the genera Cryptococcus, Leucosporidiella, Rhodotorula, Guehomyces, Candida, Metschnikowia and Debaryomyces) were screened for extracellular amylolytic, proteolytic, esterasic, pectinolytic, inulolytic xylanolytic and cellulolytic activities at low and moderate temperatures...
September 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Nathalie Boucher, Kenneth M Noll
The Thermotogae possess a large number of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including two mannan binding proteins, ManD and CelE (previously called ManE). We show that a gene encoding an ancestor of these was acquired by the Thermotogae from the archaea followed by gene duplication. To address the functional evolution of these proteins as a consequence of their evolutionary histories, we measured the binding affinities of ManD and CelE orthologs from representative Thermotogae. Both proteins bind cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, β-1,4-mannotriose, and β-1,4-mannotetraose...
September 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"