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Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions

Naoko Okibe, Daisuke Nakayama, Takahiro Matsumoto
The acidophilic, Fe(III)-reducing heterotrophic bacteria Acidocella aromatica PFBC(T) and Acidiphilium cryptum SJH were utilized to produce palladium (Pd) bionanoparticles via a simple 1-step microbiological reaction. Monosaccharide (or intracellular NADH)-dependent reactions lead to visualization of intra/extra-cellular enzymatic Pd(0) nucleation. Formic acid-dependent reactions proceeded via the first slow Pd(0) nucleation phase and the following autocatalytic Pd(II) reduction phase regardless of the presence or viability of the cells...
October 12, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Raza Ashraf, Naeem Rashid, Tamotsu Kanai, Tadayuki Imanaka, Muhammad Akhtar
Genome sequence of Pyrobaculum calidifontis, a hyperthermophilic archaeon, harbors three open-reading frames annotated as alcohol dehydrogenases. One of them, Pcal_1311, does not display a significantly high homology with any of the characterized alcohol dehydrogenases. Highest homology of 38% was found with the characterized counterpart from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. To examine the biochemical properties of Pcal_1311, we have cloned and functionally expressed the gene in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant Pcal_1311 catalyzed the NAD(H)-dependent oxidation of various alcohols and reduction of aldehydes, with a marked preference for substrates with functional group at the terminal carbon...
October 11, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Katri Eskelin, Mirka Lampi, Florian Meier, Evelin Moldenhauer, Dennis H Bamford, Hanna M Oksanen
Viruses come in various shapes and sizes, and a number of viruses originate from extremities, e.g. high salinity or elevated temperature. One challenge for studying extreme viruses is to find efficient purification conditions where viruses maintain their infectivity. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) is a gentle native chromatography-like technique for size-based separation. It does not have solid stationary phase and the mobile phase composition is readily adjustable according to the sample needs...
October 10, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Almudena Rivadeneyra, Alejandro Gonzalez-Martinez, Gabriela R Portela, Daniel J Martin-Ramos, Jesús Gonzalez-Lopez, María A Rivadeneyra
The ability of Halomonas maura to bioprecipitate carbonate and sulphate crystals in solid media at different manganese concentrations has been demonstrated in this study for the first time. The precipitated minerals were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The precipitated minerals were different based on the manganese concentration present in the medium and the incubation time. In the absence of manganese, H. maura formed pseudokutnahorite crystals; in the presence of manganese, the concentration in the culture medium determined the precipitation carbonates, such as rhodochrosite and dolomites...
October 10, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Dahe Zhao, Sumit Kumar, Jian Zhou, Rui Wang, Ming Li, Hua Xiang
Bioremediation in hypersaline environments is particularly challenging since the microbes that tolerate such harsh environments and degrade pollutants are quite scarce. Haloarchaea, however, due to their inherent ability to grow at high salt concentrations, hold great promise for remediating the contaminated hypersaline sites. This study aimed to isolate and characterize novel haloarchaeal strains with potentials in hydrocarbon degradation. A haloarchaeal strain IM1011 was isolated from Changlu Tanggu saltern near Da Gang Oilfield in Tianjin (China) by enrichment culture in hypersaline medium containing hexadecane...
October 9, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Laura Selbmann, Silvano Onofri, Claudia Coleine, Pietro Buzzini, Fabiana Canini, Laura Zucconi
A wide sampling of rocks, colonized by microbial epi-endolithic communities, was performed along an altitudinal gradient from sea level to 3600 m asl and sea distance from the coast to 100 km inland along the Victoria Land Coast, Antarctica. Seventy-two rock samples of different typology, representative of the entire survey, were selected and studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to compare variation in fungal diversity according to environmental conditions along this altitudinal and sea distance transect...
October 9, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Vladimir S Cheptsov, Elena A Vorobyova, Natalia A Manucharova, Mikhail V Gorlenko, Anatoli K Pavlov, Maria A Vdovina, Vladimir N Lomasov, Sergey A Bulat
This research aimed to investigate the viability and biodiversity of microbial communities within ancient Arctic permafrost after exposure to a gamma-radiation dose of 100 kGy at low temperature (- 50 °C), low pressure (1 Torr) and dehydration conditions. The main objective was to assess the possibility for long-term survival of Earth-bound microorganisms in the subsurface of Martian regolith or inside small space bodies at constant absorption and accumulation of the gamma radiation dose. Investigated microbial communities had shown high resistance to a simulated Martian environment...
October 9, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Anna Ferre-Guell, James Winterburn
The extreme haloarchaea Haloferax mediterranei accumulates poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) without the need for specific precursors. In this study, growth kinetics and PHBV synthesis were characterised under nitrogen-excess and nitrogen-limiting conditions in ammonium and, for the first time, nitrate. With excess nitrogen, ammonium and nitrate cultures generated 10.7 g/L biomass containing 4.6 wt% PHBV and 5.6 g/L biomass with 9.3 wt% PHBV, respectively. Copolymer composition varied with the nitrogen source used: PHBV from ammonium cultures had 16...
October 7, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Benwei Zhu, Fang Ni, Yun Sun, Zhong Yao
Alginate lyases play an essential role in the production of oligosaccharides by degrading alginate polysaccharide. Although many alginate lyases from various microorganisms have been characterized, reports on alginate lyases with special characteristics and commercial potential are still rather rare. In this study, a new alginate lyase, FsAlgA, was cloned from the deep-sea marine bacterium Flammeovirga sp. NJ-04. The recombinant enzyme was purified on Ni-NTA sepharose and then characterized in detail. It exhibited the highest activity (3343...
September 23, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
M Papale, C Rizzo, J A Villescusa, C Rochera, A Camacho, L Michaud, A Lo Giudice
The potentially metabolically active components within the prokaryotic assemblages inhabiting the Antarctic Lake Limnopolar (Byers Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica) were investigated by a polyphasic approach which included culture-dependent and culture-independent methods (based on RNA molecules). Results support previous observations on the Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominance, followed by Actinobacteria, in Antarctic lakes. In particular, Alpha-, Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were mainly detected by CARD-FISH and cDNA cloning, whereas Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria dominated within the cultivable fraction...
September 21, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Atsushi Fujita, Yoshio Misumi
We constructed a new Thermus thermophilus cloning vector which enables the colour selection of cloned DNA inserts in the T. thermophilus HB27 host strain (β-gal(-)) on growth plates containing 3,4-cyclohexenoesculetin β-D-galactopyranoside (S-gal) in the medium. This vector harbors a modified β-galactosidase gene (TTP0042 of T. thermophilus HB27) with 12 unique restriction enzyme sites (Acc65I, AvrII, BlpI, BssHII, EcoRI, EcoRV, HindIII, NruI, SalI, SpeI, SphI and XbaI) as multiple cloning sites under the control of the T...
September 11, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Stephen M J Pollo, Abigail A Adebusuyi, Timothy J Straub, Julia M Foght, Olga Zhaxybayeva, Camilla L Nesbø
Temperature is one of the defining parameters of an ecological niche. Most organisms thrive within a temperature range that rarely exceeds ~30 °C, but the deep subsurface bacterium Kosmotoga olearia can grow over a temperature range of 59 °C (20-79 °C). To identify genes correlated with this flexible phenotype, we compared transcriptomes of K. olearia cultures grown at its optimal 65 °C to those at 30, 40, and 77 °C. The temperature treatments affected expression of 573 of 2224 K. olearia genes. Notably, this transcriptional response elicits re-modeling of the cellular membrane and changes in metabolism, with increased expression of genes involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism at high temperatures and up-regulation of amino acid metabolism at lower temperatures...
September 11, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Rezvan Rezaie, Shahla Rezaei, Nasrin Jafari, Hamid Forootanfar, Mohammad Reza Khoshayand, Mohammad Ali Faramarzi
Lignocellulose bioconversion is a harsh process requiring the use of surfactants and organic solvents. Consequently, the incorporation of laccases in this bioconversion requires the bioprospecting of enzymes that can remain stable under extreme conditions. An extracellular, highly stable laccase was produced by the halophilic isolate Aquisalibacillus elongatus in submerged liquid culture fermentation. Statistical and non-statistical strategies gave the highest enzymatic activity (8.02 U mL(-1)) following addition of glucose (1...
September 5, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Claudia Fagliarone, Claudia Mosca, Ilaria Ubaldi, Cyprien Verseux, Mickael Baqué, Annick Wilmotte, Daniela Billi
To investigate the relationship between desiccation and the extent of protein oxidation in desert strains of Chroococcidiopsis a selection of 10 isolates from hot and cold deserts and the terrestrial cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis thermalis sp. PCC 7203 were exposed to desiccation (air-drying) and analyzed for survival. Strain CCMEE 029 from the Negev desert and the aquatic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were further investigated for protein oxidation after desiccation (drying over silica gel), treatment with H2O2 up to 1 M and exposure to γ-rays up to 25 kGy...
August 30, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Vívian N Gonçalves, Gislaine A Vitoreli, Graciéle C A de Menezes, Carlos R B Mendes, Eduardo R Secchi, Carlos A Rosa, Luiz H Rosa
Thirty-six seawater samples collected at different depths of the Gerlache and Bransfield Straits in the Northern Antarctic Peninsula were analyzed, and the average of the total fungal counts ranged from 0.3 to >300 colony forming units per liter (CFU/L) in density. The fungal were purified and identified as 15 taxa belonged to the genera Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Cystobasidium, Exophiala, Glaciozyma, Graphium, Lecanicillium, Metschnikowia, Penicillium, Purpureocillium and Simplicillium. Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, and Graphium rubrum were found at high densities in at least two different sites and depths...
August 30, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Jorge R Díaz-Valderrama, Hai D T Nguyen, M Catherine Aime
We obtained four isolates of the xerophilic genus Wallemia from the rooftop of a house made of red brick and cement in an agronomic field planted with common beans and maize in Pachacamac, Lima, Peru. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis with rDNA gene sequences showed these Wallemia isolates form a distinct and strongly supported clade closely related to W. hederae. We examined the macro and micromorphology, growth rate and production of exudates of isolates on media containing different amounts of glucose and NaCl (water activity from 0...
August 29, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Giuseppe Squillaci, Roberta Parrella, Virginia Carbone, Paola Minasi, Francesco La Cara, Alessandra Morana
Haloterrigena turkmenica was able to synthesize carotenoids when grown in halobacteria medium. These molecules have antioxidant properties and find application in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical fields. The carotenoids were extracted with methanol, separated by RP-HPLC, and identified by mass spectrometry and UV/Vis spectra analyses. The C50 carotenoids were the main pigments, and C30, C40, and C51 carotenoids were also detected. Seven geometric isomers were distinguished for bacterioruberin, monoanhydrobacterioruberin, and bisanhydrobacterioruberin...
August 12, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Ma Ángeles Cabrera, Jenny M Blamey
Nitriles are important chemical building blocks for the synthesis of intermediates in fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Here, we report a new highly thermostable nitrilase from an Antarctic Pyrococcus sp. MC-FB, a hyperthermophilic archaeon. A gene that encoded a nitrilase was identified and subsequently cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant nitrilase, named NitMC-FB, is active as a homodimer (60 kDa) with an optimal temperature and pH of 90 °C and 7.0, respectively. NitMC-FB hydrolyzes preferentially aromatic nitriles, being the first aromatic nitrilase from an archaeon described so far...
July 25, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Sudipto Munshi, Ananthi Rajamoorthi, Robert J Stanley
The phrB gene encoding a putative cold-adapted DNA photolyase was cloned from the bacterial genomic DNA of Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H, a psychrophilic bacterium. Recombinant DNA photolyase, rCpPL, was overexpressed and purified from three different vectors. rCpPL binds its DNA substrate by flipping a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) into its active site and repairs CPD-containing DNA in vitro. rCpPL contains one catalytic flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor, but displays promiscuity in cofactor binding, in which either a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) or a methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) molecule is bound as an antenna molecule and found in sub-stoichiometric amounts...
July 19, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Ashima Dua, Rani Gupta
The HSL-like lipase encoding gene (Blip) from the polyextremophile Bacillus halodurans C-125 has been heterologously expressed in E.coli BL21(DE3). The enzyme is a monomer of ~42 kDa. It has extremely high thermal stability with a t 1/2 of 35 min at 100 °C. Thermal denaturation/renaturation studies by CD and fluorescence analysis revealed complete refolding of the protein back to its native conformation even after 30 min at 90 °C. Blip prefers substrates with mid to long chain fatty acids. It has a higher catalytic efficiency on para-nitrophenyl fatty acyl esters as opposed to triacylglycerides (k cat/K m with pNP-palmitate as a substrate was 2...
July 14, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
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