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International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30366516/qtc-and-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-a-perfect-storm-or-a-tempest-in-a-teacup-review-of-evidence-and-a-risk-assessment
#1
I Monedero-Recuero, L Hernando-Marrupe, A Sánchez-Montalvá, V Cox, M Tommasi, J Furin, C-Y Chiang, M Quelapio, K G Koura, A Trébucq, X Padanilam, G Dravniece, A Piubello
<h2>SUMMARY</h2>Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are global concerns, with stagnant treatment success rates of roughly 54&percnt; and 30&percnt;, respectively. Despite adverse events associated with several DR-TB drugs, newly developed drugs and shorter regimens are bringing hope; recent concern has focused on drugs that prolong the corrected QT interval (QTc). QTc prolongation is a risk factor for torsades de pointe (TdP), a potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia...
October 26, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355421/pulmonary-toxicity-associated-with-pomalidomide
#2
S Gajic, E C Callahan, J K Brown, B Elicker, B Ley, P D Blanc
Pomalidomide, previously used to treat multiple myeloma, has been reported to cause acute pulmonary toxicity that improves with drug discontinuation. We present a case of delayed pneumonitis with persistent fibrosis associated with pomalidomide. A 61-year-old male treated with pomalidomide and corticosteroids presented with acute on chronic dyspnea, profound hypoxemia, and ground glass opacities on computerized tomographic imaging. Corticosteroid taper and discontinuation of pomalidomide resulted in clinical improvement, but with substantial residual pulmonary fibrosis...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355420/potential-health-impacts-of-increasing-the-cigarette-tax-in-viet-nam
#3
H V Minh, N T Duyen, T T Ngan, N B Ngoc, D T Son, P T Hai
BACKGROUND: Even after the implementation of MPOWER, Viet Nam's cigarette tax remains only 36% of the retail price. This falls short of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) recommendation that the tax share be 70% of the retail price. OBJECTIVE: To assess the health impact of different levels of cigarette taxation by estimating the impact on reducing tobacco consumption and smoking-attributable deaths (SADs). METHODS: A static model was developed based on a previous study by Jha et al...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355419/utility-of-routine-chest-radiography-in-ocular-tuberculosis-and-sarcoidosis
#4
J A Shaw, D P Smit, S Griffith-Richards, C F N Koegelenberg
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) and sarcoidosis commonly present with pulmonary and ocular involvement. Routine chest radiography (CXR) is recommended in the workup for suspected intraocular TB (IOTB) or intraocular sarcoidosis (IOS); however, data on the utility of CXR in this setting are lacking. METHODS: A post-hoc analysis was performed of a prospectively collected data set comprising 104 patients with uveitis of unknown cause. A pulmonologist and thoracic radiologist, blinded to the final diagnosis, independently reported these CXRs as being in keeping with TB or sarcoidosis...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355418/urinary-lam-grade-culture-positivity-and-mortality-among-hiv-infected-south-african-out-patients
#5
R W Kubiak, J T Herbeck, S M Coleman, D Ross, K Freedberg, I V Bassett, P K Drain
SETTING: Four ambulatory clinics in Durban, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To test the relationships of patient characteristics, time to mycobacterial culture positivity, and mortality with urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) grade category. DESIGN: Newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults were screened for tuberculosis (TB) using sputum culture, tested for urinary LAM, and followed for up to 12 months. We performed multivariable ordinal logistic regression of risk factors for low (1 or 2) or high (3, 4, or 5) LAM grade...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355417/effects-of-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-testing-and-gxalert-on-mdr-tb-diagnosis-and-linkage-to-care-in-mozambique
#6
J Beste, C Mutaquiha, I Manhiça, B Jose, C Monivo, M Faria, J Creswell, A J Codlin, C Michel, B Wagenaar, S Gloyd, J Cowan
SETTING: The diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and gaps in linkage to care are the principal health challenges in Mozambique. Five GeneXpert machines and GxAlert, an eHealth platform, were installed in Sofala and Manica Provinces between 2012 and 2014. OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of Xpert® MTB/RIF testing and GxAlert on rifampin-resistant TB (RR-TB) diagnosis and second-line treatment initiation rates. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective clinical review of patients with RR-TB from March 2012 to September 2015 at these five sites...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355416/rapid-drug-susceptibility-testing-and-treatment-outcomes-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-peru
#7
G Obregón, K Zevallos, V Alarcón, Z M Puyén, O Chávez Inagaki, A Mendoza-Ticona, E Alarcón-Arrascue, E Heldal, D A J Moore
SETTING: The detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) has increased steadily in recent years in Peru, from 9216 tests in 2010 to 27 021 tests in 2015. Research examining the impact of rapid DST on treatment outcomes is required. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between rapid DST use (nitrate reductase assay, microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay [MODS] and GenoType® MTBDR plus ) and treatment outcomes and mortality in MDR-TB patients in Peru...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355415/improved-treatment-completion-with-shorter-treatment-regimens-for-latent-tuberculous-infection
#8
M M Macaraig, M Jalees, C Lam, J Burzynski
SETTING: Four New York City (NYC) Health Department tuberculosis (TB) clinics. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of preferentially offering two shorter treatment regimens-4 months of daily rifampin (4R) and 3 months of once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine (3HP)-as an alternative to 9 months of daily isoniazid (9H) for the treatment of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of patients treated for LTBI from January to June 2015...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355414/treatment-of-latent-tuberculous-infection-among-health-care-workers-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-korea
#9
E H Lee, S J Kim, E J Ha, E S Park, J Y Choi, A Y Leem, S Y Kim, M S Park, Y S Kim, Y A Kang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acceptance of, adherence to, and outcomes of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) treatment among health care workers (HCWs). DESIGN: This was a retrospective study in a tertiary hospital in Korea. From May to August 2017, 2190 HCWs simultaneously underwent a tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). LTBI was diagnosed if the TST induration was 10 mm or IGRA results were positive. RESULTS: Of 2190 HCWs tested, 1006 (45...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355413/prevalence-of-and-factors-related-to-latent-tuberculous-infection-among-all-employees-in-a-referral-hospital
#10
S Kim, H Choi, Y J Jang, S H Park, H Lee
SETTING: Referral hospital, South Korea. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of and factors related to latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) among all hospital employees. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of 479 health care workers (HCWs) undergoing LTBI screening. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of LTBI was 15.7%, 43.1% of whom initiated and completed LTBI treatment. Compared with HCWs without LTBI, those with LTBI were more likely to be older ( P < 0...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355412/evaluation-of-the-intensified-tuberculosis-case-finding-guidelines-for-children-living-with-hiv
#11
S Sawry, H Moultrie, A Van Rie
SETTING: Out-patient paediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinic in Soweto, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the yield of symptom screening for intensified tuberculosis (TB) case finding (ICF) and potential eligibility for isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in children living with HIV on antiretroviral treatment (ART). DESIGN: A cohort of 247 children (age 0-8 years) was systematically screened for TB symptoms during the first 2 years of ART...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355411/decentralisation-of-child-tuberculosis-services-increases-case-finding-and-uptake-of-preventive-therapy-in-uganda
#12
S Zawedde-Muyanja, A Nakanwagi, J P Dongo, M P Sekadde, R Nyinoburyo, G Ssentongo, A K Detjen, F Mugabe, J Nakawesi, Y Karamagi, P Amuge, A Kekitiinwa, S M Graham
BACKGROUND: A lack of capacity to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) in children at peripheral health facilities and limited contact screening and management contribute to low case finding in TB-endemic settings. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation of a pilot project that strengthened diagnosis, treatment and prevention of child TB at peripheral health facilities in Uganda. METHODS: In June 2015, health care workers at peripheral health facilities were trained to diagnose and treat child TB...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355410/tuberculosis-in-children-treated-with-second-line-drugs-under-programmatic-conditions-in-lima-peru
#13
J Villarreal, V Alarcón, E Alarcón-Arrascue, D A J Moore, E Heldal, A Mendoza-Ticona
OBJECTIVE: To characterise childhood tuberculosis (TB) treated with second-line drugs (SLDs) in Lima, Peru. DESIGN: Results for the age groups <5 and 5-14 years were compared and treatment outcomes were assessed in cases reported between 2011 and 2015 from six districts of Lima. RESULTS: Of 96 reported cases, 82 were evaluated. Among these, 59% were boys; the median age was 8 years and 32% were aged <5 years. Contact with a TB case was reported in 82% of cases; 90% were treatment-naïve, 98% had pulmonary localisation and 50% underwent the tuberculin skin test (purified protein derivative), with induration 10 mm in 88%...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355409/family-health-and-conditional-cash-transfer-in-brazil-and-its-effect-on-tuberculosis-mortality
#14
R A de Souza, J S Nery, D Rasella, R A Guimarães Pereira, M L Barreto, L Rodrigues, S M Pereira
BACKGROUND: Social protection can reduce poverty and act on the determinants of tuberculosis (TB). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) and the Bolsa Família Programme on TB-related mortality in Brazil. METHODS: This was an ecological study in which the units of analysis were Brazilian municipalities between 2001 and 2012. The principal independent variables were the levels of coverage of the primary health care system and the conditional cash transfer programme...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355408/myths-and-realities-about-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-household-contacts-of-tuberculosis-patients
#15
N Gil, L López, D Rodríguez, M Rondón, A Betancourt, B Gutiérrez, Z V Rueda
SETTING: Five Colombian cities: Villavicencio, Pereira, Cucuta, Bucaramanga and Bosa. OBJECTIVE: To describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to tuberculosis (TB) in household contacts (HHCs) of TB patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. The estimated sample size required was 855. The World Health Organization guide 'Advocacy, communication and social mobilization for TB control: a guide to developing knowledge, attitude and practice surveys' was translated into Spanish and adapted to the dialect of each city...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355407/a-survey-of-the-tuberculosis-physician-workforce-in-the-country-of-georgia
#16
D S Graciaa, M Machaidze, M Kipiani, M Buziashvili, K Barbakadze, Z Avaliani, R R Kempker
SETTING: A well-trained and sufficient tuberculosis (TB) workforce is essential for disease control, especially in an era of newly implemented diagnostics and medications. However, there are few reports on the status of the TB workforce in many endemic countries. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the demographics, salary, career satisfaction, and attitudes towards the field of TB among the physician TB workforce in the country of Georgia. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of physicians in the current Georgian National TB Programme (NTP) using an anonymous 31-item questionnaire...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355406/alcohol-consumption-and-risk-of-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
E Simou, J Britton, J Leonardi-Bee
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between alcohol consumption and risk of tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched for observational studies from 2005 to April 2018. Reference lists of included studies were screened. RESULTS: Forty-nine studies were included. Compared with people with low or no alcohol intake, the risk of TB in people with high or any alcohol consumption was increased by relative odds of 1...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355405/association-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-mortality-among-patients-with-tuberculosis-in-california-2010-2014
#18
C H Nguyen, L Pascopella, P M Barry
SETTING: Studies of US populations have produced conflicting findings about the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between DM and all-cause mortality among patients on anti-tuberculosis treatment in California, USA. DESIGN: Using TB surveillance data, we conducted a retrospective analysis of California patients with culture-confirmed TB who started anti-tuberculosis treatment during 2010-2014...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355404/convergence-of-non-communicable-diseases-and-tuberculosis-a-two-way-street
#19
M J Magee, A D Salindri, U P Gujral, S C Auld, J Bao, J S Haw, H-H Lin, H Kornfeld
The intersection of tuberculosis (TB) with non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic lung disease (CLD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD), has emerged as a critical clinical and public health challenge. Rapidly expanding NCD epidemics threaten TB control in low- and middle-income countries, where the prevention and treatment of TB disease remain a great burden. However, to date, the notion that TB may adversely impact NCD risk and severity has not been well explored. This review summarizes biomedical hypotheses, findings from animal models, and emerging epidemiologic data related to the progression of DM, CLD and CVD during and after active TB disease...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355403/modern-theory-of-tuberculosis-culturomic-analysis-of-its-historical-origin-in-europe-and-north-america
#20
S J Jay, U Kırbıyık, J R Woods, G A Steele, G R Hoyt, R B Schwengber, P Gupta
INTRODUCTION: An historical account of the modern theory of tuberculosis (TB) using a culturomic analysis has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To analyze, using culturomic methods, the history of our modern understanding of TB as a unitary disease. METHODS: A culturomic analysis of millions of digitized texts was undertaken to quantify 200-year trends in usage of the modern term tuberculosis and pre-modern terms consumptive , phthisis , and scrofula , and to correlate these trends with significant historical events...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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