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International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150579/clinical-significance-of-the-radiological-severity-score-in-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease-patients
#1
K Furuuchi, A Ito, T Hashimoto, S Kumagai, T Ishida
<h2>SETTING:</h2><p>Practical methods for assessing the radiographic findings of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD) have not been established.</p><h2>OBJECTIVE:</h2><p>To identify a correlation between the radiological score and semi-quantitative culture results of respiratory samples, and to assess the prognostic impact of this radiological score in MAC-LD patients.</p><h2>DESIGN:</h2><p>We retrospectively studied 218 MAC-LD patients...
January 26, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087928/factors-associated-with-non-completion-of-follow-up-33-month-latent-tuberculous-infection-treatment-trial
#2
R N Moro, T R Sterling, J Saukkonen, A Vernon, C R Horsburgh, R E Chaisson, C D Hamilton, M E Villarino, S Goldberg
<h2>SETTING:</h2><p>A post-hoc exploratory analysis of a randomized, open-label clinical trial thatenrolled 8053 participants from the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Spain.</p><h2>OBJECTIVE:</h2><p>To assess factors associated with non-completion of study follow-up (NCF) in a 33-month latent tuberculous infection treatment trial, PREVENT TB.</p><h2>DESIGN:</h2><p>Participants were randomized to receive 3 months of weekly directly observed therapy vs...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225349/temporal-trends-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-mortality-in-mexico-1999-2014
#3
E Hernández-Garduño, H L Ocaña-Servín
SETTING: Country of Mexico. OBJECTIVE: To determine mortality trends due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Mexico between 1999 and 2014. DESIGN: COPD mortality data for persons aged ≥40 years from 1999 to 2014 were obtained from the official website of the Mexican Ministry of Health. Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated, and joinpoint regression analysis was used to identify trends over time. The annual per cent change (APC) was determined for each trend...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225348/the-effects-of-smoking-on-treatment-outcome-in-patients-newly-diagnosed-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#4
M R Masjedi, M Hosseini, M Aryanpur, E Mortaz, P Tabarsi, H Soori, H Emami, G Heidari, M K Dizagie, M Baikpour
SETTING: Smoking is reported to be associated with tuberculosis (TB), but its effect on sputum smear conversion remains a matter for discussion. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on treatment outcomes in patients newly diagnosed with TB in Iran. DESIGN: Newly diagnosed smear-positive TB patients were included in the study. All smokers participated in a smoking cessation programme. Sputum smear status was evaluated at the end of month 2, 5 and 6 of treatment, and smoking status was evaluated at the end of month 2...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225347/liquid-culture-enhances-diagnosis-of-patients-with-milder-forms-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease
#5
H Lee, J-H Han, H Y Park, K Jeon, H J Huh, C-S Ki, N Y Lee, W-J Koh
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the proportion and clinical characteristics of patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease diagnosed based on positive culture results in liquid medium only. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 978 patients diagnosed with NTM lung disease. All clinical samples were cultured in both solid and liquid media. RESULTS: Of the 978 patients, 111 (11.3%) were culture-positive in liquid medium only (liquid culture group), and 867 (88...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225346/cd4-count-and-risk-of-anti-tuberculosis-drug-associated-cutaneous-reactions-in-hiv-infected-thai-patients
#6
L Boonyagars, P Hirunwiwatkul, C P Hurst
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. However, anti-tuberculosis drugs can cause cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs). This study was conducted to evaluate differences in CADR incidence between low and high CD4 cell count in patients with low and high CD4 cell count and to identify other risk factors for CADR in HIV-TB co-infected patients. DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort of adult HIV-TB co-infected patients receiving standard anti-tuberculosis treatment between January 2008 and December 2015 at Vajira Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, baseline demographic, clinical characteristics and factors associated with CADRs, including CD4 cell count status, were collected...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225345/results-of-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-implementation-in-kyrgyzstan
#7
G Kurbaniyazova, M Joncevska, S Kalon, G Kalmambetova, T Mohr, A Toktogonova, K Takieva, K M Monirul Islam, F Luelmo
INTRODUCTION: In July 2012, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Quality Health Care Project introduced the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay at the facility level of the primary health care system in Kyrgyzstan. This study analysed the results of the implementation of Xpert. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Test results from 2734 patients from July 2012 to December 2014 were analysed. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert in routine programme conditions were evaluated using culture and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) as gold standard...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225344/tuberculosis-among-the-homeless-should-we-change-the-strategy
#8
M Dias, R Gaio, P Sousa, M Abranches, M Gomes, O Oliveira, M Correia-Neves, E Ferreira, R Duarte
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major concern among high-risk populations such as the homeless. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate TB incidence and treatment outcomes among homeless patients in Portugal and to identify predictors of unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes among the homeless. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of all TB patients notified in Portugal from 2008 to 2014. Characteristics of homeless TB patients were assessed and predictors of unsuccessful TB treatment were determined using logistic regression...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225343/infection-control-and-tuberculosis-in-health-care-workers-an-assessment-of-28-hospitals-in-south-africa
#9
L M O'Hara, A Yassi, E A Bryce, A Janse van Rensburg, M C Engelbrecht, M Zungu, L E Nophale, J M FitzGerald
SETTING: Twenty-eight public hospitals in the Free State Province, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between tuberculosis (TB) infection control (IC) scores in Free State hospitals and the incidence of TB disease among health care workers (HCWs) in 2012. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey and mixed-methods analysis of TB IC policies, practices and infrastructure using a comprehensive, 83-item IC audit and observation tool. RESULTS: As the total IC score increased, the probability of TB in an HCW at that hospital decreased...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225342/outcomes-from-the-first-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-programme-in-kenya
#10
H Huerga, M Bastard, M Kamene, S Wanjala, A Arnold, N Oucho, I Chikwanha, F Varaine
SETTING: In March 2006, the first multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment programme was implemented in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To describe patients' treatment outcomes and adverse events. DESIGN: A retrospective case note review of patients started on MDR-TB treatment at two Médecins Sans Frontières-supported sites and the national referral hospital of Kenya was undertaken. Sites operated an ambulatory model of care. Patients were treated for a minimum of 24 months with at least 4-5 drugs for the intensive phase of treatment, including an injectable agent...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225341/patterns-of-drug-resistance-among-patients-with-tuberculous-pleural-effusion-in-greece
#11
V Anastasakos, V Skouras, C Moschos, S Tsikrika, S Karabela, I Marinou, E Vogiatzakis, K Konstantinou, A Papavasiliou, I Kalomenidis
SETTING: Data on the relationship between pleural tuberculosis (TB) and anti-tuberculosis drug resistance are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine the patterns of drug resistance among pleural Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Greece and the incidence of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) among patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) pulmonary TB. DESIGN: Drug susceptibility testing (DST) results recorded in the database of the National Reference Centre for Tuberculosis in Athens, Greece, over a 9-year period (2003-2011) were reviewed...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225340/pattern-of-first-and-second-line-drug-resistance-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-retreatment-cases-in-pakistan
#12
A Javaid, R Hasan, A Zafar, M A Chaudry, S Qayyum, E Qadeer, Z Shaheen, N Agha, N Rizvi, M Z Afridi, M K Chima, A R Khan, A Ghafoor, S Khan, S R Awan, S Akhtar, K Choudry, Z H Iqbal, M Ansarie, N Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance in general, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in particular, threatens global tuberculosis (TB) control efforts. Population-based estimates of drug resistance are needed to develop strategies for controlling drug-resistant TB in Pakistan. OBJECTIVE: To obtain population-based data on Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance in Pakistan. METHODS: To obtain drug resistance data, we conducted a population-based study of TB cases in all provinces of Pakistan...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225339/latent-tuberculous-infection-in-household-contacts-of-multidrug-resistant-and-newly-diagnosed-tuberculosis
#13
G J Fox, N T Anh, N V Nhung, N T Loi, N B Hoa, L T Ngoc Anh, N K Cuong, T N Buu, G B Marks, D Menzies
BACKGROUND: Differences in the prevalence of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) and tuberculosis (TB) disease among contacts of patients with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and drug-susceptible TB are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity in household contacts of patients with MDR-TB and in contacts of patients never previously treated for TB ('new TB'). DESIGN: Consecutive patients with MDR-TB and their household contacts at nine urban district clinics in Viet Nam were screened for TB and LTBI, and followed up for 6 months...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225338/potential-biomarkers-associated-with-discrimination-between-latent-and-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#14
R Kamakia, S Kiazyk, J Waruk, A Meyers, J Ochanda, T B Ball, J Oyugi
SETTING: A third of the world's population has latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). Current TB diagnostics used in developing countries are ineffective and are unable to distinguish LTBI from active TB. Identifying biomarkers that could aid in the early detection of TB and in distinguishing TB states could be a major breakthrough in global TB control. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential immune biomarkers to distinguish active TB from LTBI. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 19 active TB patients, 8 TB-negative individuals (controls) and 16 LTBI non-human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals in Nairobi, Kenya...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225337/multiple-cytokines-for-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-children-with-tuberculosis
#15
N Nausch, C Lundtoft, G Schulz, H Henckel, E Mayatepek, B Fleischer, F M Marx, M Jacobsen
SETTING: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) play an important role in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. However, in children with tuberculosis (TB), some studies have shown increased frequencies of false-negative or indeterminate IGRA results. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the spectrum of different cytokines to improve the diagnostic accuracy of IGRAs in latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) and active TB. DESIGN: We performed multiplex cytokine expression analysis of QuantiFERON® Gold In-Tube supernatants in children with active TB (n = 21) and disease-free contacts with (n = 15) and without LTBI (n = 12), to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the modified tests...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225336/paediatric-tuberculosis-in-queensland-australia-overrepresentation-of-cross-border-and-indigenous-children
#16
E J Donnan, C Coulter, G Simpson, J Clark, C Nourse
SETTING: Queensland, Australia. BACKGROUND: Understanding paediatric tuberculosis (TB) is important, as children with TB typically reflect recent community transmission. Children pose unique diagnostic challenges and are at risk of developing severe disseminated infection. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology, presentation and outcomes of children with TB disease in Queensland. DESIGN: This is a retrospective case series of children diagnosed with TB aged 0-16 years notified in 2005-2014...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225335/integrating-tuberculosis-screening-in-kenyan-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-programs
#17
L M Cranmer, A Langat, K Ronen, C J McGrath, S LaCourse, J Pintye, B Odeny, B Singa, A Katana, L Nganga, J Kinuthia, G John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) screening in Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) programs is important to improve TB detection, prevention and treatment. METHODS: As part of a national PMTCT program evaluation, mother-infant pairs attending 6-week and 9-month immunization visits were enrolled at 141 maternal and child health clinics throughout Kenya. Clinics were selected using population-proportion-to-size sampling with oversampling in a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence region...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225334/the-tuberculosis-taboo
#18
L B Reichman
The treatment of latent tuberculous infection (TBI) is a productive and meaningful approach to tuberculosis (TB) control, and an important component of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) new End TB Strategy, especially in high-risk contacts. Unfortunately, although recognized and recommended by the WHO, it continues to be underutilized, and has even been ignored for decades in some high-risk groups, as though it were a taboo. Historical approaches to treating TBI in contacts of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB are presented and discussed as compelling experiences...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225333/why-do-clinical-trials-of-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-fail-to-show-an-effect-on-patient-relevant-outcomes
#19
T H Boyles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225332/when-epidemics-collide
#20
Keir E Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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