journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566781/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-cause-of-necrotising-pneumonia-in-childhood-a-case-series
#1
C Jacobs, P Goussard, R P Gie
Tertiary care hospital, Western Cape, South Africa.<br />DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study of acase series of necrotising pneumonia (NP) in children associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis presenting over a 4-year period in a country with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) prevalence.<br />OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and radiological features of, and treatment regimens and outcomes in, children with NP.<br />RESULTS: Of 32 children (median age 16...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665952/community-engagement-for-paediatric-mdr-tb-clinical-trials-principles-to-support-ethical-trial-implementation
#2
G Hoddinott, S Staples, R Brown, M Simwinga, C Mubekapi-Musadaidzwa, A C Hesseling, G Hendricks, P De Koker, L McKenna
The paediatric tuberculosis (TB) prevention and treatment landscape is moving into a new and exciting era, with knowledge from clinical trials offering real benefit to children. Community engagement is key to optimising the success of these trials. However, the clinical profile, epidemiology and social perceptions for paediatric multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) complicate the operationalisation of this community engagement. We reflect on a diversity of recent experiences attempting to implement this type of research and the community engagement around it...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665951/statistical-considerations-for-pediatric-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-efficacy-trials
#3
S Kim, J A Seddon, A J Garcia-Prats, G Montepiedra
The inclusion of newly licensed or repurposed drugs in regimens to treat children for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) may lead to treatment that is shorter than traditional regimens and composed only of oral medications. As an all-oral regimen may be more acceptable and have a better safety profile than current regimens, demonstrating non-inferiority may be satisfactory. Demonstrating non-inferior efficacy requires setting a non-inferiority margin and safeguarding study assay sensitivity. Multi-arm, multistage designs may currently not be appropriate in pediatric trials because of the lack of sensitive and specific intermediate outcomes...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665950/conducting-efficacy-trials-in-children-with-mdr-tb-what-is-the-rationale-and-how-should-they-be-done
#4
J A Seddon, E D Weld, H S Schaaf, A J Garcia-Prats, S Kim, A C Hesseling
Paediatric anti-tuberculosis treatment trials have traditionally been limited to Phase I/II studies evaluating the drug pharmacokinetics and safety in children, with assumptions about efficacy made by extrapolating data from adults. However, it is increasingly being recognised that, in some circumstances, efficacy trials are required in children. The current treatment for children with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is long and toxic; shorter, safer regimens, using novel agents, require urgent evaluation...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665949/current-status-of-pharmacokinetic-and-safety-studies-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-in-children
#5
A J Garcia-Prats, E M Svensson, E D Weld, H S Schaaf, A C Hesseling
After decades of neglect, data are finally becoming available on the appropriate, safe dosing of key second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs used for treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in children, including levofloxacin (LVX), moxifloxacin (MFX), linezolid (LZD) and delamanid (DLM). Much needed data on some novel and repurposed drugs are still lacking, including for bedaquiline (BDQ), pretomanid (PTM) and clofazimine (CFZ). We review the status of pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety studies of key anti-tuberculosis medications in children with MDR-TB, identify priority knowledge gaps and note ongoing work to address those gaps, in the context of planning for an efficacy trial in children with MDR-TB...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665948/preclinical-tools-for-the-evaluation-of-tuberculosis-treatment-regimens-for-children
#6
E W Tucker, K E Dooley
Tuberculosis (TB) treatment regimens have been extrapolated from adults to children. However, pediatric disease merits different treatment strategies to avoid under- or over-treatment. While animal models have been pivotal in identifying effective regimens for adult disease, pediatric TB is heterogeneous and cannot be represented by a single preclinical model. Infants and young children most commonly have disseminated disease or tuberculous meningitis (TBM), school-aged children have paucibacillary disease, and adolescents have adult-like cavitary lung disease...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665947/the-burden-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children
#7
H E Jenkins, C M Yuen
BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has historically been neglected, although in recent years there has been increased focus on this problem. In particular, there have been two efforts to estimate the burden of pediatric multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). METHODS: We review current estimates of the global incidence of pediatric MDR-TB disease. We then combine pediatric MDR-TB treatment data from the World Health Organization and recently published case fatality ratio estimates for children with TB to produce mortality estimates for children with MDR-TB...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665946/mdr-tb-in-children-back-to-the-basics
#8
C Robert Horsburgh, Amita Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663966/access-to-asthma-medicines-at-the-household-level-in-eight-counties-of-kenya
#9
D Barakat, P C Rockers, T Vian, M A Onyango, R O Laing, V J Wirtz
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that about 4 million Kenyans, i.e., 10% of the country's population, have asthma. We aimed to evaluate access to asthma medicines at the household level in eight counties of Kenya, including factors associated with location of purchase. METHODS: Individuals with a diagnosis and prescription of asthma medicines were asked about the location of diagnosis, purchase of medicines, availability of medicines at home and costs of medicines per month...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663965/a-pilot-study-to-assess-the-bacterial-contaminants-in-hookah-pipes-in-a-community-setting
#10
M Martinasek, Z Rivera, A Ferrer, E Freundt
SETTING: Hookah smoking among young adults remains a public health threat. Increasing research has uncovered the deleterious effects of hookah smoking, including both acute and chronic health conditions. Due to the current lack of regulation, hookah bars/lounges lack protocols for equipment sanitation. OBJECTIVES: To examine evidence of bacterial contamination in hookah pipes due to a lack of sanitation regulations. DESIGN: For this field/laboratory study, 10 hookah bars/lounges were studied...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663964/the-challenge-of-estimating-tuberculosis-mortality-accurately-in-england-and-wales
#11
M K Lalor, T Mohiyuddin, T Uddin, H L Thomas, M Lipman, C N J Campbell
BACKGROUND: Accurate estimates of tuberculosis (TB) mortality are required to monitor progress towards the World Health Organization End TB goal of reducing TB deaths by 95% by 2035. We compared TB death data for England and Wales from the national surveillance system (Enhanced Tuberculosis Surveillance System [ETS]) and the vital registration system from the Office for National Statistics (ONS). METHODS: TB cases notified in ETS were matched to deaths in ONS (dONS) with International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes indicating that TB caused/contributed to the death (A15-A19)...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663963/accuracy-of-an-automated-system-for-tuberculosis-detection-on-chest-radiographs-in-high-risk-screening
#12
J Melendez, L Hogeweg, C I Sánchez, R H H M Philipsen, R W Aldridge, A C Hayward, I Abubakar, B van Ginneken, A Story
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) screening programmes can be optimised by reducing the number of chest radiographs (CXRs) requiring interpretation by human experts. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of computerised detection software in triaging CXRs in a high-throughput digital mobile TB screening programme. DESIGN: A retrospective evaluation of the software was performed on a database of 38 961 postero-anterior CXRs from unique individuals seen between 2005 and 2010, 87 of whom were diagnosed with TB...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663962/tuberculous-lymphadenitis-is-associated-with-altered-levels-of-circulating-angiogenic-factors
#13
G R Kathamuthu, K Moideen, D Baskaran, G Sekar, S Rathinam, V J Bharathi, G R Ganeshan, S Babu
BACKGROUND: Angiogenic factors are important in granuloma formation and serve as biomarkers in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The relationship between these markers and tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBL) is not known. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To examine the association of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin (Ang) family molecules in TBL, we measured systemic levels of VEGF-A, C, D, R1 (VEGF-receptor 1), R2, R3, Ang-1, Ang-2 and TIE2 (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 2) levels in TBL, latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) and lymph node culture supernatants (VEGF-A, C and Ang-2) of the same TBL patients...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663961/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-adjunctive-corticosteroids-in-the-treatment-of-tuberculous-pericarditis
#14
I A George, B Thomas, J S Sadhu
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common cause of pericarditis worldwide and carries a high mortality, even with effective anti-tuberculosis treatment. In the light of a randomized control trial in 2014, the American Thoracic Society and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America recently revised their recommendations against the routine use of adjunctive corticosteroids. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the strength of evidence that resulted in this reversal of the guideline recommendations on the use of adjunctive corticosteroids in TB pericarditis by a meta-analysis, followed by a sensitivity analysis...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663960/impact-of-pyrazinamide-resistance-on-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-karakalpakstan-uzbekistan
#15
J Kuhlin, C Smith, A Khaemraev, Z Tigay, N Parpieva, M Tillyashaykhov, J Achar, J Hajek, J Greig, P du Cros, D Moore
SETTING: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the inclusion of pyrazinamide (PZA) in treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) unless resistance has been confirmed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between PZA susceptibility and MDR-TB treatment outcome among patients treated with a PZA-containing regimen and whether the duration of the intensive phase of the PZA-containing regimen affected treatment outcome. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all eligible MDR-TB patients starting treatment in 2003-2013 in the TB programme in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663959/quality-assurance-of-rifampicin-containing-fixed-drug-combinations-in-south-africa-dosing-implications
#16
R Court, M T Chirehwa, L Wiesner, B Wright, W Smythe, N Kramer, H McIlleron
SETTING: Rifampicin (RMP) drives treatment response in drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Low RMP concentrations increase the risk of poor outcomes, and drug quality needs to be excluded as a contributor to low RMP exposure. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: We performed an open-label, three-way cross-over study of three licensed RMP-containing formulations widely used in South Africa to evaluate the bioavailability of RMP in a two-drug fixed-dose combination tablet (2FDC) and a four-drug FDC (4FDC) against a single-drug reference...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663958/patterns-of-usage-and-preferences-of-users-for-tuberculosis-related-text-messages-and-voice-calls-in-uganda
#17
J M Ggita, C Ojok, A J Meyer, K Farr, P B Shete, E Ochom, P Turimumahoro, D Babirye, D Mark, D Dowdy, S Ackerman, M Armstrong-Hough, T Nalugwa, I Ayakaka, D Moore, J E Haberer, A Cattamanchi, A Katamba, J L Davis
BACKGROUND: Little information exists about mobile phone usage or preferences for tuberculosis (TB) related health communications in Uganda. METHODS: We surveyed household contacts of TB patients in urban Kampala, Uganda, and clinic patients in rural central Uganda. Questions addressed mobile phone access, usage, and preferences for TB-related communications. We collected qualitative data about messaging preferences. RESULTS: We enrolled 145 contacts and 203 clinic attendees...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663957/high-utility-of-active-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-an-ethiopian-prison
#18
Y Merid, Y Woldeamanuel, M Abebe, D G Datiko, T Hailu, G Habtamu, G Assefa, R R Kempker, H M Blumberg, A Aseffa
SETTING: Hawassa Prison, Southern Region of Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the burden of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) using active case finding among prisoners. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, prisoners were screened for TB using a symptom screen. Those with cough of 2 weeks had spot and morning sputum samples collected for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and molecular diagnostic testing (Xpert® MTB/RIF). RESULTS: Among 2068 prisoners, 372 (18%) had a positive cough screen...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663956/paradox-of-serial-interferon-gamma-release-assays-variability-width-more-important-than-specificity-size
#19
J E Stout, R Belknap, Y-J Wu, C S Ho
SETTING: Serial screening for latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) is commonly performed in certain populations, such as health care workers. The high apparent conversion rate in some studies of interferon-gamma release assays is puzzling given the claimed high specificity of these tests. OBJECTIVE: To understand how test-retest variability, specificity, and underlying LTBI prevalence affect observed outcomes of repeated testing for LTBI. DESIGN: Mathematical model assuming constant test sensitivity and specificity over time and no new infections...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663955/using-surveillance-data-to-simulate-the-impact-of-a-hypothetical-pre-entry-tuberculosis-screening-programme-in-japan
#20
L Kawatsu, K Uchimura, K Izumi, A Ohkado, S Kato
BACKGROUND: Despite a growing burden of foreign-born tuberculosis (TB) patients, Japan does not currently practise pre-entry tuberculosis (TB) screening among foreign-born entrants. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a hypothetical pre-entry TB screening programme among new foreign-born entrants into Japan. METHOD: Using publicly available sources, we estimated 1) the number of prevalent TB cases, defined as bacteriologically or clinically confirmed cases among new foreign-born entrants into Japan in 2015, and 2) the yield from a hypothetical pre-entry TB screening programme under three scenarios: Scenario A, in which screening would be required of all applicants intending to stay for 3 months; Scenario B, screening among applicants for visas for settlement purposes; and Scenario C, screening among student and technical intern visa applicants...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
journal
journal
32735
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"