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International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

Yatin Dholakia, Nerges Mistry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
L Petrone, A Cannas, V Vanini, G Cuzzi, F Aloi, M Nsubuga, J Sserunkuma, R A Nazziwa, L Jugheli, T Lukindo, E Girardi, A Antinori, L Pucci, K Reither, D Goletti
SETTING: Blood interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10) has been proposed as a biomarker of disease activity for both tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Urine IP-10 has been detected in adults with active TB, and its level decreases after successful anti-tuberculosis treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate blood and urine IP-10 as biomarker of disease activity. DESIGN: Patients with HIV-TB and active TB were enrolled...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
R Matsumura, H Igari, T Nakazawa, S Ishikawa, M Tsuyuzaki, K Suzuki, F Yamagishi
SETTING: National hospital for tuberculosis (TB) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan. OBJECTIVE: To compare two interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs), QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) and T-SPOT(®).TB (T-SPOT), in RA patients for detecting latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). DESIGN: QFT and T-SPOT were conducted concurrently in 230 prospectively enrolled RA patients. RESULTS: There were no active TB patients...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A Levin, S Sklyuev, I Felker, E Tceymach, D Krasnov
BACKGROUND: In accordance with the existing hypothesis, the application of an endobronchial valve (EbV) leads to selective curative atelectasis of the affected part of the lung, contributing to early closure of cavities. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of EbV treatment on the course of tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: We compared the efficacy of EbV treatment and complex second-line treatment in treating patients with destructive pulmonary multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB)...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
R Z Pina, K R Caleffi-Ferracioli, P A Z Campanerut-Sá, L D Ghiraldi-Lopez, F R Pavan, V L D Siqueira, R B L Scodro, R F Cardoso
SETTING: Department of Clinical Analysis and Biomedicine, State University of Maringa, Maringa, PR, Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) plate at pH 5.5 in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to pyrazinamide (PZA). DESIGN: The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PZA in M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. bovis AN5 reference strains and in 34 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates (26 PZA-susceptible and eight PZA-resistant) was determined using REMA at pH 5...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
O Zewdie, A Mihret, G Ameni, A Worku, T Gemechu, T Abebe
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, one of the world's 22 high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries, one third of the tuberculosis (TB) cases are attributed to tuberculosis lymphadenitis (TBLN). However, information on the molecular type of the mycobacterial species and strains that cause TBLN in the country is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To identify the species and strains of mycobacteria that cause TBLN in Ethiopia. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 206 presumed TBLN cases to characterise positive culture isolates...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
N Alipanah, A Cattamanchi, R Menzies, P C Hopewell, R E Chaisson, P Nahid
SETTING: Several recent trials evaluating 4-month fluoroquinolone (FQ) containing regimens found that none of the experimental regimens were non-inferior to standard 6-month therapy in treating patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). OBJECTIVE: To answer whether FQ-containing duration-shortened regimens are non-inferior to standard therapy in the treatment of patients with non-cavitary PTB. DESIGN: Systematic review of all randomized and quasi-randomized trials that substituted an FQ into standard therapy for less than 6 months' duration to treat drug-susceptible, non-cavitary PTB...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
C H Kim, J K Lim, D H Lee, S S Yoo, S Y Lee, S I Cha, J Y Park, J Lee
BACKGROUND: In an era of increasing concerns about drug resistance, there are limited data on treatment outcomes and recurrence rates after standard short-course anti-tuberculosis treatment in patients with culture-negative tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). OBJECTIVE: To compare treatment outcomes and recurrence rates between a standard anti-tuberculosis regimen with negative culture and unavailable drug susceptibility testing (DST) data, and a tailored anti-tuberculosis regimen based on individual DST data...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
L M M Iglecias, M A M Puga, M A Pompílio, S A Teles, J Croda, L A Lima, B V Lago, R M B Martins, A R C Motta-Castro
BACKGROUND: Due to environmental and social conditions inherent to incarceration, tuberculosis (TB) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are major diseases among prison inmates. OBJECTIVE: To determine overall and occult HBV infection (OBI) prevalence rates, risk factors and genotype distribution among inmates with active TB. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 216 inmates with active TB recruited at the largest prisons in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
K Izumi, L Kawatsu, A Ohkado, K Uchimura, S Kato
SETTING: In Japan, a decline in tuberculosis (TB) notification rates and shortening of duration of hospitalisation have led to a drastic decrease in the number of hospital beds for TB patients (TB beds), causing severe undersupply in certain regions. OBJECTIVE: To assess the current status of spatial access to TB beds in Japan and evaluate the potential impact of health resource reconstruction in mitigating undersupply of TB beds. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted whereby a two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method was used to calculate an 'accessibility score' to evaluate spatial accessibility of TB beds in the regions classified by four levels of urbanisation...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A L Lopez, J G Aldaba, C G Ama, P G Sylim, X D Geraldino, J N Sarol, A M Salonga
SETTING: Estimates of the tuberculosis (TB) burden in the Philippines are largely dependent on prevalence surveys. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a prospective community-based survey to generate epidemiological data on TB among patients seeking care in public health centres in a rural municipality in the Philippines. DESIGN: Prospective surveillance and follow-up of presumptive TB cases from May 2013 to July 2015. RESULTS: Of 1622 participants with presumptive TB, 468 (28...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
J Noeske, A Nana Yakam, J-L Abena Foe
SETTING: The Cameroonian National Tuberculosis Programme. OBJECTIVES: To assess case surveillance data for the 9-year period between January 2006 and December 2014. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive analysis of tuberculosis (TB) case finding in Cameroon using routine surveillance data. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, disease category, clinical and laboratory variables, and geographic regions were analysed. RESULTS: The absolute number of TB cases (all forms) notified increased from 24 878 in 2006 to 26 517 in 2014; however, the population-adjusted annual case notification rate (CNR) of TB (all forms) as well as that of new smear-positive pulmonary TB cases decreased significantly, from 139 to 121 (P < 0...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A Daftary, N Padayatchi
OBJECTIVE: To examine influences on health care workers' (HCWs') capacity to deliver health care for multi- and/or extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in South Africa. DESIGN: Qualitative data were collected via group and individual interviews with a purposive sample of 17 HCWs at a centralised, tertiary TB facility and analysed using grounded theory. RESULTS: Four themes were identified: 1) personal infection control practices among HCWs may be weakened by a workplace culture comprising low motivation, disparate risk perceptions and practices across workforce hierarchies, physical discomfort, and problems managing patients with treatment-induced hearing loss...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
D J Mibei, J W Kiarie, A Wairia, M Kamene, M E Okumu
SETTING: Successful treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is crucial in preventing disease transmission and reducing related morbidity and mortality. A standardised DR-TB treatment regimen is used in Kenya. Although patients on treatment are monitored, no evaluation of factors affecting treatment outcomes has yet been performed. OBJECTIVE: To analyse treatment outcomes of DR-TB patients in Kenya and factors associated with successful outcome. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of secondary data from Kenya's National Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Lung disease programme...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A J Garcia-Prats, L du Plessis, H R Draper, A Burger, J A Seddon, K Zimri, A C Hesseling, H S Schaaf
SETTING: Isoniazid-resistant rifampicin-susceptible (H(R)R(S)) tuberculosis (TB) is the most prevalent form of drug-resistant TB globally, and may be a risk factor for poor outcomes, but has been poorly described in children. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the clinical presentation, treatment, and clinical and microbiological outcomes among children with culture-confirmed H(R)R(S) TB. DESIGN: Retrospective hospital-based cohort study. RESULTS: Of the 72 children included in the study, the median age was 50...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A T Cruz, A L Hersh, J R Starke, S E Beekmann, P M Polgreen, R Banerjee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent to which advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) have been integrated into practice by pediatric infectious disease (PID) specialists. DESIGN: We conducted an online survey of the Infectious Diseases Society of America's Emerging Infections Network (EIN) membership. RESULTS: Of the 323 members, 197 (61%) responded: 7% cared for ⩾5 children with TB disease and 34% for ⩾5 children with LTBI annually...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
S Chaya, Z Dangor, F Solomon, S A Nzenze, A Izu, S A Madhi
SETTING: This study was undertaken at a tertiary hospital in Soweto, a peri-urban low-middle income setting. Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is a severe manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, mortality and clinical features of TBM in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and non-infected children in South Africa from 2006 to 2011. DESIGN: A retrospective, cross-sectional descriptive study...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A Turkova, E Chappell, S Chalermpantmetagul, M Della Negra, A Volokha, N Primak, S Solokha, V Rozenberg, G Kiselyova, E Yastrebova, M Miloenko, N Bashakatova, S Kanjanavanit, J Calvert, P Rojo, S Ansone, G Jourdain, R Malyuta, R Goodall, A Judd, C Thorne
SETTING: Centres participating in the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA), including Thailand and Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, presentation, treatment and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children. DESIGN: Observational study of TB diagnosed in HIV-infected children in 2011-2013. RESULTS: Of 4265 children aged <16 years, 127 (3%) were diagnosed with TB: 6 (5%) in Western Europe, 80 (63%) in Eastern Europe, 27 (21%) in Thailand and 14 (11%) in Brazil, with estimated TB incidence rates of respectively 239, 982, 1633 and 2551 per 100 000 person-years (py)...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
D Jaganath, G Lamichhane, M Shah
Carbapenems, a more recent β-lactam class, represent a unique anti-tuberculosis option, as emerging evidence demonstrates that they target the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall and β-lactamase. This provides a potentially new agent against M. tuberculosis, in particular for multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB), where options are limited. In this review, we examine the current evidence on the activity of carbapenems against M. tuberculosis. The predominance of work is in vitro, and suggests that carbapenems kill M...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
E Latif, M Nair
The unregulated market for e-cigarettes continues to grow, with debates on their efficacy and impact on global public health. E-cigarettes, or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDs), are marketed as a 'safe' alternative to tobacco products and a tool for 'harm reduction'. Some public health experts are calling it a 'game changer' and favour the 'harm reduction' strategy, while others dispute this claim. In our opinion, the debate needs to be broadened to encompass other related concerns and effects on non-users and affected stakeholders...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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