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International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992819/tb-pcr-and-drug-resistance-pattern-in-balf-in-smear-negative-active-pulmonary-tb
#1
K Chavalertsakul, V Boonsarngsuk, S Saengsri, P Santanirand
<h2>SETTING:</h2>A tertiary referral hospital in Bangkok, Thailand.<h2>OBJECTIVES:</h2>To evaluate the efficacy of a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) tuberculosis (TB) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the diagnosis of sputum smear-negative pulmonary TB (PTB) and the usefulness of a drug-resistant (DR) TB-PCR assay compared with standard drug susceptibility testing (DST).<h2>DESIGN:</h2>BALF samples from 918 patients with acid-fast bacilli (AFB) negative sputum smears who underwent bronchoscopy for diagnostic evaluations of pulmonary diseases were prospectively determined for specific genetic elements of TB using the Anyplex(TM) MTB/NTM Real-Time Detection kit...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037304/john-m-grange-1943-2016
#2
Peter Davies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037303/prevalence-and-impact-of-asthma-among-school-aged-students-in-lima-peru
#3
M Martin, T Sauer, J A Alarcon, J Vinoles, E C Walter, T G Ton, J Zunt
SETTING AND OBJECTIVE: The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) reported asthma prevalence in Peru to be among the highest in the world. We assessed the prevalence and morbidity of self-reported asthma in an underserved, peri-urban area of Lima, Peru, with limited medical access. DESIGN: The study was conducted in the outskirts of Lima from March to May 2011. Five hundred children aged 6-18 years were selected through cluster sampling...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037302/feno-levels-increase-with-degree-of-sensitisation-in-apprentices-at-risk-of-occupational-asthma
#4
P Wild, H Mével, E Penven, D Zmirou-Navier, A Barbaud, A Bohadana, C Paris
BACKGROUND: Atopy has emerged as a major determinant of airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether early markers of occupational asthma increase with degree of sensitisation. METHOD: This study was a prospective follow-up study of apprentices in baking, pastry-cooking and hairdressing during their 2-year apprenticeship. Four visits were conducted to administer a standardised questionnaire, a methacholine challenge test to assess bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and to measure fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO)...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037301/asthma-symptoms-among-chinese-children-the-role-of-ventilation-and-pm10-exposure-at-school-and-home
#5
X-J Fan, C Yang, L Zhang, Q Fan, T Li, X Bai, Z-H Zhao, X Zhang, D Norback
SETTING: Respiratory symptoms in relation to environment in Taiyuan, China. OBJECTIVE: To study associations between school/home exposure and prevalence of respiratory symptoms and self-reported respiratory infections (RIs) among students. DESIGN: A total of 2134 pupils from 10 schools answered a questionnaire; air pollution at school was measured. RESULTS: The prevalence of current wheeze, daytime attacks of breathlessness, nocturnal cough, nocturnal respiratory symptoms and RI was respectively 4...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037300/high-resolution-computed-tomography-findings-in-chronic-eosinophilic-vs-cryptogenic-organising-pneumonia
#6
P Mehrian, A Doroudinia, A Rashti, O Aloosh, A Dorudinia
BACKGROUND: The similar clinical and computed tomography (CT) characteristics of cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) make precise diagnosis challenging. OBJECTIVES: To help differentiate between COP and CEP using high-resolution CT (HRCT). DESIGN: Clinical data and HRCT images of COP and CEP patients referred to Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2007 to 2015 were reviewed. Diagnosis of COP or CEP was confirmed using open lung biopsy or a combination of transbronchial biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis, peripheral eosinophilia and a favourable response to corticosteroids...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037299/time-to-treatment-for-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
R Boyd, N Ford, P Padgen, H Cox
BACKGROUND: To reduce transmission and improve patient outcomes, rapid diagnosis and treatment of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) is required. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing time to treatment for RR-TB and variability using diagnostic testing methods and treatment delivery approach. DESIGN: Studies from 2000 to 2015 reporting time to second-line treatment initiation were selected from PubMed and published conference abstracts...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037298/determinants-of-multidrug-resistance-among-previously-treated-tuberculosis-patients-in-zimbabwe-2014
#8
G Muchena, G Shambira, N Masuka, T Juru, N Gombe, L Takundwa, D Bangure, M Tshimanga
SETTING: Zimbabwe. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the determinants of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among previously treated TB patients. DESIGN: A 1:3 case-control study with bivariate analysis and logistic regression. RESULTS: Risk factors for MDR-TB were history of nursing an MDR-TB patient (adjusted OR [aOR] 4.46, 95%CI 2.02-9.88), history of hospitalisation for 3 days (aOR 2.91, 95%CI 1.62-5.23) and history of foreign travel and stay outside Zimbabwe (aOR 2...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037297/innovative-approach-to-the-design-and-evaluation-of-treatment-adherence-interventions-for-drug-resistant-tb
#9
K Alegria-Flores, B J Weiner, C A Wiesen, K L H Lich, A Van Rie, J E Paul, M A Tovar
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) treatment is expensive, lengthy, and can cause severe side effects. Patients face socio-economic, psychosocial, and systemic barriers to adherence; poor adherence results in poor treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effects of the components of the information-motivation-behavioral skills model on DR-TB treatment adherence. DESIGN: We recruited 326 adults receiving DR-TB treatment and 86 of their health care service providers from 40 health centers in Lima, Peru...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037296/tuberculosis-in-recipients-of-solid-organ-transplants-during-1995-2015-in-cali-colombia
#10
J F García-Goez, G A Munera, V Rojas, R Pacheco, J A Caylá, J M Miro
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) in solid-organ transplants (SOTs) is an important opportunistic infection associated with mortality and graft loss. SOT recipients carry a higher risk of contracting active TB than the general population. Clinical and radiographic presentations are non-specific, and sputum smear and culture have low yields. TB patients with SOTs require standard anti-tuberculosis treatment. However, rifampicin (RMP) use is associated with a 30% rate of acute graft rejection (AGR) and a 20% rate of transplant loss...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037295/does-antiretroviral-treatment-increase-the-infectiousness-of-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#11
P Y Khan, A C Crampin, T Mzembe, O Koole, K L Fielding, K Kranzer, J R Glynn
BACKGROUND: Understanding of the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral treatment (ART) on Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission dynamics remains limited. We undertook a cross-sectional study among household contacts of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases to assess the effect of established ART on the infectiousness of TB. METHOD: Prevalence of tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity was compared between contacts of index cases aged 2-10 years who were HIV-negative, HIV-positive but not on ART, on ART for <1 year and on ART for 1 year...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037294/diagnostic-yield-of-active-case-finding-for-tuberculosis-and-hiv-at-the-household-level-in-slums-in-haiti
#12
V R Rivera, M-A Jean-Juste, S C Gluck, H T Reeder, J Sainristil, P Julma, M Peck, P Joseph, O Ocheretina, C Perodin, R Secours, M Duran-Mendicuti, L Hashiguchi, P Y Cremieux, S P Koenig, J W Pape
SETTING: Haiti has the highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) in the Americas, with an estimated prevalence of 254 per 100 000 population. The Haitian Group for the Study of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (Groupe Haïtien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes, GHESKIO) conducted active case finding (ACF) for TB at the household level in nine slums in Port-au-Prince. OBJECTIVE: We report on the prevalence of undiagnosed TB detected through GHESKIO's ACF campaign...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037293/community-based-active-case-finding-for-tuberculosis-in-rural-western-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
C Chen, C-G Yang, X Gao, Z-Z Lu, F-X Tang, J Cheng, Q Gao, V Cárdenas
SETTING: Current passive case finding strategies are not effective at identifying tuberculosis (TB) patients in rural China. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a community-based, active case finding (ACF) scheme in identifying symptomatic individuals with TB. DESIGN: We conducted door-to-door household visits of all residents aged 15 years at two rural sites to screen for TB symptoms. Individuals with symptoms were enrolled and asked to provide three sputum samples...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037292/accuracy-of-giant-african-pouched-rats-for-diagnosing-tuberculosis-comparison-with-culture-and-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif
#14
C Mulder, G F Mgode, H Ellis, E Valverde, N Beyene, C Cox, S E Reid, A H Van't Hoog, T L Edwards
SETTING: Enhanced tuberculosis (TB) case finding using detection rats in Tanzania. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of detection rats compared with culture and Xpert® MTB/RIF, and to compare enhanced case-finding algorithms using rats in smear-negative presumptive TB patients. DESIGN: A fully paired diagnostic accuracy study in which sputum of new adult presumptive TB patients in Tanzania was tested using smear microscopy, 11 detection rats, culture and Xpert...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037291/the-devil-we-know-is-the-use-of-injectable-agents-for-the-treatment-of-mdr-tb-justified
#15
A Reuter, P Tisile, D von Delft, H Cox, V Cox, L Ditiu, A Garcia-Prats, S Koenig, E Lessem, R Nathavitharana, J A Seddon, J Stillo, A von Delft, J Furin
For decades, second-line injectable agents (IAs) have been the cornerstone of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Although evidence on the efficacy of IAs is limited, there is an expanding body of evidence on the serious adverse events caused by these drugs. Here, we present the results of a structured literature review of the safety and efficacy of IAs. We review the continued widespread use of these agents in the context of therapeutic alternatives-most notably the newer TB drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid-and from the context of human rights, ethics and patient-centered care...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037290/onions-and-prevalence-surveys-how-to-analyze-and-quantify-tuberculosis-case-finding-gaps
#16
W A Wells
Finding the missing 4 million tuberculosis (TB) patients is one of the greatest challenges facing the TB community. The optimal approaches to this will vary by country, but there is no consistent process for analyzing the potential benefit of different strategies, or for deciding which approaches are most appropriate for a given setting. Here, I bring together the Onion Model-as a way to think through health system structures-and evidence from prevalence surveys. The result is a structured process for prioritizing different strategies for case finding...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037289/conducting-high-quality-tuberculosis-clinical-trials-in-china-opportunities-and-challenges
#17
J Bao, R Hafner
Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease that is a devastating threat to public health. As the country with the second highest number of TB cases and the highest number of multidrug-resistant TB cases in the world, China is now striving to be at the forefront of TB research and drug development. This article is based on the observations made by the authors during the recent partnership initiative between the National Institutes of Health and the Chinese TB community, as well as an extensive literature review...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037288/global-asthma-burden-and-poverty-in-the-twenty-first-century
#18
Laura Lautenbacher, Matthew S Perzanowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037287/provision-of-art-to-individuals-infected-with-hiv-impact-on-the-epidemiology-and-control-of-tuberculosis
#19
Martien W Borgdorff, Kevin M De Cock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037286/do-rats-pass-the-sniff-test
#20
Madhukar Pai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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