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Motor Control

Katya Trousset, David Phillips, Andrew Karduna
Proprioception is assessed more often through joint position sense and kinesthesia than force sense. The purpose of this study is to investigate force sense at the shoulder. A total of 12 subjects were recruited. An ipsilateral force reproduction protocol at the shoulder at 50°, 70°, and 90° and 120%, 140%, and 160% baseline torque. Dependent variables were constant error (CE) and root mean square error. An effect was found for load on absolute (p = .001) and normalized CE (p < .001). CE decreased with increased load...
March 9, 2018: Motor Control
Ziemowit Bańkosz, Sławomir Winiarski
The aims of this study were to evaluate movement patterns of topspin forehand, to define the main principles of performing this shot, and to determine the essential differences in individual types of topspin forehand. In total, 10 female high-level athletes participated in this study. The BTS analysis system was used with a novel model for the range-of-motion measurement. An acoustic sensor was attached to the racket for identification of a ball-racket contact. Players, performing topspin forehand, attempt to achieve maximal racket velocity based on the principles of proximal-to-distal sequences and summation of speed with a stretch-shortening character of cycle...
March 9, 2018: Motor Control
Elizabeth L Stegemöller, Joshua R Tatz, Alison Warnecke, Paul Hibbing, Brandon Bates, Andrew Zaman
Auditory cues, including music, are commonly used in the treatment of persons with Parkinson's disease. Yet, how music style and movement rate modulate movement performance in persons with Parkinson's disease have been neglected and remain limited in healthy young populations. The purpose of this study was to determine how music style and movement rate influence movement performance in healthy young adults. Healthy participants were asked to perform repetitive finger movements at two pacing rates (70 and 140 beats per minute) for the following conditions: (a) a tone only, (b) activating music, and (c) relaxing music...
March 9, 2018: Motor Control
Roland van den Tillaar
The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of four different shooting techniques (slap, sweeper, drag, and wrist shots) in floorball on velocity and accuracy in experienced floorball players, and to investigate whether target height has an influence on these shooting performances. Ten experienced male floorball players (age, 21 ± 4 years; body mass, 81.5 ± 10 kg; body height, 1.85 ± 0.07 m; and years of experience, 6.9 ± 3.1 years) shot as hard as possible and tried to hit the upper and lower targets with four different shooting techniques from a 4-m distance...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
Carlo Di Brina, Roberto Averna, Paola Rampoldi, Serena Rossetti, Roberta Penge
This pilot study is to investigate the influence of a developmental coordination disorder (DCD) comorbidity in a group of children with learning disability (LD). Reading and writing were assessed to investigate if the coexistence of a motor impairment can worsen writing quality, speed, and reading accuracy. A sample of 33 LD children (aged 7-11 years) was divided in two subgroups, on the base of their scores on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children: LD-only (n = 14) and LD with a comorbidity for DCD (LD-DCD, n = 19)...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
John de Grosbois, Luc Tremblay
A major challenge to the measurement of online control is the contamination by offline, planning-based processes. The current study examined the sensitivity of four measures of online control to offline changes in reaching performance induced by prism adaptation and terminal feedback. These measures included the squared Z scores (Z2 ) of correlations of limb position at 75% movement time versus movement end, variable error, time after peak velocity, and a frequency-domain analysis (pPower). The results indicated that variable error and time after peak velocity were sensitive to the prism adaptation...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
Jumpei Mizuno, Masashi Kawamura, Minoru Hoshiyama
Brain activity was recorded using a whole-head magnetoencephalography system followed by coherence analysis to assess neural connectivity in 10 healthy right-handed adults to clarify differences in neural connectivity in brain regions during action observation from several perspectives. The subjects were instructed to observe and memorize or imitate the hand action from a first-person or second-person visual perspective. The brain activity in coherence was modified among frontal and central, sensorimotor, and mirror neuron system-related regions based on the visual perspectives of finger movements...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
Isaac Estevan, Sergio Gandia, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, José Luis Bermejo, Xavier García-Massó
This paper describes a study on postural stability and cognitive function according to the difficulty increment of a working memory task (WMT) and age group in adolescents. One hundred and twenty-three participants (13-16 years) performed single and dual tasks in a bipedal standing position while barefoot. Four trials were conducted, consisting of single and dual tasks in three progressively difficult WMT conditions (i.e., 3-, 5-, and 7-digit sequences). Friedman's analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests were conducted to test the effect of the WMT and age group, respectively...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
Shohei Shibata, Yuki Inaba, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Senshi Fukashiro
This study had two objectives: (a) revealing the difference in finger segments between the conventional and finger models during aimed throwing and (b) examining the central nervous system's timing control between the wrist torque and finger torque. Participants were seven baseball players. Finger kinetics was calculated by an inverse dynamics method. In the conventional model, wrist flexion torque was smaller than that in the finger model because of the error in ball position approximation. The maximal correlation coefficient between the wrist torque and finger torque was high (r = ...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
Lana M Pfaff, Michael E Cinelli
The current study investigated whether path selection of athletes specifically trained to fit through gaps is affected by the location of human obstacle and the form of locomotion. Female rugby players were instructed to walk, walk with the ball, or run with the ball along a path toward a goal while avoiding three obstacles (three vertical poles or two vertical poles and a confederate) placed halfway along the path, creating two equal apertures of 80 cm. Regardless of the form of locomotion, rugby players chose paths furthest from the confederate, suggesting that confederate location affects path selection...
December 21, 2017: Motor Control
Deborah A Jehu, Yves Lajoie, Nicole Paquet
The purpose of this study was to investigate obstacle clearance and reaction time parameters when crossing a series of six obstacles in older adults. A second aim was to examine the repeated exposure of this testing protocol once per week for 5 weeks. In total, 10 older adults (five females; age: 67.0 ± 6.9 years) walked onto and over six obstacles of varying heights (range: 100-200 mm) while completing no reaction time, simple reaction time, and choice reaction time tasks once per week for 5 weeks. The highest obstacles elicited the lowest toe clearance, and the first three obstacles revealed smaller heel clearance compared with the last three obstacles...
December 21, 2017: Motor Control
Andressa Busch Rocha Pereira, Renato Moraes
Our purpose was to verify the effects of the use of the anchors on postural control after the fatigue of the plantar flexor muscles in young and older adults. They stood barefoot, with their eyes closed in four conditions combining the use of the anchors and the fatigue. When using the anchors, participants held one cable in each hand and kept the cable taut without removing the loads (125 g) from the ground. The fatigue protocol consisted of performing a single series of bilateral plantar flexion movements...
December 19, 2017: Motor Control
Deborah A M Jehu, Nicole Paquet, Yves Lajoie
The purpose of this study was to determine whether balance and mobility training (BMT) or balance and mobility plus cognitive training (BMT + C) would improve obstacle clearance and reaction time (RT); whether further improvements would be exposed in the BMT + C group relative to the BMT group; and whether possible improvements would be sustained at the follow-up. Healthy older adults were allocated to the BMT (n = 15; age: 70.2 ± 3.2), BMT + C (n = 14; age: 68.7 ± 5.5), or control group (n = 13; age: 66...
November 28, 2017: Motor Control
Victoria Galea, Robyn Traynor, Michael Pierrynowski
The ability to match one's movements to an external beat and maintain that rhythm in the absence of the beat suggests sophisticated, well-developed neural control. Children (aged 5-10 years) were compared with adults (aged 18-30 years) during a repetitive reaching task to determine development of this control. Children as young as 5 years exhibited this control. The mean rate of reaching did not differ between groups nor did it differ during the two phases, suggesting an overall ability to internalize and continuously repeat a given pace...
November 28, 2017: Motor Control
Tatsuya Daikoku, Yuji Takahashi, Nagayoshi Tarumoto, Hideki Yasuda
Previous studies suggest that statistical learning is preserved when acoustic changes are made to auditory sequences. However, statistical learning effects can vary with and without concurrent exercise. The present study examined how concurrent physical exercise influences auditory statistical learning when acoustical and temporal changes are made to auditory sequences. Participants were presented with the 500-tone sequences based on a Markov chain while cycling or resting in ignored and attended conditions...
November 28, 2017: Motor Control
Sara M Scharoun, David A Gonzalez, Eric A Roy, Pamela J Bryden
Young adults plan actions in advance to minimize the cost of movement. This is exemplified by the end-state comfort (ESC) effect. A pattern of improvement in ESC in children is linked to the development of cognitive control processes, and decline in older adults is attributed to cognitive decline. This study used a cross-sectional design to examine how movement context (pantomime, demonstration with image/glass as a guide, actual grasping) influences between-hand differences in ESC planning. Children (5- to 12-year-olds), young adults, and two groups of older adults (aged 60-70, and aged 71 and older) were assessed...
November 28, 2017: Motor Control
Sergio L Molina, David F Stodden
This study examined variability in throwing speed and spatial error to test the prediction of an inverted-U function (i.e., impulse-variability [IV] theory) and the speed-accuracy trade-off. Forty-five 9- to 11-year-old children were instructed to throw at a specified percentage of maximum speed (45%, 65%, 85%, and 100%) and hit the wall target. Results indicated no statistically significant differences in variable error across the target conditions (p = .72), failing to support the inverted-U hypothesis...
October 17, 2017: Motor Control
Scott R Brown, Matt Brughelli, Seth Lenetsky
Our aims were to assess single-leg balance in rugby union athletes and compare the stability indices between legs and between positions. Thirty athletes, forwards and backs (n = 15/15), performed single-leg balance measured at two difficulty levels (Level 8: more stable and Level 2: less stable) using the Biodex Balance SD System. The backs' nonpreferred leg had worse scores in medial-lateral and overall indices (effect size = 1.05 and 0.63) compared with the preferred leg on Level 8 stability. Backs had better scores in all indices in the preferred (effect size = -1...
October 17, 2017: Motor Control
Alessia Longo, Ruud Meulenbroek
Movement variability of the upper limb was investigated using a bimanual Fitts' task. Participants tapped rhythmically between target-pairs of different index of difficulties for three intervals of 20 min each. We studied the effects of index of difficulties and time-on-task on movement time, end-point variability, approximate entropy, and standard deviation of the relative phase. Lower index of difficulties and time-on-task caused decreasing movement time and increasing end-point variability. Moreover, standard deviation of the relative phase and approximate entropy moderately increased...
October 3, 2017: Motor Control
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