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Motor Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388269/improved-learning-a-coincident-timing-task-with-a-predictable-resisting-force
#1
Arturo Forner-Cordero, Virgínia H Quadrado, Sitsofe A Tsagbey, Bouwien C M Smits-Engelsman
The present study analyzes the learning in a coincident timing task with force perturbation. We aimed to verify whether a predictable load (constant spring) applied to hand movements could facilitate learning and thus performance improvement with respect to movements without any external load and an unpredictable load to perform a coincident timing task with a few number of repetitions (n=28) under acquisition and transfer phases. The results showed that the group with a predictable load had a significant better performance with lower percentage of errors and smaller time variance in the acquisition and transfer phase...
April 7, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338400/systematic-unintended-drifts-in-the-cyclic-force-produced-with-the-fingertips
#2
Satyajit Ambike, Daniela Mattos, Vladimir M Zatsiorsky, Mark Latash
Cyclic isometric finger-force patterns established using visual feedback show systematic drifts when the feedback is removed. Force changes at multiple time scales and opposite directions have been reported. For further characterization of these drifts, healthy subjects produced isometric, cyclic finger force with and without visual feedback at various initial amplitudes and frequencies. We hypothesized that on feedback removal, the amplitude will be attracted towards a preferred value that is frequency dependent...
March 24, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338396/should-ballet-dancers-vary-postures-and-under-foot-surfaces-when-practicing-postural-balance
#3
Nili Steinberg, Gordon Waddington, Roger Adams, Janet Karin, Oren Tirosh
BACKGROUND: Postural balance (PB) is an important component skill for professional dancers. However, the effects of different types of postures and different underfoot surfaces on PB have not been adequately addressed. PURPOSE: The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different conditions of footwear, surfaces, and standing positions on static and dynamic PB ability of young ballet dancers. METHOD: Thirty-six male and female young professional ballet dancers (aged 14-19) completed static and dynamic balance testing, measured by head and lumbar accelerometers, while standing on one leg in the turn-out position, under six different conditions: 1...
March 24, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338394/inter-and-intra-subject-similarity-of-muscle-synergies-during-bench-press-with-slow-and-fast-velocity
#4
Afshin Samani, Mathias Kristiansen
We investigated the effect of low and high bar velocity on inter- and intra-subject similarity of muscle synergies during bench press. Thirteen trained male subjects underwent two exercise conditions, i.e. a slow and a fast velocity bench press. Surface electromyography was recorded from thirteen muscles and muscle synergies were extracted using a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. The intra-subject similarity across conditions and inter-subject similarity within conditions were computed for muscle synergy vectors and activation coefficients...
March 24, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338389/somatosensory-electrical-stimulation-does-not-augment-motor-skill-acquisition-and-intermanual-transfer-in-healthy-young-adults-a-pilot-study
#5
János Négyesi, Menno P Veldman, Kelly M M Berghuis, Marie Javet, József Tihanyi, Tibor Hortobágyi
Sensory input can modify motor function and magnify interlimb transfer. We examined the effects of low-intensity somatosensory electrical stimulation (SES) on motor practice-induced (MP) skill acquisition and intermanual transfer. Participants practiced a visuomotor skill for 25 minutes and received SES to the practice or the transfer arm. Responses to single- and double pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were measured in both extensor carpi radialis. SES did not further increase skill acquisition (RMP: 30...
March 24, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27218602/the-influence-of-the-aquatic-environment-on-gait-initiation-a-pilot-study
#6
Andresa R Marinho-Buzelli, Ana Maria Forti Barela, Jose Angelo Barela, Melissa Leandro Celestino, Milos R Popovic, Mary Verrier
Aquatic therapies are used to restore step initiation in people with locomotor disabilities. However, there is lack of evidence of underlining mechanisms of gait initiation in water. We investigated center of pressure (CoP), vertical and anterior-posterior impulse forces, and kinematics of the first step performed in water in comparison with overground walking. The peaks of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) and the sections of CoP trajectories were longer in water than on land. Impulse forces were increased in water compared with land...
April 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111914/kinematics-of-the-shoulder-girdle-during-pointing-coordination-between-joints-and-their-contribution-to-the-peri-personal-workspace
#7
Agnès Roby-Brami, Johanna V G Robertson, Alexandra Roren, Marie-Martine Lefèvre-Colau
This study explored the coordination between the components of the shoulder girdle (clavicle, scapula and humerus), and how they contribute to hand movement in the peri-personal space. Shoulder girdle motion was recorded in 10 healthy subjects during pointing movements to 9 targets in the peri-personal space, using electromagnetic sensors fixed to the trunk, scapula and upper arm. Most of the 9 degrees of freedom (DoF) of the shoulder girdle were finely scaled to target position. Principle component analysis revealed that the 6 DoF of scapula-thoracic motion were coordinated in three elementary patterns (protraction, shrug and lateral rotation)...
April 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111756/do-performers-experience-and-sex-affect-their-performance
#8
Jacobs Emmanuel, Roussel Nathalie, Ine Van Caekenberghe, Edith Cassiers, Luc Van den Dries, Jonas Rutgeerts, Jan Gielen, Ann Hallemans
This cross-sectional study aimed at developing a biomechanical method to objectify voluntary and unpredictable movements, using an automated three-dimensional motion capture system and surface electromyography. Fourteen experienced theater performers were tested while executing the old man exercise, wherein they have to walk like an old man, building up a sustained high intensive muscular activity and tremor. Less experienced performed showed a different kinematics of movement, a slower speed of progression and more variable EMG signals at higher intensity...
April 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111662/the-influence-of-restricted-visual-feedback-on-dribbling-performance-in-youth-soccer-players
#9
Job Fransen, Thomas W J Lovell, Kyle J M Bennett, Dieter Deprez, Frederik J A Deconinck, Matthieu Lenoir, Aaron J Coutts
The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of restricted visual feedback using stroboscopic eyewear on the dribbling performance of youth soccer players. Three dribble test conditions were used in a within-subjects design to measure the effect of restricted visual feedback on soccer dribbling performance in 189 youth soccer players (age: 10-18 y) classified as fast, average or slow dribblers. The results showed that limiting visual feedback increased dribble test times across all abilities. Furthermore, the largest performance decrement between stroboscopic and full vision conditions was in fast dribblers, showing that fast dribblers were most affected by reduced visual information...
April 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111548/emerging-behavioral-flexibility-in-loop-writing-a-longitudinal-study-in-7-to-9-year-old-primary-school-children
#10
Ida M Bosga-Stork, Jurjen Bosga, Ruud G J Meulenbroek
The development of the ability to adapt one's motor performance to the constraints of a movement task was examined in a longitudinal study involving 7 to-9-year-old children who were asked to perform a preparatory handwriting task. The capacity for sensorimotor synchronization was captured by the standard deviation of the relative phase between pacing signals and writing movements and the capacity to adjust wrist-finger coordination while performing repetitive movements was analyzed by autocorrelations of the vertical pen-tip displacements...
April 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26623551/trunk-postural-muscle-timing-is-not-compromised-in-low-back-pain-patients-clinically-diagnosed-with-movement-coordination-impairments
#11
Rupal Mehta, Marco Cannella, Sharon M Henry, Susan Smith, Simon Giszter, Sheri P Silfies
Trunk muscle timing impairment has been associated with nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP), but this finding has not been consistent. This study investigated trunk muscle timing in a subgroup of patients with NSLBP attributed to movement coordination impairment (MCI) and matched asymptomatic controls in response to a rapid arm-raising task. Twenty-one NSLBP subjects and 21 matched controls had arm motion and surface EMG data collected from seven bilateral trunk muscles. Muscle onset and offset relative to deltoid muscle activation and arm motion, duration of muscle burst and abdominal-extensor co-contraction time were derived...
April 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121286/precision-dependent-changes-in-motor-variability-during-sustained-bimanual-reaching
#12
Alessia Longo, Ruud Meulenbroek
Movement variability of the upper limb was investigated using a bimanual Fitts' task. Participants tapped rhythmically between target-pairs of different Index of Difficulties (ID) for three intervals of 20 min each. We studied the effects of ID and time-on-task on movement time, end-point variability, approximate entropy and standard deviation of relative phase. Lower ID and time-on-task caused decreasing movement time and increasing end-point variability. Moreover, standard deviation of relative phase and approximate entropy moderately increased...
January 25, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121283/effect-of-different-evasion-maneuvres-on-anticipation-and-visual-behavior-in-elite-rugby-league-players
#13
Jonathan D Connor, Robert G Crowther, Wade H Sinclair
This study examined the anticipation and visual behavior of elite Rugby League (RL) player's during two different evasion maneuvers (side- and split-step). Participants (N = 48) included elite RL players (n = 38) and controls (n = 10). Each participant watched videos consisting of side- and split-steps with anticipation of movement and eye behavior measured. No significant differences between the groups or evasion maneuver were found. The split-step was significantly harder to predict. Elite players appeared to spend more time viewing the torso and mid-region of the body compared to the controls...
January 25, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050918/unstable-footwear-affects-magnitude-and-structure-of-variability-in-postural-control
#14
Michael Buchecker, Stefan Wegenkittl, Thomas Stöggl, Erich Müller
This study evaluated the amount, and particularly the structure of variability in postural control accompanying an unstable shoe (US) application. Medio-lateral and anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) signals, plus electromyographic (EMG) profiles of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis were recorded in 29 asymptomatic men while wearing both US and flat shoes (FS). Statistical analysis included common measures of dispersion, as well as sample entropy (SEn) and largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE) estimates...
January 4, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111919/effects-of-treadmill-exercise-on-spontaneous-firing-activities-of-striatal-neurons-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Kaixuan Shi, Xiaoli Liu, Decai Qiao, Lijuan Hou
Exercise improves motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients but the underlying neuronal mechanism is poorly understood. Since the striatum is critical to motor function, we have investigated the potential effects of exercise on the spiking activity of the striatal neurons in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Twenty-four hours after injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the right medial forebrain bundle, rats in exercise groups were trained to exercise on a treadmill. Twenty-eight days after 6-OHDA lesion, apomorphine induced fewer rotations in the PD rats with exercise than in PD + Ex rats...
January 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111857/adaptation-behavior-of-skilled-infant-bouncers-leg-movements-and-mechanisms-of-control
#16
Olinda Habib Perez, Coren Walters-Stewart, D G E Robertson, Natalie Baddour, Heidi Sveistrup
Rhythmic behavior in nonlinear systems can be described as limit cycles or attractors. System perturbations may result in shifts between multiple attractors. We investigated individual cycle-to-cycle leg movement kinematics of three prewalking skilled infant bouncers (10.6 ±0.91 months) during four different spring frequencies (0.9, 1.15, 1.27 and 1.56 Hz). A novel visual analysis phase-plane methodology was introduced to analyze the lower body joint kinematics. It was found that as infants' bounce frequency increased to match the natural frequency of the system, their joint ranges of motion decreased and lower extremity dynamics shifted from forced to simple harmonic motion...
January 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26730523/the-effect-of-load-uncertainty-and-foreperiod-regularity-on-anticipatory-and-compensatory-neuromotor-control-in-catching
#17
William P Berg, Michael R Hughes
Muscle activation was measured using EMG in 28 males (n = 28) while participants caught visually identical balls of known and unknown weights (50, 1.32, 2.18, and 2.99 kg) under variable (1-10s) and constant (3s) foreperiods. EMG integrals were computed for three time intervals before the catch (anticipatory), and one after (compensatory). Load uncertainty caused the CNS to use an anticipatory strategy characterized by preparation to catch balls of an unknown weight by utilizing about 92% of the muscle activation used to catch the heaviest possible ball under the known weight condition...
January 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26625469/prehension-combined-with-gait-in-individuals-with-chronic-low-back-pain
#18
Priscila Abbári Rossi Manciopi, Natalia Madalena Rinaldi, Renato Moraes
Low back pain (LBP) can affect performance in the combined task (CT) of gait and prehension, since it increases muscle activity amplitude during voluntary movements, impairs the anticipatory postural adjustments and reduces gait speed. We analyzed and compared the effect of adding the prehension movement toward a dowel located at three different heights (80, 100 and 120% of the lower limb length) on gait of individuals with and without LBP. The CT caused anticipatory adjustments, showing that gait changes started during the approach phase and continued on the step corresponding to grasping, especially for the lowest dowel height...
January 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26618330/joint-coordination-and-muscle-activities-of-ballet-dancers-during-tiptoe-standing
#19
Hiroko Tanabe, Keisuke Fujii, Motoki Kouzaki
We aimed to investigate joint coordination of lower limbs in dancers during tiptoe standing and the relationship between joint coordination and muscle coactivation. Seven female ballet dancers performed tiptoe standing with six leg positions (fi e classical dance positions and one modern dance position) for 10 s. The kinematic data of the metatarsophalangeal (MP), ankle, knee, and hip joints was collected, and surface electromyography (EMG) of over 13 lower limb muscles was conducted. Principal component analysis was performed to determine joint coordination...
January 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26595318/axial-segmental-coordination-during-turning-effects-of-stroke-and-attentional-loadings
#20
Haidzir Manaf, Maria Justine, Hui-Ting Goh
Attentional loadings deteriorate straight walking performance for individuals poststroke, but its effects on turning while walking remain to be determined. Here we compared turning kinematics under three attentional loading conditions (single, dual-motor, and dual-cognitive task) between stroke survivors and healthy controls. Nine chronic stroke survivors and 10 healthy controls performed the Timed Upand- Go test while their full-body kinematics were recorded. Onset times of yaw rotation of the head, thorax and pelvis segments and head anticipation distance were used to quantify turning coordination...
January 2017: Motor Control
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