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Motor Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338400/systematic-unintended-drifts-in-the-cyclic-force-produced-with-the-fingertips
#1
Satyajit Ambike, Daniela Mattos, Vladimir Zatsiorsky, Mark Latash
Cyclic isometric finger-force patterns established using visual feedback show systematic drifts when the feedback is removed. Force changes at multiple time scales and in opposite directions have been reported. For further characterization of these drifts, healthy subjects produced isometric, cyclic finger force with and without visual feedback at various initial amplitudes and frequencies. We hypothesized that on feedback removal, the amplitude will be attracted toward a preferred value that is frequency dependent...
September 11, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834583/spinal-cord-injury-and-seated-postural-control-a-test-of-the-rambling-and-trembling-hypothesis
#2
Sunghoon Shin, Jacob J Sosnoff
Rambling-trembling analysis separates the center of pressure into two components: the rambling component (RM: supraspinal) and trembling component (TM: muscle stiffness/reflex). We hypothesized that persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) would demonstrate decreased RM resulting from altered supraspinal processing and increased TM resulting from increased muscle stiffness. We also anticipated that the TM component would be greater in SCI patients with Harrington rods than in those without them. The seated postural control was assessed in 18 persons with SCI, comprising 12 with and six without Harrington rods, and 18 age-matched controls...
September 11, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872420/laterality-of-motor-control-and-induced-gamma-band-activity-during-voluntary-movement-a-clinical-perspective-of-an-inexpensive-paper-and-pencil-bimanual-simultaneous-drawing-test
#3
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872415/auditory-statistical-learning-during-concurrent-physical-exercise-and-the-tolerance-for-pitch-tempo-and-rhythm-changes
#4
Tatsuya Daikoku, Yuji Takahashi, Nagayoshi Tarumoto, Hideki Yasuda
Previous studies suggest that statistical learning is preserved when acoustic changes are made to auditory sequences. However, statistical learning effects can vary with and without concurrent exercise. The present study examined how concurrent physical exercise influences auditory statistical learning when acoustic and temporal changes are made to auditory sequences. Participants were presented with 500-tone sequences based on a Markov chain while cycling or resting in ignored and attended conditions. Learning effects were evaluated using a familiarity test with four types of short tone series: tone series in which stimuli were same as 500-tone sequence and three tone series in which frequencies, tempo, or rhythm was changed...
September 5, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771106/end-state-comfort-across-the-lifespan-a-cross-sectional-investigation-of-how-movement-context-influences-motor-planning-in-an-overturned-glass-task
#5
Sara M Scharoun, David A Gonzalez, Eric A Roy, Pamela J Bryden
Young adults plan actions in advance to minimize the cost of movement. This is exemplified by the end-state comfort effect (ESC). A pattern of improvement in ESC in children is linked to the development of cognitive control processes, and decline in older adults' is attributed to cognitive decline. This study used a cross-sectional design to examine how movement context (pantomime, demonstrate with image/glass as a guide, actual grasping) influences between-hand differences in ESC planning. Children (5- to 12-year-olds), young adults and two groups of older adults (ages 60 to 70, and ages 71+) were assessed...
August 3, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657818/examining-impulse-variability-theory-and-the-speed-accuracy-trade-off-in-children-s-overarm-throwing-performance
#6
Sergio L Molina, David F Stodden
This study examined variability in throwing speed and spatial error to test the prediction of an inverted-U function (i.e., Impulse-Variability Theory) and the speed-accuracy trade-off. Forty-five 9-11 year-old children were instructed to throw at a specified percentage of maximum speed (45%, 65%, 85%, and 100%) and hit the wall target. Results indicated no statistically significant differences in variable error across the target conditions (p=0.72), failing to support the inverted-U hypothesis. Spatial accuracy results indicated no statistically significant differences with MRE (p=0...
June 28, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657806/profiling-single-leg-balance-by-leg-preference-and-position-in-rugby-union-athletes
#7
Scott R Brown, Matt Brughelli, Seth Lenetsky
Our aims were to assess single-leg balance in rugby union athletes and compare the stability indices between legs and between positions. Thirty athletes, forwards and backs (n=15/15) performed single-leg balance measured at two difficulty levels (Level 8 [more stable] and Level 2 [less stable]) using the Biodex Balance SD System. The backs' non-preferred leg had worse scores in medial-lateral and overall indices (ES=1.05 and 0.63) compared to the preferred leg on Level 8 stability. Backs had better scores in all indices in the preferred (ES=-1...
June 28, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736308/dynamic-fatigue-does-not-alter-soleus-h-reflexes-conditioned-by-homonymous-or-heteronymous-pathways
#8
Preeti D Oza, Shauna Dudley-Javoroski, Richard K Shields
H-reflex depression (diminution of amplitude after a conditioning stimulus) is mediated presynaptically and therefore can help distinguish central versus peripheral mechanisms of fatigue. We examined the effects of a dynamic exercise protocol on H-reflex depression using two conditioning methods: homonymous conditioning (paired-pulse tibial nerve stimulation); and heteronymous conditioning (common peroneal nerve stimulation). Ten subjects performed dynamic contractions of the soleus muscle through 30° ankle range of motion...
July 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633079/the-influence-of-a-cognitive-task-on-the-postural-phase-of-gait-initiation-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-electromyographic-based-analysis
#9
Ângela Fernandes, Andreia S P Sousa, Nuno Rocha, João Manuel R S Tavares
The aim of this study was to compare postural control strategies during gait initiation in single- and dual-task conditions in individuals in early stages of Parkinson's Disease (PD). The activation timing of tibialis anterior occurred significantly later in the individuals with PD than in the controls (p = .05), and a significant interaction between the groups, conditions and limbs was found (p = .027). Differences between the single- and dual-task conditions were observed for the activation timing of the tibialis anterior (p = ...
July 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633078/variation-of-linear-and-nonlinear-parameters-in-the-swim-strokes-according-to-the-level-of-expertise
#10
Tiago M Barbosa, Wan Xiu Goh, Jorge E Morais, Mário J Costa
The aim was to examine the variation of linear and nonlinear proprieties of the behavior in participants with different levels of swimming expertise among the four swim strokes. Seventy-five swimmers were split into three groups (highly qualified experts, experts and nonexperts) and performed a maximal 25m trial for each of the four competitive swim strokes. A speed-meter cable was attached to the swimmer's hip to measure hip speed; from which speed fluctuation (dv), approximate entropy (ApEn) and fractal dimension (D) variables were derived...
July 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633077/biological-movement-and-laws-of-physics
#11
Mark L Latash
Living systems may be defined as systems able to organize new, biology-specific, laws of physics and modify their parameters for specific tasks. Examples include the force-length muscle dependence mediated by the stretch reflex, and the control of movements with modification of the spatial referent coordinates for salient performance variables. Low-dimensional sets of referent coordinates at a task level are transformed to higher-dimensional sets at lower hierarchical levels in a way that ensures stability of performance...
July 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633076/the-effect-of-vestibular-stimulation-on-motor-functions-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#12
Marco Tramontano, Alessandra Medici, Marco Iosa, Alessia Chiariotti, Giulia Fusillo, Leonardo Manzari, Daniela Morelli
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) has been defined as a nonprogressive disease of movement and posture development. Physical therapy techniques use different forms of sensory stimulation to improve neuromotor development. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a vestibular stimulation training in improving motor functions in cerebral palsy. POPULATION: Fourteen children with CP were randomly separated into two different groups in a cross-over trial...
July 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27219006/the-effect-of-monaural-auditory-stimulus-on-hand-selection-when-reaching
#13
Keisuke Tani, Yasutomo Jono, Yoshifumi Nomura, Yuta Chujo, Koichi Hiraoka
This study investigated the effect of monaural auditory stimulus on hand selection when reaching. Healthy right-handed participants were asked to reach to a visual target and were free to use either the right or left hand. A visual target appeared at one of 11 positions in the visual field between -25 and 25 degrees of the horizontal visual angle. An auditory stimulus was given either in the left or right ear 100 ms after the presentation of the visual target, or no auditory stimulus was given. An auditory stimulus in the right ear increased right hand selection, and that in the left ear slightly increased left hand selection when reaching to a target around the midline of the visual field...
July 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27218800/gunslinger-effect-and-m%C3%A3-ller-lyer-illusion-examining-early-visual-information-processing-for-late-limb-target-control
#14
James W Roberts, James Lyons, Daniel B L Garcia, Raquel Burgess, Digby Elliott
The multiple process model contends that there are two forms of online control for manual aiming: impulse regulation and limb-target control. This study examined the impact of visual information processing for limb-target control. We amalgamated the Gunslinger protocol (i.e., faster movements following a reaction to an external trigger compared with the spontaneous initiation of movement) and Müller-Lyer target configurations into the same aiming protocol. The results showed the Gunslinger effect was isolated at the early portions of the movement (peak acceleration and peak velocity)...
July 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27218301/simultaneous-turn-and-step-task-for-investigating-control-strategies-in-healthy-young-and-community-dwelling-older-adults
#15
Andrew H Huntley, John L Zettel, Lori Ann Vallis
A simultaneous turn and step motion is a vital component of many complex movements and may provide insight into age related balance and stability deficits during a weight transfer task. In this study, nine young adults and ten healthy, community dwelling older adults performed a simultaneous "turn and step" task from a quiet standing position under two self-selected speeds, self-paced and as quickly and efficiently as possible. Whole-body center of mass was estimated to investigate stability, segmental coordination, and variability...
July 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530500/sex-specific-links-in-motor-and-sensory-adaptations-to-repetitive-motion-induced-fatigue
#16
Zachary R Weber, Divya Srinivasan, Julie N Côté
The objectives of this study were to assess the sex-specific relationships between motor and sensory adaptations to repetitive arm motion-induced neck/shoulder fatigue, and measure how additional sensory stimulation affected these adaptations. Twenty-three participants performed two sessions of a repetitive pointing task until scoring 8 on the Borg CR10 scale for neck/shoulder exertion or for a maximum of 45min, with and without sensory stimulation (i.e. light touch) applied on the fatiguing shoulder. Just before reaching the task termination criteria, all participants showed changes in mean and variability of arm joint angles and experienced a five-fold increase in anterior deltoid (AD) sensory threshold in the stimulus-present condition...
May 22, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530475/a-novel-electromyographic-approach-to-estimate-fatigue-threshold-in-maximum-incremental-strength-tests
#17
Jerónimo Aragón-Vela, Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Cristina Casals, Julio Plaza-Díaz, Rafael A Casuso, Luis Fontana, Jesus R Huertas
Evaluation of muscular fatigue thresholds in athletes performing short-duration and explosive exercises is difficult due to the fact that classic parameters do not suffer large variations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a new method to estimate the fatigue threshold in single muscles. Our approach is based on electromyographic data recorded during a maximun incremental strength test until the one repetition maximum (1RM) is reached. Ten men and ten women performed a half-squat strength test consisting of five incremental intensities of 1RM...
May 22, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530460/unravelling-motor-learning-processes-in-theatre-performers
#18
Emmanuel Jacobs, Ann Hallemans, Jan Gielen, Luc Van den Dries, Annouk Van Moorsel, Jonas Rutgeerts, Nathalie Roussel
Theatre performers, more than common actors, experience high physical loadings. This study aimed at analysing the motor behaviour ofnovice performers (dancers/actors who were introduced to the acting method of Jan Fabre), by investigating the kinematics of a physical acting exercises in a prospective study. Two measurement sessions were organised, before and after the novice performers (n = 13) took part in seven workshops. Total body kinematics were registered using a 3D motion capture system. By using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), six factors were disseminated out of 30 kinematic parameters: Pelvic Motion, Speed of Progression, Lower Limb Position, Foot Motion, Lower Limb Motion and Trunk Position...
May 22, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388269/improved-learning-a-coincident-timing-task-with-a-predictable-resisting-force
#19
Arturo Forner-Cordero, Virgínia H Quadrado, Sitsofe A Tsagbey, Bouwien C M Smits-Engelsman
The present study analyzes the learning in a coincident timing task with force perturbation. We aimed to verify whether a predictable load (constant spring) applied to hand movements could facilitate learning and thus performance improvement with respect to movements without any external load and an unpredictable load to perform a coincident timing task with a few number of repetitions (n=28) under acquisition and transfer phases. The results showed that the group with a predictable load had a significant better performance with lower percentage of errors and smaller time variance in the acquisition and transfer phase...
April 7, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27218602/the-influence-of-the-aquatic-environment-on-gait-initiation-a-pilot-study
#20
Andresa R Marinho-Buzelli, Ana Maria Forti Barela, Jose Angelo Barela, Melissa Leandro Celestino, Milos R Popovic, Mary Verrier
Aquatic therapies are used to restore step initiation in people with locomotor disabilities. However, there is lack of evidence of underlining mechanisms of gait initiation in water. We investigated center of pressure (CoP), vertical and anterior-posterior impulse forces, and kinematics of the first step performed in water in comparison with overground walking. The peaks of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) and the sections of CoP trajectories were longer in water than on land. Impulse forces were increased in water compared with land...
April 2017: Motor Control
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