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Motor Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657818/examining-impulse-variability-theory-and-the-speed-accuracy-trade-off-in-children-s-overarm-throwing-performance
#1
Sergio L Molina, David F Stodden
This study examined variability in throwing speed and spatial error to test the prediction of an inverted-U function (i.e., Impulse-Variability Theory) and the speed-accuracy trade-off. Forty-five 9-11 year-old children were instructed to throw at a specified percentage of maximum speed (45%, 65%, 85%, and 100%) and hit the wall target. Results indicated no statistically significant differences in variable error across the target conditions (p=0.72), failing to support the inverted-U hypothesis. Spatial accuracy results indicated no statistically significant differences with MRE (p=0...
June 28, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657806/profiling-single-leg-balance-by-leg-preference-and-position-in-rugby-union-athletes
#2
Scott R Brown, Matt Brughelli, Seth Lenetsky
Our aims were to assess single-leg balance in rugby union athletes and compare the stability indices between legs and between positions. Thirty athletes, forwards and backs (n=15/15) performed single-leg balance measured at two difficulty levels (Level 8 [more stable] and Level 2 [less stable]) using the Biodex Balance SD System. The backs' non-preferred leg had worse scores in medial-lateral and overall indices (ES=1.05 and 0.63) compared to the preferred leg on Level 8 stability. Backs had better scores in all indices in the preferred (ES=-1...
June 28, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530500/sex-specific-links-in-motor-and-sensory-adaptations-to-repetitive-motion-induced-fatigue
#3
Zachary R Weber, Divya Srinivasan, Julie N Côté
The objectives of this study were to assess the sex-specific relationships between motor and sensory adaptations to repetitive arm motion-induced neck/shoulder fatigue, and measure how additional sensory stimulation affected these adaptations. Twenty-three participants performed two sessions of a repetitive pointing task until scoring 8 on the Borg CR10 scale for neck/shoulder exertion or for a maximum of 45min, with and without sensory stimulation (i.e. light touch) applied on the fatiguing shoulder. Just before reaching the task termination criteria, all participants showed changes in mean and variability of arm joint angles and experienced a five-fold increase in anterior deltoid (AD) sensory threshold in the stimulus-present condition...
May 22, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530475/a-novel-electromyographic-approach-to-estimate-fatigue-threshold-in-maximum-incremental-strength-tests
#4
Jerónimo Aragón-Vela, Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Cristina Casals, Julio Plaza-Díaz, Rafael A Casuso, Luis Fontana, Jesus R Huertas
Evaluation of muscular fatigue thresholds in athletes performing short-duration and explosive exercises is difficult due to the fact that classic parameters do not suffer large variations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a new method to estimate the fatigue threshold in single muscles. Our approach is based on electromyographic data recorded during a maximun incremental strength test until the one repetition maximum (1RM) is reached. Ten men and ten women performed a half-squat strength test consisting of five incremental intensities of 1RM...
May 22, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530460/unravelling-motor-learning-processes-in-theatre-performers
#5
Emmanuel Jacobs, Ann Hallemans, Jan Gielen, Luc Van den Dries, Annouk Van Moorsel, Jonas Rutgeerts, Nathalie Roussel
Theatre performers, more than common actors, experience high physical loadings. This study aimed at analysing the motor behaviour ofnovice performers (dancers/actors who were introduced to the acting method of Jan Fabre), by investigating the kinematics of a physical acting exercises in a prospective study. Two measurement sessions were organised, before and after the novice performers (n = 13) took part in seven workshops. Total body kinematics were registered using a 3D motion capture system. By using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), six factors were disseminated out of 30 kinematic parameters: Pelvic Motion, Speed of Progression, Lower Limb Position, Foot Motion, Lower Limb Motion and Trunk Position...
May 22, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736308/dynamic-fatigue-does-not-alter-soleus-h-reflexes-conditioned-by-homonymous-or-heteronymous-pathways
#6
Preeti D Oza, Shauna Dudley-Javoroski, Richard K Shields
H-reflex depression (diminution of amplitude after a conditioning stimulus) is mediated presynaptically and therefore can help distinguish central versus peripheral mechanisms of fatigue. We examined the effects of a dynamic exercise protocol on H-reflex depression using two conditioning methods: homonymous conditioning (paired-pulse tibial nerve stimulation); and heteronymous conditioning (common peroneal nerve stimulation). Ten subjects performed dynamic contractions of the soleus muscle through 30° ankle range of motion...
July 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633079/the-influence-of-a-cognitive-task-on-the-postural-phase-of-gait-initiation-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-electromyographic-based-analysis
#7
Ângela Fernandes, Andreia S P Sousa, Nuno Rocha, João Manuel R S Tavares
The aim of this study was to compare postural control strategies during gait initiation in single- and dual-task conditions in individuals in early stages of Parkinson's Disease (PD). The activation timing of tibialis anterior occurred significantly later in the individuals with PD than in the controls (p = .05), and a significant interaction between the groups, conditions and limbs was found (p = .027). Differences between the single- and dual-task conditions were observed for the activation timing of the tibialis anterior (p = ...
July 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633078/variation-of-linear-and-nonlinear-parameters-in-the-swim-strokes-according-to-the-level-of-expertise
#8
Tiago M Barbosa, Wan Xiu Goh, Jorge E Morais, Mário J Costa
The aim was to examine the variation of linear and nonlinear proprieties of the behavior in participants with different levels of swimming expertise among the four swim strokes. Seventy-five swimmers were split into three groups (highly qualified experts, experts and nonexperts) and performed a maximal 25m trial for each of the four competitive swim strokes. A speed-meter cable was attached to the swimmer's hip to measure hip speed; from which speed fluctuation (dv), approximate entropy (ApEn) and fractal dimension (D) variables were derived...
July 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633077/biological-movement-and-laws-of-physics
#9
Mark L Latash
Living systems may be defined as systems able to organize new, biology-specific, laws of physics and modify their parameters for specific tasks. Examples include the force-length muscle dependence mediated by the stretch reflex, and the control of movements with modification of the spatial referent coordinates for salient performance variables. Low-dimensional sets of referent coordinates at a task level are transformed to higher-dimensional sets at lower hierarchical levels in a way that ensures stability of performance...
July 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633076/the-effect-of-vestibular-stimulation-on-motor-functions-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#10
Marco Tramontano, Alessandra Medici, Marco Iosa, Alessia Chiariotti, Giulia Fusillo, Leonardo Manzari, Daniela Morelli
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) has been defined as a nonprogressive disease of movement and posture development. Physical therapy techniques use different forms of sensory stimulation to improve neuromotor development. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a vestibular stimulation training in improving motor functions in cerebral palsy. POPULATION: Fourteen children with CP were randomly separated into two different groups in a cross-over trial...
July 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27219006/the-effect-of-monaural-auditory-stimulus-on-hand-selection-when-reaching
#11
Keisuke Tani, Yasutomo Jono, Yoshifumi Nomura, Yuta Chujo, Koichi Hiraoka
This study investigated the effect of monaural auditory stimulus on hand selection when reaching. Healthy right-handed participants were asked to reach to a visual target and were free to use either the right or left hand. A visual target appeared at one of 11 positions in the visual field between -25 and 25 degrees of the horizontal visual angle. An auditory stimulus was given either in the left or right ear 100 ms after the presentation of the visual target, or no auditory stimulus was given. An auditory stimulus in the right ear increased right hand selection, and that in the left ear slightly increased left hand selection when reaching to a target around the midline of the visual field...
July 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27218800/gunslinger-effect-and-m%C3%A3-ller-lyer-illusion-examining-early-visual-information-processing-for-late-limb-target-control
#12
James W Roberts, James Lyons, Daniel B L Garcia, Raquel Burgess, Digby Elliott
The multiple process model contends that there are two forms of online control for manual aiming: impulse regulation and limb-target control. This study examined the impact of visual information processing for limb-target control. We amalgamated the Gunslinger protocol (i.e., faster movements following a reaction to an external trigger compared with the spontaneous initiation of movement) and Müller-Lyer target configurations into the same aiming protocol. The results showed the Gunslinger effect was isolated at the early portions of the movement (peak acceleration and peak velocity)...
July 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27218301/simultaneous-turn-and-step-task-for-investigating-control-strategies-in-healthy-young-and-community-dwelling-older-adults
#13
Andrew H Huntley, John L Zettel, Lori Ann Vallis
A simultaneous turn and step motion is a vital component of many complex movements and may provide insight into age related balance and stability deficits during a weight transfer task. In this study, nine young adults and ten healthy, community dwelling older adults performed a simultaneous "turn and step" task from a quiet standing position under two self-selected speeds, self-paced and as quickly and efficiently as possible. Whole-body center of mass was estimated to investigate stability, segmental coordination, and variability...
July 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388269/improved-learning-a-coincident-timing-task-with-a-predictable-resisting-force
#14
Arturo Forner-Cordero, Virgínia H Quadrado, Sitsofe A Tsagbey, Bouwien C M Smits-Engelsman
The present study analyzes the learning in a coincident timing task with force perturbation. We aimed to verify whether a predictable load (constant spring) applied to hand movements could facilitate learning and thus performance improvement with respect to movements without any external load and an unpredictable load to perform a coincident timing task with a few number of repetitions (n=28) under acquisition and transfer phases. The results showed that the group with a predictable load had a significant better performance with lower percentage of errors and smaller time variance in the acquisition and transfer phase...
April 7, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27218602/the-influence-of-the-aquatic-environment-on-gait-initiation-a-pilot-study
#15
Andresa R Marinho-Buzelli, Ana Maria Forti Barela, Jose Angelo Barela, Melissa Leandro Celestino, Milos R Popovic, Mary Verrier
Aquatic therapies are used to restore step initiation in people with locomotor disabilities. However, there is lack of evidence of underlining mechanisms of gait initiation in water. We investigated center of pressure (CoP), vertical and anterior-posterior impulse forces, and kinematics of the first step performed in water in comparison with overground walking. The peaks of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) and the sections of CoP trajectories were longer in water than on land. Impulse forces were increased in water compared with land...
April 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111914/kinematics-of-the-shoulder-girdle-during-pointing-coordination-between-joints-and-their-contribution-to-the-peri-personal-workspace
#16
Agnès Roby-Brami, Johanna V G Robertson, Alexandra Roren, Marie-Martine Lefèvre-Colau
This study explored the coordination between the components of the shoulder girdle (clavicle, scapula and humerus), and how they contribute to hand movement in the peri-personal space. Shoulder girdle motion was recorded in 10 healthy subjects during pointing movements to 9 targets in the peri-personal space, using electromagnetic sensors fixed to the trunk, scapula and upper arm. Most of the 9 degrees of freedom (DoF) of the shoulder girdle were finely scaled to target position. Principle component analysis revealed that the 6 DoF of scapula-thoracic motion were coordinated in three elementary patterns (protraction, shrug and lateral rotation)...
April 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111756/do-performers-experience-and-sex-affect-their-performance
#17
Jacobs Emmanuel, Roussel Nathalie, Ine Van Caekenberghe, Edith Cassiers, Luc Van den Dries, Jonas Rutgeerts, Jan Gielen, Ann Hallemans
This cross-sectional study aimed at developing a biomechanical method to objectify voluntary and unpredictable movements, using an automated three-dimensional motion capture system and surface electromyography. Fourteen experienced theater performers were tested while executing the old man exercise, wherein they have to walk like an old man, building up a sustained high intensive muscular activity and tremor. Less experienced performed showed a different kinematics of movement, a slower speed of progression and more variable EMG signals at higher intensity...
April 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111662/the-influence-of-restricted-visual-feedback-on-dribbling-performance-in-youth-soccer-players
#18
Job Fransen, Thomas W J Lovell, Kyle J M Bennett, Dieter Deprez, Frederik J A Deconinck, Matthieu Lenoir, Aaron J Coutts
The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of restricted visual feedback using stroboscopic eyewear on the dribbling performance of youth soccer players. Three dribble test conditions were used in a within-subjects design to measure the effect of restricted visual feedback on soccer dribbling performance in 189 youth soccer players (age: 10-18 y) classified as fast, average or slow dribblers. The results showed that limiting visual feedback increased dribble test times across all abilities. Furthermore, the largest performance decrement between stroboscopic and full vision conditions was in fast dribblers, showing that fast dribblers were most affected by reduced visual information...
April 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111548/emerging-behavioral-flexibility-in-loop-writing-a-longitudinal-study-in-7-to-9-year-old-primary-school-children
#19
Ida M Bosga-Stork, Jurjen Bosga, Ruud G J Meulenbroek
The development of the ability to adapt one's motor performance to the constraints of a movement task was examined in a longitudinal study involving 7 to-9-year-old children who were asked to perform a preparatory handwriting task. The capacity for sensorimotor synchronization was captured by the standard deviation of the relative phase between pacing signals and writing movements and the capacity to adjust wrist-finger coordination while performing repetitive movements was analyzed by autocorrelations of the vertical pen-tip displacements...
April 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26623551/trunk-postural-muscle-timing-is-not-compromised-in-low-back-pain-patients-clinically-diagnosed-with-movement-coordination-impairments
#20
Rupal Mehta, Marco Cannella, Sharon M Henry, Susan Smith, Simon Giszter, Sheri P Silfies
Trunk muscle timing impairment has been associated with nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP), but this finding has not been consistent. This study investigated trunk muscle timing in a subgroup of patients with NSLBP attributed to movement coordination impairment (MCI) and matched asymptomatic controls in response to a rapid arm-raising task. Twenty-one NSLBP subjects and 21 matched controls had arm motion and surface EMG data collected from seven bilateral trunk muscles. Muscle onset and offset relative to deltoid muscle activation and arm motion, duration of muscle burst and abdominal-extensor co-contraction time were derived...
April 2017: Motor Control
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