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Motor Control

Lana M Pfaff, Michael E Cinelli
The current study investigated whether path selection of athletes specifically trained to fit through gaps is affected by the location of human obstacle and the form of locomotion. Female rugby players were instructed to walk, walk with the ball, or run with the ball along a path toward a goal while avoiding three obstacles (three vertical poles or two vertical poles and a confederate) placed halfway along the path, creating two equal apertures of 80 cm. Regardless of the form of locomotion, rugby players chose paths furthest from the confederate, suggesting that confederate location affects path selection...
December 21, 2017: Motor Control
Deborah A Jehu, Yves Lajoie, Nicole Paquet
The purpose of this study was to investigate obstacle clearance and reaction time parameters when crossing a series of six obstacles in older adults. A second aim was to examine the repeated exposure of this testing protocol once per week for 5 weeks. In total, 10 older adults (five females; age: 67.0 ± 6.9 years) walked onto and over six obstacles of varying heights (range: 100-200 mm) while completing no reaction time, simple reaction time, and choice reaction time tasks once per week for 5 weeks. The highest obstacles elicited the lowest toe clearance, and the first three obstacles revealed smaller heel clearance compared with the last three obstacles...
December 21, 2017: Motor Control
Andressa Busch Rocha Pereira, Renato Moraes
Our purpose was to verify the effects of the use of the anchors on postural control after the fatigue of the plantar flexor muscles in young and older adults. They stood barefoot, with their eyes closed in four conditions combining the use of the anchors and the fatigue. When using the anchors, participants held one cable in each hand and kept the cable taut without removing the loads (125 g) from the ground. The fatigue protocol consisted of performing a single series of bilateral plantar flexion movements...
December 19, 2017: Motor Control
Deborah A M Jehu, Nicole Paquet, Yves Lajoie
The purpose of this study was to determine whether balance and mobility training (BMT) or balance and mobility plus cognitive training (BMT + C) would improve obstacle clearance and reaction time (RT); whether further improvements would be exposed in the BMT + C group relative to the BMT group; and whether possible improvements would be sustained at the follow-up. Healthy older adults were allocated to the BMT (n = 15; age: 70.2 ± 3.2), BMT + C (n = 14; age: 68.7 ± 5.5), or control group (n = 13; age: 66...
November 28, 2017: Motor Control
Victoria Galea, Robyn Traynor, Michael Pierrynowski
The ability to match one's movements to an external beat and maintain that rhythm in the absence of the beat suggests sophisticated, well-developed neural control. Children (aged 5-10 years) were compared with adults (aged 18-30 years) during a repetitive reaching task to determine development of this control. Children as young as 5 years exhibited this control. The mean rate of reaching did not differ between groups nor did it differ during the two phases, suggesting an overall ability to internalize and continuously repeat a given pace...
November 28, 2017: Motor Control
Sergio L Molina, David F Stodden
This study examined variability in throwing speed and spatial error to test the prediction of an inverted-U function (i.e., impulse-variability [IV] theory) and the speed-accuracy trade-off. Forty-five 9- to 11-year-old children were instructed to throw at a specified percentage of maximum speed (45%, 65%, 85%, and 100%) and hit the wall target. Results indicated no statistically significant differences in variable error across the target conditions (p = .72), failing to support the inverted-U hypothesis...
October 17, 2017: Motor Control
Scott R Brown, Matt Brughelli, Seth Lenetsky
Our aims were to assess single-leg balance in rugby union athletes and compare the stability indices between legs and between positions. Thirty athletes, forwards and backs (n = 15/15), performed single-leg balance measured at two difficulty levels (Level 8: more stable and Level 2: less stable) using the Biodex Balance SD System. The backs' nonpreferred leg had worse scores in medial-lateral and overall indices (effect size = 1.05 and 0.63) compared with the preferred leg on Level 8 stability. Backs had better scores in all indices in the preferred (effect size = -1...
October 17, 2017: Motor Control
Alessia Longo, Ruud Meulenbroek
Movement variability of the upper limb was investigated using a bimanual Fitts' task. Participants tapped rhythmically between target-pairs of different index of difficulties for three intervals of 20 min each. We studied the effects of index of difficulties and time-on-task on movement time, end-point variability, approximate entropy, and standard deviation of the relative phase. Lower index of difficulties and time-on-task caused decreasing movement time and increasing end-point variability. Moreover, standard deviation of the relative phase and approximate entropy moderately increased...
October 3, 2017: Motor Control
Anat V Lubetzky, Daphna Harel, Helene Darmanin, Ken Perlin
Substantial advances in virtual reality technology open an exciting window toward better understanding of subdomains of balance control. Here, we studied whether a portable virtual reality headset can be used to test sensory integration for balance. Twenty young adults stood on a both-sides-up ball or floor. Moving spheres were projected from an Oculus Development Kit 2 at various amplitudes and frequencies. Participants' gains indicated visual "weighting" when standing on both-sides-up but not on the floor and "reweighting" with increased visual amplitude...
October 1, 2017: Motor Control
Mark Holten Mora-Jensen, Pascal Madeleine, Ernst Albin Hansen
The present study analyzed (a) whether a recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement in finger tapping (i.e., a cumulating increase in freely chosen finger tapping frequency following submaximal muscle activation in the form of externally unloaded voluntary tapping) could be replicated and (b) the hypotheses that the faster tapping was accompanied by changed vertical displacement of the fingertip and changed peak force during tapping. Right-handed, healthy, and recreationally active individuals (n = 24) performed two 3-min index finger tapping bouts at freely chosen tapping frequency, separated by 10-min rest...
October 1, 2017: Motor Control
Sunghoon Shin, Jacob J Sosnoff
Rambling-trembling analysis separates the center of pressure into two components: the rambling component (RM: supraspinal) and trembling component (TM: muscle stiffness/reflex). We hypothesized that persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) would demonstrate decreased RM resulting from altered supraspinal processing and increased TM resulting from increased muscle stiffness. We also anticipated that the TM component would be greater in SCI patients with Harrington rods than in those without them. The seated postural control was assessed in 18 persons with SCI, comprising 12 with and six without Harrington rods, and 18 age-matched controls...
October 1, 2017: Motor Control
Renato Claudino, Marcio José Dos Santos, Giovana Zarpellon Mazo
The goal of this study was to investigate the timing of compensatory postural adjustments in older adults during body perturbations in the mediolateral direction, circumstances that increase their risk of falls. The latencies of leg and trunk muscle activation to body perturbations at the shoulder level and variables of center of pressure excursion, which characterize postural stability, were analyzed in 40 older adults (nonfallers and fallers evenly split) and in 20 young participants. The older adults exhibited longer latencies of muscular activation in eight out of 15 postural muscles as compared with young participants; for three muscles, the latencies were longer for the older fallers than nonfallers...
October 1, 2017: Motor Control
Aaron Manzanares, Ruperto Menayo, Francisco Segado
In a sport conditioned by natural elements such as sailing, visual perception is a key factor for the performance. Research has shown that the visual behavior of athletes at different skill levels varies, which may cause differences in the performance achieved. The aim of this research was to examine the visual behavior of sailors from different ranking positions at the start of a race in a simulated situation. Twenty junior sailors (N = 10 top and N = 10 bottom ranking) participated in this study. The visual behavior was recorded at the start of a sailing simulation...
October 1, 2017: Motor Control
Bianca Miarka, Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycien, David H Fukuda
The purpose of the present study was to create a probabilistic neural network to clarify the understanding of movement patterns in international judo competitions by gender. Analysis of 773 male and 638 female bouts was utilized to identify movements during the approach, gripping, attack (including biomechanical designations), groundwork, defense, and pause phases. Probabilistic neural network and chi-square (χ(2)) tests modeled and compared frequencies (p ≤ .05). Women (mean [interquartile range]: 9...
October 1, 2017: Motor Control
Tyler W D Muddle, David H Fukuda, Ran Wang, Joshua J Riffe, David D Church, Kyle S Beyer, Jay R Hoffman, Jeffrey R Stout
This study examined the effect of a 10-week introductory judo course on postural control during a bilateral reactionary gripping task using different stance conditions. A total of 20 volunteers were divided into experimental (JDO) and control (CON) groups. Countermovement jump was measured and center of pressure variables were evaluated while performing a bilateral reactionary gripping task under different stance conditions during pre- and posttesting. No interactions were observed for the center of pressure variables (p > ...
October 1, 2017: Motor Control
Michael Buchecker, Stefan Wegenkittl, Thomas Stöggl, Erich Müller
This study evaluated the amount, and particularly, the structure of variability in postural control accompanying an unstable shoe (US) application. Mediolateral and anterior-posterior center of pressure signals plus electromyographic profiles of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis were recorded in 29 asymptomatic men while wearing both US and flat shoes. Statistical analysis included common measures of dispersion as well as sample entropy and largest Lyapunov exponent estimates. Data were compared by two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance...
September 28, 2017: Motor Control
Satyajit Ambike, Daniela Mattos, Vladimir Zatsiorsky, Mark Latash
Cyclic isometric finger-force patterns established using visual feedback show systematic drifts when the feedback is removed. Force changes at multiple time scales and in opposite directions have been reported. For further characterization of these drifts, healthy subjects produced isometric, cyclic finger force with and without visual feedback at various initial amplitudes and frequencies. We hypothesized that on feedback removal, the amplitude will be attracted toward a preferred value that is frequency dependent...
September 11, 2017: Motor Control
Tatsuya Daikoku, Yuji Takahashi, Nagayoshi Tarumoto, Hideki Yasuda
Previous studies suggest that statistical learning is preserved when acoustic changes are made to auditory sequences. However, statistical learning effects can vary with and without concurrent exercise. The present study examined how concurrent physical exercise influences auditory statistical learning when acoustic and temporal changes are made to auditory sequences. Participants were presented with 500-tone sequences based on a Markov chain while cycling or resting in ignored and attended conditions. Learning effects were evaluated using a familiarity test with four types of short tone series: tone series in which stimuli were same as 500-tone sequence and three tone series in which frequencies, tempo, or rhythm was changed...
September 5, 2017: Motor Control
Sara M Scharoun, David A Gonzalez, Eric A Roy, Pamela J Bryden
Young adults plan actions in advance to minimize the cost of movement. This is exemplified by the end-state comfort effect (ESC). A pattern of improvement in ESC in children is linked to the development of cognitive control processes, and decline in older adults' is attributed to cognitive decline. This study used a cross-sectional design to examine how movement context (pantomime, demonstrate with image/glass as a guide, actual grasping) influences between-hand differences in ESC planning. Children (5- to 12-year-olds), young adults and two groups of older adults (ages 60 to 70, and ages 71+) were assessed...
August 3, 2017: Motor Control
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