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Motor Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208802/comparing-different-methods-to-create-a-linear-model-for-uncontrolled-manifold-analysis
#1
Inge Tuitert, Tim A Valk, Egbert Otten, Laura Golenia, Raoul M Bongers
An essential step in uncontrolled manifold analysis is creating a linear model that relates changes in elemental variables to changes in performance variables. Such linear models are usually created by means of an analytical method. However, a multiple regression analysis is also suggested. Whereas the analytical method includes only averages of joint angles, the regression method uses the distribution of all joint angles. We examined whether the latter model is more suitable to describe manual reaching movements...
September 12, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208756/no-vertical-visual-field-asymmetry-in-online-control-evidence-from-reaching-in-depth
#2
Jennifer Campbell, Stephanie Rossit, Matthew Heath
We sought to determine whether a putative lower-visual field (loVF) advantage for projections to the visuomotor networks of the dorsal visual pathway influences online reaching control. Participants reached to 3-dimensional depth targets presented in the loVF and upper-visual field (upVF) in binocular and monocular visual conditions, and when online vision was available (i.e., closed-loop) or unavailable (i.e., open-loop). To examine the degree to which responses were controlled online we computed the proportion of variance (R2 ) explained by the spatial position of the limb at distinct stages in the reaching trajectory relative to a response's ultimate movement endpoint...
September 12, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012052/brain-activation-during-passive-and-volitional-pedaling-after-stroke
#3
Brice T Cleland, Sheila Schindler-Ivens
BACKGROUND: Prior work indicates that pedaling-related brain activation is lower in people with stroke than in controls. We asked whether this observation could be explained by between-group differences in volitional motor commands and pedaling performance. METHODS: Individuals with and without stroke performed passive and volitional pedaling while brain activation was recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging. The passive condition eliminated motor commands to pedal and minimized between-group differences in pedaling performance...
July 17, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012053/the-roles-of-declarative-knowledge-and-working-memory-in-explicit-motor-learning-and-practice-among-children-with-low-motor-abilities
#4
Femke van Abswoude, John van der Kamp, Bert Steenbergen
Effective learning methods are essential for motor skill development and participation in children with low motor abilities. Current learning methods predominantly aim to increase declarative knowledge through explicit instructions that necessitate sufficient working memory capacity. This study investigated the roles of declarative knowledge and working memory capacity in explicit motor learning of children with low motor abilities. We studied both acquisition performance (i.e., performance during practice) and learning (i...
July 16, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012041/age-related-differences-in-postural-and-goal-directed-movements-during-medial-lateral-rhythmic-stepping
#5
Timothy A Hanke, Bruce Kay, Michael Turvey, David Tiberio
Lateral stability and weight transfer are important for successful stepping and are associated with falls in older adults (OAs). This study assessed the influence of step pacing frequency during medial-lateral stepping in place on body center of mass and lower limb movement in young adults, middle-aged adults, and OAs. Medial-lateral center of mass and stepping limb motion and lower limb loading data were collected. Center of mass motion decreased with increasing pacing frequency and increased to a lesser extent with decreasing pacing frequency...
July 16, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008242/effects-of-tai-chi-chuan-and-brisk-walking-exercise-on-balance-ability-in-elderly-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Wei Sun, Xiujie Ma, Lin Wang, Cui Zhang, Qipeng Song, Houxin Gu, Dewei Mao
This study aims to investigate the effects of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) and brisk walking (BW) on balance and training duration for the two exercises to significantly improve balance. A total of 48 elderly women were randomly divided into three groups. The TCC and BW groups completed a 60-min intervention training program with five sessions weekly for 16 weeks. Single-leg standing balance was tested every 4 weeks. Results showed that all the variables with eyes open improved on the eighth week (p < .05) in the TCC group and on the 12th week (p < ...
July 15, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008245/visual-vestibular-interaction-for-postural-control-during-sit-to-stand-effects-of-aging
#7
Kai Yan Lui, Patricia Hewston, Nandini Deshpande
During sit-to-stand (STS), the vestibular system is highly stimulated in response to linear acceleration of the head and may play an important role, in addition to vision, for postural control. We examined the effects of aging on visual-vestibular interaction for postural control during STS in 15 young (22.5 ± 1.1 years) and 15 older (73.9 ± 5.3 years) participants. Vestibular information was manipulated using galvanic vestibular stimulation. Vision conditions involved normal (eyes open), suboptimal (blurring goggles), and no (eyes closed) vision...
July 14, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523053/the-evaluation-of-changes-of-angles-in-selected-joints-during-topspin-forehand-in-table-tennis
#8
Ziemowit Bańkosz, Sławomir Winiarski
The aims of this study were to evaluate movement patterns of topspin forehand, to define the main principles of performing this shot, and to determine the essential differences in individual types of topspin forehand. In total, 10 female high-level athletes participated in this study. The BTS analysis system was used with a novel model for the range-of-motion measurement. An acoustic sensor was attached to the racket for identification of a ball-racket contact. Players, performing topspin forehand, attempt to achieve maximal racket velocity based on the principles of proximal-to-distal sequences and summation of speed with a stretch-shortening character of cycle...
July 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486667/which-measures-of-online-control-are-least-sensitive-to-offline-processes
#9
John de Grosbois, Luc Tremblay
A major challenge to the measurement of online control is the contamination by offline, planning-based processes. The current study examined the sensitivity of four measures of online control to offline changes in reaching performance induced by prism adaptation and terminal feedback. These measures included the squared Z scores (Z2 ) of correlations of limb position at 75% movement time versus movement end, variable error, time after peak velocity, and a frequency-domain analysis (pPower). The results indicated that variable error and time after peak velocity were sensitive to the prism adaptation...
July 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265993/the-effects-of-obstacle-type-and-locomotion-form-on-path-selection-in-rugby-players
#10
Lana M Pfaff, Michael E Cinelli
The current study investigated whether path selection of athletes specifically trained to fit through gaps is affected by the location of human obstacle and the form of locomotion. Female rugby players were instructed to walk, walk with the ball, or run with the ball along a path toward a goal while avoiding three obstacles (three vertical poles or two vertical poles and a confederate) placed halfway along the path, creating two equal apertures of 80 cm. Regardless of the form of locomotion, rugby players chose paths furthest from the confederate, suggesting that confederate location affects path selection...
July 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265911/improvements-in-obstacle-clearance-parameters-and-reaction-time-over-a-series-of-obstacles-revealed-after-five-repeated-testing-sessions-in-older-adults
#11
Deborah A Jehu, Yves Lajoie, Nicole Paquet
The purpose of this study was to investigate obstacle clearance and reaction time parameters when crossing a series of six obstacles in older adults. A second aim was to examine the repeated exposure of this testing protocol once per week for 5 weeks. In total, 10 older adults (five females; age: 67.0 ± 6.9 years) walked onto and over six obstacles of varying heights (range: 100-200 mm) while completing no reaction time, simple reaction time, and choice reaction time tasks once per week for 5 weeks. The highest obstacles elicited the lowest toe clearance, and the first three obstacles revealed smaller heel clearance compared with the last three obstacles...
July 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256763/the-use-of-the-anchor-system-reduces-postural-sway-during-upright-standing-irrespective-of-plantar-flexors-muscle-fatigue-in-young-and-older-adults
#12
Andressa Busch Rocha Pereira, Renato Moraes
Our purpose was to verify the effects of the use of the anchors on postural control after the fatigue of the plantar flexor muscles in young and older adults. They stood barefoot, with their eyes closed in four conditions combining the use of the anchors and the fatigue. When using the anchors, participants held one cable in each hand and kept the cable taut without removing the loads (125 g) from the ground. The fatigue protocol consisted of performing a single series of bilateral plantar flexion movements...
July 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182460/balance-and-mobility-training-with-or-without-simultaneous-cognitive-training-reduces-attention-demand-but-does-not-improve-obstacle-clearance-in-older-adults
#13
Deborah A M Jehu, Nicole Paquet, Yves Lajoie
The purpose of this study was to determine whether balance and mobility training (BMT) or balance and mobility plus cognitive training (BMT + C) would improve obstacle clearance and reaction time (RT); whether further improvements would be exposed in the BMT + C group relative to the BMT group; and whether possible improvements would be sustained at the follow-up. Healthy older adults were allocated to the BMT (n = 15; age: 70.2 ± 3.2), BMT + C (n = 14; age: 68.7 ± 5.5), or control group (n = 13; age: 66...
July 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182432/temporal-consistency-and-movement-effort-of-repetitive-reaching-during-continuation-in-children-and-adults
#14
Victoria Galea, Robyn Traynor, Michael Pierrynowski
The ability to match one's movements to an external beat and maintain that rhythm in the absence of the beat suggests sophisticated, well-developed neural control. Children (aged 5-10 years) were compared with adults (aged 18-30 years) during a repetitive reaching task to determine development of this control. Children as young as 5 years exhibited this control. The mean rate of reaching did not differ between groups nor did it differ during the two phases, suggesting an overall ability to internalize and continuously repeat a given pace...
July 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872415/auditory-statistical-learning-during-concurrent-physical-exercise-and-the-tolerance-for-pitch-tempo-and-rhythm-changes
#15
Tatsuya Daikoku, Yuji Takahashi, Nagayoshi Tarumoto, Hideki Yasuda
Previous studies suggest that statistical learning is preserved when acoustic changes are made to auditory sequences. However, statistical learning effects can vary with and without concurrent exercise. The present study examined how concurrent physical exercise influences auditory statistical learning when acoustical and temporal changes are made to auditory sequences. Participants were presented with the 500-tone sequences based on a Markov chain while cycling or resting in ignored and attended conditions...
July 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902955/differential-cortical-control-of-chest-wall-muscles-during-pressure-and-volume-related-expiratory-tasks-and-the-effects-of-acute-expiratory-threshold-loading
#16
Carol A Boliek, Reyhaneh Bakhtiari, Lauren Pedersen, Julia R Esch, Jacqueline Cummine
We examined whether or not coherence between chest wall intercostal and oblique muscles changed as a function of lung volume excursion, alveolar pressure, and muscular demand. We also assessed the effects of acute expiratory threshold loading (ETL) on chest wall muscular control. A total of 15 healthy adults (7 males; average age = 28 years) completed maximum performance and ETL tasks. Chest wall surface electromyographic and kinematic recordings were made. Participants also performed a session of acute ETL...
June 15, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651890/can-postural-control-asymmetry-predict-falls-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Victor Spiandor Beretta, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, Diego Orcioli-Silva, Paulo Cezar Rocha Dos Santos, Lucas Simieli, Rodrigo Vitório, Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi
This study aimed to determine the relationship between postural asymmetry and falls in Parkinson's disease (PD). In total, 28 patients with PD were included. Postural control was analyzed in bipedal, tandem, and unipedal standing. Center of pressure (CoP) parameters were calculated for both limbs, and asymmetry was assessed using the asymmetry index. Logistic regression was used to predict/classify fallers through postural asymmetry. The Spearman correlation was performed to relate asymmetry and falls number...
April 13, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771106/end-state-comfort-across-the-lifespan-a-cross-sectional-investigation-of-how-movement-context-influences-motor-planning-in-an-overturned-glass-task
#18
Sara M Scharoun, David A Gonzalez, Eric A Roy, Pamela J Bryden
Young adults plan actions in advance to minimize the cost of movement. This is exemplified by the end-state comfort (ESC) effect. A pattern of improvement in ESC in children is linked to the development of cognitive control processes, and decline in older adults is attributed to cognitive decline. This study used a cross-sectional design to examine how movement context (pantomime, demonstration with image/glass as a guide, actual grasping) influences between-hand differences in ESC planning. Children (5- to 12-year-olds), young adults, and two groups of older adults (aged 60-70, and aged 71 and older) were assessed...
April 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657818/examining-impulse-variability-theory-and-the-speed-accuracy-trade-off-in-children-s-overarm-throwing-performance
#19
Sergio L Molina, David F Stodden
This study examined variability in throwing speed and spatial error to test the prediction of an inverted-U function (i.e., impulse-variability [IV] theory) and the speed-accuracy trade-off. Forty-five 9- to 11-year-old children were instructed to throw at a specified percentage of maximum speed (45%, 65%, 85%, and 100%) and hit the wall target. Results indicated no statistically significant differences in variable error across the target conditions (p = .72), failing to support the inverted-U hypothesis...
April 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657806/profiling-single-leg-balance-by-leg-preference-and-position-in-rugby-union-athletes
#20
Scott R Brown, Matt Brughelli, Seth Lenetsky
Our aims were to assess single-leg balance in rugby union athletes and compare the stability indices between legs and between positions. Thirty athletes, forwards and backs (n = 15/15), performed single-leg balance measured at two difficulty levels (Level 8: more stable and Level 2: less stable) using the Biodex Balance SD System. The backs' nonpreferred leg had worse scores in medial-lateral and overall indices (effect size = 1.05 and 0.63) compared with the preferred leg on Level 8 stability. Backs had better scores in all indices in the preferred (effect size = -1...
April 1, 2018: Motor Control
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