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Motor Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902955/differential-cortical-control-of-chest-wall-muscles-during-pressure-and-volume-related-expiratory-tasks-and-the-effects-of-acute-expiratory-threshold-loading
#1
Carol A Boliek, Reyhaneh Bakhtiari, Lauren Pedersen, Julia R Esch, Jacqueline Cummine
We examined whether or not coherence between chest wall intercostal and oblique muscles changed as a function of lung volume excursion, alveolar pressure, and muscular demand. We also assessed the effects of acute expiratory threshold loading (ETL) on chest wall muscular control. A total of 15 healthy adults (7 males; average age = 28 years) completed maximum performance and ETL tasks. Chest wall surface electromyographic and kinematic recordings were made. Participants also performed a session of acute ETL...
June 15, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651890/can-postural-control-asymmetry-predict-falls-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Victor Spiandor Beretta, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, Diego Orcioli-Silva, Paulo Cezar Rocha Dos Santos, Lucas Simieli, Rodrigo Vitório, Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi
This study aimed to determine the relationship between postural asymmetry and falls in Parkinson's disease (PD). In total, 28 patients with PD were included. Postural control was analyzed in bipedal, tandem, and unipedal standing. Center of pressure (CoP) parameters were calculated for both limbs, and asymmetry was assessed using the asymmetry index. Logistic regression was used to predict/classify fallers through postural asymmetry. The Spearman correlation was performed to relate asymmetry and falls number...
April 13, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771106/end-state-comfort-across-the-lifespan-a-cross-sectional-investigation-of-how-movement-context-influences-motor-planning-in-an-overturned-glass-task
#3
Sara M Scharoun, David A Gonzalez, Eric A Roy, Pamela J Bryden
Young adults plan actions in advance to minimize the cost of movement. This is exemplified by the end-state comfort (ESC) effect. A pattern of improvement in ESC in children is linked to the development of cognitive control processes, and decline in older adults is attributed to cognitive decline. This study used a cross-sectional design to examine how movement context (pantomime, demonstration with image/glass as a guide, actual grasping) influences between-hand differences in ESC planning. Children (5- to 12-year-olds), young adults, and two groups of older adults (aged 60-70, and aged 71 and older) were assessed...
April 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657818/examining-impulse-variability-theory-and-the-speed-accuracy-trade-off-in-children-s-overarm-throwing-performance
#4
Sergio L Molina, David F Stodden
This study examined variability in throwing speed and spatial error to test the prediction of an inverted-U function (i.e., impulse-variability [IV] theory) and the speed-accuracy trade-off. Forty-five 9- to 11-year-old children were instructed to throw at a specified percentage of maximum speed (45%, 65%, 85%, and 100%) and hit the wall target. Results indicated no statistically significant differences in variable error across the target conditions (p = .72), failing to support the inverted-U hypothesis...
April 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657806/profiling-single-leg-balance-by-leg-preference-and-position-in-rugby-union-athletes
#5
Scott R Brown, Matt Brughelli, Seth Lenetsky
Our aims were to assess single-leg balance in rugby union athletes and compare the stability indices between legs and between positions. Thirty athletes, forwards and backs (n = 15/15), performed single-leg balance measured at two difficulty levels (Level 8: more stable and Level 2: less stable) using the Biodex Balance SD System. The backs' nonpreferred leg had worse scores in medial-lateral and overall indices (effect size = 1.05 and 0.63) compared with the preferred leg on Level 8 stability. Backs had better scores in all indices in the preferred (effect size = -1...
April 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530500/sex-specific-links-in-motor-and-sensory-adaptations-to-repetitive-motion-induced-fatigue
#6
Zachary R Weber, Divya Srinivasan, Julie N Côté
The objectives of this study were to assess the sex-specific relationships between motor and sensory adaptations to repetitive arm motion-induced neck/shoulder fatigue, and to measure how additional sensory stimulation affects these adaptations. Twenty-three participants performed two sessions of a repetitive pointing task until scoring 8 on the Borg CR10 scale for neck/shoulder exertion or for a maximum of 45 min, with and without sensory stimulation (i.e., light touch) applied on the fatiguing shoulder. Just before reaching the task termination criteria, all participants showed changes in mean and variability of arm joint angles and experienced a fivefold increase in anterior deltoid sensory threshold in the stimulus-present condition...
April 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530475/a-novel-electromyographic-approach-to-estimate-fatigue-threshold-in-maximum-incremental-strength-tests
#7
Jerónimo Aragón-Vela, Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Cristina Casals-Vázquez, Julio Plaza-Díaz, Rafael A Casuso, Luis Fontana, Jesús F Rodríguez Huertas
Evaluation of muscular fatigue thresholds in athletes performing short-duration and explosive exercises is difficult because classic parameters do not suffer large variations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a new method to estimate the fatigue threshold in single muscles. Our approach is based on electromyographic data recorded during a maximum incremental strength test until the one repetition maximum is reached. Ten men and 10 women performed a half-squat strength test consisting of five incremental intensities of one repetition maximum...
April 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530460/unravelling-motor-learning-processes-in-theater-performers
#8
Emmanuel Jacobs, Ann Hallemans, Jan Gielen, Luc Van den Dries, Annouk Van Moorsel, Jonas Rutgeerts, Nathalie A Roussel
Theater performers, more than common actors, experience high physical loadings. This study aimed at analyzing the motor behavior of novice performers (dancers/actors who were introduced to the acting method of Jan Fabre) by investigating the kinematics of a physical acting exercise in a prospective study. Two measurement sessions were organized: before and after the novice performers (N = 13) took part in seven workshops. Total body kinematics were registered using a three-dimensional motion capture system...
April 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388269/improved-learning-a-coincident-timing-task-with-a-predictable-resisting-force
#9
Arturo Forner-Cordero, Virgínia H Quadrado, Sitsofe A Tsagbey, Bouwien C M Smits-Engelsman
The present study analyzes the learning in a coincident timing task with force perturbation. We aimed to verify whether a predictable load (constant spring) applied to hand movements could facilitate learning and, thus, performance improvement with respect to movements without any external load and an unpredictable load to perform a coincident timing task with a few number of repetitions (n = 28) under acquisition and transfer phases. The results showed that the group with a predictable load had a significant better performance with lower percentage of errors and smaller time variance in the acquisition and transfer phase...
April 1, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584580/differences-in-timed-up-and-go-subtasks-between-older-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-mild-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Paulo Giusti Rossi, Theresa Helissa Nakagawa, Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale, José Rubens Rebelatto
This study compared performances of timed up and go test subtasks between 40 older people with preserved cognition, 40 with mild cognitive impairment, and 38 with mild Alzheimer's disease. The assessment consisted of anamneses and timed up and go test subtasks (sit-to-stand, walking forward, turn, walking back, and turn-to-sit). Data were captured by Qualisys Track Manager software and processed by Visual3D software. The MATLAB program was applied to detect and analyze timed up and go test subtasks. All subtasks differentiated people with Alzheimer's disease and preserved cognition, except the sit-to-stand subtask, which did not distinguish any group...
March 27, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523056/an-investigation-into-force-sense-at-the-shoulder
#11
Katya Trousset, David Phillips, Andrew Karduna
Proprioception is assessed more often through joint position sense and kinesthesia than force sense. The purpose of this study is to investigate force sense at the shoulder. A total of 12 subjects were recruited. An ipsilateral force reproduction protocol at the shoulder at 50°, 70°, and 90° and 120%, 140%, and 160% baseline torque. Dependent variables were constant error (CE) and root mean square error. An effect was found for load on absolute (p = .001) and normalized CE (p < .001). CE decreased with increased load...
March 9, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523053/the-evaluation-of-changes-of-angles-in-selected-joints-during-topspin-forehand-in-table-tennis
#12
Ziemowit Bańkosz, Sławomir Winiarski
The aims of this study were to evaluate movement patterns of topspin forehand, to define the main principles of performing this shot, and to determine the essential differences in individual types of topspin forehand. In total, 10 female high-level athletes participated in this study. The BTS analysis system was used with a novel model for the range-of-motion measurement. An acoustic sensor was attached to the racket for identification of a ball-racket contact. Players, performing topspin forehand, attempt to achieve maximal racket velocity based on the principles of proximal-to-distal sequences and summation of speed with a stretch-shortening character of cycle...
March 9, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523052/influence-of-music-style-and-rate-on-repetitive-finger-tapping
#13
Elizabeth L Stegemöller, Joshua R Tatz, Alison Warnecke, Paul Hibbing, Brandon Bates, Andrew Zaman
Auditory cues, including music, are commonly used in the treatment of persons with Parkinson's disease. Yet, how music style and movement rate modulate movement performance in persons with Parkinson's disease have been neglected and remain limited in healthy young populations. The purpose of this study was to determine how music style and movement rate influence movement performance in healthy young adults. Healthy participants were asked to perform repetitive finger movements at two pacing rates (70 and 140 beats per minute) for the following conditions: (a) a tone only, (b) activating music, and (c) relaxing music...
March 9, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488828/effect-of-different-shooting-techniques-in-floorball-on-accuracy-and-velocity-in-experienced-male-floorball-players
#14
Roland van den Tillaar
The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of four different shooting techniques (slap, sweeper, drag, and wrist shots) in floorball on velocity and accuracy in experienced floorball players, and to investigate whether target height has an influence on these shooting performances. Ten experienced male floorball players (age, 21 ± 4 years; body mass, 81.5 ± 10 kg; body height, 1.85 ± 0.07 m; and years of experience, 6.9 ± 3.1 years) shot as hard as possible and tried to hit the upper and lower targets with four different shooting techniques from a 4-m distance...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488824/reading-and-writing-skills-in-children-with-specific-learning-disabilities-with-and-without-developmental-coordination-disorder
#15
Carlo Di Brina, Roberto Averna, Paola Rampoldi, Serena Rossetti, Roberta Penge
This pilot study is to investigate the influence of a developmental coordination disorder (DCD) comorbidity in a group of children with learning disability (LD). Reading and writing were assessed to investigate if the coexistence of a motor impairment can worsen writing quality, speed, and reading accuracy. A sample of 33 LD children (aged 7-11 years) was divided in two subgroups, on the base of their scores on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children: LD-only (n = 14) and LD with a comorbidity for DCD (LD-DCD, n = 19)...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486667/which-measures-of-online-control-are-least-sensitive-to-offline-processes
#16
John de Grosbois, Luc Tremblay
A major challenge to the measurement of online control is the contamination by offline, planning-based processes. The current study examined the sensitivity of four measures of online control to offline changes in reaching performance induced by prism adaptation and terminal feedback. These measures included the squared Z scores (Z2 ) of correlations of limb position at 75% movement time versus movement end, variable error, time after peak velocity, and a frequency-domain analysis (pPower). The results indicated that variable error and time after peak velocity were sensitive to the prism adaptation...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486653/brain-activity-on-observation-of-another-person-s-action-a-magnetoencephalographic-study
#17
Jumpei Mizuno, Masashi Kawamura, Minoru Hoshiyama
Brain activity was recorded using a whole-head magnetoencephalography system followed by coherence analysis to assess neural connectivity in 10 healthy right-handed adults to clarify differences in neural connectivity in brain regions during action observation from several perspectives. The subjects were instructed to observe and memorize or imitate the hand action from a first-person or second-person visual perspective. The brain activity in coherence was modified among frontal and central, sensorimotor, and mirror neuron system-related regions based on the visual perspectives of finger movements...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486627/working-memory-task-influence-in-postural-stability-and-cognitive-function-in-adolescents
#18
Isaac Estevan, Sergio Gandia, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, José Luis Bermejo, Xavier García-Massó
This paper describes a study on postural stability and cognitive function according to the difficulty increment of a working memory task (WMT) and age group in adolescents. One hundred and twenty-three participants (13-16 years) performed single and dual tasks in a bipedal standing position while barefoot. Four trials were conducted, consisting of single and dual tasks in three progressively difficult WMT conditions (i.e., 3-, 5-, and 7-digit sequences). Friedman's analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests were conducted to test the effect of the WMT and age group, respectively...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486620/kinetic-analysis-of-fingers-during-aimed-throwing
#19
Shohei Shibata, Yuki Inaba, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Senshi Fukashiro
This study had two objectives: (a) revealing the difference in finger segments between the conventional and finger models during aimed throwing and (b) examining the central nervous system's timing control between the wrist torque and finger torque. Participants were seven baseball players. Finger kinetics was calculated by an inverse dynamics method. In the conventional model, wrist flexion torque was smaller than that in the finger model because of the error in ball position approximation. The maximal correlation coefficient between the wrist torque and finger torque was high (r = ...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338400/systematic-unintended-drifts-in-the-cyclic-force-produced-with-the-fingertips
#20
Satyajit Ambike, Daniela Mattos, Vladimir Zatsiorsky, Mark Latash
Cyclic isometric finger-force patterns established using visual feedback show systematic drifts when the feedback is removed. Force changes at multiple time scales and in opposite directions have been reported. For further characterization of these drifts, healthy subjects produced isometric, cyclic finger force with and without visual feedback at various initial amplitudes and frequencies. We hypothesized that on feedback removal, the amplitude will be attracted toward a preferred value that is frequency dependent...
January 1, 2018: Motor Control
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