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International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27326440/formulation-and-stability-of-solutions
#1
Michael J Akers
Ready-to-use solutions are the most preferable and most common dosage forms for injectable and topical ophthalmic products. Drugs formulated as solution almost always have chemical and physical stability challenges as well as solubility limitations and the need to prevent inadvertent microbial contamination issues. The first in this series of articles took us through a discussion of optimizing the physical stability of solutions. This article concludes this series of articles with a discussion on foreign particles, protein aggregation, and immunogenicity; optimizing microbiological activity; and osmolality (tonicity) agents, and discusses how these challenges and issues are addressed...
March 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323429/stability-of-atenolol-clonazepam-dexamethasone-diclofenac-sodium-diltiazem-enalapril-maleate-ketoprofen-lamotrigine-penicillamine-d-and-thiamine-in-syrspend-sf-ph4-oral-suspensions
#2
Hudson C Polonini, Sharlene Loures, Luis Claudio Lima, Anderson O Ferreira, Marcos Antônio F Brandão
The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of 10 commonly used active pharmaceutical ingredients compounded in oral suspensions using SyrSpend SF PH4 (atenolol 1.0 and 5.0 mg/mL, clonazepam 0.2 mg/mL, dexamethasone 1.0 mg/mL, diclofenac sodium 5.0 mg/mL, diltiazem 12.0 mg/mL, enalapril maleate 1.0 mg/mL, ketoprofen 20.0 mg/mL, lamotrigine 1.0 mg/mL, penicillamine-D 50.0 mg/mL, thiamine 100 mg/m) and stored both at controlled refrigerated (2°C to 8°C) and room temperature (20°C to 25°C). Stability was assessed by means of measuring percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90-day period...
March 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323428/long-term-stability-of-zonisamide-amitriptyline-and-glycopyrrolate-in-extemporaneously-prepared-liquid-dosage-forms-at-two-temperatures
#3
Milap C Nahata
The lack of commercially available liquid dosage forms for pediatric patients prompted this study. The objectives of our study were to determine the stability of zonisamide, amitriptyline, and glycopyrrolate in extemporaneously prepared oral suspensions in plastic prescription bottles. One group of suspensions was prepared in OraPlus:OraSweet (1:1) for each drug and stored either under refrigeration (4°C) or at room temperature (25°C). A second group of suspensions were compounded in 1% methylcellulose:simple syrup at a 1:10 proportion for zonisamide, amitriptyline, and glycopyrrolate; these suspensions were stored at either under refrigeration (4°C) or at room temperature (25°C)...
March 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323427/stability-of-commercially-available-grape-and-compounded-cherry-oral-vancomycin-preparations-stored-in-syringes-and-cups
#4
Loren Kirk, Paul Lewis, Yao Luu, Stacy Brown
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of two preparations of vancomycin oral solution in two different storage containers, capped amber oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed oral-dosing cups, stored under refrigerated conditions. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation and compounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation were divided into 5-mL aliquots into heat-sealed plastic dosing cups and capped oral-dosing syringes. All samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) and evaluated at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90...
March 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323426/utilization-of-compounded-medications-in-an-oral-medicine-practice
#5
Shannon Stock, Katie Rubino, Sook-Bin Woo, Arthur Margolis, Irena Thomas, Ali Aboalela, thomas Ali, Nathaniel Treister
For many oral medicine conditions, the use of compounded topical therapies that are locally absorbed and act directly at the affected site can provide greater efficacy compared with systemically delivered medications while minimizing systemic side effects. The objective of this study was to characterize the utilization and costs associated with the use of compounded medications in an academic, hospital-based oral medicine practice. This was a retrospective analysis of outpatients treated at the Center for Oral Disease at Brigham and Women's Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts) during the five-year period from November 2006 through November 2011...
March 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323425/safe-cytotoxic-drug-preparation-using-closed-system-transfer-device-technical-and-practical-evaluation-of-a-new-device-vialshield-texium-comparatively-to-a-reference-one-phaseal
#6
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Philippe Garrigue, Marc Montana, Christophe Ventre, Amandine Savry, Laurence Gauthier-Villano, Pascale Pisano, Bertrand Pourroy
Closed-system transfer devices enhance the drug handlers' protection against hazardous drugs exposure by prohibiting the escape of liquid or vapor from the system. PhaSeal (Becton Dickinson), a reference closed-system transfer device, includes a vial protector with an expansion chamber, and an injector with an enclosed needle. VialShield (CareFusion) is another more recent closed-system transfer device including an expansion-chamber and a non-return valve, designed to be used in association with Texium (CareFusion), a closed, needle-free male luer with its preassembled syringe...
March 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323424/basics-of-compounding-capsules
#7
Loyd V Allen
Capsules have been used for administering medications to patients more than a century and have an important role in drug delivery. When a primary care provider prescribes a tablet, the choice is usually, but not always, limited to commercially available products. A capsule, however, can be prepared extemporaneously, which provides dosing flexibility for the primary care provider and the pharmacist. This article discusses the definitions/types of capsules, their applications, composition, preparation, capsule sizes, the encapsulation process, capsule cleaning, physiochemical considerations, quality control in the preparation of capsules, packaging/storage, stability, and patient counseling to determine the proper capsule size...
March 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323423/pharmaceutical-compounding-in-portuguese-community-pharmacies-characterization-and-future-perspectives
#8
Rita Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Marina Macedo, Rita M Machado, Ana Filipa Pacheco, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira, José Martinez-de-Oliveira, Paulo Duarte
A study of compounding practices among Portuguese community pharmacies from 2008 to 2011 and pharmacists' perspectives concerning compounding was conducted. The retrospective study was based on an online questionnaire developed to gather information on pharmacies characteristics frequency, and type of compounded preparations. Additionally, difficulties, motivations, and pharmacist's perspectives regarding compounding were assessed. Up to 1,450 Portuguese pharmacies were contacted, and 250 completed questionnaires obtained...
March 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323422/topical-ketamtene-a-review-of-the-history-mechanisms-uses-safety-and-future
#9
REVIEW
Joseph Rabi
Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, is an anesthetic used for general anesthesia. In the past 20 years, ketamine has been successfully formulated topically and has been used for analgesia. Topical analgesics are popular among physicians due to their efficacy and limited systemic effects. With the rise in compounding pharmacies in the U.S., the use of topical ketamine compounded with various bases and other analgesics has been increasing. There are numerous small studies examining the efficacy and safety of topical ketamine mainly on neuropathic pain...
March 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323421/root-cause-analysis-part-2-sterile-compounding
#10
Joe Cabaleiro, Kathleen Jackson
When an adverse event or near miss occurs in a pharmacy, eliminating the root cause to prevent recurrence is critically important. Addressing the root cause of the problem reduces the recurrence of putting patients and the pharmacy at risk. This article proposes a method for performing Root Cause Analysis applicable to sterile compounding.
March 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323420/legislative-regulatory-update-from-the-international-academy-of-compounding-pharmacists-appropriations
#11
Gary McCrory
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323419/compounding-a-changing-paradigm
#12
Loyd V Allen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27127830/formulation-and-stability-of-solutions
#13
Michael J Akers
Ready-to-use solutions are the most preferable and most common dosage forms for injectable and topical ophthalmic products. Drugs formulated as solution almost always have chemical and physical stability challenges as well as solubility limitations and the need to prevent inadvertent microbial contamination issues. This article, which takes us through a discussion of optimizing the physical stability of solutions, represents the first of a series of articles discussing how these challenges and issues are addressed...
January 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125059/the-home-field-disadvantage
#14
Joe Cabaleiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125058/evaluation-of-the-stability-of-mercaptopurine-suspension-compounded-in-a-commercial-vehicle-and-the-determination-of-an-appropriate-beyond-use-date
#15
Gina F Peacock, Jurgita Sauvageot, Ashley Hill, Alyssa Killian
Mercaptopurine is commonly used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and has historically been commercially available only in tablet form. Since tablets may be difficult for children and elderly patients to swallow, many pharmacists have compounded mercaptopurine suspensions. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved a commercial suspension, but it is not widely available at this time. Therefore, pharmacists may still need to compound mercaptopurine suspension for use in areas where it is not available or if the commercial suspension is in short supply...
January 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125057/a-novel-vehicle-for-enhanced-drug-delivery-across-the-human-nail-for-the-treatment-of-onychomycosis
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Rob Turner, Sean Weaver, Francesco Caserta, Marc B Brown
The aim of this study was to use in vitro nail models to investigate the potential of a novel base formulation (Recura) containing either fluconazole or miconazole for the treatment of onychomycosis in comparison to two commercial comparators (Jublia and a Penlac generic). Initially, a modified Franz cell was used, where sections of human nail served as the barrier through which drug penetrated into an agar-filled chamber infected with dermatophytes. A second study was performed using a novel infected nail model where dermatophytes grew into human nail and adenosine triphosphate levels were used as biological marker for antimicrobial activity...
January 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125056/validation-of-ultraviolet-visible-and-high-performance-liquid-chromatographic-methods-for-the-determination-of-sodium-p-aminosalicylate-and-m-aminophenol-in-a-new-pharmaceutical-formulation
#17
Lisandro Y Hergert, Soledad Ravetti, Maria R Mazzieri
Sodium p-aminosalycilate is an orphan drug used in patients affected with Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis. Two methods, high-performance liquid chromatographic and ultraviolet spectrophotometric for the quantitative determination of sodium p-aminosalycilate and its degradation product m-aminophenol in a new pharmaceutical formulation, powder for extemporaneous reconstitution, were developed in the present work. The parameters linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness, limit of detection, and limit of quantification were also studied...
January 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125055/antimicrobial-activity-of-copaiba-copaifera-officinalis-and-pracaxi-pentaclethra-macroloba-oils-against-staphylococcus-aureus-importance-in-compounding-for-wound-care
#18
Anna Luísa Aguijar Guimarães, Elisa Alves Cunha, Fernanda Oliveira Matias, Patrícia Guedes Garcia, Panagiota Danopoulos, Rosita Swikidisa, Vanessa Alves Pinheiro, Rodrigo José Lupatini Nogueira
The Amazon rainforest is the largest reserve of natural products in the world. Its rich biodiversity of medicinal plants has been utilized by local populations for hundreds of years for the prevention and treatment of various diseases and ailments. Oil extracts from plant species such as Copaifera officinalis and Pentaclethra macroloba are used in compounded formulations for their antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, emollient, moisturizing, and wound-healing activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro bacteriostatic effect of two Amazonian oils, Copaiba and Pracaxi, against Staphylococcus aureus, a clinically important microorganism responsible for wound infection, to support the use of these oils as novel natural products for compounded wound-treatment modalities...
January 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125054/performance-improvement-in-503a-compounding-pharmacies-a-plan-for-assessment-implementation-and-sustained-success
#19
Jon Pritchett, William Mixon, Kevin O'Connell
Performance improvement is the continual effort to objectively assess current performance and then restructure the practices that support it to more closely achieve desired performance. A plan for performance improvement, unlike other approaches to correcting problems in job fulfillment, is a systematic method used to first find the root causes of areas of concern and then apply corrections to remedy those deficits. Implementing a performance improvement plan that can be easily adapted to ensure compliance with evolving and increasingly complex state and federal regulations is crucial to a successful compounding practice...
January 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125053/basic-principles-of-lyophilization-part-2
#20
Michael J Akers
The achievement of a high-quality lyophilized (freeze-dried) dosage form involves the combination of optimal formulation design and optimal freeze-dry cycle design. Part 1 of this 2-part article discussed the basic principles and procedures of lyophilization up to a discussion on the different stages of lyophilization. The stages of lyophilization are discussed within this article.
January 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
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