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Veterinary Journal

C Koch, A Martens, E K Hainisch, G Schüpbach, V Gerber, M Haspeslagh
Equine clinicians and researchers often make the diagnosis of equine sarcoids (ES) on clinical assessment alone, without histopathological confirmation. However, the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of ES has not been critically assessed. To assess sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the clinical diagnosis of ES, 40 clinical cases with histologically confirmed equine skin lesions (26 ES and 14 non-ES) were compiled in a representative online examination. For each case and lesion, at least one photograph and all relevant information were presented in a standardised format...
September 1, 2018: Veterinary Journal
D A Portela, N Verdier, P E Otero
Veterinary regional anesthesia (RA) has been rapidly increasing in popularity over the last 10 years, as evidenced by the increasing amount of literature available and the continuous development of new techniques in small animals. The introduction of new technologies such as nerve stimulation and ultrasound (which increased the objectivity and precision of the procedure) and the promising beneficial perioperative effects conferred by RA are encouraging clinicians to incorporate these techniques in their daily perioperative anesthetic and analgesic animal care...
November 2018: Veterinary Journal
D M Prendergast, R A Pearce, D Yearsley, E Ramovic, J Egan
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis which is more commonly referred to as MAP is the causative agent of Johnes's disease in ruminants. While cultivation of MAP from faecal samples remains the reference standard diagnostic test for the disease, faecal culture is expensive, slow and not widely available in Ireland. The current study evaluated three commercial kits that combine both DNA extraction and real-time PCR amplification of specific targets for direct MAP detection in cattle faeces. In total, 100 positive samples were tested which consisted of 25 high shedders, 25 medium shedders, 25 low shedders and 25 very low shedders...
November 2018: Veterinary Journal
K Sanders, H S Kooistra, S Galac
Naturally occurring hypercortisolism, also known as Cushing's syndrome, is a common endocrine disorder in dogs that can be caused by an adenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-producing pituitary adenoma (pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism, PDH; 80-85% of cases), or by an adrenocortical tumor (ACT; 15-20% of cases). To determine the optimal treatment strategy, differentiating between these two main causes is essential. Good treatment options are surgical removal of the causal tumor, i.e. hypophysectomy for PDH and adrenalectomy for an ACT, or radiotherapy in cases with PDH...
November 2018: Veterinary Journal
M R Pennington, J A Capriotti, G R Van de Walle
Infectious ocular disease, such as conjunctivitis, is common in cats and can be caused by several viruses and bacteria, either as a single infection or as co-infections. In this study, povidone-iodine (PVP-I), alone or compounded with hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), was investigated for its efficacy against these pathogens in vitro. Whilst PVP-I alone was effective at inhibiting feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), Chlamydia felis, and Mycoplasma felis, PVP-I with HEC exerted a synergistic inhibitory effect against FHV-1 and C...
November 2018: Veterinary Journal
M Takanosu, K Okada, Y Kagawa
Plasmacytomas are discrete, B cell-derived, round cell tumours that sometimes are difficult to distinguish from canine cutaneous histiocytomas or T cell lymphosarcomas (lymphomas). Diagnosis of plasmacytomas relies on morphological observations and immunohistochemistry for multiple myeloma oncogene-1 (MUM-1) and cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3). Clonality testing often is used as an adjunct diagnostic tool to examine lymphoproliferative diseases. In this study, the sensitivity of PCR-based clonality analysis of antigen receptor gene rearrangements in canine cutaneous plasmacytomas was determined...
November 2018: Veterinary Journal
C Rohdin, J Häggström, I Ljungvall, H Nyman Lee, S De Decker, S Bertram, K Lindblad-Toh, K Hultin Jäderlund
Congenital vertebral malformations (CVMs) are common in brachycephalic dogs such as the pug, and are often considered incidental findings. However, specific CVMs have been suggested to be associated with neurological deficits in pugs. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical importance of CVMs in the pug by comparing computed tomography studies of the thoracolumbar spine from pugs without neurological deficits with those from pugs with a confirmed T3-L3 spinal cord lesion and neurological deficits consistent with a chronic T3-L3 myelopathy...
November 2018: Veterinary Journal
F Samarani, C de la Fuente, A Parodi, M T Mandara, M Pumarola, S Añor
Meningioma is the most common primary brain tumor in cats and occurs less frequently in the spinal cord. This study aimed to investigate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in feline meningiomas, and the possible association between COX-2 immunoreactivity and tumor grade using eight low-grade and seven high-grade meningiomas. All tumors (n=15/15) were immunoreactive to COX-2. The expression of COX-2 was not significantly correlated with tumor grade (P=0.22 and 0.34 for staining and intensity, respectively) but was significantly associated with necrosis (P=0...
November 2018: Veterinary Journal
M Martano, S Iussich, E Morello, P Buracco
Canine oral fibrosarcoma (oFSA) is a malignant, infiltrating, mesenchymal tumour affecting the oral cavity primarily of medium to large middle aged dogs. The diagnosis often is made late in the course of the disease, due to the frequent caudal location of the tumour, and histopathology is not always sufficient to discriminate undifferentiated oFSA from other poorly differentiated malignant mesenchymal tumours occurring at the same site, especially in small biopsy samples. The literature exclusively relating to oFSA is limited and outcome data following treatment are difficult to compare...
November 2018: Veterinary Journal
O A Garden, S W Volk, N J Mason, J A Perry
Comparative oncology is poised to have a far-reaching impact on both animals and human beings with cancer. The field is gaining momentum and has repeatedly proven its utility in various aspects of oncology, including study of the genetics, development, progression, immunology and therapy of cancer. Companion animals provide many advantages over both traditional rodent models and human beings for studying cancer biology and accelerating the development of novel anti-cancer therapies. In this review, several examples of the ability of companion animals with spontaneous cancers to fill a unique niche in the field of oncology are discussed...
October 2018: Veterinary Journal
S Moratal, R Ruíz de Ybáñez, P Barroso, J E Granados, U Höfle, C Martínez-Carrasco, P Acevedo, J Vicente
In the period from October 2016 to February 2017, the urinary tracts of 390 wild boar (Sus scrofa) from four areas of south central Spain (102 from Doñana National Park; 150 from Sierra Morena and the Toledo Mountains; 84 from Sierra Nevada; 54 from Sierra de Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas Natural Park) were examined for the presence of adult specimens of Stephanurus dentatus (Nematoda: Strongyloidea). This parasite was only detected in the wild boar population of Doñana National Park, with high prevalence (76...
October 2018: Veterinary Journal
F J Mendoza, C A Gonzalez-Cara, R Aguilera-Aguilera, R E Toribio, A Perez-Ecija
Metabolic disorders are highly prevalent in donkeys. Differences in energy regulatory hormones and glucose dynamic testing, including the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT), have been documented between donkeys and horses. The aims of this study were to characterise the insulin:glucagon (IGR) and glucagon:insulin (GIR) molar ratios, at baseline and in response to the IVGTT and CGIT in healthy donkeys, and to determine their correlation with endocrine (leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin) and morphometric variables...
October 2018: Veterinary Journal
M A Krogh, B Forkman, S Østergaard, H Houe, J T Sørensen
Antimicrobial use is a commonly applied proxy for animal health and welfare impairment related to disease status in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between antimicrobial use and the results of systematic clinical examinations for metritis and mastitis. Data was collected from 109 Danish dairy herds over a 5-year period. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the results of vaginal examinations and California mastitis tests on fresh cows were poor predictors of antimicrobial use at the herd level and 52% of the variance in the clinical data could be explained by herd-level factors...
October 2018: Veterinary Journal
R Miyamoto, S Kurita, H Tani, T Ikeda, M Ishizaka, H Saima, M Kobayashi, K Tamura, M Bonkobara
Treatment of unresectable canine squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains challenging and new therapeutic strategies are needed. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family and its inhibitor, YM155, is a potential anti-tumour agent. In the present study, 10 canine tumour cell lines (representing eight different tumour types) were screened for sensitivity to YM155; the drug potently inhibited the growth of the HAPPY SCC cell line. The growth inhibitory properties of YM155 were then examined in more detail using a panel of seven SCC cell lines...
October 2018: Veterinary Journal
L G Teixeira, L R Martins, P I Schimites, R B de Oliveira, J Bonella, R V Campos, L T Mangini, J C Gasparotto, A V Soares
This study evaluated the variability of the peripheral perfusion index (PI) in 22 anaesthetised female dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy and examined the relationship between peripheral PI and heart rate, blood pressure, blood pH, end tidal CO2 (EtCO2 ), O2 saturation (SpO2 ), core-peripheral temperature gradient (ΔTc-p), partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2 ), and concentrations of glucose, cortisol, lactate and bicarbonate (HCO3 - ). Blood pH, lactate and glucose concentrations were determined 15, 30, 45min into the ovariohysterectomy procedure and after extubation...
October 2018: Veterinary Journal
I J Kallio-Kujala, H A Turunen, M R Raekallio, J M Honkavaara, K M Salla, D Casoni, H J Hautajärvi, O M Vainio
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of MK-467 (vatinoxan; L-659'066) in dogs sedated for diagnostic imaging with medetomidine-butorphanol. It was hypothesised that MK-467 would alleviate bradycardia, hasten drug absorption and thus intensify the early-stage sedation. In a prospective, randomised, blinded clinical trial, 56 client-owned dogs received one of two IM treatments: (1) 0.5mg/m2 medetomidine+0.1mg/kg butorphanol (MB, n=29); or (2) 0.5mg/m2 medetomidine+0.1mg/kg butorphanol+10mg/m2 MK-467 (MB-MK, n=27)...
October 2018: Veterinary Journal
N Vastenhout, S J van Rijn, F M Riemers, M A Tryfonidou, B P Meij, L C Penning
Pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH) is a common endocrinopathy in dogs, but the promotors and initiators of the tumourigenesis of corticotroph pituitary adenomas remain unknown. Based on human data, we investigated mRNA expression of pituitary tumour transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) with quantitative RT-PCR in canine corticotroph pituitary adenomas. PTTG1 was overexpressed in adenomas approximately 3-fold. A strong association was observed between PTTG1 expression and disease-free interval; dogs with high PTTG1 expression had a significantly (4 times; P=0...
October 2018: Veterinary Journal
M Haspeslagh, V Gerber, D C Knottenbelt, G Schüpbach, A Martens, C Koch
Research has shown that the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of equine sarcoids (ES) can be improved. Particularly, less experienced veterinarians are often mistaken in their clinical judgement despite a high level of diagnostic confidence. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the performance of a diagnostic protocol (DP) to improve diagnostic accuracy and identify diagnostically challenging cases. The design of the DP was based on typical clinical features of ES and its algorithm was optimised through repeated tests on clinical cases prior to validating its performance in a representative online examination...
October 2018: Veterinary Journal
K Koyama, T Koyama, M Sugimoto, N Kusakari, R Miura, K Yoshioka, M Hirako
Dystocia adversely affects the health of calves and their dams. The aim of this study was to determine whether the ventral tail base surface temperature (ST) could be used to predict calving time in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows were enrolled during the warm season (daily average air temperature 10-20°C; n=13) and cool season (daily average air temperature<10°C; n=22) in Hokkaido, Japan, and a wearable wireless ST sensor was attached to the surface of the ventral tail base of each cow 9-12days before the predicted calving date...
October 2018: Veterinary Journal
V Bourret
This paper reviews important aspects of infection of pigs with avian influenza viruses. Wild waterfowl are the main reservoir for influenza A viruses; other species, such as pigs, can be infected, but most avian strains are imperfectly adapted to replication and transmission in such new hosts. However, some avian-to-porcine host jumps have resulted in the emergence of stable swine influenza virus lineages, with major consequences for both animal and human health. Different categories of factors are involved in these cross-species adaptations, both epidemiological (relating to host-host interactions) and virological (relating to host-virus interactions)...
September 2018: Veterinary Journal
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