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Veterinary Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810220/evolving-views-on-bovine-respiratory-disease-an-appraisal-of-selected-key-pathogens-part-1
#1
REVIEW
Gerard M Murray, Rónan G O'Neill, Simon J More, Máire C McElroy, Bernadette Earley, Joseph P Cassidy
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed causes of morbidity and mortality in cattle and interactions of factors associated with the animal, the pathogen and the environment are central to its pathogenesis. Emerging knowledge of a role for pathogens traditionally assumed to be minor players in the pathogenesis of BRD reflects an increasingly complex situation that will necessitate regular reappraisal of BRD pathogenesis and control. This review appraises the role of selected key pathogens implicated in BRD pathogenesis to assess how our understanding of their role has evolved in recent years...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810219/non-toxic-perfringolysin-o-and-%C3%AE-toxin-derivatives-as-potential-vaccine-candidates-against-bovine-necrohaemorrhagic-enteritis
#2
S Verherstraeten, E Goossens, B Valgaeren, B Pardon, L Timbermont, F Haesebrouck, R Ducatelle, P Deprez, F Van Immerseel
Bovine necrohaemorrhagic enteritis is a fatal Clostridium perfringens type A-induced disease that is characterised by sudden death. Recently the involvement of perfringolysin O and α-toxin in the development of necrohaemorrhagic lesions in the gut of calves was suggested, and thus derivatives of these toxins are potentially suitable as vaccine antigens. In the current study, the perfringolysin O derivative PFO(L491D), alone or in combination with α-toxin derivative GST-cpa247-370, was evaluated as possible vaccine candidate, using in vitro assays...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810218/occurrence-genotyping-shiga-toxin-genes-and-associated-risk-factors-of-e-coli-isolated-from-dairy-farms-handlers-and-milk-consumers
#3
M A Awadallah, H A Ahmed, A M Merwad, M A Selim
The objectives of the current study were to determine the occurrence and genotypes of E. coli in dairy farms, workers and milk consumers and to evaluate risk factors associated with contamination of milk in dairy farms. Molecular characterization of shiga toxin associated genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) finger printing of E. coli from different sources were also studied. Paired milk samples and rectal swabs from 125 dairy cows, rectal swabs from 82 calves and hand swabs from 45 dairy workers from five dairy farms were collected...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810217/donor-considerations-in-regenerative-medicine
#4
EDITORIAL
Tracy L Webb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810216/evolving-views-on-bovine-respiratory-disease-an-appraisal-of-selected-control-measures-part-2
#5
REVIEW
Gerard M Murray, Rónan G O'Neill, Simon J More, Máire C McElroy, Bernadette Earley, Joseph P Cassidy
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) control poses significant challenges to the cattle industry worldwide. The sometimes complex interactions of factors associated with the animal, the pathogen and the environment complicate the implementation of effective control measures. Blanket vaccination or mass medication provides inconsistent control and the effective tackling of BRD will require innovative, evidence-based and targeted interventions which, if employed sensibly, offer useful alternatives for addressing this disease...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810215/development-of-a-peripheral-nerve-stimulator-guided-technique-for-equine-pudendal-nerve-blockade
#6
K Gallacher, L C Santos, L Campoy, A J Bezuidenhout, R O Gilbert
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a procedure for equine pudendal nerve block using a peripheral nerve locator. In the first experiment, six ponies were used to determine the relationship between elicited muscle contractions (anal, perineal or both) and nerves serving the perineal region (pudendal, caudorectal and perineal nerves) when methylene blue dye was injected using the electrolocation technique. This experiment showed that the pudendal nerve was approached effectively when both anal and perineal twitch were elicited during electrolocation...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810214/comparison-of-ultrasound-imaging-and-video-otoscopy-with-cross-sectional-imaging-for-the-diagnosis-of-canine-otitis-media
#7
J Classen, A Bruehschwein, A Meyer-Lindenberg, R S Mueller
Ultrasound imaging (US) of the tympanic bulla (TB) for diagnosis of canine otitis media (OM) is less expensive and less invasive than cross-sectional imaging techniques including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Video otoscopy (VO) is used to clean inflamed ears. The objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of US and VO in OM using cross-sectional imaging as the reference standard. Client owned dogs with clinical signs of OE and/or OM were recruited for the study...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810213/comparison-between-avian-pathogenic-apec-and-avian-faecal-afec-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-different-regions-in-brazil
#8
F Silveira, R P Maluta, M R Tiba, J B de Paiva, E A L Guastalli, W D da Silveira
Detection and analysis of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) may be helpful to distinguish pathogenic from commensal faecal strains (AFEC). The aim of this study was to characterise 120 isolates of avian Escherichia coli, comprising 91 APEC (from diseased birds) and 29 AFEC (from healthy chickens), collected in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis and in vivo pathogenicity testing was performed on 38 VAGs. The VAGs iucD, iutA, iroN, fepC, ompT, cvi and hlyF were statistically associated with medium and high pathogenicity (MP/HP) strains...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810212/functional-anatomy-of-the-equine-temporomandibular-joint-collagen-fiber-texture-of-the-articular-surfaces
#9
K Adams, E Schulz-Kornas, B Arzi, K Failing, J Vogelsberg, C Staszyk
In the last decade, the equine masticatory apparatus has received much attention. Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the functional process of mastication. However, ultrastructural and histological data providing a basis for biomechanical and histopathological considerations are not available. The aim of the present study was to analyze the architecture of the collagen fiber apparatus in the articular surfaces of the equine TMJ to reveal typical morphological features indicating biomechanical adaptions...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810211/body-lean-angle-in-sound-dressage-horses-in-hand-on-the-lunge-and-ridden
#10
Line Greve, Sue Dyson
Animals can minimise the risk of falling by leaning into a curve. The aims of this study were: (1) to quantify the difference between observed (measured by an inertial measurement unit, IMU) and predicted body lean angle (calculated as a cyclist when turning) in horses; and (2) to compare circles versus straight lines ridden versus in-hand and trot with canter, and investigate the influence of age, rein and ridden work quality in trot (Fédération Equestre Internationale grading scale 1-10) in horses. Thirteen non-lame horses were assessed prospectively in a non-random, cross-sectional survey...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810210/early-detection-of-health-and-welfare-compromises-through-automated-detection-of-behavioural-changes-in-pigs
#11
REVIEW
Stephen G Matthews, Amy L Miller, James Clapp, Thomas Plötz, Ilias Kyriazakis
Early detection of health and welfare compromises in commercial piggeries is essential for timely intervention to enhance treatment success, reduce impact on welfare, and promote sustainable pig production. Behavioural changes that precede or accompany subclinical and clinical signs may have diagnostic value. Often referred to as sickness behaviour, this encompasses changes in feeding, drinking, and elimination behaviours, social behaviours, and locomotion and posture. Such subtle changes in behaviour are not easy to quantify and require lengthy observation input by staff, which is impractical on a commercial scale...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810209/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-with-acepromazine-or-dexmedetomidine-in-combination-with-levomethadone-fenpipramide-in-healthy-beagle-dogs
#12
H-L Amendt, J S Siedenburg, N Steffensen, F J Söbbeler, A Schütter, J Tünsmeyer, K Rohn, S B R Kästner, A Tipold, V M Stein
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two sedation protocols on transcranial magnetic motor evoked potentials (TMMEPs) after transcranial magnetic stimulation in medium sized dogs. Onset latencies and peak-to-peak amplitudes, elicited in the extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial muscles, were analysed in 10 healthy Beagles that received either acepromazine or dexmedetomidine in combination with levomethadone/fenpipramide, in a crossover design. Similar TMMEP recordings could be made using both sedation protocols at 80-90% stimulation intensity; however, there were significantly shorter onset latencies with the acepromazine-levomethadone/fenpipramide protocol at 100% stimulation intensity...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810208/retrograde-maxillary-nerve-perineural-injection-a-tomographic-and-anatomical-evaluation-of-the-infraorbital-canal-and-evaluation-of-needle-type-and-size-in-equine-cadavers
#13
S Nannarone, G Bini, M Vuerich, L Menchetti, R Arcelli, G Angeli
The aim of this study was to investigate a new approach for equine maxillary nerve blocks, which can facilitate several orofacial surgeries. Current techniques aim at the maxillary foramen and approach via the zygomatic arch, conferring the risk of injury to several delicate structures in the target area. To investigate the feasibility of a retrograde approach from the infraorbital foramen, an anatomic study of the infraorbital canal and its surrounding structures was performed on 13 cadaveric skulls using computed tomography and anatomical dissection...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810207/are-horse-age-and-incision-length-associated-with-surgical-site-infection-following-equine-colic-surgery
#14
S J M Darnaud, L L Southwood, H W Aceto, D Stefanovski, L Tomassone, L Zarucco
It is our clinical impression that age and incision length are more strongly associated with surgical site infection (SSI) following colic surgery than skin closure or wound protection method. Therefore, the objective of this observational clinical cohort study was to identify the risks for SSI in horses undergoing colic surgery. Data collection included pre-, intra-, and postoperative variables. Variables with P < 0.2 following univariable analysis were used in a logistic regression multivariable model...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810206/effects-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-on-chondrogenesis-of-equine-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-derived-from-bone-marrow-or-synovial-fluid
#15
M N Zayed, J Schumacher, N Misk, M S Dhar
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into cells of mesenchymal lineage, such as chondrocytes, and have potential for use in regeneration of equine articular cartilage. MSCs instilled intra-articularly would be exposed to the inflamed environment associated with equine osteoarthritis (OA), which may compromise their function and ability to heal a cartilaginous defect. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of equine adult MSCs to differentiate into chondrocytes when stimulated with pro-inflammatory cytokines...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810205/electroporation-in-veterinary-oncology
#16
REVIEW
J Impellizeri, L Aurisicchio, P Forde, D M Soden
Cancer treatments in veterinary medicine continue to evolve beyond the established standard therapies of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. New technologies in cancer therapy include a targeted mechanism to open the cell membrane based on electroporation, driving therapeutic agents, such as chemotherapy (electro-chemotherapy), for local control of cancer, or delivery of gene-based products (electro-gene therapy), directly into the cancer cell to achieve systemic control. This review examines electrochemotherapy and electro-gene therapy in veterinary medicine and considers future directions and applications...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810204/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-in-dogs-with-osteosarcoma-do-not-differ-from-those-of-age-and-weight-matched-control-dogs
#17
Jennifer L Willcox, Catherine Hammett-Stabler, Marlene L Hauck
Vitamin D concentrations show an inverse correlation with incidence of certain tumors in people and dogs. Additionally, human osteosarcoma has been associated with dysregulation of vitamin D-dependent pathways. The study objective was to compare serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in 20 dogs with osteosarcoma to age- and weight-matched control dogs. We hypothesized that dogs with osteosarcoma would have lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D than control dogs. The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations for dogs with osteosarcoma and matched-controls were 34...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810203/magic-angle-effect-on-low-field-magnetic-resonance-images-in-the-superficial-digital-flexor-tendon-in-the-equine-proximal-pastern-region
#18
C E Sherlock, T S Mair
Recognition of artefacts is an essential component of the accurate interpretation of diagnostic images. This study aimed to investigate the presence of magic angle effect in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in the equine proximal pastern region. The proximal pastern of four cadaver limbs was imaged using a 0.27 Tesla magnet with high-resolution sequences that are commonly utilised in clinical equine practice. The limbs were imaged in a neutral position and positions that simulated the horse 'leaning in', 'leaning out' and having internal and external rotation of the distal limb...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810202/detecting-animal-by-product-intake-using-stable-isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry-irms
#19
D A F da Silva, N P Biscola, L D Dos Santos, M M P Sartori, J C Denadai, E T da Silva, C Ducatti, S D Bicudo, B Barraviera, R S Ferreira
Sheep are used in many countries as food and for manufacturing bioproducts. However, when these animals consume animal by-products (ABP), which is widely prohibited, there is a risk of transmitting scrapie - a fatal prion disease in human beings. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive methods to detect previous ABP intake to select safe animals for producing biopharmaceuticals. We used stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) for (13)C and (15)N to trace animal proteins in the serum of three groups of sheep: 1 - received only vegetable protein (VP) for 89 days; 2 - received animal and vegetable protein (AVP); and 3 - received animal and vegetable protein with animal protein subsequently removed (AVPR)...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810201/oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-horses-naturally-infected-with-theileria-equi
#20
M Radakovic, D Davitkov, S Borozan, S Stojanovic, J Stevanovic, V Krstic, Z Stanimirovic
The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage in horses infected by Theileria equi. Initial screening of 110 horses with duplex PCR enabled the selection of 30 infected horses with T. equi and 30 free of infection (control). Specimens from the 60 horses were further analysed by determining the following oxidative stress parameters: extent of haemolysis (EH), plasma free haemoglobin (PHb), catalase (CAT), Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), paraoxonase (PON1), nitrite (NO2(-)), total nitrate and nitrite (NOx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and free thiol groups (-SH)...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
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