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Veterinary Journal

Jamie Royle, Claire L Donald, Andres Merits, Alain Kohl, Margus Varjak
The recent outbreak of infection with Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae) has attracted attention to this previously neglected mosquito-borne pathogen and the need for efficient therapies. Since flavivirus replication is generally known to be dependent on fatty acid biosynthesis, two inhibitors of this pathway, 5-(tetradecyloxyl)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) and cerulenin, were tested for their potentiality to inhibit virus replication. At concentrations previously shown to inhibit the replication of other flaviviruses, neither drug had a significant antiviral affect against ZIKV, but reduced the replication of the non-related mosquito-borne Semliki Forest virus (Togaviridae)...
October 19, 2017: Veterinary Journal
P Ghodasara, P Sadowski, N Satake, S Kopp, P C Mills
Over the last two decades, technological advancements in the field of proteomics have advanced our understanding of the complex biological systems of living organisms. Techniques based on mass spectrometry (MS) have emerged as powerful tools to contextualise existing genomic information and to create quantitative protein profiles from plasma, tissues or cell lines of various species. Proteomic approaches have been used increasingly in veterinary science to investigate biological processes responsible for growth, reproduction and pathological events...
December 2017: Veterinary Journal
Florian M Trefz, Ingrid Lorenz
Hyperkalaemia is a clinically relevant electrolyte imbalance in neonatal diarrhoeic calves which was previously associated with severe dehydration and acidaemia. The present study assessed the association of plasma potassium (cK) with serum aldosterone and insulin concentrations, since these hormones are involved in the regulation of potassium homeostasis. Serum aldosterone (rs=0.62), but not insulin concentrations (rs=0.22) were closely correlated to cK in 123 hospitalised neonatal diarrhoeic calves. Median values for serum aldosterone concentrations in 38 hyperkalaemic calves (cK>5...
December 2017: Veterinary Journal
L Ramió-Lluch, S Cerrato, P Brazis, R M Rabanal, D Fondevila, A Puigdemont
Autologous skin grafts are effective for the repair of large skin wounds, but the availability of large amounts of skin is often limited. Through bioengineering, several autologous skin substitutes have been developed for use in human clinical practice. However, few skin substitutes are available for use in animals. The aim of this study was to develop and assess an engineered autologous skin substitute for the treatment of deep wounds in veterinary medicine. Canine keratinocytes and fibroblasts were isolated after double enzyme digestion from 8mm punch biopsies from four healthy Beagle dogs...
December 2017: Veterinary Journal
A Horbal, R J M Reardon, T Liuti, P M Dixon
An ex-vivo study was performed on vertically mounted equine maxillary cheek teeth that had caries of 30 infundibulae, using high and low speed contra-angle dental drills and Hedstrom files to debride infundibular food debris and carious dental tissues. This technique effectively debrided 27/30 infundibulae with a mean depth of 19mm (range 9.4-34.3mm) as assessed by computed tomographic (CT) imaging. The debrided infundibulae were treated with sodium hypochlorite, EDTA and a bonding agent, and then then filled in layers with endodontic restoration materials...
December 2017: Veterinary Journal
J B King, J M Morton
The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and permanence of hypoadrenocorticism associated with trilostane treatment and to assess potential risk factors for hypoadrenocorticism. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using case records for 156 dogs treated with trilostane after a diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism. Occurrences of hypoadrenocorticism were categorised as either transient or permanent. After initiation of treatment with trilostane, the estimated cumulative incidence of hypoadrenocorticism was 15% by 2 years and 26% by 4...
December 2017: Veterinary Journal
K F Ortved, M B Goodale, C Ober, G A Maylin, L A Fortier
Orthobiologics such as autologous conditioned serum (ACS) are often used to treat joint disease in horses. Because ACS is generated from the horse's own blood, any medication administered at the time of preparation would likely be present in stored ACS, which could lead to an inadvertent positive drug test following intra-articular (IA) injection. The main objective of this study was to determine if ACS prepared from firocoxib positive horses could result in detectable plasma concentrations of the drug following IA injection...
December 2017: Veterinary Journal
R Troìa, C Agnoli, S Calipa, S Segalina, E Murgia, M Gruarin, F Dondi, M Giunti
Immature granulocytes (IG) are a marker of severe inflammatory states in human beings and animals, and have been linked to a diagnosis of sepsis and poor prognosis. The delta neutrophil index (DNI), automatically calculated by a haematological analyser, provides an estimate of circulating IG. In particular, an increased DNI value has been associated with the severity of sepsis, and mortality, in critically ill human beings. The aims of this study were to determine the DNI reference interval (RI) in healthy dogs, and to evaluate its diagnostic and prognostic significance in dogs with sepsis...
December 2017: Veterinary Journal
K Stee, V Martlé, B J G Broeckx, E Royaux, L Van Ham, S F M Bhatti
Phenobarbital or potassium bromide (KBr) add-on treatment decreases the average monthly seizure frequency in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy resistant to a maximum dose of imepitoin. The importance of continued administration of imepitoin in these dogs is currently unknown. The goal of this study was to assess whether imepitoin withdrawal would destabilize epileptic seizure control. In this prospective clinical trial epileptic seizure control was evaluated by comparing the monthly seizure frequency of 13 dogs with well-controlled idiopathic epilepsy receiving a combination of imepitoin and phenobarbital (n=4), imepitoin and KBr (n=7), and imepitoin, phenobarbital and KBr (n=2) during a period of 3-6 months (pre-withdrawal period), with a follow-up period of 9-12 months after withdrawal of imepitoin (post-withdrawal period)...
December 2017: Veterinary Journal
C B Marschner, A T Kristensen, E A Rozanski, F J McEvoy, L Kühnel, O Taeymans, A de Laforcade, A F Sato, B Wiinberg
There is no evidence-based diagnostic approach for diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) in dogs. Many dogs with diseases that predispose to thrombosis are hypercoagulable when assessed with thromboelastography (TEG), but no direct link has been established. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate if diseased dogs with PTE, diagnosed by computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), had evidence of hypercoagulability by TEG; (2) to characterise haemostatic and inflammatory changes in dogs with PTE; (3) to construct models for prediction of PTE based on combinations of haemostatic and inflammatory variables; and (4) to evaluate the performance of D-dimer measurement for prediction of PTE...
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
B B Nelson, M R King, D D Frisbie
Joint disease and osteoarthritis are common problems in the horse and numerous experimental studies have been developed to determine the safety and efficacy of new therapies. Synovitis, a critical component of joint disease, has been experimentally induced using recombinant interleukin-1 beta (reIL-1β) to investigate new joint therapies in a controlled environment, although the use of reIL-1β has not been reported in the equine tarsocrural joint. A common consequence of performing controlled experiments is that articular tissue collection typically requires general anesthesia or euthanasia...
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
S Redlberger, S Fischer, H Köhler, R Diller, P Reinhold
There is a paucity of published data reporting acid-base equilibrium in goats, and no information is available on how the acid-base complexity changes when suckling goat kids become ruminants. The aims of this study were to evaluate young healthy goats for age-related changes in serum proteins, metabolites, and electrolytes; differences in results when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation or strong ion approaches were used were also assessed. To assess biological variability and reproducibility, two consecutive long-term studies, each lasting from the 6th to 56th week of life (wl), were performed in 15 (Study 1) and 10 (Study 2) animals...
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
N Toji, S Shigeno, K Kizaki, K Koshi, H Matsuda, Y Hashiyada, K Imai, T Takahashi, T Ishiguro-Oonuma, K Hashizume
Early detection of gestation is important in the bovine industry. New methods have been developed to detect gene expression in leucocytes induced by interferon-tau (IFNT) as gestation biomarkers. However, it is debatable which blood cell is suitable for detecting gene expression. This study was aimed at confirming whether granulocytes respond to IFNT specifically. Granulocytes and mononuclear cells (MNCs) from cows, and several types of bovine cultured cells, were treated with recombinant (r) IFNT and gene expression was analysed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and microarray analysis...
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
P R Batista, C Gobello, A Arizmendi, M Tórtora, D O Arias, P G Blanco
The aim of this study was to evaluate echocardiographic and electrocardiographic parameters during the normal canine postpartum period. Twenty clinically healthy pregnant bitches of toy breeds (11 Miniature poodles, five Yorkshire terriers, two Maltese terriers and two Bichons Frises) were evaluated on days -3, 3, 10, 17, 24, 38, 52 and 80 relative to parturition (day 0). During the first postpartum week, the width of the interventricular septum in systole, the shortening fraction and the left atrium size decreased, while the left ventricle internal diameter in systole and end systolic stress increased...
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
Brian A DiGangi, Jaime Grijalva, Erika Pamela Puga Jaramillo, Ivette Dueñas, Christine Glenn, María Emilia Calero Cruz, Renán Patricio Mena Pérez
The objective of this study was to characterize post-operative outcomes of chemical castration as compared to surgical castration performed by existing municipal field clinics. Fifty-four healthy adult male dogs underwent chemical castration with zinc gluconate solution and 55 healthy adult male dogs underwent surgical castration in veterinary field clinics. Dogs in each group were evaluated for swelling, inflammation, and ulceration (chemical castration) or dehiscence (surgical castration) at Days 3, 7, and 14 following castration...
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
U Jeffery, M B Brooks, D N LeVine
Unbalanced coagulation and fibrinolysis leads to hemorrhage or thrombosis. Thromboelastography has been used to characterize hypo- and hyper-fibrinolysis in dogs, however the technique requires specialized instrumentation and proprietary reagents that limit its availability. The aim of this study was to develop a simple microplate method for assessment of fibrinolysis in canine plasma. Plasma from healthy dogs was mixed in a microwell plate with tissue factor, calcium, phospholipid and tissue plasminogen activator...
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
C B Gómez Álvarez, P Gustås, A Bergh, M Rhodin
Compensatory limb loading has been studied in lame dogs; however, little is known about how these compensations relate to motion of the head and pelvis, assessment of which is an important component of lameness examinations. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of vertical head and pelvic motion symmetry at the trot in dogs with induced supporting limb lameness in the forelimbs or hind limbs. Ten sound dogs were trotted on a treadmill before and after temporary induction of moderate lameness (grade 2/5) in each limb...
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
Paul McGreevy, Melissa Starling, Elyssa Payne, Pauleen Bennett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
M D Scheidegger, V Gerber, R M Bruckmaier, J H van der Kolk, D Burger, A Ramseyer
This study tested the hypothesis that adrenocortical function would be altered in horses with equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS). Twenty-six sport horses competing at national or international levels in eventing (n=15) or endurance (n=11) were subjected to a gastroscopic examination and an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before (baseline) and after (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150min) IV ACTH injection (1μg/kg bodyweight). Within EGUS, two distinct diseases, equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD) and equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD), can be distinguished...
October 2017: Veterinary Journal
Y R A van Zeeland, A Wilde, I H Bosman, J J Uilenreef, B Egner, N J Schoemaker
This study was conducted to validate the use of high definition oscillometry (HDO) for non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurements in ferrets and to establish reference ranges for NIBP in minimally sedated, healthy, young adult ferrets (<4years of age). The bias, limits of agreement and correlation for HDO compared to direct arterial blood pressure (DABP) measurement were established in 14 anaesthetised ferrets. Measurements were performed at the forelimb, hind limb and tail under hypo- (<110mmHg), normo- (110-170mmHg) and hypertensive (>170mmHg) conditions...
October 2017: Veterinary Journal
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