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Veterinary Journal

C A Bradbrook, L Clark
There has been considerable interest in acute pain management over recent years, focusing on pain assessment, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. The evidence base for our clinical decision making and treatment of patients is increasing and becoming more robust. There is still a tendency to base some aspects of pain management on poor quality evidence and this requires further input in years to come. With new literature come new ideas and this review will detail the current knowledge base behind pharmacological management of acute pain in dogs and cats...
June 6, 2018: Veterinary Journal
F Bonsembiante, V Martini, U Bonfanti, G Casarin, D Trez, M E Gelain
Whole slide imaging (WSI) uses robotic microscopes for computerising entire slides into digital images. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between WSI and optical microscopy for evaluating canine lymphoma cytological samples. Forty-four slides were computerised using a WSI scanner and the digital and glass slides were examined by three observers with different levels of expertise. Morphology and grade of lymphoma were scored on the basis of the updated Kiel classification and intra-observer agreement was assessed...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
R S Mueller, S Unterer
This review summarises available information about adverse food reactions in dogs and cats. Much of the published information on the pathogenesis of adverse food reactions in these species is transferred from what is known in mice and human beings. Clinical signs affect mostly the integument and gastrointestinal system. Pruritus of the distal limbs, face, ears and ventrum is the most common cutaneous presentation in dogs, although urticaria has also been reported. In cats, all so-called 'cutaneous reaction patterns' may be due to adverse food reactions...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
P Proks, L Stehlik, I Nyvltova, A Necas, M Vignoli, V Jekl
The aim of this retrospective study of 330 rabbits (164 males, 166 females) was to determine different vertebral formulas and prevalence of congenital vertebral anomalies in rabbits from radiographs of the cervical (C), thoracic (Th), lumbar (L) and sacral (S) segments of the vertebral column. The number of vertebrae in each segment of vertebral column, position of anticlinal vertebra and localisation and type of congenital abnormalities were recorded. In 280/330 rabbits (84.8%) with normal vertebral morphology, seven vertebral formulas were identified: C7/Th12/L7/S4 (252/330, 76...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
J Reid, A M Nolan, E M Scott
The contemporary approach to pain measurement in people and animals seeks to measure the affective (emotional) component of the pain experience using structured questionnaires with formal scoring methodology. Chronic pain has wide-ranging impacts which affects the quality of life (QOL) of the individual, whether that is a person or an animal. Accordingly instruments to measure chronic pain are designed to measure its impact on QOL and are called health-related quality of life (HRQL) instruments. In veterinary science instruments to measure pain are based on behavioural observation by the veterinary surgeon/nurse in the case of acute pain and by the owner in the case of chronic pain...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
R M Heilmann, N Grützner, J A Hokamp, J A Lidbury, P G Xenoulis, J S Suchodolski, M B Nabity, R Cianciolo, J M Steiner
Serum canine α1 -proteinase inhibitor (cα1 -PI) concentrations were evaluated in dogs with pancreatitis (n=24), exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI; n=29), chronic hepatitis (CH; n=11) or proteinuric chronic kidney disease (CKD-P; n=61) to determine whether systemic proteinase/proteinase-inhibitor balance is altered in these conditions. Dogs with CKD-P had significantly lower cα1 -PI concentrations than dogs with pancreatitis, EPI or CH; 16% of dogs with CKD-P had serum cα1 -PI concentrations below the reference interval...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
C Bradbrook, L Clark
There has been considerable interest in the area of acute pain management over recent years, focusing on pain assessment, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. The evidence base for our clinical decision making and treatment of patients is ever increasing and becoming more robust. There is still a tendency to base some aspects of pain management on poor quality evidence and this requires further input in years to come. With new literature come new ideas and this review will detail the current knowledge base behind pharmacological management of acute pain in dogs and cats...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
C De Witte, R Ducatelle, F Haesebrouck
Ulceration of the non-glandular part of the stomach is a common disease entity of pigs worldwide, with prevalences of up to 93%. It may result in decreased daily weight gain, decreased feed intake and sudden death, thus leading to significant economic losses, as well as animal welfare issues. The aetiology is multifactorial. Diet particle size, management and infectious agents have been hypothesised to be involved. The exact mechanism behind porcine gastric ulceration is, however, not completely clear. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the role of infectious agents in the development of porcine gastric ulceration...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
L A Andersen, J K Levy, C M McManus, S P McGorray, C M Leutenegger, J Piccione, L K Blackwelder, S J Tucker
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of enteropathogens in cats with and without diarrhea in four different models for managing unowned cats: short-term animal shelter, long-term sanctuary, home-based foster care, and trap-neuter-return. Fecal samples from 482 cats, approximately half of the cats with normal fecal consistency and half with diarrhea, were tested by zinc sulfate centrifugation and by real-time PCR for a panel of enteropathogens. At least one enteropathogen of feline or zoonotic importance was detected in a majority of cats, regardless of management model...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
E D Bennet, T D H Parkin
An epidemiological study of elite endurance riding was conducted using data from every Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) endurance event from 2010 to 2015, comprising 82,917 starts. The aim of the study was to identify risk factors associated with failure to qualify outcomes for horses during FEI endurance rides. The FEI endurance rules state that, during a ride, horses must be assessed by veterinarians several times, giving veterinarians the opportunity to prevent those horses exhibiting signs of lameness or metabolic problems from continuing further...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
E L Cuttance, W A Mason, R A Laven, C V C Phyn
The effects of failure of transfer of passive immunity (failure of passive transfer, FPT), defined by serum total protein (STP)≤52g/L at 1-7days of age, on mortality, morbidity and body weight were investigated from birth until weaning in 3829 calves on 106 pasture-based, seasonal calving dairy farms in nine regions of New Zealand. A subset of 2053 calves from 35 farms in two regions from the main cohort of calves and farms were enrolled to monitor the longer term effects of FPT until 12 months of age. Calves with FPT had a greater odds of farmer-recorded animal health events (odds ratio, OR, 1...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
E D Bennet, T D H Parkin
This study examined the association between riding speed and elimination in Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) endurance events. A total of 35,061 horse starts from 1st July 2012 to 31st December 2015 were included in a multivariable logistic regression model containing 25 different risk factors. Riding speeds in individual stages ('loops') were included as individual risk factors in studying the progress of horses through loops 1-3 of each endurance ride. The possibility of real-time, 'mid-ride' predictive modelling was explored by modelling both riding speeds and sudden changes in speed between loops as potential risk factors...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
J A Jaffey, J Amorim, A E DeClue
Hypovitaminosis D has been identified as a predictor of mortality in human beings, dogs, cats and foals. However, the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D in critically ill dogs has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcitriol on cytokine production from whole blood collected from critically ill dogs in vitro. Twelve critically ill dogs admitted to a veterinary intensive care unit (ICU) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Whole blood from these dogs was incubated with calcitriol (2×10-7 M) or ethanol (control) for 24h...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
M B Spitznagel, D M Jacobson, M D Cox, M D Carlson
Caregiver burden, found in many clients with a chronically or terminally ill companion animal, has been linked to poorer psychosocial function in the client and greater utilization of non-billable veterinary services. To reduce client caregiver burden, its determinants must first be identified. This study examined if companion animal clinical signs and problem behaviors predict veterinary client burden within broader client- and patient-based risk factor models. Data were collected in two phases. Phase 1 included 238 companion animal owners, including those with a sick companion animal (n=119) and matched healthy controls (n=119) recruited online...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
R E Clutton
The widespread physiological effects of pain in experimental animals are likely to reduce the validity of data except when pain itself is studied. Appropriately prescribed analgesics will limit pain and improve the welfare of animals undergoing noxious experimental procedures. However, their injudicious use may also introduce variability in data and limit study reproducibility. Optimizing both animal welfare and the value of scientific data from experimental studies requires the ability to identify, quantify and treat animal pain by applying a knowledge of analgesic pharmacology that is sympathetic to study objectives...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
F Zeeh, S Klausmann, Y Masserey, H Nathues, V Perreten, J Rohde
The aim of this study was to determine whether crows (Corvus corone) can harbour Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the cause of swine dysentery, and whether the organism carried by crows is related to strains infecting pigs. B. hyodysenteriae was isolated from one crow in close proximity to two pig farms in Switzerland. This isolate, along with five isolates of B. hyodysenteriae from one of the farms, belonged to sequence type (ST) 66 using multilocus sequence typing. This finding suggests that crows are potential vectors of B...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
F Tecles, D Escribano, M D Contreras-Aguilar, C P Rubio, M Szczubiał, J J Cerón, R Dąbrowski, A Tvarijonaviciute
An assay for adenosine deaminase (ADA) was validated in serum and saliva in dogs. Changes in ADA and salivary α-amylase activities were analysed in 26 bitches diagnosed with pyometra and compared with activities in 19 healthy bitches. All animals were classified according to the American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) scoring for physical status. In the validation study, the ADA assay had an imprecision<12% and determination coefficients>0.90 in linearity under dilution experiments, with recoveries of 99...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
Josep Monne Rodriguez, K Köhler, A Kipar
Felid herpesvirus-1 (FeHV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV) are the most important infectious causes of respiratory disease in cats. FeHV-1 and FCV co-infections are common in cats with upper respiratory tract disease, but it is unknown whether such co-infections also occur in cats with pneumonia. This study examined the lungs of naturally infected cats with FeHV-1 pneumonia for FCV co-infection by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The frequency of FCV (13/21, 62%) in this group of cats suggests that co-infection is common in kittens with FeHV-1 pneumonia...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
T Banzato, G B Cherubini, M Atzori, A Zotti
An established deep neural network (DNN) based on transfer learning and a newly designed DNN were tested to predict the grade of meningiomas from magnetic resonance (MR) images in dogs and to determine the accuracy of classification of using pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted (T1W), and T2-weighted (T2W) MR images. The images were randomly assigned to a training set, a validation set and a test set, comprising 60%, 10% and 30% of images, respectively. The combination of DNN and MR sequence displaying the highest discriminating accuracy was used to develop an image classifier to predict the grading of new cases...
May 2018: Veterinary Journal
F Soutter, S Martorell, L Solano-Gallego, B Catchpole
The clinical outcome of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs varies from subclinical infection to severe disease. Researchers attribute this variability in clinical manifestations to the ability of the immune response to limit pathogen multiplication and dissemination, which is, in part, likely determined by the immune response genes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that MHC class II genes are associated with disease outcome of experimental L. infantum infection in Beagles. Dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II haplotypes were characterised by sequence-based typing of Beagle dogs experimentally infected with L...
May 2018: Veterinary Journal
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