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Veterinary Journal

C Koch, A Martens, E K Hainisch, G Schüpbach, V Gerber, M Haspeslagh
Equine clinicians and researchers often make the diagnosis of equine sarcoids (ES) on clinical assessment alone, without histopathological confirmation. However, the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of ES has not been critically assessed. To assess sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the clinical diagnosis of ES, 40 clinical cases with histologically confirmed equine skin lesions (26 ES and 14 non-ES) were compiled in a representative online examination. For each case and lesion, at least one photograph and all relevant information were presented in a standardised format...
September 1, 2018: Veterinary Journal
V Bourret
This paper reviews important aspects of infection of pigs with avian influenza viruses. Wild waterfowl are the main reservoir for influenza A viruses; other species, such as pigs, can be infected, but most avian strains are imperfectly adapted to replication and transmission in such new hosts. However, some avian-to-porcine host jumps have resulted in the emergence of stable swine influenza virus lineages, with major consequences for both animal and human health. Different categories of factors are involved in these cross-species adaptations, both epidemiological (relating to host-host interactions) and virological (relating to host-virus interactions)...
September 2018: Veterinary Journal
Z Belshaw, J Yeates
Assessment of chronic pain and quality of life (QOL) are integral to clinical veterinary research and practice, and recent years have seen an increase in the published tools available for the assessment of both. However, the relationship between chronic pain and QOL in veterinary patients has received insufficient attention. This narrative review for the first time explores similarities, differences and interactions between chronic pain and quality of life and identifies common challenges to their assessment in dogs...
September 2018: Veterinary Journal
P Byrne, J A Beatty, J Šlapeta, S W Corley, R E Lyons, L McMichael, M T Kyaw-Tanner, P T Dung, N Decaro, J Meers, V R Barrs
Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) are deoxyriboncucleic acid (DNA) viruses in the taxon Carnivore protoparvovirus 1. Exposure of cats to either CPV or FPV results in productive infection and faecal shedding of virus. Asymptomatic shedding of CPVs by one-third of shelter-housed cats in a UK study suggests that cats may be an important reservoir for parvoviral disease in dogs. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of faecal shedding of CPVs in asymptomatic shelter-housed cats in Australia...
September 2018: Veterinary Journal
M Brščić, M K Kirchner, U Knierim, B Contiero, F Gottardo, C Winckler, G Cozzi
The aim of this study was to investigate management and feeding practices associated with on-farm loss rate (mortality) on 63 beef cattle farms in Austria, Germany and Italy with housing systems other than fully slatted pens. Information on mortality and 56 categorised factors relating to the cleanliness of animal facilities, health and feeding management, animal-human interaction, cattle transport and origin were gathered during on-farm visits. Samples of total mixed rations (TMRs) were collected and analysed for chemical composition and particle size distribution...
September 2018: Veterinary Journal
M N Hempstead, J R Waas, M Stewart, G Zobel, V M Cave, A F Julian, M A Sutherland
Pain sensitivity and skull/brain injury associated with cautery, cryosurgical and caustic paste disbudding were evaluated in goat kids. Kids (reared for meat; n=280) were randomly assigned to one of four treatments (n=70 per treatment): (1) sham-handling (SHAM) or (2) cautery (CAUT), (3) cryosurgical (CRYO) or (4) caustic paste (CASP) disbudding. A pain sensitivity test was carried out 15min pre-treatment and 1h post-treatment. Skull/brain injury was assessed at post-mortem examination. Kids with evidence of injury to the skull/brain, as well as a random sample of kids (n=15 per treatment) without evidence of skull/brain injury, were selected for histological examination of brain tissue...
September 2018: Veterinary Journal
K Adams, E Schulz-Kornas, B Arzi, K Failing, J Vogelsberg, C Staszyk
It has been assumed that dental conditions cause disorders of the equine temporomandibular joint (TMJ), due to biomechanical overload or aberrant loading. However, the incidence of published TMJ disorders in horses is low and this leads to the question whether the equine TMJ is adapted well to its biomechanical requirements or is able to remodel its articular surfaces in response to modified loading conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the histological characteristics of healthy equine TMJs. The tissue components of the articular surfaces of 10 TMJs obtained from horses without any clinical history of dental or TMJ disorders were analysed...
September 2018: Veterinary Journal
D Le Chevallier, L Slingsby, J C Murrell
The aim of this study was to investigate the sedative effects of medetomidine in combination with midazolam or butorphanol for routine imaging procedures in dogs. Eighty client owned dogs were recruited in a prospective, randomised, blinded clinical study and randomly assigned to receive one of four treatments intramuscularly (IM): (1) 30μg/kg medetomidine (Med30); (2) 20μg/kg medetomidine combined with 0.3mg/kg butorphanol (Med20But0.3); (3) 20μg/kg medetomidine combined with 0.3mg/kg midazolam (Med20Mid0...
September 2018: Veterinary Journal
M Gray, J Meehan, C Ward, S P Langdon, I H Kunkler, A Murray, D Argyle
Precision medicine can be defined as the prevention, investigation and treatment of diseases taking individual variability into account. There are multiple ways in which the field of precision medicine may be advanced; however, recent innovations in the fields of electronics and microfabrication techniques have led to an increased interest in the use of implantable biosensors in precision medicine. Implantable biosensors are an important class of biosensors because of their ability to provide continuous data on the levels of a target analyte; this enables trends and changes in analyte levels over time to be monitored without any need for intervention from either the patient or clinician...
September 2018: Veterinary Journal
J R Winter, L E Green
Clinical trials have demonstrated that sheep with footrot treated with parenteral and topical antibiotics without foot trimming (treatment A), cure faster than sheep treated with foot trimming and topical antibiotics (treatment B). We investigated how key players in the UK sheep industry recommended treating footrot, and tested whether reviewing the evidence surrounding treatment of footrot changed their beliefs. Eight key players attended a workshop to investigate their current practices, and their perceived efficacy of treatments, using probabilistic elicitation...
September 2018: Veterinary Journal
L Greve, T Pfau, S Dyson
Altered body lean has been subjectively observed during lungeing in lame horses. The objectives were to quantify the influence of lameness on body lean in trot on the lunge and to investigate the influence of improvement in lameness on the differences in body lean between reins. Thirteen lame horses were trotted in straight lines and lunged on a 10m-diameter circle on both reins before and after lameness was subjectively substantially improved by diagnostic analgesia. A global position system-aided inertial measurement unit attached to the tubera sacrale quantified body lean...
September 2018: Veterinary Journal
D G Ohad, Y Segev, E Kelmer, I Aroch, T Bdolah-Abram, G Segev, S Klainbart
The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of constant rate infusion (CRI) to intermittent intravenous bolus (IVB) administration of furosemide resulted in an improvement in medical outcomes in dogs and cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF). A total of 76 client-owned dogs and 24 client-owned cats admitted with acute L-CHF were retrospectively divided between an IVB group (43 dogs and 16 cats) and a CRI group (33 dogs and 8 cats). The median furosemide dose used in dogs in the CRI group (median 0...
August 2018: Veterinary Journal
M Adam, V Huuskonen, M R Raekallio, D Casoni, A K Mykkänen, A K Lappalainen, M Kajula, I J Kallio-Kujala, O M Vainio
The effects of pre-treatment with vatinoxan (MK-467) on dexmedetomidine-induced cardiopulmonary alterations were investigated in sheep. In a crossover study design with a 20-day washout, seven sheep were anaesthetised with sevoflurane in oxygen and air. The sheep were ventilated with the pressure-limited volume-controlled mode and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 5cmH2 O. Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) was set at 25cmH2 O. The sheep received either 150μg/kg vatinoxan HCl (VAT+DEX) or saline intravenously (IV) 10min before IV dexmedetomidine HCl (3μg/kg, DEX)...
August 2018: Veterinary Journal
D P Byrne, C J Secombe, R H H Tan, D I Perera, S P Watts, J G Wearn
Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)-stimulation testing for pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) in horses is only recommended at certain times of the year. Current diagnostic cut-off values reflect testing in the northern hemisphere during this time. The aims of this study were to evaluate TRH stimulation testing during two different phases of the circannual pituitary cycle and to determine whether diagnostic cut-off values developed in the northern hemisphere are appropriate in Australia. Thirteen clinically normal horses at Perth, Western Australia, and 23 horses at Townsville, Queensland, Australia, had TRH stimulation tests performed at two different time points during the circannual pituitary cycle...
August 2018: Veterinary Journal
L Barrachina, A Romero, P Zaragoza, C Rodellar, F J Vázquez
Since the clinical use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating musculoskeletal injuries is gaining popularity, practitioners should be aware of the factors that may affect MSCs from tissue harvesting for MSC isolation to cell delivery into the injury site. This review provides equine practitioners with up-to-date, practical knowledge for the treatment of equine patients using MSCs. A brief overview of laboratory procedures affecting MSCs is provided, but the main focus is on shipping conditions, routes of administration, injection methods, and which commonly used products can be combined with MSCs and which products should be avoided as they have deleterious effects on cells...
August 2018: Veterinary Journal
L V Randall, M J Green, J N Huxley
Claw horn disruption lesions (CHDLs) in dairy cattle account for a large proportion of lameness. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the evidence surrounding the pathogenesis of CHDLs, in the context of how statistical modelling has contributed to the validity of available evidence and current thinking. Historically, 'subclinical laminitis' has often been used to describe the commonly accepted underlying pathology associated with these lesions, however progress in understanding the aetiopathogenesis of CHDLs and a lack of clear evidence to support the traditional laminitis hypothesis, means use of this terminology has been challenged...
August 2018: Veterinary Journal
D A Portela, N Verdier, P E Otero
Increasing interest in using peripheral nerve blocks in small animals is evident, given the numerous studies published recently on this topic in important veterinary journals. Initially, research was focused on intraoperative analgesia to the pelvic limb, and several descriptions of lumbosacral plexus, femoral and sciatic nerve blocks have been described in studies. There is recent interest in developing techniques for somatosensory blockade of the abdominal wall. This article is the second part of a two-part review of regional anesthesia (RA) in small animals, and its aim is to discuss the most relevant studies in the veterinary literature, where objective methods of nerve location have been used, and to illustrate in pictures the currently used techniques for providing RA to the abdominal wall and the pelvic limb in small animals...
August 2018: Veterinary Journal
K E Niinistö, M O Ruohoniemi, F Freccero, M R Raekallio
Enteropathy associated with sand accumulation in the large colon of horses has been reported worldwide. Intestinal sand accumulations are commonly treated medically, but randomised controlled clinical trials on horses are scarce. This prospective study evaluated the efficacy of an enterally administered combination of psyllium and magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 ) for the removal of large colonic sand accumulations in horses without clinical signs of acute colic. The two groups comprised 20 untreated control horses and 20 horses treated with 1g/kg bodyweight (bwt) of psyllium and 1g/kg bwt of MgSO4 administered by nasogastric intubation once daily for 4 days...
August 2018: Veterinary Journal
A Lahuerta-Marin, M G Milne, J McNair, R A Skuce, S H McBride, F D Menzies, S J W McDowell, A W Byrne, I G Handel, B M de C Bronsvoort
In the European Union, the recommended ante-mortem diagnostic methods for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) include the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin (SICCT) test and the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) test as an ancillary test. The SICCT test has a moderate sensitivity (Se) and high specificity (Sp), while the IFN-γ test has good Se, but a lower Sp than the SICCT test. A retrospective Bayesian latent class analysis was conducted on 71,185 cattle from 806 herds chronically infected with bTB distributed across Northern Ireland (NI) to estimate the Se and Sp of the common ante-mortem tests and meat inspection...
August 2018: Veterinary Journal
F M Trefz, I Lorenz, P D Constable
An ion-selective electrode (ISE) handheld meter (LAQUAtwin B-731; Horiba) has recently become available for the measurement of potassium concentrations [K+ ] in biological fluids. The ISE meter has the potential to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of potassium balance disorders of critically ill cattle. The objective of this study was to characterise the analytical performance of the ISE meter in a study sample of hospitalised calves with a broad range of plasma [K+ ]. For the purpose of the study, whole blood and plasma samples from 125 calves (age≤3months) were used for analysis...
August 2018: Veterinary Journal
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