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Journal of Applied Microbiology

C P Dopazo, P Moreno, J G Olveira, J J Borrego
AIMS: The reliability of PCR techniques is an important issue in viral diagnosis, and it is even crucial when they must be applied for detection of viruses in asymptomatic carriers. The problems will arise when the aim is to study fish wild populations, where the viral loads and prevalence values are extremely low. We have evaluated several PCR procedures employed by two laboratories for monitoring fish captured in several oceanographic campaigns performed in the Gulf of Cádiz. METHODS AND RESULTS: To evaluate the reliability of different diagnostics test used, we have re-analyzed fish samples that had been previously subjected to diagnosis for a surveillance of viruses performed in 2010-2011 in wild fish populations...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Kerri A Alderisio, Leah F Villegas, Michael W Ware, Lisa A McDonald, Lihua Xiao, Eric N Villegas
AIM: USEPA Method 1623, or its equivalent, is currently used to monitor for protozoan contamination of surface drinking water sources worldwide. At least three approved staining kits used for detecting Cryptosporidium and Giardia are commercially available. This study focuses on understanding the differences among staining kits used for Method 1623. METHODS AND RESULTS: Merifluor and EasyStain labeling kits were used to monitor Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst densities in New York City's raw surface water sources...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Nur Baiti Abd Murad, Nik Mohd Izham Nik Mohamed, Shamarina Shohaimi, Nur Ain Izzati Mohd Zainudin
AIMS: The aims of this study are to identify the Fusarium isolates based on translation elongation factor (tef) 1α sequence, to determine the genetic diversity among isolates and species using selected microsatellite markers, and to examine the pathogenicity of Fusarium isolates causing fruit rot disease of banana. METHODS AND RESULTS: One-hundred thirteen microfungi isolates were obtained from fruit rot infected banana in Peninsular Malaysia. However, this study was focused on the dominant number of the discovered microfungi that belongs to the genus Fusarium...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Kristine B Uldahl, Seth T Walk, Stephen C Olshefsky, Mark J Young, Xu Peng
AIMS: analysis of the stability and safety of Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 (SMV1) during passage through the mammalian GI tract. METHODS AND RESULTS: A major challenge of using nano-vectors to target gut microbiome is their survival during passage through the extremely acidic and proteolytic environment of the mammalian GI tract. Here we investigated the thermo-acidophilic archaeal virus SMV1 as a candidate therapeutic nano-vector for the distal mammalian GI tract microbiome...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Ezequias Castillo-Lopez, Chad J R Jenkins, Nirosh D Aluthge, Wesley Tom, Paul J Kononoff, Samodha C Fernando
AIMS: The effect of feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or reduced-fat DDGS (RFDG) on ruminal methanogenesis and the rumen bacterial community of dairy cattle was evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Treatments were CONT, a diet with no distillers grains; DG, inclusion of 20% DDGS; rfDG, inclusion of 20% RFDG; and MIX, inclusion of 10% DDGS and 10% RFDG. Methane emission was measured; rumen bacterial community was evaluated by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Wei Guo, Demao Li, Ronglin He, Minghuo Wu, Wuxi Chen, Feng Gao, Zhidan Zhang, Yonghong Yao, Liang Yu, Shulin Chen
AIMS: Methane and methanol are potential carbon sources of industrial microorganisms in addition to crop-derived bio-carbon sources. Methanotrophs that can utilize these simple, stable and large amounts chemicals are expected to be developed into "cell factories" for the production of specific chemicals. In this study,a methanotroph that can synthesize lycopene, C30 carotenoid and exopolysaccharides with relative better performances from C1 substrates was isolated, and its performances were evaluated...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Christina Injan Mawang, Yau Yan Lim, Kuan Shion Ong, Azira Muhamad, Sui Mae Lee
AIMS: The potential of Dicranopteris linearis leaves extract and its bioactive components were investigated for the first time for its disrupting ability against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. METHODS AND RESULTS: The leaves of D. linearis were subjected to sonication-assisted extraction using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. It was found that only the methanol fraction exhibited antimicrobial activity using broth microdilution assay; while all four fractions do not exhibit biofilm inhibition activity against S...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Veeranan Chaimanee, Ubonwan Thongtue, Nantaporn Sornmai, Sineenard Songsri, Jeffery S Pettis
AIMS: To explore alternative non-chemical control measures against two honeybee pathogens, Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis, thirty-seven plant species were screened for antimicrobial activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: The activity of selected plant extracts was screened using a in vitro disk diffusion assay and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth microdilution method. The results showed that thirty-six plant extracts had some antibacterial activity on P...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jae-Eun Park, Ha-Rim Kim, Soo-Young Park, Soo-Keun Choi, Seung-Hwan Park
AIMS: To analyse the function of a putative lantibiotic gene cluster of Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 and to characterize its product, paenilan. METHODS AND RESULTS: Comparative analysis of the lantibiotic gene cluster of E681 revealed that the cluster, consisting of 11 open reading frames, is involved in the biosynthesis of a class I lantibiotic. The pnlA gene encoding the prepeptide PnlA was identified and P. polymyxa strain EPT14 producing only paenilan was constructed by knockout of the other five antibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters of E681...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
P C Carmichael, N Siyoum, L Chidamba, L Korsten
AIMS: To determine fungal communities that characterise table grapes during berry development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two agro-ecologically different table grape commercial farms (site A and B) were used in this study. Samples were collected at full bloom, pea size and mature stages, from three positions (inside centre, eastern and western peripheral-ends) per site. Total DNA extraction, Illumina sequencing and analysis of 18 pooled samples for fungal diversity targeting ITS1-2 generated a total of 2035933 high quality sequences...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Simindokht Afra, Ali Makhdoumi, Maryam M Matin, Javad Feizy
AIMS: Bacterial pigments are promising compounds in the prevention and treatment of various cancers. In the current study, the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial effects of a red pigment obtained from a marine bacterial strain were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Optimisation of the pigment production by the marine strain was archived using the one-factor-at-a-time approach. Chemical identification of the pigment was achieved by UV-visible, FTIR and HPLC analyses...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Karin Lemmer, Sabine Howaldt, Renate Heinrich, Anja Roder, Georg Pauli, Brigitte G Dorner, Diana Pauly, Martin Mielke, Ingeborg Schwebke, Roland Grunow
AIMS: The work aimed at developing and evaluating practically relevant methods for testing of disinfectants on contaminated personal protective equipment (PPE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Carriers were prepared from PPE fabrics and contaminated with B. subtilis spores. Peracetic acid (PAA) was applied as suitable disinfectant. In method 1 the contaminated carrier was submerged in PAA solution, in method 2 the contaminated area was covered with PAA and in method 3 PAA, preferentially combined with a surfactant, was dispersed as a thin layer...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Laura Rehberg, André Frontzek, Åsa Melhus, Dirk P Bockmühl
AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of β-lactamase genes in domestic washing machines and dishwashers and the decontamination efficacy of laundering. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a first investigation, swab-samples from washing machines (n=29) and dishwashers (n=24) were analysed by real-time quantitative PCR to detect genes encoding β-lactamases. To test the impact of laundering on resistant bacteria, cotton test swatches were artificially contaminated with susceptible and resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus within a second investigation...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Shankar Shrestha, Eiji Haramoto, Junko Shindo
AIMS: To assess diarrheal risks from enteropathogenic E. coli, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium from consuming raw spinach, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. METHODS AND RESULTS: The annual infection risk was quantified using the probabilistic Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment approach, which considered 12 vegetable washing combinations. A new model was used to estimate dose of pathogens per exposure comprising parameters such as pathogen concentration in vegetable wash water before selling and eating, vegetable consumption rate, remaining pathogen ratio after washing, remaining water on vegetables after washing, and water treatment removal efficiency...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
S Monteiro, R Santos
AIM: To assess the potential of a viability dye and an enzymatic RT-qPCR pretreatment to discriminate between infectious and non-infectious enteric viruses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Enterovirus, Norovirus GII.4 and Hepatitis A virus were inactivated at 95 °C for 10 min and four methods were used to compare the efficiency of inactivation: (a) cell culture plaque assay for Hepatitis A virus and Enterovirus, (b) RT-qPCR alone, (c) RT-qPCR assay preceded by RNase treatment, and (d) pretreatment with a viability dye (Reagent D) followed by RT-qPCR...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Mingzhan Toh, Shao-Quan Liu
AIMS: To evaluate the impact of co-culturing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) HN019 with yeasts on microbial viability and metabolite production. METHODS AND RESULTS: Monocultures and bacteria-yeast co-cultures of B. lactis HN019 and ten different yeast strains belonging to different species in skim milk media were fermented at 37 °C. The presence of yeasts enhanced the growth rate and metabolic activities of B. lactis HN019, which might be attributed to their antioxidative properties...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Bo Yang, Hui Qi, Zhennan Gu, Zhang Hao, Wei Chen, Haiqin Chen, Yong Q Chen
AIM: To assess the mechanism for CLA production in Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058. METHODS AND RESULTS: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has attracted great interests for decades due to its health-associated benefits including anti-cancer, anti-atherogenic, anti-obesity, and modulation of the immune system. A number of microbial CLA producers were widely reported including lactic acid bacteria. Lb. plantarum ZS2058, an isolate from Chinese traditional fermented food, could convert LA to CLA with various intermediates...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Gabriella do Vale Pereira, Delcio G da Cunha, Jose Luiz Pedreira Mourino, Ana Rodiles, Alexander Jaramillo-Torres, Daniel L Merrifield
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the intestinal microbiota of pirarucu (A. gigas) in different growth stages (adult and fingerlings), and to isolate and identify potential probiotic bacteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: High-throughput sequencing (HTS) analysis of the intestinal contents revealed that the majority of sequences belonged to the Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria and Firmicutes phyla. At the genus level, the greatest number of sequences belonged to Bradyrhizobium in adult fish, while Cetobacterium was the most abundant in juvenile fish...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Cathy Nguyen, Randhir Makkar, Natasha J Sharp, Martin A Page, Ian J Molineux, David A Schofield
AIMS: We investigated the ability of a temperate B. anthracis reporter phage (Wβ::luxAB-2), which transduces bioluminescence to infected cells, to detect viable spores from deliberately contaminated environmental water samples. METHODS AND RESULTS: Environmental water was inoculated with spores and assayed with Wβ::luxAB-2. Bioluminescent signals directly correlated with input phage and spore concentrations. A limit of detection of 10(1) and 10(2) CFU mL(-1) within 8 hours was achieved from pond and lake water, respectively...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Ying Fan, Amber Ginn, M Kang, Kwang Cheol Jeong, Anita C Wright
AIM: The activity of chitosan microparticles (CM) was examined using a matrix of conditions in order to assess the efficacy of CM as a mitigation against various strains of Salmonella enterica in agricultural water. METHODS AND RESULTS: Different concentrations of CM (0, 0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3% w/v) were examined for antimicrobial activity against log vs. stationary phase cells of Salmonella and at different conditions of temperature, salinity, and pH. Results showed greatest activity with 0...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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