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Journal of Applied Microbiology

Kentaro Nobutani, Daisuke Sawada, Shigeru Fujiwara, Yuki Kuwano, Kensei Nishida, Jiro Nakayama, Hiromu Kutsumi, Takeshi Azuma, Kazuhito Rokutan
AIMS: To clarify the effects of Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 (CP2305) on quality of life and clinical symptoms and its functional mechanisms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS AND RESULTS: After the patients were administered CP2305 daily for 4 weeks, the IBS-severity index score was significantly improved compared with that of the placebo group, and this improvement was accompanied by a reduction of health-related worry and changes in intestinal microbiota...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Andrea Kunova, Cristina Pizzatti, Matteo Cerea, Andrea Gazzaniga, Paolo Cortesi
AIMS: This study aimed to develop a new formulation of Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirulent mycelium suitable for inoculations of tall trees from the ground. C. parasitica hypovirulent strains are widely used for biological control of chestnut blight. However, it is often inconsistent and ineffective not only for biological reasons, but also because the current manual application of hypovirulent strains on adult plants is difficult, time-consuming and expensive. Here, we propose an improved formulation and more effective mode of application of hypovirulent strains, which could boost chestnut blight biocontrol...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Fazlurrahman Khan, Sandra Folarin Oloketuyi
Neurodegenerative diseases are considered a serious life-threatening issue regardless of age. Resulting nerve damage progressively affects important activities, such as, movement, coordination, balance, breathing, speech, and the functioning of vital organs. Reports on the subject have concluded that neurodegenerative disease can be caused by mutations of susceptible genes, alcohol consumption, toxins, chemicals, and other unknown environmental factors. Although several diagnostic techniques can be used to determine etiologies, the process is difficult and often fails...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Kristin Mühldorfer, Gudrun Wibbelt, Claudia A Szentiks, Dominik Fischer, Holger C Scholz, Michael Zschöck, Tobias Eisenberg
AIMS: Novel cases of Brucella infections in frogs are discussed together with results of published reports to extend our current knowledge on 'atypical' brucellae isolated from amphibians and discuss challenges we face on this extraordinary emerging group of pathogens. METHODS AND RESULTS: Since our first description, additional 14 isolates from 4 different frog species were collected. Novel isolates and a subset of Brucella isolates previously cultured from African bullfrogs were characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and broth microdilution susceptibility testing...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Felipe de Camargo Ribeiro, Patricia Pimentel de Barros, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anti-Candida effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 9595 on C. albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. METHODS AND RESULTS: The in vitro analysis evaluated the effects of L. rhamnosus on C. albicans's biofilm formation by CFU count and metabolic activity, filamentation capacity, and adhesion (ALS3 and HWP1) and transcriptional regulatory gene (BCR1 and CPH1) expression. The in vitro results showed that both the L...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Young Soo Kim, Kotnala Balaraju, Yongho Jeon
AIMS: The effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AK-0 (AK-0) on ginseng root-rot disease caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans was investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 190 ginseng rhizoshpere bacteria, AK-0 was selected for further analysis; its morphological characteristics were investigated by microscopy. AK-0 was identified as B. amyloliquefaciens using the Biolog system, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and examination of morphological and biochemical characteristics...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Fei Da, Lin Yao, Zhijie Su, Zhen Hou, Zhi Li, Xiaoyan Xue, Jingru Meng, Xiaoxing Luo
AIM: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is commonly associated with non-nosocomial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) due to its virulence, which is mainly controlled by the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing (QS) system. In this study (KFF)3 K peptide-conjugated Locked Nucleic Acids (PLNAs) targeting agrA mRNA were developed to inhibit agr activity and arrest the pathogenicity of CA-MRSA. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two PLNAs were designed, and synthesized, after predicting the secondary structure of agrA mRNA...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Y Darbaky, B Evrard, S Patrier, J Falenta, S Garcin, A Tridon, M Dapoigny, C Silberberg, A Nivoliez, L Diop
AIMS: The study evaluated the efficacy of a repeated oral treatment with two Actives Pharmaceuticals Ingredients (API - Lcr LENIO(®) and Lcr RESTITUO(®) ) derivated from the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35(®) in two animal models mimicking different features of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). IBS is characterized by visceral pain associated with alteration of bowel transit. IBS patients present visceral hypersensitivity with peripheral and central origins. METHODS AND RESULTS: The injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) into the proximal colon as well as an acute partial restraint stress (PRS) produce colonic hypersensitivity measured in conscious rats by a decrease in pain threshold in response to distal colonic distension...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
L Wang, H Nakamura, E Kage-Nakadai, Y Hara-Kudo, Y Nishikawa
AIM: This study assessed whether multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing discriminated diarrhoeagenic atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) from aEPEC indigenous to domestic animals or healthy people. METHODS AND RESULTS: MLVA genotyping of 142 aEPEC strains isolated from foods and faecal samples of domestic animals and humans revealed 126 distinct MLVA profiles that distributed to four clusters, yielding a Simpson's index of diversity (D) of 99...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Yamilé López-Hernández, Omar Patiño-Rodríguez, Sandra Teresa Orta-García, Juan Manuel Pinos-Rodríguez
An adequate and effective tuberculosis diagnosis system has been identified by World Health Organization (WHO) as a priority in the fighting against this disease. Over the years, several methods have been developed to identify the bacillus, but bacterial culture remains one of the most affordable for most countries. For rapid, accurate identification, however, it is more feasible to implement molecular techniques, taking advantage of the availability of public databases containing protein sequences. Mass spectrometry has become an interesting technique for identification of tuberculosis...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Igor E Agranovski, Evgeny V Usachev, Elina Agranovski, Olga V Usacheva
AIMS: A portable bioaerosol monitor is highly demanded technology in many areas including air quality control, occupational exposure assessment and health risk evaluation, environmental studies and, especially, in defence and bio-terrorism applications. Our recent groundwork allowed us to formulate the concept of a portable bioaerosol monitor, which ought to be light, user friendly, reliable and capable of detecting airborne pathogens within 1 -1.5 hours at the spot. METHODS AND RESULTS: Conceptually, the event of bioaerosol concentration burst is determined by triggers, commencing representative air sampling with sequential real-time PCR confirmation of the targeted microorganism presence in the air...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jeonghee Yun, Kyung-Suk Cho
AIMS: Microbial community associated with hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation was characterized in acidogenic hydrogenesis using molasses wastewater as a feedstock. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hydrogen and VFAs production were measured under an organic loading rate (OLR) from 19 to 35 g-COD·L(-1) ·d(-1) . The active microbial community was analyzed using RNA-based massively parallel sequencing technique, and their correlation patterns were analyzed using networking analysis...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
JiaFeng Huang, CuiLing Wu, Dan Liu, XingHao Yang, RiBang Wu, Jiang Zhang, ChangBei Ma, HaiLun He
C-terminal domains widely exist in C-terminal region of multidomain proteases. As a β-sandwich domain in multidomain protease, C-terminal domain plays an important role in proteolysis including regulation of the secretory process, anchoring and swelling the substrate molecule, presenting as an inhibitor for the preprotease and adapting the protein structural flexibility and stability. In this review, the diversity, structural characteristics and biological function of C-terminal protease domains are described...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Varinder Singh, Baldev Singh, Ashutosh Sharma, Kulwinder Kaur, Ajai Prakash Gupta, Raj Kumar Salar, Vipin Hallan, Pratap Kumar Pati
AIMS: The present work investigates the implication of leaf spot disease on the antioxidant potentials and commercial value of pharmaceutically important constituents of Withania somnifera, a high valued medicinal plant. METHODS AND RESULTS: Leaf spot disease was induced in W. somnifera by inoculating Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keiss. pathogen. Total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant potential showed a significant decrease during leaf spot disease. Evaluation of pharmaceutically active constituents withaferin A, withanone and withanolide A utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed a significant decrease in diseased samples as compared to healthy ones...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
A Klančnik, M Šikić Pogačar, K Trošt, M Tušek Žnidarič, B Mozetič Vodopivec, S Smole Možina
AIMS: To define anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of an extract from waste skins and seeds of Pinot noir grapes (GSS) and of resveratrol, and possible resistance mechanisms, and the influence of these on C. jejuni morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using gene-specific knock-out C. jejuni mutants and an efflux-pump inhibitor, we show CmeABC as the most active efflux pump for extrusion across the outer membrane of GSS extract and resveratrol. Using polystyrene and pig small-intestine epithelial (PSI) and human foetal small intestine (H4) cell lines, GSS extract shows efficient inhibition of adhesion of C...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Gilles Salvat, Marie Guyot, Juliette Protino
AIM: "Label Rouge" broiler free-range carcasses have been monitored since 1991, and broiler flocks since 2010, for contamination by the main foodborne zoonotic bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Initially the monitoring plan mainly focused on the surveillance of Salmonella, and on indicators of the overall microbiological quality of free-range broiler carcasses such as S. aureus and coliforms, but was extended in 2007 to include Campylobacter enumeration on carcasses and in 2010 to Salmonella in the environment of live birds...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Christina V Sathyanathan, B Jyothirmayi, Lakshmi R Sundaram, P A Abhinand, R Eswaramoorthy, K Mary Elizabeth Gnanambal
AIMS: This investigation is designed to evaluate the antibacterial efficiency of the noodle grass, Syringodium isoetifolium, which is commonly occurring in the Indian coastal waters. Also this study characterizes the active compound and predicts the mode of action, in silico. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human pathogenic bacteria were treated with crude metabolites of S. isoetifolium. The potent fraction, b was analyzed by UV/VIS, RP-HPLC, FT-IR, ESI-Mass, (1) H and (13) C NMRs and determined to be a hydrate of Pheophytin a [C55 H74 N4 O6 ]...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Pitiporn Asvapathanagul, Betty H Olson
AIMS: to develop qPCR broad spectrum primers combined with a Nocardia genus specific probe for the identification of a broad spectrum of Nocardia spp. to analyze the effects of using this developed primer and probe set on the ability to quantify Nocardia spp. in mixed DNA. METHODS AND RESULTS: The consequences of using a degenerative primer set and species specific probe for the genus Nocardia on qPCR assays were examined using DNA extracts of pure cultures and activated sludge...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Qiao Li, George Korza, Peter Setlow
AIMS: Determine responses of spores of Bacillus subtilis and the Bacillus anthracis surrogate Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam to I2 -treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Spores of B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis killed by aqueous 30°C I2 could germinate, and their inner membrane (IM) was intact. Spore coats were important in I2 resistance, DNA protective proteins were not important, and survivors of I2 -treatment were not mutagenised. Viabilities of I2 -treated, 90-98%-killed spores were much lower on high-salinity media, and treated spores were more heat-sensitive than untreated spores...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Marianel L Falvo, Ronaldo A Pereira-Junior, Juscelino Rodrigues, Claudia C López Lastra, Juan J García, Éverton K K Fernandes, Christian Luz
AIMS: Control of diurnal Aedes aegypti with mycoinsecticides should consider the exposure of fungus-treated adults to sunlight, and especially to UV-B radiation that might affect activity of conidia applied on the mosquito's surface. METHODS AND RESULTS: Germination of M. anisopliae s.l. IP 46 conidia on SDAY medium was not affected at the lowest level of radiation with UV-B, 0.69 kJ m(-2) , but was retarded and reduced at higher 2.075 and 4.15 kJ m(-2) , and completely inhibited at ≥ 8...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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