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Journal of Applied Microbiology

Enrique Rivadulla, Miguel F Varela, Jesús L Romalde
AIM: The aim of this study was the detection and quantification of Aichi virus (AiV) in shellfish from three estuaries in Galicia, the main producer of molluscs in Europe. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 249 shellfish samples were analyzed using a reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) procedure. AiV was detected in 15 out of 249 (6.02%) samples. Ría de Ares-Betanzos showed the highest prevalence (11.1%), followed by Ría do Burgo (3.7%) and Ría de Vigo, (2...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Wolfgang Baeumer, Petra Bizikova, Megan Jacob, Keith E Linder
AIMS: Pyoderma, predominantly associated with Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, is a common skin infection of dogs that typically requires long lasting treatments, complicated by increasing antimicrobial resistance. To investigate new treatment strategies, we aimed at establishing a dog model of pyoderma that closely mimics the natural disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We inoculated six laboratory beagles with a methicillin-susceptible strain of S. pseudintermedius. One mL of e10(7) , 10(8) , 10(9) CFU ml(-1) was topically applied onto clipped and tape stripped area of dog skin, which was then treated with a dermaroller (microneedle size: 500 μm) immediately after administration...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Kate Hole, Faraz Ahmadpour, Jay Krishnan, Carol Stansfield, John Copps, Charles Nfon
AIMS: In a laboratory disinfectants used to inactivate pathogens on contaminated surfaces and prevent spread of diseases often have adverse side effects on personnel and the environment. It is therefore essential to find safer, fast-acting and yet effective disinfectants. The objective of this study was to evaluate an accelerated hydrogen peroxide(®) (AHP(®) ) - based disinfectant against high consequence foreign animal disease pathogens such as foot-and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), as well as Senencavirus A (SVA), which causes similar lesions as FMDV and SVDV...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Teresa Berninger, Birgit Mitter, Claudia Preininger
AIM: Producing dry, zeolite-based granular and powder inoculants of the Gram negative, plant growth-promoting bacterium Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN. Key aspects were maintenance of cell viability during desiccation and throughout storage at ambient conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: 20 additives and exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by PsJN were screened for conserving cell viability of PsJN in air drying and lyophilization. Suitable combinations (e.g. skimmed milk + air drying) increased survival of PsJN up to 100,000-fold and maintained it for > seven months...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Sowmya P Mohandas, Linu Balan, N Lekshmi, Sherine Sonia Cubelio, Rosamma Philip, I S Bright Singh
AIM: Production and characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from moderately halophilic bacterium Vibrio harveyi MCCB 284 isolated from tunicate Phallusia nigra. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty five bacterial isolates were obtained from tunicate samples and three among them exhibited an orange fluorescence in Nile red staining indicating the presence of PHB. One of the isolates, MCCB 284, which showed rapid growth and good polymer yield, was identified as V. harveyi...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Frank Günther, Martin Scherrer, Stefan J Kaiser, Annalisa DeRosa, Nico T Mutters
AIMS: The aim of our study was to develop a new reproducible method for disinfectant efficacy testing on bacterial biofilms and to evaluate the efficacy of different disinfectants against biofilms. Clinical multidrug-resistant strains were chosen as test isolates to ensure practical relevance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared the standard qualitative suspension assay for disinfectant testing, which does not take into account biofilm formation, to the new biofilm viability assay that uses kinetic analysis of metabolic activity in biofilms after disinfectant exposure to evaluate disinfectant efficacy...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
M Ricchi, A Mazzarelli, A Piscini, A Di Caro, A Cannas, S Leo, S Russo, N Arrigoni
AIMS: The aim of the study was to explore the suitability of MALDI-TOF MS for a rapid and correct identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) field isolates. METHODS AND RESULTS: MALDI-TOF MS approach is becoming one of the most popular tests for the identification of intact bacterial cells which has been shown to be fast and reliable. For this purpose, 36 MAP field isolates were analysed through MALDI-TOF MS and the spectra compared with two different databases: one provided by the vendor of the system employed (Biotyper Version 3...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Xiang-Long Meng, Xue-Wen Xie, Yan-Xia Shi, A-Li Chai, Zhan-Hong Ma, Bao-Ju Li
AIMS: Cucumber angular leaf spot caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans (Psl) is an important and destructive disease worldwide, and no effective technique has been developed for the control of the pathogen. Detection of infection or latent in cucumber plants is critical to evaluate disease progress and strengthening management to avoid a serious epidemic in the fields. In this paper, we developed a rapid and sensitive method for detection of Psl using a isothermal method known as loop-mediated amplification (LAMP)...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Paul Loján, Marion Demortier, Siva L S Velivelli, Stefan Pfeiffer, Juan Pablo Suárez, Paul de Vos, Barbara Doyle Prestwich, Angela Sessitsch, Stéphane Declerck
AIMS: This study aimed at evaluating the impact of seven plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on root colonization and life cycle of Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 when co-entrapped in alginate beads. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two in vitro experiments were conducted. The first consisted in the immobilization of R. irregularis and seven PGPR isolates into alginate beads to assess the effect of the bacteria on the pre-symbiotic growth of the fungus. In the second experiment, the best-performing PGPR from experiment 1 was tested on its ability to promote the symbiotic development of the AMF in potato plantlets from three cultivars...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Gemma Jiménez-Guerra, Víctor Heras-Cañas, María Dolores Valera-Arcas, Javier Rodríguez-Grangér, José María Navarro, José Gutiérrez-Fernández
AIMS: To determine the usefulness of the fluorescence parameters generated by Sysmex UF-1000i flow cytometer for the rapid diagnosis of urinary tract infection by bacilli or cocci. METHODS AND RESULTS: Urine samples (n=1924) were studied by culture and microbiology and subsequently by cytometry, using BACT Morph software and considering forward scattered light- (FSC) and fluorescent light scatter (FLH) fluorescence parameters. BACT-Morph software showed moderate diagnostic accuracy (78...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Meiling Yu, Ruiming Qi, Chaoyang Chen, Jiyuan Yin, Sunting Ma, Wen Shi, Yang Wu, Junwei Ge, Yanping Jiang, Lijie Tang, Yigang Xu, Yijing Li
AIMS: The aims of this study were to develop an effective oral vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection and to design new and more versatile mucosal adjuvants. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genetically engineered Lactobacillus casei strains expressing F4 (K88) fimbrial adhesin FaeG (rLpPG-2-FaeG) and either co-expressing heat-labile enterotoxin A (LTA) subunit with an amino acid mutation associated with reduced virulence (LTAK63) and a heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) subunit of E...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Bhrugu Yagnik, Drashya Sharma, Harish Padh, Priti Desai
AIMS: To evaluate the comparative immunogenic potential of food grade Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) expressing Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Shigella dysenteriae type-1 (SD-1) when administered either orally or intranasally. METHODS AND RESULTS: OmpA of SD-1 was cloned and expressed first in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and then in L. lactis. Presence of recombinant gene was confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and Immunoblot analysis. Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), OmpA was purified from recombinant E...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
L P Prendes, V G L Zachetti, A Pereyra, V I Morata de Ambrosini, M L Ramirez
AIMS: To study the effects of water activity (aW ; 0.99, 0.98, 0.97, 0.96, 0.95), temperature (15, 25 and 30 °C), incubation time (7- 28 days), and their interactions on mycelial growth and AOH, AME and TA mycotoxin production on a synthetic nutrient (SN) media similar to grape composition by three strains of A. alternata isolated from wine grapes from Argentina. METHODS AND RESULTS: Interacting conditions of aW , temperature and time of incubation were used to examine growth and mycotoxin production...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Yong Luo, Stephanie Gu, Dan Felts, Ryan D Puckett, Dave P Morgan, Themis J Michailides
AIMS: To develop real-time PCR assays for quantification of shoot infection levels of canker disease of stone fruits and nut crops caused by six fungal pathogen groups. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study focused on six major canker-causing fungal pathogen groups: Phomopsis spp., Botryosphaeria dothidea, Lasiodiplodia spp., Cytospora spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Diplodia spp., occurring in stone fruits and nut crops in California. DNA primers were designed to specifically target each of the six pathogen groups after the specificity tests using canker-causing and non-canker-causing pathogens and by using DNA sequences of other species from GenBank using BLAST...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Elísia G Lopes, Diana A Moreira, Patricia Gullón, Beatriz Gullón, Alejandra Cardelle-Cobas, Freni K Tavaria
AIMS: When skin dysbiosis occurs as a result of skin disorders, probiotics can act as modulators, restoring microbial balance. Several properties of selected probiotics were evaluated so that their topical application could be considered. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adhesion, antimicrobial, quorum sensing and antibiofilm assays were carried out with several probiotic strains and tested against selected skin pathogens. All tested strains displayed significant adhesion to keratin...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Zaixiang Lou, Hongxin Wang, Yuxia Tang
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a fraction of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) leaf on the initial adhesion, biofilm formation, quorum sensing and virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anti-biofilm activity of the burdock leaf fraction was studied by the method of crystal violet staining. When the concentration of the burdock leaf fraction was 2.0 mg mL(-1) , the inhibition rates on biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa were 100%. The burdock leaf fraction was found to inhibit the formation of biofilm by reducing bacterial surface hydrophobicity, decreasing bacterial aggregation ability and inhibiting swarming motility Interestingly, the burdock leaf fraction inhibited the secretion of quorum sensing (QS) signaling molecule 3-oxo-C12-HSL and interfered quorum sensing...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Soumi Joseph, L M Schmidt, W B Danquah, P Timper, T Mekete
AIMS: To generate single spore lines of a population of bacterial parasite of root-knot nematode (RKN), Pasteuria penetrans, isolated from Florida and examine genotypic variation and virulence characteristics exist within the population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six single spore lines (SSP), 16SSP, 17SSP, 18SSP, 25SSP, 26SSP, and 30SSP were generated. Genetic variability was evaluated by comparing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP's) in six protein-coding genes and the 16S rRNA gene...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Gaurav S Ghugare, Aparna Nair, Vijay Nimkande, Priyanka Sarode, Prachi Rangari, Krishna Khairnar
AIM: To develop a method for isolation and enrichment of bacteriophages selectively against specific bacteria coupled with membrane filtration technique. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rapid isolation and concentration of host specific bacteriophages was achieved by exposure of the sample suspected to contain bacteriophages to specific host immobilized on a 0.45μm membrane in a membrane filtration unit. The principle behind this method is exploitation of host specific interaction of bacteriophages with their host and maximizing this interaction using classic membrane filtration method...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Philip P Lyons, James F Turnbull, Karl A Dawson, Mags Crumlish
AIMS: This study focused on comparing the phylogenetic composition and functional potential of the intestinal microbiome of rainbow trout sourced from both farm and aquarium settings. METHODS AND RESULTS: Samples of distal intestinal contents were collected from fish and subjected to high throughput 16S rRNA sequencing, to accurately determine the composition of the intestinal microbiome. The predominant phyla identified from both groups were Tenericutes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetae and Bacteroidetes...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Flávia Rogério, Maisa Ciampi-Guillardi, Marina Coan Goldoni Barbieri, Carlos Augusto Dórea Bragança, Claudine Dinali Santos Seixas, Álvaro Manuel Rodrigues Almeida, Nelson Sidnei Massola
AIMS: Fungal diseases are among the main factors limiting high yields of soybean crop. Colletotrichum isolates from soybean plants with anthracnose symptoms were studied from different regions and time periods in Brazil using molecular, morphological and pathogenic analyses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bayesian phylogenetic inference of GAPDH, HIS3 and ITS-5.8S rDNA sequences, the morphologies of colony and conidia and inoculation tests on seeds and seedlings were performed...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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