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Journal of Applied Microbiology

Andreza de Mello Lopes, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira Filho, Leonora Rios de Souza Moreira
Alternative energy sources have received increasing attention in recent years. The possibility of adding value to agricultural wastes, by producing biofuels and other products with economic value from lignocellulosic biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis, has been widely explored. Lignocellulosic biomass, as well as being an abundant residue, is a complex recalcitrant structure that requires a consortium of enzymes for its complete degradation. Pools of enzymes with different specificities acting together usually produce an increase in hydrolysis yield...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Arthy Surendran, Yasmeen Siddiqui, Halimi Mohd Saud, Nusaibah Syd Ali, Sivakumar Manickam
AIM: Lignolytic (Lignin degrading) enzyme, from oil palm pathogen Ganoderma boninense Pat. (Syn G. orbiforme (Ryvarden), is involved in the detoxification and the degradation of lignin in the oil palm and is the rate-limiting step in the infection process of this fungus. Active inhibition of lignin degrading enzymes secreted by G. boninense by various naturally occurring phenolic compounds and estimation of efficiency on pathogen suppression was aimed at. METHODS AND RESULTS: In our work, ten naturally occurring phenolic compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory potential towards the lignolytic enzymes of G...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
W J Leigh, R N Zadoks, A Jaglarz, J Z Costa, G Foster, K D Thompson
AIMS: The aim of this study was to design a set of primers for specific detection and identification of Streptococcus agalactiae in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that can detect a diverse range of S. agalactiae isolates from different hosts and that it is capable of discriminating between S. agalactiae and other species that are closely related or potentially present in aquaculture environments, notably Streptococcus iniae. METHODS AND RESULTS: Primers, based on the groEL2 gene of S...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Sebastian Gnat, Dominik Łagowski, Aneta Nowakiewicz, Przemysław Zięba
AIMS: The pathogenesis of dermatophytoses is associated with the secretion of enzymes degrading the infected tissue components. Although many studies on enzymatic activity of dermatophytes have been conducted over the years, there have been no concrete proposals on construction of the profile of enzymes characteristic of individual species, genus, or ecological types of dermatophytes. The aim of this study was to assess the capability of clinical dermatophyte isolates from both symptomatic and asymptomatic animals and humans to produce different enzymes...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
E Castagnoli, T Marik, R Mikkola, L Kredics, M A Andersson, H Salonen, J Kurnitski
AIMS: The production of peptaibols, toxic secondary metabolites of Trichoderma, in the indoor environment is not well-documented. Here we investigated the toxicity of peptaibols in the guttation droplets and biomass of Trichoderma strains isolated from problematic buildings. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven indoor-isolated strains of T. atroviride, T. trixiae, T. paraviridescens and T. citrinoviride were cultivated on malt extract agar, gypsum boards and paperboards. Their biomass extracts and guttation droplets were highly cytotoxic in resting and motile boar sperm cell assays and in inhibition of somatic cell proliferation assays...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Khalid Shahin, Kim D Thompson, Neil F Inglis, Kevin Mclean, Jose Gustavo Ramirez-Paredes, Sean J Monaghan, Rowena Hoare, Michael Fontaine, Matthijs Metselaar, Alexandra Adams
AIMS: The aims of the current study were to characterise the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) STIR-GUS-F2f7, and identify proteins recognised by sera from tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (L) that survived experimental challenge with Fno. METHODS AND RESULTS: The composition of the OMPs of a virulent strain of Fno (STIR-GUS- F2f7), isolated from diseased red Nile tilapia in UK, was examined. The sarcosine-insoluble OMP fraction was screened with tilapia hyper-immune sera by western blot analysis following separation of the proteins by 1D SDS-PAGE...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Dongwei Hou, Zhijian Huang, Shenzheng Zeng, Jian Liu, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He
AIMS: To reveal the relationship of the bacterial communities in shrimp intestine and surrounding environments. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined bacterial communities in intestine of pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, the surrounding water and sediment by high-throughput sequencing analysis. Sequences were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity levels, which ranged from 4,956 to 5,976 in each sample. All OTUs were affiliated with at least 64 phyla...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Marion Allaoua, Pierre Etienne, Virginie Noirot, Jean-Luc Carayon, Nathan Téné, Elsa Bonnafé, Michel Treilhou
AIM: In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to test a new carvacrol-based product designed to delay the carvacrol release so that it could reach the caeca of broiler chickens in order to control Campylobacter jejuni. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol, a constituent of oregano and thyme essential oil, has been demonstrated against C. jejuni in vitro, and this compound was found beneficial for broiler growth. Here, we tested a new liquid formulation that did not change the antibacterial efficacy of carvacrol against C...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
N Gurdo, G F Novelli Poisson, Á B Juárez, M C Ríos de Molina, M A Galvagno
AIMS: To investigate multiple tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained through a laboratory strategy of adaptive evolution in acetic acid, its relation with enzymatic ROS detoxification and bioethanol 2G production. METHODS AND RESULTS: After adaptive evolution in acetic acid, a clone (Y8A) was selected for its tolerance to high acetic acid concentrations (13 g l-1 ) in batch cultures. Y8A was resistant to multiple stresses: osmotic, thermic, oxidative, saline, ethanol, organic acid, phenolic compounds and slow freeze-thawing cycles...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Silmara Cristina Lazarini, Caroline Yamada, Hernane da Silva Barud, Eliane Trovatti, Pedro Paulo Corbi, Wilton Rogério Lustri
AIMS: Obtain varieties of Gluconacetobacter hansenii from original strain ATCC 23729 with greater efficiency to produce bacterial cellulose (BC) membrane with better dry mass yield for application as support of sustained antimicrobials drug release. METHODS AND RESULTS: Application of different chemical and physical conditions (pH, temperature and UV light exposure) to obtain different G. hansenii varieties with high capacity to produce BC membranes. Characterization of the G...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Zhenshang Xu, Susu Zhang, Rongling Zhang, Shixu Li, Jian Kong
AIMS: Monitoring the succession of bacterial populations during corn stover ensiling are helpful for improving the silage quality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fermentation characteristics were assessed and bacterial communities were described along with the ensiling process. The ensiled corn stover exhibited chemical traits as low pH value (3.92 ± 0.02) and high levels of lactic acid (66.75 ± 1.97 g kg-1 dry matter) which were associated with well ensiled forages, as well as moderate concentrations of acetic acid (19...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Giancarlo Ranalli, Elisabetta Zanardini, Alessia Andreotti, Maria Perla Colombini, Cristina Corti, Pilar Bosch-Roig, Paola De Nuntiis, Giuseppe Lustrato, Paolo Mandrioli, Laura Rampazzi, Carlo Giantomassi, Donatella Zari
AIMS: In this work, the "hi-tech" complex biocleaning and restoration of the 14th-century fresco Triumph of Death (5.6x15.0 m) at the Camposanto Monumental Cemetery (Pisa, Italy) is reported. Since 2000, the restoration based on the biological cleaning of noble medieval frescoes, has been successfully utilized in this site. METHODS AND RESULTS: The novelty of this study is the 2-steps biocleaning process using Pseudomonas stutzeri A29 viable cells, previously applied for recovering other valuable frescoes...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Yuanhong Xie, Min Zhang, Xiuzhi Gao, Yi Shao, Hui Liu, Junhua Jin, Wenge Yang, Hongxing Zhang
AIMS: The aim of this study was to develop a plantaricin BM-1, a typical IIa bacteriocin produced by Lactocacillus plantarum BM-1, for active polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) films and to determine the antimicrobial effect of plantaricin BM-1 incorporated into a PVDC film on fresh pork during 7 days of storage at 4°C. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plantaricin BM-1 solutions (20,480 AU/mL) that absorbed into the PVDC film increased gradually and reached maximum volumes during exposure for up to 20 h...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Katy-Anne Thompson, Susan Paton, Thomas Pottage, Allan Bennett
AIMS: Four commercially available robotic vacuum cleaners were assessed for sampling efficiency of wet disseminated Bacillus atrophaeus spores on carpet, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and laminate flooring. Furthermore, their operability was evaluated and decontamination efficiency of one robot was assessed using a sodium hypochlorite solution. METHODS AND RESULTS: In an environmental chamber, robots self-navigated around 4 m2 of flooring containing a single contaminated 0...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jessyka A da Cunha, Berta M Heinzmann, Bernardo Baldisserotto
The increased resistance of fish pathogens to conventional treatments has lead researchers to investigate the antibacterial properties of natural resources, such as essential oils (EOs) of plants, in an effort to find products that are less harmful to the environment. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the studies, in vivo and in vitro, that addressed the use of EOs and their major compounds as antimicrobial agents in fish, to identify the best EOs and compounds to investigate considering feasibility of application and suggest possible future studies...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Luke P Randall, Robert A Horton, Fabrizio Lemma, Francesca Martelli, Nick A D Duggett, Richard P Smith, Miranda J Kirchner, Richard J Ellis, Jon P Rogers, Susanna M Williamson, Robin R L Simons, Camilla M Brena, Sarah J Evans, Muna F Anjum, Christopher J Teale
AIMS: In 2015, colistin-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella with the mcr-1 gene were isolated from a pig farm in Great Britain. Pigs were subsequently monitored over a ~ 20 month period for the occurrence of mcr-1 mediated colistin resistance and the risk of mcr-1 E. coli entering the food chain was assessed. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pig faeces and slurry were cultured for colistin resistant E. coli and Salmonella, tested for the mcr-1 gene by PCR, and selected isolates were further analysed...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Ashley A Danley-Thomson, Ellen C Huang, Thomas Worley-Morse, Claudia K Gunsch
AIMS: In biosand filters (BSF), treatment is largely driven by the development of a biolayer (schmutzdecke) which establishes itself during the startup phase. In the present study, the effect of changing influent total organic carbon (TOC) loading on the removal efficiency of Vibrio cholerae in laboratory-operated BSFs was quantified. METHODS AND RESULTS: BSFs were charged with high, medium or low TOC influents and removal efficacy and schmutzdecke composition was monitored over two months...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
G Bandeira Junior, F J Sutili, L T Gressler, V L Ely, B P Silveira, C Tasca, M Reghelin, L B Matter, A P C Vargas, B Baldisserotto
AIMS: This study investigated the antibacterial activity of five phytochemicals (carvacrol, citral, eugenol, linalool, and thymol) alone or in combination with florfenicol or oxytetracycline against bacteria isolated from silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). We also analyzed the potential of these compounds to inhibit biofilm formation and hemolysis caused by the bacteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacteria were tested with antimicrobials to calculate the multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Mohsen Zareian, Patrick Silcock, Phil Bremer
AIMS: To monitor temporal changes in the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profile generated by the metabolic activities of Pseudomonads in real-time. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three Pseudomonas strains were cultivated in Vogel's broth, supplemented with glucose (0.5 or 1%) and/or protein (egg white powder at 0 or 2%) at 25 °C. Glucose or egg white protein contents influenced the VOCs release profile for alcohols, carbonyls and sulphur derivatives. Increasing glucose content resulted in higher alcohols and ketones contents...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Charles W Bacon, Dorothy M Hinton, Trevor R Mitchell
AIMS: Biofilms are composed of microorganisms within a matrix of chemically complex polymer compounds and from these structures many unknown competitive factors are suggested that many considered are important consequence for biological control. This research was undertaken to study further the endophyte, Bacillus mojavensis and its relationships to biofilm and two classes of lipopeptides considered relevant for biocontrol of plant pathogens. METHODS AND RESULTS: Laser-ablation-electrospray-ionization-mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS), and conventional MS/MS were used to study in situ biofilm production and the production of lipopeptides fengycin and surfactin in different strains of B...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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