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Journal of Applied Microbiology

Nazri Nayan, Anton S M Sonnenberg, Wouter H Hendriks, John W Cone
AIM: The present study evaluated differences between two strains of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora on improving the nutritive value and in vitro degradability of wheat straw. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wheat straw was treated with the fungi for 7 weeks. Weekly samples were analyzed for ergosterol content, in vitro gas production (IVGP), chemical composition and lignin degrading enzyme activity. Ergosterol data showed CS1 to have a faster initial growth than CS2 and reaching a stationary phase after 3 weeks...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Balakrishnan Raja, Heather J Goux, Archana Marapadaga, Sri Rajagopalan, Katerina Kourentzi, Richard C Willson
AIMS: To develop and evaluate the performance of a panel of isothermal real-time recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays for detection of common bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogens. METHODS AND RESULTS: The panel included RPAs for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis. All five RPAs required reaction times of under 12 minutes to reach their lower limit of detection of 100 genomes per reaction or less, and did not cross-react with high concentrations of non-target bacterial genomic DNA...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Sara Gasparrini, Giovanni Loris Alborali, Alessandra Pitozzi, Flavia Guarneri, Enrico Giacomini, Valentina Baldo, Federico Scali, Massimiliano Lazzaro, Boniotti Maria Beatrice
AIMS: To evaluate and compare the capabilities of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) techniques to characterize Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates and to investigate the relationship between pleuromutilin resistance and genetic variability. METHODS AND RESULTS: MLST genotyping was performed on 180 B. hyodysenteriae isolates, and the results were evaluated considering profiles from 108 other strains previously reported in the database...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Cleverson D Souza, John P Bannantine, Wendy C Brown, M Grant Norton, William C Davis, Julianne K Hwang, Parissa Ziaei, Gaber S Abdellrazeq, Meaghan V Eren, James R Deringer, Elizabeth Laws, Maria Clara D Cardieri
AIMS: We evaluated the potential of a nanoparticle (NP) delivery system to improve methods of delivery of candidate peptide based vaccines for Paratuberculosis in cattle. METHODS AND RESULTS: Peptides derived from Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map), and the proinflammatory monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) were incorporated in polymeric NPs based on poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). The PLGA/MPLA NPs carriers were incubated with macrophages to examine their effects on survival and function...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Audrey Jeanvoine, Steffi Rocchi, Gabriel Reboux, Nadia Crini, Grégorio Crini, Laurence Millon
AIMS: Emergence of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus complicates management of Aspergillus diseases.Currently, selection pressure caused by azole fungicide use in farming is strongly suspected of creating resistance. As sawmills also use azole fungicides, we investigated the presence of azole-resistant strains in this environment and studied the relationship between azole fungicide use and development of resistance. METHODS: Air (n = 200) and substrate (n = 600) samples were taken in 20 sawmills...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
MengMeng Kong, Bo Yang, ChunJie Gong, Hui Wang, Xin Li, Kesheng Zhao, Jiaji Li, Feng Wu, Xiao Liu, Zheng Hu
AIMS: A simple and fast test strip for simultaneous detection of Haemophilus influenzae, based on the theory of colloidal gold immunochromatography was developed. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, monodispersional colloidal gold and gold-labeled polyclonal antibody (AbP6Line) specific to the linear antigenic determinant OMP6 of H. influenzae were prepared, and identified by UV-Visible spectroscopy (200-700nm) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The test strip was assembled on a plastic backing containing a sample pad, a conjugate pad, an absorbent pad and a nitrocellulose membrane (NC), on which test and control lines were sticked...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
A Borges, J C Lopez-Romero, D Oliveira, E Giaouris, M Simões
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiofilm potential of five essential oils (EOs) components with cyclic (sabinene-SAB, carveol-C1, carvone-C2) and acyclic (citronellol-C3 and citronellal-C4) structures against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. METHODS AND RESULTS: The selected EOs components prevented biofilm set-up, with C3 and C4 causing remarkable effects. When applied against pre-established biofilms, they promoted high biomass removal and inactivation of biofilm cells...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Niloufar Roshan, Thomas V Riley, Katherine A Hammer
AIMS: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of various natural products against C. difficile in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: The antibacterial activity of 20 natural products was determined by the agar well diffusion and broth microdilution assays against four C. difficile strains, three comparator organisms and four gastrointestinal commensal organisms. Of the raw natural products, garlic juice had the highest activity. The most active processed products were peppermint oil and the four pure compounds trans-cinnamaldehyde, allicin, menthol and zingerone...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Mukil Maruthamuthu, Diego Javier Jiménez, Jan Dirk van Elsas
AIMS: The aim of the study was to characterize ten hemicellulolytic enzymes obtained from a wheat straw-degrading microbial consortium. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on previous metagenomics analyses, ten glycosyl hydrolases were selected, codon-optimized, synthetized, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Nine of the overexpressed recombinant proteins accumulated in cellular inclusion bodies, whereas one, a 37.5 kDa protein encoded by gene xylM1989, was found in the soluble fractions...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Kate Riley, John Williams, Lucy Owen, Jinsong Shen, Angela Davies, Katie Laird
AIMS: To determine the survival of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus on cotton and polyester and the effectiveness of low temperature laundering and detergents on the removal of microorganism from healthcare laundry. METHODS AND RESULTS: Survival of E. coli and S. aureus on polyester or cotton was assessed over 3 weeks and the efficacy of a domestic wash (40°C and 60°C) and a range of detergents was also determined. Both bacteria were able to survive on cotton (5 log(10) ) and polyester (0...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Frank J J Segers, Karel A van Laarhoven, Han A B Wösten, Jan Dijksterhuis
AIMS: To have a better understanding of fungal growth on gypsum building materials to prevent indoor fungal growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gypsum is acquired by mining or as a by-product of flue-gas desulfurization or treatment of phosphate ore for the production of fertilizer. Natural gypsum, flue-gas gypsum, and phosphogypsum therefore have different mineral compositions. Here, growth of fungi on these types of gypsum was assessed. Conidia of the indoor fungi Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium halotolerans, and Penicillium rubens were inoculated and observed using microscopic techniques including low temperature scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Faegheh Rezaie, Fatemeh Davami, Kamran Mansouri, Sulmaz Agha Amiri, Ramin Fazel, Reza Mahdian, Noushin Davoudi, Somayeh Enayati, Mohammad Azizi, Vahid Khalaj
AIMS: The E. coli expression system is highly effective in producing recombinant proteins. However, there are some limitations in this system, especially in obtaining correctly folded forms of some complex proteins such as Fab fragments. To improve the solubility and folding quality of Fab fragments, we have examined the effect of simultaneous application of a SUMO fusion tag, EnBase(®) cultivation mode and a redox mutant strain in the E. coli expression system. METHODS AND RESULTS: A bicistronic gene construct was designed to express an anti-VEGF Fab fragment as a model system...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Aksorntong Chooruk, Supatcharin Piwat, Rawee Teanpaisan
AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of oral Lactobacillus strains in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 201 Lactobacillus strains were investigated for antioxidant activities: free radical scavenging (DPPH), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (TAALA ), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH). Resistance to reactive oxygen species was also assessed. Results showed that there was a wide range of individual antioxidant properties of DPPH, TAALA , SOD and GSH between/within the species of Lactobacillus strains...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Chong-Miao Zhang, Li-Mei Xu, Xiaochang C Wang, Kai Zhuang, Qiang-Qiang Liu
AIMS: To evaluate the effect of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection on antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). METHODS AND RESULTS: Antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains were isolated from a wastewater treatment plant and subjected to UV disinfection. The effect of UV disinfection on the antibiotic resistance profiles and the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of antibiotic-resistant E. coli was evaluated by a combination of antibiotic susceptibility analysis and molecular methods...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Anastasia S Pavlova, Maria R Leontieva, Tatiana A Smirnova, Galina L Kolomeitseva, Alexander I Netrusov, Elena A Tsavkelova
AIMS: Orchids form strong mycorrhizal associations, but their interactions with bacteria are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the distribution of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria at different stages of orchid development and to study if there is any selective specificity in choosing PGPR partners. METHODS AND RESULTS: Colonization patterns of gfp-tagged Pseudomonas fluorescens and Klebsiella oxytoca were studied on roots, seeds, and seedlings of Dendrobium nobile...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Sahar Malekmohammadi, Kouevi K Kodjovi, Julie Sherwood, Teresa M Bergholz
AIMS: Listeria monocytogenes nisin resistance increases when first exposed to NaCl and other stresses, such as low pH. In addition to environmental stressors, specific genomic elements can confer nisin resistance, such as the stress survival islet (SSI-1). As SSI-1 is variably present among L. monocytogenes strains, we wanted to determine if SSI-1 was associated with salt-induced nisin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: The presence of SSI-1 was determined using PCR for 48 strains of L...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Yihe Wang, Yiran Ding, Shunhe Wang, Haiqin Chen, Zhang Hao, Wei Chen, Zhennan Gu, Yong Q Chen
AIMS: Clove extract has therapeutic potential as an antifungal drug, yet the mechanism of action remain ambiguous. Current study aimed to address the molecular process of the antifungal activity exerted by clove extract. METHODS AND RESULTS: The antifungal assays results showed that clove extract had some effects on all of the tested yeast. Propidium iodide staining assay showed cell membrane damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after treatment of clove extract for 30 h...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Saminathan Mookiah, Han Ming Gan, Norhani Abdullah, Clemente Michael Vui Ling Wong, Suriya Kumari Ramiah, Hui Yin Tan, Chin Chin Sieo, Yin Wan Ho
AIMS: To evaluate the effects of condensed tannins (CTs) fractions of differing molecular weights (MWs) from a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid-Rendang (LLR) on the rumen protozoal community in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of unfractionated CTs (F0) and CT fractions of different MWs (F1 > F2 > F3 > F4 > F5) on protozoal population and community were evaluated in vitro using rumen microbes and ground guinea grass as the substrate. Higher-MW CT fractions F1 and F2 significantly (P < 0...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Priya Gupta, Arpita Sarkar, Padmani Sandhu, Akshay Daware, Manash C Das, Yusuf Akhter, Surajit Bhattacharjee
AIM: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the fatal biofilm forming pathogens which pose to be a problem in clinical infections, contamination of food and marine ecosystems. In this report a napthoquinone - Plumbagin has been explored for its antimicrobial (antibacterial and antibiofilm) activity against P. aeruginosa biofilm. The ability of Plumbagin to enhance the bioactivity of a known broad spectrum antibiotic was further assayed by combining the sub-MIC doses of Plumbagin with sub-MIC doses of Gentamicin against P...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Lovelia L Mamuad, Seon Ho Kim, Yeon Jae Choi, Alvin P Soriano, Kwang Keun Cho, Kichoon Lee, Gui Seck Bae, Sang Suk Lee
AIMS: This study was conducted to isolate and identify propionate-producing bacteria that can be used as an inoculum in improving wet brewers grains and rumen fermentation via increasing propionate concentration. METHODS AND RESULTS: A strain of Lactobacillus that exhibits high levels of propionate production was identified and characterized as Lactobacillus mucosae 521129 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Wet brewers grains were fermented through L...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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