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Journal of Applied Microbiology

Stefano Colombo, Stefania Arioli, Giorgio Gargari, Eros Neri, Giulia Della Scala, Diego Mora
AIMS: To characterize airborne virus like particles isolated from two cheese production plants in order to reveal their complexity in terms of viral communities and microbial genes potentially mobilized by viruses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Airborne virus like particles have been isolated from Grana Padano and Gorgonzola PDO cheese production plants and ripening cellars. A shotgun metagenomics analysis of the isolated viromes highlighted a high complexity of the viral communities both in terms of viral taxonomy and phage-host associations...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Antonio Ostrensky, Aline Horodesky, Helisson Faoro, Eduardo Balsanelli, Michelle Zibetti Tadra Sfeir, Nathieli Cozer, Marcio Roberto Pie, Giorgi Dal Pont, Gisela Geraldine Castilho-Westphal
AIMS: Evaluate the influence of storage conditions on the composition of the bacterial microbiota of living oysters Crassostrea gasar. METHODS AND RESULTS: The oysters used in this study came from marine farms (Guaratuba Bay, Brazil) and were exposed to two conditions that simulated different storage situations: immersion in water (group I) and exposure to air (group II). The animals were subjected to five different temperatures (5 to 25 °C), for 10 days. The 16S rRNA gene from oysters was amplified and sequenced to determine the taxonomic units and bacterial strains present in the samples...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Yang Wang, Li Yi, Jiankang Zhang, Liyun Sun, Wenyan Wen, Chunjie Zhang, Wang Shaohui
AIMS: Further investigation of the novel biological functions of SodA in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium). METHODS AND RESULTS: A deletion mutant of sodA in S. typhimurium was constructed and its biological characteristics were analyzed. More specifically, the roles of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in resistance to environmental stresses and serum, biofilm formation, epithelial cell adherence and invasion were investigated. Inactivation of sodA gene resulted in a slightly reduced growth rate, low SOD activity, and increased susceptibility to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chicken serum...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Faezeh Almasi, Fatemeh Mohammadipanah, Hamid-Reza Adhami, Javad Hamedi
AIM: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are the most viable therapeutic target for its symptomatic treatment. The present study was aimed at exploring anti-AChE metabolite producing marine Actinobacteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Out of 220 isolates, 34 Actinobacteria extracts were tested for the presence of AChE inhibitors. The obtained results showed that bacterial strain UTMC 1334, inhibited AChE activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 0...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Li-Dong Shen, Xu Liu, Hong-Sheng Wu
AIMS: To explore the role of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in nitrogen removal in freshwater marshes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 16S rRNA gene sequences of Candidatus Kuenenia and Candidatus Brocadia were simultaneously detected in the sediment of freshwater marshes of Green Bay Wetland that is located in Eastern China by using Illumina-based sequencing of the total bacterial 16S rRNA genes, and Candidatus Brocadia comprised more than 80% of the total anammox-related sequences...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Karla Bianca de Almeida Lopes, Valéria Carpentieri-Pipolo, Djordje Fira, Pedro Alberto Balatti, Silvina Marianela Yanil López, Thiago Henrique Oro, Eduardo Stefani Pagliosa, Giuliano Degrassi
AIMS: This research was aimed at identifying and characterizing endophytic microorganisms associated to soybean that have antimicrobial activity towards soybean pathogens. METHODS AND RESULTS: Soybean plants were collected from field trials in four locations of southern Brazil that were cultivated with conventional (C) and transgenic glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybeans. Endophytic bacteria isolated from roots, stems and leaves of soybeans were evaluated for their capacity to inhibit fungal and bacterial plant pathogens and thirteen microorganisms were identified with antagonistic activity...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Sreedevi Edathadan Sajeevan, Maitrayee Chatterjee, Vinod Paul, Gaurav Baranwal, V Anil Kumar, Chinchu Bose, Asoke Banerji, Bipin G Nair, Bindhu Paul Prasanth, Raja Biswas
AIM: The effect of anacardic acid impregnation on catheter surfaces for the prevention of S. aureus attachments and biofilm formations were evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Silicon catheter tubes were impregnated using different concentrations of anacardic acids (0.002% to 0.25%). Anacardic acids are anti-bacterial phenolic lipids from Cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) shell oil. Anacardic acids impregnated silicon catheters revealed no significant hemolytic activity and were cytocompatible against fibroblast cell line (L929)...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
T Somarathna, Wmad B Fernando, K K D S Ranaweera, G A S Premakumara, T Abeysinghe, N S Weerakkody
AIMS: Investigation of antimicrobial activity and phytochemicals of Alpinia malaccensis (Ran-kiriya) against food-borne bacteria Staphyloccocusaureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antibacterial activity was tested on above four food-borne bacteria using agar disc diffusion and broth dilution assay. A. malaccensis rhizome extract chemical composition determined using Gas chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS)...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Romina Levit, Graciela Savoy de Giori, Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc, Jean Guy LeBlanc
AIM: To evaluate two folate-producing strains, Streptoccocus (Strep.) thermophilus CRL 808 and Strep. thermophilus CRL 415 against chemically-induced mucositis in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro assays with Caco-2 cells were performed to evaluate the effect of the bacteria in presence of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). For in vivo studies, mice were daily injected with 5-FU to induce intestinal mucositis, and orally administered with folate-producing strains during six days...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Shareefah ALsaqer, Meena Marafi, Ibrahim M Banat, Wael Ismail
AIMS: To investigate the capabilities of different types of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids, lipopeptides, sophorolipids) to remove metals and carbon from the hazardous spent hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst generated by petroleum refineries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Biosurfactants were prepared and used to treat spent HDS catalyst. Metal and carbon contents were analyzed and compared with those from no-biosurfactant control treatments. All biosurfactant treatments increased carbon loss percentage from the spent HDS catalyst...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Marco A Lazo-Vélez, S O Serna-Saldívar, M Fernanda Rosales-Medina, Mónica Tinoco-Alvear, Miriam Briones-García
Probiotics are increasingly being added to food in order to develop products with health-promoting properties. Particularly, Saccharomyces cereviceae var. boulardii yeast is recently being investigated like a starting-culture for development of functional and probiotic foods. Although the literature is abundant on the beneficial effects of S. boulardii on health, slight information is available on the effects of supplementing this probiotic to food systems. The aim of this paper is to examine the applications of S...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Akram Baghani, Sedighe Ghourchian, Amir Aliramezani, Mehdi Yaseri, Alireza Mesdaghinia, Masoumeh Douraghi
AIMS: Little is known about the resistance rate and susceptibility profile of Clostridium difficile isolates in Iran. Therefore, the aim of present study is to assess the rate of drug resistant C. difficile. METHODS AND RESULTS: During a 6-year period, four hospitals submitted 735 stool specimens from patients suspected for C. difficile infections to anaerobic bacteriology laboratory. The 46 C. difficile isolates were subjected to disk diffusion and MIC Test Strips...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jubeda Begum, Nasir Akbar Mir, Kapil Dev, Irfan Ahmad Khan
The discovery of antibiotics was paralleled by the evolution of antibiotic resistance which is probably the best example of contemporary evolution in action. The selection pressure, imposed by indiscriminate use of antibiotics, has changed the scale, mode and tempo of antibiotic resistance evolution. The presence of multidrug resistance, wide range of adaptability features and the infectivity make antibiotic resistance of Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) more dangerous. The characterization, prevalence, and the virulence factors of STEC have been profusely reported, whereas, the antibiotic resistance has been largely ignored because the antibiotic use in STEC infections is controversial...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Satish Kumar Rajasekharan, Jaecheor Byun, Jintae Lee
AIMS: To probe the inhibitory effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) on growth and biofilms of yeast and bacterial pathogens. METHODS AND RESULTS: Crystal violet quantification, XTT reduction assay, confocal and scanning electron microscopic imaging, and yeast-to-hyphal inhibition assays were performed to demonstrate the inhibitory effects of DON. Our results show that DON and its modified form (3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol) caused dose-dependent inhibition of Candida albicans pathogenesis under in vitro conditions...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Agrin Davari, Margaret Skinner, Bruce L Parker
AIMS: The aim of this study was to optimize the potential of Beauveria bassiana through cell electrofusion technique with emphasis on improving its thermotolerance and virulence against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (WFT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine B. bassiana isolates were tested against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (WFT) to estimate their pathogenicity and speed of infection under laboratory conditions...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Donatella Ottaviani, Serena Chierichetti, Gabriele Angelico, Claudio Forte, Elena Rocchegiani, Elisabetta Manuali, Francesca Leoni
AIM: To detect marine Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) able to infect V.parahaemolyticus from seawater of the Adriatic, Italy. To test, prey specificity and predation efficiency of our Halobacteriovorax isolate, named HBXCO1, towards 17 Vibrio and 7 non-Vibrio strains linked to the Adriatic sea, Italy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Double layer agar plating technique was used to enumerate BALOs and to evaluate their prey specificity and predation efficiency. Transmission electron microscopy and 16S rRNA analysis were used to identify them...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Evangelia Gontikaki, Lloyd Potts, James A Anderson, Ursula Witte
AIMS: The aim of this study was the baseline description of oil-degrading sediment bacteria along a depth transect in the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC) and the identification of biomarker taxa for the detection of oil contamination in FSC sediments. METHODS AND RESULTS: Oil-degrading sediment bacteria from 135, 500 and 1000 m were enriched in cultures with crude oil as the sole carbon source (at 12, 5 and 0°C respectively). The enriched communities were studied using culture-dependent and culture-independent (clone libraries) techniques...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Manish Goswami, Faisal Ahmad Khan, Admir Ibrisevic, Per-Erik Olsson, Jana Jass
AIMS: The impact of municipal waste on pathogenic microorganisms released into the environment is a public health concern. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of sewage sludge and antibiotic contaminants on stress response, virulence and antibiotic resistance in a pathogenic Escherichia coli. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of sewage sludge leachates on uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 were determined by monitoring the expression of 45 genes associated with antibiotic/metal resistance, stress response and virulence using RT-qPCR...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Adorján Cristea, Andreea Baricz, Nicolae Leopold, Călin Gabriel Floare, Gheorghe Borodi, Irina Kacso, Septimiu Tripon, Paul Adrian Bulzu, Ștefan Andrei Adrian, Oana Cadar, Erika Andrea Levei, Horia Leonard Banciu
AIM: This study aimed at unprecedented physical and chemical evaluation of the 'green plastics' polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), in an extremely halotolerant Halomonas elongata strain 2FF under high salt concentration. METHODS AND RESULTS: The investigated bacterial strain was isolated from the surface water of the hypersaline Fără Fund Lake. The 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny and phenotypic analysis indicated that the isolate belonged to Halomonas elongata. PHA inclusions were observed by Sudan Black B, Nile Red staining and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) during growth at high salinity (10%, w/v, NaCl) on 1% (w/v) D-glucose...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Agnieszka Maszewska, Marta Zygmunt, Iwona Grzejdziak, Antoni Różalski
AIMS: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) caused by Proteus mirabilis are very difficult to treat due to the ability of biofilm formation and drug resistance of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-biofilm activity of phages and develop phage cocktail to combat biofilm of P. mirabilis strains. METHODS AND RESULTS: Planktonic forms and biofilms of 50 tested uropathogenic P. mirabilis strains showed different sensitivity to 13 phages used...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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