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Journal of Applied Microbiology

Gabriel M Mascarin, Nilce N Kobori, Mark A Jackson, Christopher A Dunlap, Ítalo Delalibera
AIMS: Nitrogen is a critical element in industrial fermentation media. This study investigated the influence of various nitrogen sources on blastospore production, desiccation tolerance, and storage stability using two strains of the cosmopolitan insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. METHODS AND RESULTS: Complex organic sources of nitrogen such as soy flour, autolyzed yeast and cottonseed flour induced great numbers of blastospores after 2-3 days of fermentation, which also survived drying and remained viable (32-56% survival) after 9 months storage at 4 °C, although variations were found between strains...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
M Kanki, H Naruse, K Kawatsu
AIMS: We investigated whether Listeria monocytogenes strains differ in their ability to escape from the primary phagosome after internalization into human intestinal epithelial cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Food and clinical strains were used to study specific alleles; the activities of listeriolysin O (LLO) and phospholipases PlcA and PlcB, which promote rupture of the phagocytic vacuole; and initial intracellular bacterial growth in Caco-2 cells. Results showed no difference in LLO activities between food and clinical strains or among serotypes...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Matías Castells, Carlos Schild, Darío Caffarena, Marina Bok, Federico Giannitti, Joaquín Armendano, Franklin Riet-Correa, Matías Victoria, Viviana Parreño, Rodney Colina
AIM: To analyze group A rotavirus (RVA) environmental contamination in waters used for calves' consumption and to assess viral viability in dairy farm water sources. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 202 samples of water used for calves' consumption and RVA was detected by RT-qPCR in 35.1% (95%CI: 28.9-42.0%). A marked pattern of seasonality was observed with higher frequency of detection in colder than warmer months (p=0.002). There was no association between viral load and season or between the number of milking cows in the herd and the detection of RVA in the farm...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
S Mingmongkolchai, W Panbangred
The use of probiotics as feed supplements in animal production has increased considerably over the last decade, particularly since the ban on antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in the livestock sector. Several Bacillus spp. are attractive for use as probiotic supplements in animal feed due to their ability to produce spores. Their heat stability and ability to survive the low pH of the gastric barrier represent an advantage over other probiotic microorganisms. This review discusses important characteristics required for selection of Bacillus probiotic strains and summarizes the beneficial effect of Bacillus-based feed additives on animal production...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
C S Harris, M Tertuliano, S Rajeev, G Vellidis, K Levy
AIMS: To examine Salmonella and Escherichia coli in storm runoff and irrigation ponds used by fresh produce growers, and compare Salmonella serovars with those found in cases of human salmonellosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected water before and after rain events at two irrigation ponds on farms in southern Georgia, USA, and collected storm runoff/storm flow within the contributing watershed of each pond. Salmonella and E. coli concentrations were higher in ponds after rain events by an average of 0...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Ying Shi, Xi Zhao, Zhao Jianxin, Zhang Hao, Qixiao Zhai, Arjan Narbad, Wei Chen
AIMS: This study evaluated the antibiotic-induced changes in microbial ecology, intestinal dysbiosis and low-grade inflammation; and the combined effect of four different Lactobacillus species on recovery of microbiota composition and improvement of gut barrier function in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Administration of the antibiotic ampicillin for 2 weeks decreased microbial community diversity, induced caecum tumefaction and increased gut permeability in mice. Application of a probiotic cocktail of four Lactobacillus species (JUP-Y4) modulated the microbiota community structure and promoted the abundance of potentially beneficial bacteria such as Akkermansia...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Benjamin J Schofield, Nancy Lachner, Oanh T Le, David M McNeill, Peter Dart, Diane Ouwerkerk, Philip Hugenholtz, Athol V Klieve
AIMS: The probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H57 increased weight gain, increased nitrogen retention and increased feed intake in ruminants when administered to the diet. This study aims to develop a better understanding of this probiotic effect by analysing changes in the rumen prokaryotic community. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sequencing the 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons of the rumen microbiome, revealed that ewes fed H57 had a significantly different rumen microbial community structure to Control sheep...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
M M Nikitin, N V Statsyuk, P A Frantsuzov, V G Dzhavakhiya, A G Golikov
AIM: Create a method for highly sensitive, selective, rapid, and easy-to-use detection and identification of economically significant potato pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and oomycetes, be it single pathogen, or a range of various pathogens occurring simultaneously. METHODS AND RESULTS: Test-systems for real-time PCR, operating in the unified amplification regime, have been developed for Phytophthora infestans, Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Dickeya dianthicola, Dickeya solani, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Xinyao Lu, Shunli Ren, Jingzheng Lu, Hong Zong, Jian Song, Bin Zhuge
AIMS: This study aimed to strengthen the reducing equivalent regeneration in Klebsiella pneumoniae for improving 1,3-propanediol (PDO) production. METHODS AND RESULTS: Disruption of the arcA gene activated the transcription levels of the TCA cycle genes and thus increased the NADH/NAD+ ratio by 54.2%, leading to the improved PDO titer and yield per cell from 16.1 g l-1 and 4.0 g gDCW-1 to 18.8 g l-1 and 6.4 g gDCW-1 , respectively. Further ldhA gene deletion eliminated lactate accumulation and promoted the PDO titer to 19...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Maria Sandra Ramos Queiroz, Larissa Zambe Pinheiro, Felipe Korbus Sutili, Pamella Macedo de Souza, Lucy Seldin, Michelle Frazão Muzitano, Rodrigo O M A de Souza, Denise Oliveira Guimarães, Ivana Correa Ramos Leal
AIMS: To screen twenty microorganisms for ω-transaminase activity by the kinetic resolution of rac-1-phenylethylamine, followed by testing rac-amines of pharmaceutical interest with bulky substituents and, to conduct the asymmetric synthesis of a chiral amine. METHODS AND RESULTS: Stemphylium lycopersici was selected as the best biocatalyst. By the Central Composite Rotatable Design it was found that, at lower pH (5.5 and 6.5), the lyophilized microorganism biocatalyzed the kinetic resolution of rac-1-phenylethylamine with 99% e...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Divya Arora, Gousia Chashoo, Venugopal Singamaneni, Nisha Sharma, Prasoon Gupta, Sundeep Jaglan
AIMS: The discovery of known bioactive chemical leads from microbial mono-cultures hinders the efficiency of drug discovery programs. Therefore, in recent years, the use of fungal bacterial co-culture experiments has gained considerable attention due to their ability to generate new bioactive leads. In this work, fungal strain Setophoma terrestris was co-cultured with Bacillus amyloliquifaciens to discover novel bioactive compounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bioactive methanolic co-culture extract was chosen for the isolation of compounds by chromatographic methods...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Pattanapon Kayansamruaj, Ha Thanh Dong, Ikuo Hirono, Hidehiro Kondo, Saengchan Senapin, Channarong Rodkhum
AIMS: Genomic characterization of Harveyi clade vibrio strain Y6 causing 'Scale drop and Muscle Necrosis syndrome' (SDMN) isolated from barramundi (Lates calcarifer) in Vietnam. METHODS AND RESULTS: A bacterial genome was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq platform. Multilocus sequence analysis confirmed that the bacterium belongs to Vibrio harveyi species. Further phylogenetic analysis inferred from core genome SNPs revealed a close relationship between our bacterium and the V...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Kaleem U Kakar, Zarqa Nawaz, Zhouqi Cui, Abdulwareth A Almoneafy, Raqeeb Ullah, Qing-Yao Shu
AIMS: To examine the biocontrol activities of five rhizobacterial strains (i.e., Alcaligenes faecalis strains Bk1 and P1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Bk7, and Brevibacillus laterosporus stains B4 and S5), control the rice blast and sheath blight diseases in greenhouse, and to study their possible modes of action. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five potential plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains isolated from rice rhizospheres, were tested for in vitro antifungal activities against Magnaporthe oryzae, Rhizoctonia solanii, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium graminearum...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Stefano Serra, Davide De Simeis
AIMS: The preparation of the high value flavour γ-dodecalactone is based on the biotransformation of natural 10-HSA, which is in turn obtained by microbial hydration of oleic acid. We want to establish a reliable baker's yeast-mediated procedure for 10-HSA preparation. METHODS AND RESULTS: The previously reported yeast-mediated hydration procedures are unreliable because bacteria-free baker's yeast is not able to hydrate oleic acid. The actual responsible for performing this reaction are the bacterial contaminants there present...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
D Thiry, K De Rauw, S Takaki, J-N Duprez, A Iguchi, D Piérard, N Korsak, J G Mainil
AIMS: The purpose of this survey was to estimate the respective prevalence of the "gang of seven" and "non-gang of seven" serotypes of Shigatoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and to identify the O80:H2 serotype in 245 intestinal contents collected at two slaughterhouses in Belgium in 2014. METHODS AND RESULTS: After overnight enrichment growth the 69 intestinal contents testing positive with PCR targeting the eae, stx1 and stx2 genes were inoculated onto four agar media...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Chloe Stenkamp-Strahm, Craig McConnel, Sheryl Magzamen, Zaid Abdo, Stephen Reynolds
AIMS: Dairy cattle shed pathogenic E. coli O157 (O157) in feces, playing a role in human exposure. We aimed to measure fecal microbial communities in early lactation dairy cattle, and model outcomes with O157 shedding metrics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Daily fecal samples were collected from 40 cattle on two Colorado dairies for five consecutive days, and characterized for O157. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to measure sample-level microbial communities. Alpha diversity metrics were associated with O157 outcomes via regression modeling, adjusting for confounders...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Marin Vincent, Raphaël E Duval, Philippe Hartemann, Marc Engels-Deutsch
With the emergence of antibiotic resistance, the interest for antimicrobial agents has recently increased again in public health. Copper was recognized in 2008 by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the first metallic antimicrobial agent. This led to many investigations of the various properties of copper as an antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral agent. This review summarizes the latest findings about "contact killing", the mechanism of action of copper nanoparticles and the different ways microorganisms develop resistance to copper...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Hagen Frickmann, Sebastian Bachert, Philipp Warnke, Andreas Podbielski
AIMS: Pre-analytic aspects can make results of hygiene studies difficult to compare. Efficacy of surface disinfection was assessed with an evaluated swabbing procedure. METHODS AND RESULTS: A validated microbial screening of surfaces was performed in the patients' environment and from hands of healthcare workers on two intensive care units (ICUs) prior to and after a standardized disinfection procedure. From a pure culture, the recovery rate of the swabs for S. aureus was 35%-64% and dropped to 0%-22% from a mixed culture with 10-times more S...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Zhenbing Wu, François-Joël Gatesoupe, Tongtong Li, Xiehao Wang, Qianqian Zhang, Dongyue Feng, Yuqing Feng, Hui Chen, Aihua Li
AIMS: Increasing attention has been attracted to intestinal microbiota, due to interactions with nutrition, metabolism and immune defence of the host. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) feed additives have been applied in aquaculture to improve fish health, but the interaction with fish gut microbiota is still poorly understood. This study aimed to explore the effect of adding TCM in feed on the intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial communities of 16 fish intestinal contents and 1 water sample were characterized by high-throughput sequencing and analysis of the V4-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Satish K Verma, James F White
AIMS: The present study was conducted to investigate indigenous seed endophyte effects on browntop millet seedling development. We report that seed-inhabiting bacterial endophytes are responsible for promoting seedling development, including stimulation of root hair formation, increasing root and shoot length growth, and increasing photosynthetic pigment content of seedlings. Bacterial endophytes also improved resistance of seedlings to disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of four endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized seeds and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Curtobacterium sp...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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