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Journal of Applied Microbiology

Cristina García-Aljaro, Anicet R Blanch, Claudia Campos, Juan Jofre, Francisco Lucena
The objective of this review is to assess the current state of knowledge of pathogens, general faecal indicators and human-specific microbial source tracking markers in sewage. Most of the microbes present in sewage are from the microbiota of the human gut, including pathogens. Bacteria and viruses are the most abundant groups of microbes in the human gut microbiota. Most reports of this topic show that raw sewage microbiological profiles reflect the human gut microbiota. Human and animal faeces share many commensal microbes as well as pathogens...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Thomas Yeargin, Kristen E Gibson
Viral enteropathogens are one of the leading causative agents of foodborne illnesses in both the United States and the European Union. While human noroviruses (hNoV) and Hepatitis A virus (HAV) cause the vast majority of outbreaks and illnesses, there are handful of human enteric viruses that contribute to sporadic outbreaks worldwide including astrovirus, sapovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and Aichi virus. In addition, Hepatitis E virus is increasingly being recognized as an emerging zoonotic threat within the food supply...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
K Sun, W Cao, L Y Hu, W Q Fu, J H Gong, N Kang, C C Dai
AIMS: To explore if and how symbiotic Phomopsis liquidambari-rice systems influence below-ground straw decomposition and then nitrogen(N) transformation in response to environmental N levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: Litter bag experiments were utilized to trace the decay process during rice growth phases (seedling (T1), tillering (T2), heading (T3) and maturing (T4) stage), with (E+) and without endophyte (E-), under low (LN), medium (MN) and high nitrogen (HN) supply...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Xing Jin, YongJae Lee, Seok Hoon Hong
AIM: A lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) derived from Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) exhibits high binding affinity to carbohydrates on bacterial cell surfaces. The objective of this study was to inhibit the biofilm formation of the foodborne pathogens enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes using ConA prepared by a membrane-based extraction method. METHODS AND RESULTS: ConA was extracted using a simple and inexpensive membrane method instead of a chromatography approach...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
D M Xu, W C Ke, P Zhang, F H Li, X S Guo
AIMS: Characteristics of a strain Pediococcus pentosaceus Q6 isolated from Elymus nutans growing on the Tibetan plateau and its effects on Elymus nutans silage fermentation stored at low temperature were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sugar fermentation pattern and growth profiles of the strain Q6 and its reference strain APP were characterized. The strain Q6 and APP were inoculated to Elymus nutans at ensiling, respectively; and ensiled at different temperatures (10, 15 and 25°C) for 30, 60 and 90 days...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Akihiko Suzuki, Takao Segawa, Syusaku Sawa, Chika Nishitani, Keiichi Ueda, Takuya Itou, Kiyoshi Asahina, Miwa Suzuki
AIMS: This study was conducted to assess the presence and extent of differences in the gut microbiota of common bottlenose dolphins depending on rearing facilities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fecal samples were collected from 16 common bottlenose dolphins at three aquaria in Japan. After extracting DNA from the feces, the V3-V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA was amplified and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq platform. The constituent phyla of the gut microbiota were similar among aquaria; however, the most dominant phylum differed depending on the facility, and the compositions of microbiota were remarkably varied at the family level among aquaria...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Ana A Bengoa, Carolina Iraporda, Graciela L Garrote, Analía G Abraham
Kefir is a homemade viscous and slightly effervescent beverage obtained by milk fermentation with kefir grains, which are built up by a complex community of lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria and yeasts confined in a matrix of proteins and polysaccharides. The present review summarizes the role of kefir microorganisms in grain assembly and in the beneficial properties attributed to kefir. The use of both culture dependent and independent methods has made possible to determine the microorganisms that constitute this ecosystem...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
B C J De Silva, Sabrina Hossain, P S Dahanayake, Gang-Joon Heo
AIMS: Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) is a popular seafood in Korea. Aeromonas spp., well-known pathogenic bacteria, has been reported in some molluscan shellfish, but it has not been studied in scallops so far. Therefore, we aimed to isolate, identify and characterize the Aeromonas spp. isolated from marketed Yesso scallops to estimate their potential risk to public health. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-two Aeromonas spp. including A. hydrophila (n=13), A...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Gabriele Schiro, Thomas Müller, Gernot Verch, Thomas Sommerfeld, Tatjana Mauch, Matthias Koch, Volker Grimm, Marina E H Müller
AIM: To observe the variation in accumulation of Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins across a topographically heterogeneous field and tested biotic (fungal and bacterial abundance) and abiotic (microclimate) parameters as explanatory variables. METHODS AND RESULTS: We selected a wheat field characterized by a diversified topography, to be responsible for variations in productivity and in canopy-driven microclimate. Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins where quantified in wheat ears at three sampling dates between flowering and harvest at 40 points...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Mandeep Kaur, Pooja Chadha, Sanehdeep Kaur, Amarjeet Kaur, Rajvir Kaur, Arun Kumar Yadav, Ramandeep Kaur
AIM: Recent concerns about the possible adverse effects of agricultural chemicals on health and environment have generated a considerable interest in biological alternatives. The present study aimed to test the insecticidal potential of fungus Aspergillus flavus and revealed its genotoxic and cytotoxic effects using Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) as a model. METHODS AND RESULTS: The fungus was isolated from the surface of the dead insect and investigated for its insecticidal potential against S...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Basma A Omran, Hussein N Nassar, Sherif A Younis, Nesreen A Fatthallah, A Hamdy, Einas H El-Shatoury, Nour Sh El-Gendy
AIMS: In order to efficiently control the corrosive sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB); the main precursor of the microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) in oil industry, the ability of Trichoderma longibrachiatum DSMZ 16517 to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was investigated and their biocidal activity against halotolerant SRB was tested. METHODS AND RESULTS: The mycelial cell free filtrate (MCFF) bio-reduced the silver ions (Ag+ ) to their metallic nanoparticle state (Ag0 )...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jade B Mitchell, Laura Y Sifuentes, Austin Wissler, Sherif Abd-Elmaksoud, Gerardo U Lopez, Charles P Gerba
AIMS: Quantitative data on the doses needed to inactivate microorganisms on fomites is not available for ultraviolet applications. The goal of this study was to determine the doses of UV light needed to reduce bacteria and murine norovirus on hard surface fomites through experimentation and to identify appropriate models for predicting targeted levels of reduction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Stainless steel and Formica laminate coupons were selected as they are common surfaces found in healthcare settings...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
A S Fochesato, D Cuello, V Poloni, M A Galvagno, C A Dogi, L R Cavaglieri
AIMS: 1) to determine the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) adsorption and desorption dynamics in the presence of L. rhamnosus RC007 under simulated transit of AFB1 at each gastrointestinal tract (GIT - saliva, stomach and intestine) stage consecutively and then, separately, 2) to study the ability of L. rhamnosus RC007 to biotransform AFB1 as a strategy that complements the adsorption process. METHODS AND RESULTS: the AFB1 adsorption and desorption assay simulating the GIT passage of AFB1 (93...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Manuela Tamburro, Michela Lucia Sammarco, Giancarlo Ripabelli
AIMS: A High Resolution Melting (HRM) assay was developed for characterizing lineage II Listeria monocytogenes based on the amplification and the melting profiles analysis of 81 fragments targeting the region from the prs to ldh loci, including the Listeria Pathogenicity Island-1 (LIPI-1) genes, and the inlAB operon. METHODS AND RESULTS: Real-time PCR and HRM protocols were standardized using 10 replicate assays from L. monocytogenes EGD-e reference strain (serovar 1/2a)...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Muhammadi, Shabina Shafiq
AIMS: It was aimed to study the genetic, structural and pharmacological characteristics of polymannuronate synthesized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMG1421. METHODS AND RESULTS: Synthesis was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, FT/IR, 1 H-NMR and gel permeation chromatography followed by in vitro bioassays. Colony-PCR followed by sequence analysis was employed for screening of structural genes. FT/IR analysis indicated the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and O-acetyl groups linked to mannuronate...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Sevdan Yilmaz, Matej Sova, Sebahattin Ergün
AIMS: Antibiotics and several other chemicals have been used to prevent fish diseases. However, this situation results in economic loss for the companies in the aquaculture industry and most importantly it pollutes the environment. Cinnamic acid is a naturally occurring aromatic acid and is considered to be safe for human consumption. Therefore, in present studythe antibacterial activity of trans-cinnamic acid and commonly used antibiotics, namely chloramphenicol, vancomycin, streptomycin and erythromycin, were tested against 32 bacteria, including fish pathogen, non-pathogenic isolates and collection strains...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Xiaohui Wang, Changdong Wang, Qian Li, Jiamiao Zhang, Chao Ji, Junkang Sui, Zhaoyang Liu, Xin Song, Xunli Liu
AIM: The aim of this study was to identify efficient plant-beneficial rhizobacterium that have the potential to be developed as biocontrol agent for the control of wheat soil-borne diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rhizosphere soil samples were collected from a wheat field located in Taian City. Numerous bacteria were isolated and screened for antagonistic activity against soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi by performing dual-culture assays. Among them, XH-9 was selected for its highly antagonistic activity and others growth-promoting characteristics...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Shuo Yao, Shuxia Lyu, Yingfeng An, Jingquan Lu, Claes Gjermansen, Andreas Schramm
Photosynthetic microalgae can capture solar energy and convert it to bio-energy and bio-chemical products. In nature or industrial processes, microalgae live together with bacterial communities and may maintain symbiotic relationships. In general interactions, microalgae exude dissolved organic carbon that becomes available to bacteria. In return, the bacteria re-mineralize sulfur, nitrogen and phosphorous to support the further growth of microalgae. In specific interactions, heterotrophic bacteria supply B vitamins as organic cofactors or produce siderophores to bind iron, which could be utilized by microalgae, while the algae supply fixed carbon to the bacteria in return...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Keely R Frazier, Jonah A Moore, Timothy E Long
AIMS: Disulfiram (Antabuse™ ) and its metabolites formed in vivo were evaluated as antibacterial agents against thirty species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The synergistic potential of disulfiram (DSF) and metabolite diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) with approved antibiotics were also compared by isobologram (checkerboard) analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Standard microdilution susceptibility testing showed that most DSF metabolites did not possess appreciable antibacterial activity except for DDTC in Bacillus anthracis...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
C Montalva, J J Silva, L F N Rocha, C Luz, R A Humber
AIMS: To survey and to characterize entomopathogenic fungi as natural enemies of mosquitoes in Central Brazil, METHODS AND RESULTS: Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Hypocreales, Ophiocordycipitaceae) was isolated for the first time in South America by using Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) as sentinel larvae in a stagnant mosquito breeding site in a secondary tropical forest. Two isolates were morphologically and molecularly identified, and their activity tested against A. aegypti eggs, larvae, and adults...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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