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Journal of Immunotherapy

James T Gordy, Kun Luo, Brian Francica, Charles Drake, Richard B Markham
The chemokine MIP3α (CCL20) binds to CCR6 on immature dendritic cells. Vaccines fusing MIP3α to gp100 have been shown to be effective in therapeutically reducing melanoma tumor burden and prolonging survival in a mouse model. Other studies have provided evidence that interleukin-10 (IL-10) neutralizing antibodies (αIL-10) enhance immunologic melanoma therapies by modulating the tolerogenic tumor microenvironment. In the current study, we have utilized the B16F10 syngeneic mouse melanoma model to demonstrate for the first time that a therapy neutralizing IL-10 enhances the antitumor efficacy of a MIP3α-gp100 DNA vaccine, leading to significantly smaller tumors, slower growing tumors, and overall increases in mouse survival...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
Isabelle Magalhaes, Ingrid Kalland, James N Kochenderfer, Anders Österborg, Michael Uhlin, Jonas Mattsson
CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy has demonstrated dramatic results for the treatment of B cell malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). As T cell defects are common in patients with CLL, we compared the T cells from these patients with healthy donors (HDs), and subsequently the CD19 CAR T cells produced from patients and HDs. Despite initial differences when comparing the phenotype of circulating T cells in patients with CLL and HDs, the CD19 CAR T cells manufactured from patients' or HDs' cells showed a similar phenotype (effector memory or terminally differentiated), both were specifically activated by and killed CD19 target cells, and secreted cytokines (ie, IL-2, TNF, and IFN-γ)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
Amalia Anastasopoulou, Georgios Papaxoinis, Panagiotis Diamantopoulos, Erietta Christofidou, Olga Benopoulou, Alexandros Stratigos, Helen Gogas
The widespread use of immune checkpoint inhibitors has shed light to several unusual immune-related adverse effects of the drugs. Severe cutaneous adverse reactions are generally rare with anti-PD1 agents. We present in this paper the case of a 48-year-old patient with melanoma who developed bullous pemphigoid-like skin lesions along with fever, arthralgia and overt eosinophilia following adjuvant treatment with nivolumab. The condition was successfully treated with corticosteroids and a rechallenge with another anti-PD1 agent did not lead to recurrence of the skin lesions...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
Debra D Bloom, Sofiya Reshetylo, Cassandra Nytes, Claudia T Goodsett, Peiman Hematti
The BAFF receptor BR3 plays key roles in B-cell activation, maturation, and survival whereas the function of BR3 on T lymphocytes is less well characterized. Previous reports have demonstrated that BR3 costimulates human T-cell activation in vitro in the presence of high nonphysiological levels of plate-bound BAFF. Here, relying on the soluble and membrane-bound BAFF expressed by T cells themselves, we investigated the function of BR3 on activated primary CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes using a BR3-specific neutralization antibody and shRNA gene down-modulation...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
Amelia S Aitken, Dominic G Roy, Nikolas T Martin, Subash Sad, John C Bell, Marie-Claude Bourgeois-Daigneault
Anticancer vaccination is becoming a popular therapeutic approach for patients with cancers expressing common tumor antigens. One variation on this strategy is a heterologous virus vaccine where 2 viruses encoding the same tumor antigen are administered sequentially to prime and boost antitumor immunity. This approach is currently undergoing clinical investigation using an adenovirus (Ad) and the oncolytic virus Maraba (MRB). In this study, we show that Listeria monocytogenes can be used in place of the Ad to obtain comparable immune priming efficiency before MRB boosting...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
Ilaria Turin, Sara Delfanti, Federica Ferulli, Silvia Brugnatelli, Matteo Tanzi, Marcello Maestri, Lorenzo Cobianchi, Daniela Lisini, Ombretta Luinetti, Marco Paulli, Cesare Perotti, Elisabetta Todisco, Paolo Pedrazzoli, Daniela Montagna
Treatment of advanced metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients is associated with a poor prognosis and significant morbidity. Moreover, targeted therapies such as anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have no effect in metastatic patients with tumors harboring a mutation in the RAS gene. The failure of conventional treatment to improve outcomes in mCRC patients has prompted the development of adoptive immunotherapy approaches including natural killer (NK)-based therapies. In this study, after confirmation that patients' NK cells were not impaired in their cytotoxic activity, evaluated against long-term tumor cell lines, we evaluated their interactions with autologous mCRC cells...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
Aki Furusawa, John Reiser, Kavitha Sadashivaiah, Haley Simpson, Arnob Banerjee
Tumor-specific CD8 T cells often fail to elicit effective antitumor immune responses due to an inability to expand into a substantial effector population and persist long-term in vivo. Using an adoptive transfer model of cancer immunotherapy, we demonstrate that constitutive eomesodermin (Eomes) expression in tumor-specific CD8 T cells improves tumor rejection and survival. The increase in tumor rejection was associated with an increased number and persistence of CD8 T cells in lymphoid tissues during acute tumor rejection, tumor regrowth, and in mice that remained tumor-free...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
C Lance Cowey, Frank Xiaoqing Liu, Jenny Black-Shinn, Kendall Stevinson, Marley Boyd, Jennifer R Frytak, Scot W Ebbinghaus
The programmed death-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab has demonstrated efficacy and safety in clinical trials for treating advanced (unresectable/metastatic) melanoma. We investigated the real-world utilization of pembrolizumab and associated patient outcomes for advanced melanoma in US community oncology practices. This retrospective, observational study used deidentified data from electronic health records for adult patients with advanced melanoma who received pembrolizumab at The US Oncology Network sites from September 2014 through December 2015, with follow-up through September 2016...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
Lei Zhao, Jun Li, Yang Liu, Liqing Kang, Huinan Chen, Ye Jin, Fuya Zhao, Jing Feng, Chengyuan Fang, Biqiang Zhu, Shuo Ding, Lei Yu, Yunwei Wei, Jin Zhou
Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cell (CART) therapy has been demonstrated to have significant effect on hematologic tumor in patients. However, many persistent obstacles and challenges still limit the application. It is known that CD8 T cells are a key component of antitumor immunity. An avasimibe-induced inhibition of cholesterol esterification has been shown to improve the antitumor response of CD8 T cells in mice. In this study, using human CD19-directed CART cells as effector cells and CD19-overexpressing K562 cells as target cells, we detected whether cholesterol acyltransferase inhibition by avasimibe can enhance the antitumor effect of human CART cells...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
Jean-Marie Michot, Parvady Ragou, Franck Carbonnel, Stéphane Champiat, Anne-Laure Voisin, Christine Mateus, Olivier Lambotte, Maxime Annereau
Antiprogrammed death-1 (anti-PD1) and antiprogrammed death ligand-1 (anti-PD-L1) antibodies are effective checkpoint inhibitors that stimulate the immune system against many types of cancers. The flip side of these immunotherapies is the generation of immune-related adverse events, which can theoretically affect all organs. Among these side effects, lipase increase is frequently observed; however the meaning of this biological abnormality remains poorly understood. We investigate in this case study all the lipase increases greater or equal to grade 2 that occurred in patients receiving anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 treatments, to determine their biological and clinical significance...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
Sheefa Mirza, Kanisha Shah, Shanaya Patel, Nayan Jain, Rakesh Rawal
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and are poised to capture antigen, migrate to draining lymphoid organs, and postmaturation process. Recent evidences have suggested that tumor microenvironment has an effect on DCs by inactivating various components of the immune system responsible for tumor clearance, eventually leading to tumorigenesis. This inactivation is owed to the epigenetic modifications [ie, microRNA (miRNA)] at the posttranscriptional level, thus regulating the differentiation patterns and functional behavior of DCs...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
Krisztián Kállay, Csaba Kassa, Marienn Réti, Éva Karászi, János Sinkó, Vera Goda, Anita Stréhn, Katalin Csordás, Orsolya Horváth, Attila Szederjesi, Szabolcs Tasnády, Apor Hardi, Gergely Kriván
Viral reactivation is a frequent complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation especially in children. For refractory cases, rapid virus-specific T-cell therapy would be ideally implemented within a few days. Over the course of a year in our pediatric cohort of 43 allogeneic transplantation, 9 patients fulfilled criteria for virus-specific T-cell therapy. Viral infections were due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 3, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 2, and adenovirus (AdV) in 1 case, whereas >1 virus was detected in 3 cases...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
Gemma L Owens, Victoria E Sheard, Milena Kalaitsidou, Daniel Blount, Yatish Lad, Eleanor J Cheadle, Richard J Edmondson, Gurdeep Kooner, David E Gilham, Richard Harrop
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells represent a novel targeted approach to overcome both quantitative and qualitative shortfalls of the host immune system relating to the detection and subsequent destruction of tumors. The identification of antigens expressed specifically on the surface of tumor cells is a critical first step in the ability to utilize CAR T cells for the treatment of cancer. The 5T4 is a tumor-associated antigen which is expressed on the cell surface of most solid tumors including ovarian cancer...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
Farkhad Manapov, Olarn Roengvoraphoj, Maurice Dantes, Sebastian Marschner, Minglun Li, Chukwuka Eze
Nivolumab is a feasible therapy option in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who progress on first-line treatment. However, there is limited information about an overlapping toxicity of PD-1 inhibitors when administered following thoracic radiotherapy (TRT). Three of 25 patients with advanced NSCLC were treated with palliative or curative intent. Nivolumab was initiated as second or third-line therapy after TRT for recurrent or progressive disease. All 3 patients developed grade 3 pneumonitis at some point during nivolumab therapy...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
Teerin Liewluck, Justin C Kao, Michelle L Mauermann
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors are increasingly used in cancer immunotherapy. Various immune-related adverse events are reported, including infrequent individual case reports of myositis or rhabdomyolysis. The frequency and diagnostic spectrum of immune-related adverse events affecting skeletal muscle in PD-1 inhibitor-treated patients are unknown. We searched the Mayo Clinic Pharmacy database (2014-2016) to identify patients who developed myopathies during or after PD-1 inhibitor therapy. Among 654 cancer patients received PD-1 inhibitors (pembrolizumab=389; nivolumab=264; both=1), we identified 5 patients (pembrolizumab=5) with biopsy-proven myopathies (2 necrotizing myopathy, 1 early dermatomyositis, and 2 nonspecific myopathy)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
Sang Yun Lee, Philip Olsen, Dong Hoon Lee, Aimee L Kenoyer, Lihua E Budde, Shyril O'Steen, Damian J Green, Shelly Heimfeld, Michael C Jensen, Stanley R Riddell, Oliver W Press, Brian G Till
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based adoptive T-cell therapy is a highly promising treatment for lymphoid malignancies, and CD20 is an ideal target antigen. We previously developed a lentiviral construct encoding a third generation CD20-targeted CAR but identified several features that required additional optimization before clinical translation. We describe here several improvements, including replacement of the immunogenic murine antigen-binding moiety with a fully human domain, streamlining the transgene insert to enhance lentiviral titers, modifications to the extracellular IgG spacer that abrogate nonspecific activation resulting from binding to Fc receptors, and evaluation of CD28, 4-1BB, or CD28 and 4-1BB costimulatory domains...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
Marlene F Laursen, Esben Christensen, Laura L T Degn, Kasper Jønsson, Martin R Jakobsen, Ralf Agger, Emil Kofod-Olsen
Immunotherapeutic activation of tumor-specific T cells has proven to be an interesting approach in anticancer treatment. Particularly, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment looks promising, and conceivably, even better clinical results might be obtained if such treatment could be combined with boosting the existing tumor-specific T-cell response. One way to achieve this could be by increasing the level of maturation of dendritic cells locally and in the draining lymph nodes. When exposed to cancer cells, dendritic cells may spontaneously mature because of danger-associated molecular patterns derived from the tumor cells...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
Tina Nham, Sophie M Poznanski, Isabella Y Fan, Fatemeh Vahedi, Mira M Shenouda, Amanda J Lee, Marianne V Chew, Richard T Hogg, Dean A Lee, Ali A Ashkar
With over 600,000 units of umbilical cord blood (CB) stored on a global scale, it is important to elucidate the therapeutic abilities of this cryopreserved reservoir. In the advancing field of natural killer (NK) cell cancer immunotherapy, CB has proven to be a promising and noninvasive source of therapeutic NK cells. Although studies have proven the clinical efficacy of using long-term cryopreserved CB in the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, little is known about its use for the ex vivo expansion of effector immune cells...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
Rohan Garje, Justin J Chau, Jina Chung, Karolyn Wanat, Yousef Zakharia
In the past decade, the resurgence of immunotherapy has changed the landscape of cancer therapy. Checkpoint inhibitors targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, programmed death-1 on lymphocytes, and programmed death ligand-1 on tumors cells are currently utilized in the management of several cancers. These agents are double-edged sword with the positive effect being robust antitumor response but on the other side they can throttle up the normal immunologic homeostasis in a negative way, leading to adverse autoimmune toxicities...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
Yamin Sun, Stephen K Lee, Thein H Oo, Cristhiam M Rojas-Hernandez
Recent advancements in immunotherapy have brought promising drugs to fight cancers; a subset of immunotherapy medications are known as checkpoint inhibitors. Their mechanism of action relies on upregulating antitumor response by reversing T-cell suppression; as a consequence the effect can also result in a spectrum of immune related complications. Reported complications to date include: skin, gastrointestinal mucosa, hypophysis, liver, endocrine system, nervous system, kidney, musculoskeletal system and the hematologic system...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
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