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Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196377/speaking-tongues-are-actively-braced
#1
Bryan Gick, Blake Allen, François Roewer-Després, Ian Stavness
Purpose: Bracing of the tongue against opposing vocal-tract surfaces such as the teeth or palate has long been discussed in the context of biomechanical, somatosensory, and aeroacoustic aspects of tongue movement. However, previous studies have tended to describe bracing only in terms of contact (rather than mechanical support), and only in limited phonetic contexts, supporting a widespread view of bracing as an occasional state, peculiar to specific sounds or sound combinations. Method: The present study tests the pervasiveness and effortfulness of tongue bracing in continuous English speech passages using electropalatography and 3-D biomechanical simulations...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219082/growth-of-expressive-syntax-in-children-with-fragile-x-syndrome
#2
Rouzana Komesidou, Nancy C Brady, Kandace Fleming, Amy Esplund, Steven F Warren
Purpose: This research explored syntactic growth in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) over a 5-year period, and variability in growth in relation to autism symptoms, nonverbal cognition, maternal responsivity, and gender. Method: Language samples at 4 time points from 39 children with FXS, 31 boys and 8 girls, were analyzed using the Index of Productive Syntax (Scarborough, 1990) and mean length of utterance (Brown, 1973). The degree of autism symptoms was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (Schopler, Reichler, & Renner, 1988) at the first time point...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219081/current-methods-of-evaluating-speech-language-outcomes-for-preschoolers-with-communication-disorders-a-scoping-review-using-the-icf-cy
#3
Barbara Jane Cunningham, Karla N Washington, Amanda Binns, Katelyn Rolfe, Bernadette Robertson, Peter Rosenbaum
Purpose: The purpose of this scoping review was to identify current measures used to evaluate speech-language outcomes for preschoolers with communication disorders within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY; World Health Organization, 2007). Method: The review involved 5 phases outlined by Arksey and O'Malley (2005) and further developed by Levac, Colquhoun, and O'Brien (2010): (a) articulating the research question; (b) identifying relevant studies; (c) selecting studies; (d) charting the data; and (e) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199505/influence-of-left-right-asymmetries-on-voice-quality-in-simulated-paramedian-vocal-fold-paralysis
#4
Robin A Samlan, Brad H Story
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the vocal fold structural and vibratory symmetries that are important to vocal function and voice quality in a simulated paramedian vocal fold paralysis. Method: A computational kinematic speech production model was used to simulate an exemplar "voice" on the basis of asymmetric settings of parameters controlling glottal configuration. These parameters were then altered individually to determine their effect on maximum flow declination rate, spectral slope, cepstral peak prominence, harmonics-to-noise ratio, and perceived voice quality...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199471/influence-of-cognitive-ability-on-therapy-outcomes-for-anomia-in-adults-with-chronic-poststroke-aphasia
#5
Jade Dignam, David Copland, Kate O'Brien, Penni Burfein, Asaduzzaman Khan, Amy D Rodriguez
Purpose: The relationship between cognitive abilities and aphasia rehabilitation outcomes is complex and remains poorly understood. This study investigated the influence of language and cognitive abilities on anomia therapy outcomes in adults with aphasia. Method: Thirty-four adults with chronic aphasia participated in Aphasia Language Impairment and Functioning Therapy. A language and cognitive assessment battery, including 3 baseline naming probes, was administered prior to therapy...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196378/executive-function-in-preschoolers-with-primary-language-impairment
#6
Hui-Chun Yang, Shelley Gray
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether preschoolers with primary language impairment (PLI) show deficits in executive function (EF) compared with their peers with typical development (TD) when inhibition, updating, and mental-set shifting are examined using both linguistically based and visually based tasks. Method: Twenty-two 4- and 5-year-old preschoolers with PLI and 30 preschoolers with TD completed 2 sets of computerized EF tasks: 3 that were linguistically based and 3 that were visually based...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196376/autism-and-bilingualism-a-qualitative-interview-study-of-parents-perspectives-and-experiences
#7
Sarah Hampton, Hugh Rabagliati, Antonella Sorace, Sue Fletcher-Watson
Purpose: Research into how bilingual parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) make choices about their children's language environment is scarce. This study aimed to explore this issue, focusing on understanding how bilingual parents of children with ASD may make different language exposure choices compared with bilingual parents of children without ASD. Method: Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 bilingual parents with a child with ASD and 18 bilingual parents with a typically developing (TD) child...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174821/deficits-in-coordinative-bimanual-timing-precision-in-children-with-specific-language-impairment
#8
Janet Vuolo, Lisa Goffman, Howard N Zelaznik
Purpose: Our objective was to delineate components of motor performance in specific language impairment (SLI); specifically, whether deficits in timing precision in one effector (unimanual tapping) and in two effectors (bimanual clapping) are observed in young children with SLI. Method: Twenty-seven 4- to 5-year-old children with SLI and 21 age-matched peers with typical language development participated. All children engaged in a unimanual tapping and a bimanual clapping timing task...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152131/a-comparative-study-of-the-precision-of-carstens-and-northern-digital-instruments-electromagnetic-articulographs
#9
Christophe Savariaux, Pierre Badin, Adeline Samson, Silvain Gerber
Purpose: This study compares the precision of the electromagnetic articulographs used in speech research: Northern Digital Instruments' Wave and Carstens' AG200, AG500, and AG501 systems. Method: The fluctuation of distances between 3 pairs of sensors attached to a manually rotated device that can position them inside the measurement volumes was determined. For each device, 2 precision estimates made on the basis of the 95% quantile range of these distances (QR95) were defined: The local QR95 was computed for bins around specific rotation angles, and the global QR95 was computed for all angles pooled...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124069/assessing-vowel-centralization-in-dysarthria-a-comparison-of-methods
#10
Annalise R Fletcher, Megan J McAuliffe, Kaitlin L Lansford, Julie M Liss
Purpose: The strength of the relationship between vowel centralization measures and perceptual ratings of dysarthria severity has varied considerably across reports. This article evaluates methods of acoustic-perceptual analysis to determine whether procedural changes can strengthen the association between these measures. Method: Sixty-one speakers (17 healthy individuals and 44 speakers with dysarthria) read a standard passage. To obtain acoustic data, 2 points of formant extraction (midpoint and articulatory point) and 2 frequency measures (Hz and Bark) were trialed...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124067/vocal-ergonomics-in-the-workplace-heating-ventilation-and-air-conditioning-method-influences-on-vocal-comfort-and-function
#11
Mary J Sandage, Keith A Rahn, Audrey G Smith
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning method on voice function following a voicing task using ecologically valid offices, one with radiant HVAC and one with forced air. Method: A total of 12 consented participants (6 women, 6 men) narrated a video in each of 4 environmental conditions in a within-between repeated-measures design. Acoustic data were collected with an ambulatory phonation monitor and perceived phonatory effort was determined following the voicing task...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124066/establishing-language-benchmarks-for-children-with-typically-developing-language-and-children-with-language-impairment
#12
Mary Beth Schmitt, Jessica A R Logan, Sherine R Tambyraja, Kelly Farquharson, Laura M Justice
Purpose: Practitioners, researchers, and policymakers (i.e., stakeholders) have vested interests in children's language growth yet currently do not have empirically driven methods for measuring such outcomes. The present study established language benchmarks for children with typically developing language (TDL) and children with language impairment (LI) from 3 to 9 years of age. Method: Effect sizes for grammar, vocabulary, and overall language were calculated for children with TDL (n = 20,018) using raw score means and standard deviations from 8 norm-referenced measures of language...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124064/tone-attrition-in-mandarin-speakers-of-varying-english-proficiency
#13
Carolyn Quam, Sarah C Creel
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of dominance of Mandarin-English bilinguals' languages affects phonetic processing of tone content in their native language, Mandarin. Method: We tested 72 Mandarin-English bilingual college students with a range of language-dominance profiles in the 2 languages and ages of acquisition of English. Participants viewed 2 photographs at a time while hearing a familiar Mandarin word referring to 1 photograph...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114676/a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study-on-cortical-hemodynamic-responses-to-normal-and-whispered-speech-in-3-to-7-year-old-children
#14
Gerard B Remijn, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Yuko Yoshimura, Kiyomi Shitamichi, Sanae Ueno, Tsunehisa Tsubokawa, Haruyuki Kojima, Haruhiro Higashida, Yoshio Minabe
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess cortical hemodynamic response patterns in 3- to 7-year-old children listening to two speech modes: normally vocalized and whispered speech. Understanding whispered speech requires processing of the relatively weak, noisy signal, as well as the cognitive ability to understand the speaker's reason for whispering. Method: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to assess changes in cortical oxygenated hemoglobin from 16 typically developing children...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114605/auditory-stimulus-processing-and-task-learning-are-adequate-in-dyslexia-but-benefits-from-regularities-are-reduced
#15
Luba Daikhin, Ofri Raviv, Merav Ahissar
Purpose: The reading deficit for people with dyslexia is typically associated with linguistic, memory, and perceptual-discrimination difficulties, whose relation to reading impairment is disputed. We proposed that automatic detection and usage of serial sound regularities for individuals with dyslexia is impaired (anchoring deficit hypothesis), leading to the formation of less reliable sound predictions. Agus, Carrión-Castillo, Pressnitzer, and Ramus, (2014) reported seemingly contradictory evidence by showing similar performance by participants with and without dyslexia in a demanding auditory task that contained task-relevant regularities...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208163/masthead
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114615/hearing-auditory-processing-and-language-skills-of-male-youth-offenders-and-remandees-in-youth-justice-residences-in-new-zealand
#17
Sarah A Lount, Suzanne C Purdy, Linda Hand
Purpose: International evidence suggests youth offenders have greater difficulties with oral language than their nonoffending peers. This study examined the hearing, auditory processing, and language skills of male youth offenders and remandees (YORs) in New Zealand. Method: Thirty-three male YORs, aged 14-17 years, were recruited from 2 youth justice residences, plus 39 similarly aged male students from local schools for comparison. Testing comprised tympanometry, self-reported hearing, pure-tone audiometry, 4 auditory processing tests, 2 standardized language tests, and a nonverbal intelligence test...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114614/directional-microphone-hearing-aids-in-school-environments-working-toward-optimization
#18
Todd A Ricketts, Erin M Picou, Jason Galster
Purpose: The hearing aid microphone setting (omnidirectional or directional) can be selected manually or automatically. This study examined the percentage of time the microphone setting selected using each method was judged to provide the best signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the talkers of interest in school environments. Method: A total of 26 children (aged 6-17 years) with hearing loss were fitted with study hearing aids and evaluated during 2 typical school days...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114613/simulated-critical-differences-for-speech-reception-thresholds
#19
Ellen Raben Pedersen, Peter Møller Juhl
Purpose: Critical differences state by how much 2 test results have to differ in order to be significantly different. Critical differences for discrimination scores have been available for several decades, but they do not exist for speech reception thresholds (SRTs). This study presents and discusses how critical differences for SRTs can be estimated by Monte Carlo simulations. As an application of this method, critical differences are proposed for a 5-word sentences test (a matrix test) using 2 widely implemented adaptive test procedures...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114612/the-impact-of-contrastive-stress-on-vowel-acoustics-and-intelligibility-in-dysarthria
#20
Kathryn P Connaghan, Rupal Patel
Purpose: To compare vowel acoustics and intelligibility in words produced with and without contrastive stress by speakers with spastic (mixed-spastic) dysarthria secondary to cerebral palsy (DYSCP) and healthy controls (HCs). Method: Fifteen participants (9 men, 6 women; age M = 42 years) with DYSCP and 15 HCs (9 men, 6 women; age M = 36 years) produced sentences containing target words with and without contrastive stress. Forty-five healthy listeners (age M = 25 years) completed a vowel identification task of DYSCP productions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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