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Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR

Sarah Colby, Meghan Clayards, Shari Baum
Purpose: This study examined whether older adults remain perceptually flexible when presented with ambiguities in speech in the absence of lexically disambiguating information. We expected older adults to show less perceptual learning when top-down information was not available. We also investigated whether individual differences in executive function predicted perceptual learning in older and younger adults. Method: Younger (n = 31) and older adults (n = 27) completed 2 perceptual learning tasks composed of a pretest, exposure, and posttest phase...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Neeltje P van den Bedem, Julie E Dockrell, Petra M van Alphen, Shareen V Kalicharan, Carolien Rieffe
Purpose: Victimization is a common problem for many children but is exacerbated for children with a developmental language disorder (DLD). However, the severity of communication problems does not explain their victimization rates. In children without DLD, difficulties with emotional competence are a risk factor for victimization and also increase the risk of bullying. In this longitudinal study, we examined the extent to which the level and development of emotional competence (understanding of one's own emotions and levels of anger, sadness, and fear) contributed to the prediction of victimization and bullying in children with and without DLD, over and above the type and severity of communication problems of children with DLD...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Michael P Boyle, Carolina Beita-Ell, Kathryn M Milewski, Alison N Fearon
Purpose: This study aimed to identify contributors to communicative participation in adults who stutter. Specifically, it was of interest to determine whether psychosocial variables of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and social support were predictive of communicative participation beyond contributions of demographic and speech-related variables. Method: Adults who stutter (N = 339) completed an online survey that included measures of communicative participation, self-esteem, self-efficacy, social support, self-reported speech-related variables (speech usage, number of years stuttering, history of treatment and self-help support group participation for stuttering, and physical speech disruption severity), and demographics (age, sex, living situation, education, and employment status)...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Levi C Ofoe, Julie D Anderson, Katerina Ntourou
Purpose: This study presents a meta-analytic review of differences in verbal short-term memory, inhibition, and attention between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). Method: Electronic databases and reference sections of articles were searched for candidate studies that examined verbal short-term memory, inhibition, and attention using behavioral and/or parent report measures. Twenty-nine studies met the eligibility criteria, which included, among other things, children between the ages of 3 and 18 years and the availability of quantitative data for effect size calculations...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Lauren S Baron, Tiffany P Hogan, Mary Alt, Shelley Gray, Kathryn L Cabbage, Samuel Green, Nelson Cowan
Purpose: Orthographic facilitation describes the phenomenon in which a spoken word is produced more accurately when its corresponding written word is present during learning. We examined the orthographic facilitation effect in children with dyslexia because they have poor learning and recall of spoken words. We hypothesized that including orthography during spoken word learning would facilitate learning and recall. Method: Children with dyslexia and children with typical development (n = 46 per group), 7-9 years old, were matched for grade and nonverbal intelligence...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Samuel David Jones, Silke Brandt
Purpose: Despite the apparent primacy of syntactic deficits, children with developmental language disorder (DLD) often also evidence lexical impairments. In particular, it has been argued that this population have difficulty forming lexical representations that are detailed enough to support effective spoken word processing. In order to better understand this deficit, a meta-analysis of studies testing children with DLD in the auditory lexical decision task was conducted. The objective was to provide summary effect size estimates for accuracy and response time measures for comparisons to age- and language-matched control groups...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Elaine Y L Kwok, Marc F Joanisse, Lisa M D Archibald, Janis Oram Cardy
Purpose: Immature auditory processing has been proposed to underlie language impairments in children with developmental language disorder (DLD; also known as specific language impairment). Using newly available normative auditory evoked potential (AEP) waveforms, we estimated AEP maturity in individual children with DLD and explored whether this maturational index was related to their language abilities. Method: AEPs were elicited by 225 trials of a 490-Hz pure tone...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Heather L Porter, Emily R Spitzer, Emily Buss, Lori J Leibold, John H Grose
Purpose: This experiment sought to determine whether children's increased susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking, particularly backward masking, is evident for speech stimuli. Method: Five- to 9-year-olds and adults with normal hearing heard nonsense consonant-vowel-consonant targets. In Experiments 1 and 2, those targets were presented between two 250-ms segments of 70-dB-SPL speech-shaped noise, at either -30 dB signal-to-noise ratio (Experiment 1) or at the listener's word recognition threshold (Experiment 2)...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Alexander L Francis, Laura J Tigchelaar, Rongrong Zhang, Adriana Zekveld
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2nd language proficiency and linguistic uncertainty on performance and listening effort in mixed language contexts. Method: Thirteen native speakers of Dutch with varying degrees of fluency in English listened to and repeated sentences produced in both Dutch and English and presented in the presence of single-talker competing speech in both Dutch and English. Target and masker language combinations were presented in both blocked and mixed (unpredictable) conditions...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Kara M Smith, Sharon Ash, Sharon X Xie, Murray Grossman
Purpose: Early cognitive symptoms such as word-finding difficulty (WFD) in daily conversation are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but studies have been limited by a lack of feasible, quantitative measures. Linguistic analysis, focused on pauses in speech, may yield markers of impairment of cognition and communication in PD. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of linguistic markers in semistructured speech to WFD symptoms and cognitive function in PD. Method: Speech recordings of description of the Cookie Theft picture in 53 patients with PD without dementia and 23 elderly controls were analyzed with Praat software...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Sven Kachel, Adrian P Simpson, Melanie C Steffens
Purpose: This study aims to give an integrative answer on which speech stereotypes exist toward German gay and straight men, whether and how acoustic correlates of actual and perceived sexual orientation are connected, and how this relates to masculinity/femininity. Hence, it tests speech stereotype accuracy in the context of sexual orientation. Method: Twenty-five gay and 26 straight German speakers provided data for a fine-grained psychological self-assessment (e...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Karina F M Tao, Christopher G Brennan-Jones, Dirce M Capobianco-Fava, Dona M P Jayakody, Peter L Friedland, De Wet Swanepoel, Robert H Eikelboom
Purpose: This review examined (a) the current evidence from studies on teleaudiology applications for rehabilitation of adults with hearing impairment with hearing aids and (b) whether it is sufficient to support the translation into routine clinical practice. Method: A search strategy and eligibility criteria were utilized to include articles specifically related to hearing aid fitting and follow-up procedures that are involved in consultations for the rehabilitation of adults, where the service was provided by the clinician by teleaudiology...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Julia Schuchard, Erica L Middleton
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine how 2 methods known to improve naming impairment in aphasia (i.e., retrieval practice and errorless learning) affect lexical access. We hypothesized that instances of naming during retrieval practice use and strengthen item-specific connections in each of 2 stages of lexical access: Stage 1, meaning-to-word connections, and Stage 2, word-to-phonology connections. In contrast, errorless learning prioritizes opportunities for repeating words, which we expect to primarily strengthen item-specific connections in Stage 2 because repetition circumvents the need for semantically driven word retrieval...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Rachael R Baiduc, Sumitrajit Dhar
Purpose: Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are a by-product of active cochlear processes that lead to the compressive nonlinearity of healthy ears. The most commonly studied emission is at the frequency 2f1-f2, but there has been recent interest in using the quadratic distortion product at the frequency f2-f1 to detect cochleopathies including endolymphatic hydrops. Before the DPOAE at f2-f1 can be applied clinically in any capacity, optimal stimulus parameters for its elicitation must be established...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Manon Robillard, Annie Roy-Charland, Sylvie Cazabon
Purpose: This study examined the role of cognition on the navigational process of a speech-generating device (SGD) among individuals with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective was to investigate the role of various cognitive factors (i.e., cognitive flexibility, sustained attention, categorization, fluid reasoning, and working memory) on the ability to navigate an SGD with dynamic paging and taxonomic grids in individuals with ASD. Method: Twenty individuals aged 5 to 20 years with ASD were assessed using the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Roid & Miller, 1997) and the Automated Working Memory Assessment (Alloway, 2007)...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Hope Gerlach, Evan Totty, Anu Subramanian, Patricia Zebrowski
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify relationships between stuttering and labor market outcomes, determine if outcomes differ by gender, and explain the earnings difference between people who stutter and people who do not stutter. Method: Survey and interview data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Of the 13,564 respondents who completed 4 waves of surveys over 14 years and answered questions about stuttering, 261 people indicated that they stutter...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Tara O'Neill, Janice Light, Lauramarie Pope
Purpose: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions that included aided AAC input (e.g., aided AAC modeling, aided language modeling, aided language stimulation, augmented input) on communicative outcomes (both comprehension and expression) for individuals with developmental disabilities who use AAC. Method: A systematic search resulted in the identification of 26 single-case experimental designs (88 participants) and 2 group experimental designs (103 participants)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Tiphaine Caudrelier, Jean-Luc Schwartz, Pascal Perrier, Silvain Gerber, Amélie Rochet-Capellan
Purpose: Words, syllables, and phonemes have each been regarded as basic encoding units of speech production in various psycholinguistic models. The present article investigates the role of each unit in the interface with speech articulation, using a paradigm from motor control research. Method: Seventy-six native speakers of French were trained to change their production of /be/ in response to an auditory feedback perturbation (auditory-motor learning). We then assessed the magnitude of learning transfer from /be/ to the syllables in 2 pseudowords (/bepe/ and /pebe/) and 1 real word (/bebe/) as well as the aftereffect on the same utterance (/be/) with a between-subjects design...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Leah B Helou, Clark A Rosen, Wei Wang, Katherine Verdolini Abbott
Purpose: Research suggests that abnormal levels of intrinsic laryngeal muscle (ILM) contraction is a potential causal factor in stress-induced voice disorders. This study seeks to characterize the ILM stress response in a cohort of vocally healthy women. Method: The authors used an unblinded, nonrandomized, repeated-measures design. Forty vocally healthy female adults were subjected to a stressful speech preparation task. Measurements of heart rate, blood pressure, trapezius muscle (positive control) activation, and tibialis muscle (negative control) activation were obtained from 37 participants before and during stressor exposure, in a nonvoice and nonspeaking task paradigm, to confirm physiological stress response compared to baseline...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Adele Gregory, Marija Tabain, Michael Robb
Purpose: Infant vocal durations have been studied from a variety of perspectives, including medical, social, and linguistic. The resultant developmental profile across the first 6 months of life, however, is still far from clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the durational properties of infant vocalizations from the unique perspective of voice quality. By considering an infant's modal and nonmodal voice qualities, the developmental range of vocalizations produced by infants during the early months of life was captured...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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