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Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology

Daisuke Matsui, Ken-Ichi Fuhshuku, Shingo Nagamori, Momoko Takata, Yasuhisa Asano
Limited information is available on α-amino-ε-caprolactam (ACL) racemase (ACLR), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme that acts on ACL and α-amino acid amides. In the present study, eight bacterial strains with the ability to racemize α-amino-ε-caprolactam were isolated and one of them was identified as Ensifer sp. strain 23-3. The gene for ACLR from Ensifer sp. 23-3 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant ACLR was then purified to homogeneity from the E. coli transformant harboring the ACLR gene from Ensifer sp...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Abbas Ismail, Rosli Md Illias
The excretion of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) into the culture medium offers significant advantages over cytoplasmic expression. However, the limitation of Escherichia coli is its inability to excrete high amount of CGTase outside the cells. In this study, modification of the hydrophobic region of the N1R3 signal peptide using site-saturation mutagenesis improved the excretion of CGTase. Signal peptide mutants designated M9F, V10L and A15Y enhanced the excretion of CGTase three-fold and demonstrated two-fold higher secretion rate than the wild type...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
María De La Torre, Raquel Martín-Sampedro, Úrsula Fillat, María E Eugenio, Alba Blánquez, Manuel Hernández, María E Arias, David Ibarra
This study evaluates the potential of a bacterial laccase from Streptomyces ipomoeae (SilA) for delignification and detoxification of steam-exploded wheat straw, in comparison with a commercial fungal laccase from Trametes villosa. When alkali extraction followed by SilA laccase treatment was applied to the water insoluble solids fraction, a slight reduction in lignin content was detected, and after a saccharification step, an increase in both glucose and xylose production (16 and 6%, respectively) was observed...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Sumit Joshi, Shweta Goyal, Abhijit Mukherjee, M Sudhakara Reddy
Concrete is the most widely used construction material of the world and maintaining concrete structures from premature deterioration is proving to be a great challenge. Early age formation of micro-cracking in concrete structure severely affects the serviceability leading to high cost of maintenance. Apart from conventional methods of repairing cracks with sealants or treating the concrete with adhesive chemicals to prevent the cracks from widening, a microbial crack-healing approach has shown promising results...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Daiane Dias Lopes, Carlos Augusto Rosa, Ronald E Hector, Bruce S Dien, Jeffrey A Mertens, Marco Antônio Záchia Ayub
An industrial ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with genes of fungal oxido-reductive pathway needed for xylose fermentation integrated into its genome (YRH1415) was used to obtain haploids and diploid isogenic strains. The isogenic strains were more effective in metabolizing xylose than YRH1415 strain and able to co-ferment glucose and xylose in the presence of high concentrations of inhibitors resulting from the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass (switchgrass). The rate of xylose consumption did not appear to be affected by the ploidy of strains or the presence of two copies of the xylose fermentation genes but by heterozygosity of alleles for xylose metabolism in YRH1415...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Ping Li, Xuewu Guo, Tingting Shi, Zhihui Hu, Yefu Chen, Liping Du, Dongguang Xiao
As a byproduct of yeast valine metabolism during fermentation, diacetyl can produce a buttery aroma in wine. However, high diacetyl concentrations generate an aromatic off-flavor and poor quality in wine. 2,3-Butanediol dehydrogenase encoded by BDH1 can catalyze the two reactions of acetoin from diacetyl and 2,3-butanediol from acetoin. BDH2 is a gene adjacent to BDH1, and these genes are regulated reciprocally. In this study, BDH1 and BDH2 were overexpressed in Saccharomyces uvarum to reduce the diacetyl production of wine either individually or in combination...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Su Jin Lee, Geun-Young Sim, Youngshim Lee, Bong-Gyu Kim, Joong-Hoon Ahn
Plants synthesize various phenol amides. Among them, hydroxycinnamoyl (HC) tryptamines and serotonins exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic activities. We synthesized HC-tryptamines and HC-serotonin from several HCs and either tryptamine or serotonin using Escherichia coli harboring the 4CL (4-coumaroyl CoA ligase) and CaHCTT [hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A:serotonin N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase] genes. E. coli was engineered to synthesize N-cinnamoyl tryptamine from glucose. TDC (tryptophan decarboxylase) and PAL (phenylalanine ammonia lyase) along with 4CL and CaHCTT were introduced into E...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Jinchun Sun, Jinshan Jin, Richard D Beger, Carl E Cerniglia, Huizhong Chen
Dyes containing one or more azo linkages are widely applied in cosmetics, tattooing, food and drinks, pharmaceuticals, printing inks, plastics, leather, as well as paper industries. Previously we reported that bacteria living on human skin have the ability to reduce some azo dyes to aromatic amines, which raises potential safety concerns regarding human dermal exposure to azo dyes such as those in tattoo ink and cosmetic colorant formulations. To comprehensively investigate azo dye-induced toxicity by skin bacteria activation, it is very critical to understand the mechanism of metabolism of the azo dyes at the systems biology level...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Cheng Wang, Jiao Liu, Huanhuan Liu, Shaoxiong Liang, Jianping Wen
Tacrolimus is widely used as an immunosuppressant in the treatment of various autoimmune diseases. However, the low fermentation yield of tacrolimus has thus far restricted its industrial applications. To solve this problem, the time-series response mechanisms of the intracellular metabolism that were highly correlated with tacrolimus biosynthesis were investigated using different exogenous feeding strategies in S. tsukubaensis. The metabolomic datasets, which contained 93 metabolites, were subjected to weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA), and eight distinct metabolic modules and seven hub metabolites were identified to be specifically associated with tacrolimus biosynthesis...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Brady D Lee, William A Apel, Linda C DeVeaux, Peter P Sheridan
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius is a thermoacidophilic bacterium capable of growth on sugars from plant biomass. Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) allows bacteria to focus cellular resources on a sugar that provides efficient growth, but also allows sequential, rather than simultaneous use when more than one sugar is present. The A. acidocaldarius genome encodes all components of CCR, but transporters encoded are multifacilitator superfamily and ATP-binding cassette-type transporters, uncommon for CCR. Therefore, global transcriptome analysis of A...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Chenbing Ai, Samuel McCarthy, Yuting Liang, Deepak Rudrappa, Guanzhou Qiu, Paul Blum
Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was employed to isolate arsenate and copper cross-resistant strains, from the copper-resistant M. sedula CuR1. The evolved strains, M. sedula ARS50-1 and M. sedula ARS50-2, contained 12 and 13 additional mutations, respectively, relative to M. sedula CuR1. Bioleaching capacity of a defined consortium (consisting of a naturally occurring strain and a genetically engineered copper sensitive strain) was increased by introduction of M. sedula ARS50-2, with 5.31 and 26.29% more copper recovered from enargite at a pulp density (PD) of 1 and 3% (w/v), respectively...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Irina Funk, Nina Rimmel, Christoph Schorsch, Volker Sieber, Jochen Schmid
Dodecanedioic acid (DDA) is highly useful to the chemical industry as a versatile precursor for producing the polyamide nylon-6,12, which is used for many technical applications, such as heat and chemical-resistant sheaths. However, DDA synthesis has several drawbacks, such as high energy input and cost-intensive removal of by-products. Therefore, alternative bio-based production routes are required due to increasing industrial demand for green chemicals and renewable products. Candida tropicalis converts petrochemical-based n-dodecanes to the corresponding dicarboxylic acids by targeted functionalization...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Xianghao Wu, Mark A Eiteman
Citramalic acid (citramalate) serves as a five-carbon precursor for the chemical synthesis of methacrylic acid. We compared citramalate and acetate accumulation from glycerol using Escherichia coli strains expressing a modified citramalate synthase gene cimA from Methanococcus jannaschii. These studies revealed that gltA coding citrate synthase, leuC coding 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase, and acetate pathway genes play important roles in elevating citramalate and minimizing acetate formation. Controlled 1.0 L batch experiments confirmed that deletions in all three acetate-production genes (poxB, ackA, and pta) were necessary to reduce acetate formation to less than 1 g/L during citramalate production from 30 g/L glycerol...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
M J Mert, S H Rose, D C la Grange, T Bamba, T Hasunuma, A Kondo, W H van Zyl
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot utilize xylose, but the introduction of a xylose isomerase that functions well in yeast will help overcome the limitations of the fungal oxido-reductive pathway. In this study, a diploid S. cerevisiae S288c[2n YMX12] strain was constructed expressing the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron xylA (XI) and the Scheffersomyces stipitis xyl3 (XK) and the changes in the metabolite pools monitored over time. Cultivation on xylose generally resulted in gradual changes in metabolite pool size over time, whereas more dramatic fluctuations were observed with cultivation on glucose due to the diauxic growth pattern...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Lina Liu, Sheng Chen, Jing Wu
Escherichia coli FB-04(pta1), a recombinant L-tryptophan production strain, was constructed in our laboratory. However, the conversion rate (L-tryptophan yield per glucose) of this strain is somewhat low. In this study, additional genes have been deleted in an effort to increase the conversion rate of E. coli FB-04(pta1). Initially, the pykF gene, which encodes pyruvate kinase I (PYKI), was inactivated to increase the accumulation of phosphoenolpyruvate, a key L-tryptophan precursor. The resulting strain, E...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Lixia Yang, Liangzhen Jiang, Wei Li, Yun Yang, Guolin Zhang, Yinggang Luo
Geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the unique precursor for all monoterpenoids, is biosynthesized from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate via the head-to-tail condensation reaction catalyzed by GPP synthase (GPPS). Herein a homomeric GPPS from Camptotheca acuminata, a camptothecin-producing plant, was obtained from 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends and subsequent overlap extension and convenient PCR amplifications. The truncate CaGPPS was introduced to replace ispA of pBbA5c-MevT(CO)-MBIS(CO, ispA), a de novo biosynthetic construct for farnesyl diphosphate generation, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, together with the truncate geraniol synthase-encoding gene from C...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Xiu Yun Lei, Ming Ye Zhang, Yan Jun Ma, Jian Wen Wang
The addition of surfactant is a useful strategy to enhance the product yield in submerged fermentation process. In this study, we sought to explore the mechanism for the elicitation of Triton X-100 on production of hypocrellin A (HA) in cultures of Shiraia bambusicola through transcriptomic analysis. Triton X-100 at 2.5% (w/v) not only induced HA biosynthesis in mycelia, but also stimulated the release of HA into the medium. We found 23 of 2463 transcripts, possible candidate genes for HA biosynthesis under Triton X-100 induction...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Luis A Garay, Irnayuli R Sitepu, Tomas Cajka, Erin Cathcart, Oliver Fiehn, J Bruce German, David E Block, Kyria L Boundy-Mills
Microbial oils have been analyzed as alternatives to petroleum. However, just a handful of microbes have been successfully adapted to produce chemicals that can compete with their petroleum counterparts. One of the reasons behind the low success rate is the overall economic inefficiency of valorizing a single product. This study presents a lab-scale analysis of two yeast species that simultaneously produce multiple high-value bioproducts: intracellular triacylglycerols (TG) and extracellular polyol esters of fatty acids (PEFA), two lipid classes with immediate applications in the biofuels and surfactant industries...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Syed Bilal Jilani, Siva Sai Krishna Venigalla, Anu Jose Mattam, Chandra Dev, Syed Shams Yazdani
E. coli has the ability to ferment both C5 and C6 sugars and produce mixture of acids along with small amount of ethanol. In our previous study, we reported the construction of an ethanologenic E. coli strain by modulating flux through the endogenous pathways. In the current study, we made further changes in the strain to make the overall process industry friendly; the changes being (1) removal of plasmid, (2) use of low-cost defined medium, and (3) improvement in consumption rate of both C5 and C6 sugars. We first constructed a plasmid-free strain SSY13 and passaged it on AM1-xylose minimal medium plate for 150 days...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Pei Liu, Wei Wang, Dongzhi Wei
Filamentous fungi have wide applications in the field of biotechnology. The use of transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) is a powerful genome-engineering tool, which can facilitate genome editing and transcriptional modulation, and has been used for genetic modification in a variety of organisms. However, a transcription activator-like effectors nuclease (TALEN) approach has not been used in filamentous fungi so far. Here, we aimed to establish the shortest TALEN and TALE-transcription factor (TALE-TF) proteins for use in gene modification and transcription in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
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