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Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology

Ramesh Kumar Saini, Young-Soo Keum
Carotenoids are a diverse group of isoprenoid pigments that play crucial roles in plants, animals, and microorganisms, including body pigmentation, bio-communication, precursors for vitamin A, and potent antioxidant activities. With their potent antioxidant activities, carotenoids are emerging as molecules of vital importance in protecting against chronic degenerative disease, such as aging, cancer, cataract, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Due to countless functions in the cellular system, carotenoids are extensively used in dietary supplements, food colorants, aquaculture and poultry feed, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Je Won Park, Yeo Joon Yoon
Macrolides, especially 14-membered macrolides, are a valuable group of antibiotics that originate from various microorganisms. In addition to their antibacterial activity, newly discovered 14-membered macrolides exhibit other therapeutic potentials, such as anti-proliferative and anti-protistal activities. Combinatorial biosynthetic approaches will allow us to create structurally diversified macrolide analogs, which are especially important during the emerging post-antibiotic era. This review focuses on recent advances in the discovery of new 14-membered macrolides (also including macrolactones) from microorganisms and the current status of combinatorial biosynthetic approaches, including polyketide synthase (PKS) and post-PKS tailoring pathways, and metabolic engineering for improved production together with heterologous production of 14-membered macrolides...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Bettina Lorántfy, Anna Johanson, Fábio Faria-Oliveira, Carl Johan Franzén, Valeria Mapelli, Lisbeth Olsson
Lactose conversion by lactic acid bacteria is of high industrial relevance and consistent starter culture quality is of outmost importance. We observed that Lactococcus lactis using the high-affinity lactose-phosphotransferase system excreted galactose towards the end of the lactose consumption phase. The excreted galactose was re-consumed after lactose depletion. The lacS gene, known to encode a lactose permease with affinity for galactose, a putative galactose-lactose antiporter, was upregulated under the conditions studied...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Hui Wang, Xin Zhang, Jin Qiu, Kaikai Wang, Kun Meng, Huiying Luo, Xiaoyun Su, Rui Ma, Huoqing Huang, Bin Yao
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens K11 is a hyperproducer of extracellular neutral protease, which can produce recombinant homologous protein steadily and is amenable to scale up to high-cell density fermentation. The present study aims to genetically modify strain K11 as a highly efficient secretory expression system for high-level production of heterologous proteins. Using B. amyloliquefaciens K11 and alkaline protease gene BcaprE as the expression host and model gene, the gene expression levels mediated by combinations of promoters PamyQ, PaprE and Pnpr and signal peptides SPamyQ, SPaprE and SPnpr were assessed on shake flask level...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Jillian M Hagel, Xue Chen, Peter J Facchini
Since the 1930s, parabens have been employed widely as preservatives in food, pharmaceutical, and personal care products. These alkyl esters of benzoic acid occur naturally in a broad range of plant species, where they are thought to enhance overall fitness through disease resistance and allelopathy. Current manufacture of parabens relies on chemical synthesis and the processing of 4-hydroxybenzoate as a precursor. A variety of bio-based production platforms have targeted 4-hydroxybenzoate for a greener alternative to chemical manufacturing, but parabens have yet to be made in microbes...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Sebastian Finger, Félix A Godoy, Geraldine Wittwer, Carlos P Aranda, Raúl Calderón, Claudio D Miranda
The interest in and demand for natural dyes has increased significantly in recent years; however, very few natural blue dyes are commercially available, because blue colored compounds in nature are relatively rare. In this study, a blue pigment-producing bacteria from Lake Chungará (Atacama Desert, Chile) was isolated, and its blue pigment was purified and chemically characterized. The pigment-producing strain was identified as Pseudarthrobacter sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The pigment was separated from the filtered culture medium by column chromatography/solid-phase extraction using different resins (ionic exchange, C-18, size exclusion)...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Christian Keggi, Joy Doran-Peterson
A draft genome of Paenibacillus amylolyticus 27C64 was assembled and a total of 314 putative CAZymes in 108 different families were identified. Comparison to well-studied polysaccharide-degrading organisms revealed that P. amylolyticus 27C64 has as many or more putative CAZymes than most of these organisms. Four different pectic substrates and xylan supported growth but cellulose was not utilized. Measurement of enzyme activities in culture supernatants revealed low levels of cellulase activity, high levels of xylanase activity, and pectinase activities that adapted to the specific polysaccharides provided...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Qian Ma, Yan-Hui Bi, En-Xu Wang, Bing-Bing Zhai, Xiu-Tao Dong, Bin Qiao, Ming-Zhu Ding, Ying-Jin Yuan
Microbial consortia, with the merits of strong stability, robustness, and multi-function, played critical roles in human health, bioenergy, and food manufacture, etc. On the basis of 'build a consortium to understand it', a novel microbial consortium consisted of Gluconobacter oxydans, Ketogulonicigenium vulgare and Bacillus endophyticus was reconstructed to produce 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KGA), the precursor of vitamin C. With this synthetic consortium, 73.7 g/L 2-KGA was obtained within 30 h, which is comparable to the conventional industrial method...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Alvaro Díaz-Barrera, Viviana Urtuvia, Claudio Padilla-Córdova, Carlos Peña
Azotobacter vinelandii OP is a bacterium that produces poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). PHB production in a stirred bioreactor, at different oxygen transfer strategies, was evaluated. By applying different oxygen contents in the inlet gas, the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) was changed under a constant agitation rate. Batch cultures were performed without dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) control (using 9% and 21% oxygen in the inlet gas) and under DOT control (4%) using gas blending. The cultures that developed without DOT control were limited by oxygen...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Feng Peng, Xiuxia Liu, Xinyue Wang, Jing Chen, Meng Liu, Yankun Yang, Zhonghu Bai
In our previous work, a two-plasmid CRISPR/Cas9 system was constructed for genome editing in Corynebacterium glutamicum. To increase the transformation efficiency and simplify the plasmid curing steps, an all-in-one CRISPR/Cas9 system was constructed for efficient genome editing. In addition, to research proteolysis during the production of recombinant proteins and generate a host for enhanced expression of recombinant proteins, the system was used to delete three genes, clpC, porB, and mepA in C. glutamicum CGMCC1...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Shaozhou Zhu, Guojun Zheng
γ-Lactamases are versatile enzymes used for enzymatic kinetic resolution of racemic Vince lactam (2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-3-one) in the industry. Optically pure enantiomers and their hydrolytic products are widely employed as key chemical intermediates for developing a wide range of carbocyclic nucleoside medicines, including US FDA-approved drugs peramivir and abacavir. Owing to the broad applications in the healthcare industry, the resolution process of Vince lactam has witnessed tremendous progress during the past decades...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Brian Gibson, Virve Vidgren, Gopal Peddinti, Kristoffer Krogerus
Diacetyl contributes to the flavor profile of many fermented products. Its typical buttery flavor is considered as an off flavor in lager-style beers, and its removal has a major impact on time and energy expenditure in breweries. Here, we investigated the possibility of lowering beer diacetyl levels through evolutionary engineering of lager yeast for altered synthesis of α-acetolactate, the precursor of diacetyl. Cells were exposed repeatedly to a sub-lethal level of chlorsulfuron, which inhibits the acetohydroxy acid synthase responsible for α-acetolactate production...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Fumitaka Kudo, Akimasa Miyanaga, Tadashi Eguchi
Nonproteinogenic amino acids are the unique building blocks of nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and hybrid nonribosomal peptide-polyketides (NRP-PKs) and contribute to their diversity of chemical structures and biological activities. In the biosynthesis of NRPs and NRP-PKs, adenylation enzymes select and activate an amino acid substrate as an aminoacyl adenylate, which reacts with the thiol of the holo form of the carrier protein to afford an aminoacyl thioester as the electrophile for the condensation reaction...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Jeffrey S Li, Colin Charles Barber, Wenjun Zhang
Natural product discovery in the microbial world has historically been biased toward aerobes. Recent in silico analysis demonstrates that genomes of anaerobes encode unexpected biosynthetic potential for natural products, however, chemical data on natural products from the anaerobic world are extremely limited. Here, we review the current body of work on natural products isolated from strictly anaerobic microbes, including recent genome mining efforts to discover polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides from anaerobes...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Marc G Chevrette, Cameron R Currie
Antibiotics revolutionized medicine and remain its cornerstone. Despite their global importance and the continuous threat of resistant pathogens, few antibiotics have been discovered in recent years. Natural products, especially the secondary metabolites of Actinobacteria, have been the traditional discovery source of antibiotics. In nature, the chemistry of antibiotic natural products is shaped by the unique evolution and ecology of their producing organisms, yet these influences remain largely unknown. Here, we highlight the ecology of antibiotics employed by microbes in defensive symbioses and review the evolutionary processes underlying the chemical diversity and activity of microbe-derived antibiotics, including the dynamics of vertical and lateral transmission of biosynthetic pathways and the evolution of efficacy, targeting specificity, and toxicity...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Chiraz Soumia M Amrine, Huzefa A Raja, Blaise A Darveaux, Cedric J Pearce, Nicholas H Oberlies
Verticillins are a group of epipolythiodioxopiperazine alkaloids that have displayed potent cytotoxicity. To evaluate their potential further, a larger supply of these compounds was needed for both in vivo studies and analogue development via semisynthesis. To optimize the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites, their production was analyzed in two different fungal strains (MSX59553 and MSX79542) under a suite of fermentation conditions. These studies were facilitated by the use of the droplet-liquid microjunction-surface sampling probe (droplet probe), which enables chemical analysis in situ directly from the surface of the cultures...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Amanda Dodd, Dirk Swanevelder, Nerve Zhou, Dean Brady, John E Hallsworth, Karl Rumbold
Actinomycetes are the most important microorganisms for the industrial production of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial and anticancer properties. However, they have not been implicated in biorefineries. Here, we study the ability of the ε-poly-L-lysine producing Streptomyces albulus BCRC 11814 to utilize biodiesel-derived crude glycerol. S. albulus was cultured in a mineral medium supplemented with up to 10% w/v sodium chloride or potassium chloride, and with crude glycerol as the sole carbohydrate source...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Zhengming Zhu, Xiaomei Ji, Zhimeng Wu, Juan Zhang, Guocheng Du
Acid accumulation caused by carbon metabolism severely affects the fermentation performance of microbial cells. Here, different sources of the recT gene involved in homologous recombination were functionally overexpressed in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 and Escherichia coli BL21, and their acid-stress tolerances were investigated. Our results showed that L. lactis NZ9000 (ERecT and LRecT) strains showed 1.4- and 10.4-fold higher survival rates against lactic acid (pH 4.0), respectively, and that E. coli BL21 (ERecT) showed 16...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Rongzhan Fu, Qiang Fei, Longan Shang, Christopher J Brigham, Ho Nam Chang
As a potential feedstock for biofuel production, a high-cell-density continuous culture for the lipid production by Cryptococcus albidus was investigated in this study. The influences of dilution rates in the single-stage continuous cultures were explored first. To reach a high-cell-density culture, a single-stage continuous culture coupled with a membrane cell recycling system was carried out at a constant dilution rate of 0.36/h with varied bleeding ratios. The maximum lipid productivity of 0.69 g/L/h was achieved with the highest bleeding ratio of 0...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Robert L Bertrand, John L Sorensen
Lichens are fungi that form symbiotic partnerships with algae. Although lichens produce diverse polyketides, difficulties in establishing and maintaining lichen cultures have prohibited detailed studies of their biosynthetic pathways. Creative, albeit non-definitive, methods have been developed to assign function to biosynthetic gene clusters in lieu of techniques such as gene knockout and heterologous expressions that are commonly applied to easily cultivatable organisms. We review a total of 81 completely sequenced polyketide synthase (PKS) genes from lichenizing fungi, comprising to our best efforts all complete and reported PKS genes in lichenizing fungi to date...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
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