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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337562/bace2-suppression-promotes-%C3%AE-cell-survival-and-function-in-a-model-of-type-2-diabetes-induced-by-human-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-overexpression
#1
Gema Alcarraz-Vizán, Carlos Castaño, Montse Visa, Joel Montane, Joan-Marc Servitja, Anna Novials
BACE2 (β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 2) is a protease expressed in the brain, but also in the pancreas, where it seems to play a physiological role. Amyloidogenic diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D), share the accumulation of abnormally folded and insoluble proteins that interfere with cell function. In T2D, islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) deposits have been shown to be a pathogenic key feature of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of BACE2 modulation on β-cell alterations in a mouse model of T2D induced by IAPP overexpression...
March 23, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331999/the-acidic-microenvironment-as-a-possible-niche-of-dormant-tumor-cells
#2
REVIEW
Silvia Peppicelli, Elena Andreucci, Jessica Ruzzolini, Anna Laurenzana, Francesca Margheri, Gabriella Fibbi, Mario Del Rosso, Francesca Bianchini, Lido Calorini
Although surgical excision, chemo-, and radio-therapy are clearly advanced, tumors may relapse due to cells of the so-called "minimal residual disease". Indeed, small clusters of tumor cells persist in host tissues after treatment of the primary tumor elaborating strategies to survive and escape from immunological attacks before their relapse: this variable period of remission is known as "cancer dormancy". Therefore, it is crucial to understand and consider the major concepts addressing dormancy, to identify new targets and disclose potential clinical strategies...
March 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321489/microrna-regulation-and-analytical-methods-in-cancer-cell-metabolism
#3
REVIEW
Ling-Fei Zhang, Shuai Jiang, Mo-Fang Liu
The reprogramming of glucose metabolism from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism, known as the Warburg effect, is an anomalous characteristic of cancer cell metabolism. Recent studies have revealed a subset of microRNAs (miRNAs) that play critical roles in regulating the reprogramming of glucose metabolism in cancer cells. These miRNAs regulate cellular glucose metabolism by directly targeting multiple metabolic genes, including those encoding key glycolytic enzymes. In the first part of this review, we summarized the recent knowledge of miRNA regulation in the reprogramming of glucose metabolism in cancer cells and discussed the potential utilization of the key miRNA regulators as metabolic targets for developing new antitumor agents...
March 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321488/evolutionary-gain-of-highly-divergent-trna-specificities-by-two-isoforms-of-human-histidyl-trna-synthetase
#4
Yi-Hsueh Lee, Chia-Pei Chang, Yu-Ju Cheng, Yi-Yi Kuo, Yeong-Shin Lin, Chien-Chia Wang
The discriminator base N73 is a key identity element of tRNA(His). In eukaryotes, N73 is an "A" in cytoplasmic tRNA(His) and a "C" in mitochondrial tRNA(His). We present evidence herein that yeast histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS) recognizes both A73 and C73, but somewhat prefers A73 even within the context of mitochondrial tRNA(His). In contrast, humans possess two distinct yet closely related HisRS homologues, with one encoding the cytoplasmic form (with an extra N-terminal WHEP domain) and the other encoding its mitochondrial counterpart (with an extra N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signal)...
March 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315952/kinetic-analysis-size-profiling-and-bioenergetic-association-of-dna-released-by-selected-cell-lines-in-vitro
#5
Janine Aucamp, Abel J Bronkhorst, Dimetrie L Peters, Hayley C Van Dyk, Francois H Van der Westhuizen, Piet J Pretorius
Although circulating DNA (cirDNA) analysis shows great promise as a screening tool for a wide range of pathologies, numerous stumbling blocks hinder the rapid translation of research to clinical practice. This is related directly to the inherent complexity of the in vivo setting, wherein the influence of complex systems of interconnected cellular responses and putative DNA sources creates a seemingly arbitrary representation of the quantitative and qualitative properties of the cirDNA in the blood of any individual...
March 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315951/erratum-to-mechanisms-controlling-germline-cyst-breakdown-and-primordial-follicle-formation
#6
Chao Wang, Bo Zhou, Guoliang Xia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314894/development-of-anticancer-agents-targeting-the-hedgehog-signaling
#7
REVIEW
Xiangqian Zhang, Ye Tian, Yanling Yang, Jijun Hao
Hedgehog signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway which is essential in embryonic and postnatal development as well as adult organ homeostasis. Abnormal regulation of Hedgehog signaling is implicated in many diseases including cancer. Consequently, substantial efforts have made in the past to develop potential therapeutic agents that specifically target the Hedgehog signaling for cancer treatment. Here, we review the therapeutic agents for inhibition of the Hedgehog signaling and their clinical advances in cancer treatment...
March 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314893/integration-of-mrnp-formation-and-export
#8
REVIEW
Petra Björk, Lars Wieslander
Expression of protein-coding genes in eukaryotes relies on the coordinated action of many sophisticated molecular machineries. Transcription produces precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNAs) and the active gene provides an environment in which the pre-mRNAs are processed, folded, and assembled into RNA-protein (RNP) complexes. The dynamic pre-mRNPs incorporate the growing transcript, proteins, and the processing machineries, as well as the specific protein marks left after processing that are essential for export and the cytoplasmic fate of the mRNPs...
March 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314892/abnormal-kynurenine-pathway-of-tryptophan-catabolism-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Ping Song, Tharmarajan Ramprasath, Huan Wang, Ming-Hui Zou
Kynurenine pathway (KP) is the primary path of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism in most mammalian cells. The KP generates several bioactive catabolites, such as kynurenine (Kyn), kynurenic acid (KA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), xanthurenic acid (XA), and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA). Increased catabolite concentrations in serum are associated with several cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including heart disease, atherosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction, as well as their risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and aging...
March 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299384/impairment-of-systemic-dha-synthesis-affects-macrophage-plasticity-and-polarization-implications-for-dha-supplementation-during-inflammation
#10
Emanuela Talamonti, Anna M Pauter, Abolfazl Asadi, Alexander W Fischer, Valerio Chiurchiù, Anders Jacobsson
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid obtained from the diet or synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid through the action of fatty acid elongases (ELOVL) and desaturases. DHA plays important roles in the central nervous system as well as in peripheral organs and is the precursor of several molecules that regulate resolution of inflammation. In the present study, we questioned whether impaired synthesis of DHA affected macrophage plasticity and polarization both in vitro and in vivo models. For this we investigated the activation status and inflammatory response of bone marrow-derived M1 and M2 macrophages obtained from mice deficient of Elovl2 (Elovl2(-/-)), a key enzyme for DHA synthesis in mammals...
March 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293718/transfection-of-primary-brain-capillary-endothelial-cells-for-protein-synthesis-and-secretion-of-recombinant-erythropoietin-a-strategy-to-enable-protein-delivery-to-the-brain
#11
Annette Burkhart, Thomas Lars Andresen, Achim Aigner, Louiza Bohn Thomsen, Torben Moos
Treatment of chronic disorders affecting the central nervous system (CNS) is complicated by the inability of drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Non-viral gene therapy applied to brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) denotes a novel approach to overcome the restraints in this passage, as turning BCECs into recombinant protein factories by transfection could result in protein secretion further into the brain. The present study aims to investigate the possibility of transfecting primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBECs) for recombinant protein synthesis and secretion of the neuroprotective protein erythropoietin (EPO)...
March 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289760/pten-proteoforms-in-biology-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Prerna Malaney, Vladimir N Uversky, Vrushank Davé
Proteoforms are specific molecular forms of protein products arising from a single gene that possess different structures and different functions. Therefore, a single gene can produce a large repertoire of proteoforms by means of allelic variations (mutations, indels, SNPs), alternative splicing and other pre-translational mechanisms, post-translational modifications (PTMs), conformational dynamics, and functioning. Resulting proteoforms that have different sizes, alternative splicing patterns, sets of post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and protein-ligand interactions, might dramatically increase the functionality of the encoded protein...
March 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285320/gpr120-a-critical-role-in-adipogenesis-inflammation-and-energy-metabolism-in-adipose-tissue
#13
REVIEW
Tongxing Song, Yang Yang, Yuanfei Zhou, Hongkui Wei, Jian Peng
It is well known that adipose tissue has a critical role in the development of obesity and metabolic diseases and that adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ to regulate lipid and glucose metabolism. Accumulating in the adipose tissue, fatty acids serve as a primary source of essential nutrients and act on intracellular and cell surface receptors to regulate biological events. G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) represents a promising target for the treatment of obesity-related metabolic disorders for its involvement in the regulation of adipogenesis, inflammation, glucose uptake, and insulin resistance...
March 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271164/tyrosine-842-in-the-activation-loop-is-required-for-full-transformation-by-the-oncogenic-mutant-flt3-itd
#14
Julhash U Kazi, Rohit A Chougule, Tianfeng Li, Xianwei Su, Sausan A Moharram, Kaja Rupar, Alissa Marhäll, Mohiuddin Gazi, Jianmin Sun, Hui Zhao, Lars Rönnstrand
The type III receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 is frequently mutated in acute myeloid leukemia. Oncogenic FLT3 mutants display constitutive activity leading to aberrant cell proliferation and survival. Phosphorylation on several critical tyrosine residues is known to be essential for FLT3 signaling. Among these tyrosine residues, Y842 is located in the so-called activation loop. The position of this tyrosine residue is well conserved in all receptor tyrosine kinases. It has been reported that phosphorylation of the activation loop tyrosine is critical for catalytic activity for some but not all receptor tyrosine kinases...
March 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258292/immunoregulatory-properties-of-the-cytokine-il-34
#15
REVIEW
Carole Guillonneau, Séverine Bézie, Ignacio Anegon
Interleukin-34 is a cytokine with only partially understood functions, described for the first time in 2008. Although IL-34 shares very little homology with CSF-1 (CSF1, M-CSF), they share a common receptor CSF-1R (CSF-1R) and IL-34 has also two distinct receptors (PTP-ζ) and CD138 (syndecan-1). To make the situation more complex, IL-34 has also been shown as pairing with CSF-1 to form a heterodimer. Until now, studies have demonstrated that this cytokine is released by some tissues that differ to those where CSF-1 is expressed and is involved in the differentiation and survival of macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells in response to inflammation...
March 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255755/epigenetics-a-link-between-addiction-and-social-environment
#16
REVIEW
Duyilemi C Ajonijebu, Oualid Abboussi, Vivienne A Russell, Musa V Mabandla, William M U Daniels
The detrimental effects of drug abuse are apparently not limited to individuals but may also impact the vulnerability of their progenies to develop addictive behaviours. Epigenetic signatures, early life experience and environmental factors, converge to influence gene expression patterns in addiction phenotypes and consequently may serve as mediators of behavioural trait transmission between generations. The majority of studies investigating the role of epigenetics in addiction do not consider the influence of social interactions...
March 2, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246701/technical-approaches-to-induce-selective-cell-death-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
REVIEW
Ho-Chang Jeong, Seung-Ju Cho, Mi-Ok Lee, Hyuk-Jin Cha
Despite the recent promising results of clinical trials using human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based cell therapies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the risk of teratoma formation resulting from residual undifferentiated hPSCs remains a serious and critical hurdle for broader clinical implementation. To mitigate the tumorigenic risk of hPSC-based cell therapy, a variety of approaches have been examined to ablate the undifferentiated hPSCs based on the unique molecular properties of hPSCs. In the present review, we offer a brief overview of recent attempts at selective elimination of undifferentiated hPSCs to decrease the risk of teratoma formation in hPSC-based cell therapy...
February 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246700/integrin-signaling-in-atherosclerosis
#18
REVIEW
Alexandra C Finney, Karen Y Stokes, Christopher B Pattillo, A Wayne Orr
Atherosclerosis, a chronic lipid-driven inflammatory disease affecting large arteries, represents the primary cause of cardiovascular disease in the world. The local remodeling of the vessel intima during atherosclerosis involves the modulation of vascular cell phenotype, alteration of cell migration and proliferation, and propagation of local extracellular matrix remodeling. All of these responses represent targets of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors. As such, alterations in integrin signaling affect multiple aspects of atherosclerosis, from the earliest induction of inflammation to the development of advanced fibrotic plaques...
February 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243700/mechanisms-of-collective-cell-movement-lacking-a-leading-or-free-front-edge-in-vivo
#19
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Uechi, Erina Kuranaga
Collective cell movement is one of the strategies for achieving the complex shapes of tissues and organs. In this process, multiple cells within a group held together by cell-cell adhesion acquire mobility and move together in the same direction. In some well-studied models of collective cell movement, the mobility depends strongly on traction generated at the leading edge by cells located at the front. However, recent advances in live-imaging techniques have led to the discovery of other types of collective cell movement lacking a leading edge or even a free edge at the front, in a diverse array of morphological events, including tubule elongation, epithelial sheet extension, and tissue rotation...
February 27, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243699/deciphering-the-bar-code-of-membrane-modulators
#20
REVIEW
Ulrich Salzer, Julius Kostan, Kristina Djinović-Carugo
The BAR domain is the eponymous domain of the "BAR-domain protein superfamily", a large and diverse set of mostly multi-domain proteins that play eminent roles at the membrane cytoskeleton interface. BAR domain homodimers are the functional units that peripherally associate with lipid membranes and are involved in membrane sculpting activities. Differences in their intrinsic curvatures and lipid-binding properties account for a large variety in membrane modulating properties. Membrane activities of BAR domains are further modified and regulated by intramolecular or inter-subunit domains, by intermolecular protein interactions, and by posttranslational modifications...
February 27, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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