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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222645/role-of-the-microenvironment-in-myeloid-malignancies
#1
REVIEW
Marie Goulard, Christine Dosquet, Dominique Bonnet
The bone marrow microenvironment (BMM) regulates the fate of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in homeostatic and pathologic conditions. In myeloid malignancies, new insights into the role of the BMM and its cellular and molecular actors in the progression of the diseases have started to emerge. In this review, we will focus on describing the major players of the HSC niche and the role of the altered niche function in myeloid malignancies, more specifically focusing on the mesenchymal stroma cell compartment.
December 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222644/membrane-shed-vesicles-from-the-parasite-trichomonas-vaginalis-characterization-and-their-association-with-cell-interaction
#2
Yesica R Nievas, Veronica M Coceres, Victor Midlej, Wanderley de Souza, Marlene Benchimol, Antonio Pereira-Neves, Ajay A Vashisht, James A Wohlschlegel, Patricia J Johnson, Natalia de Miguel
Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogenital tract, where it remains extracellular and adheres to epithelial cells. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Despite the serious consequences associated with trichomoniasis disease, little is known about parasite or host factors involved in attachment of the parasite-to-host epithelial cells. Here, we report the identification of microvesicle-like structures (MVs) released by T...
December 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218601/regulation-of-myelopoiesis-by-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-infectious-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Yukino Chiba, Izuru Mizoguchi, Hideaki Hasegawa, Mio Ohashi, Naoko Orii, Taro Nagai, Miyaka Sugahara, Yasunori Miyamoto, Mingli Xu, Toshiyuki Owaki, Takayuki Yoshimoto
Hematopoiesis is hierarchically orchestrated by a very small population of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that reside in the bone-marrow niche and are tightly regulated to maintain homeostatic blood production. HSCs are predominantly quiescent, but they enter the cell cycle in response to inflammatory signals evoked by severe systemic infection or injury. Thus, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can be activated by pathogen recognition receptors and proinflammatory cytokines to induce emergency myelopoiesis during infection...
December 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218600/the-sh3-binding-domain-of-cx43-participates-in-loop-tail-interactions-critical-for-cx43-hemichannel-activity
#4
Jegan Iyyathurai, Nan Wang, Catheleyne D'hondt, Jean X Jiang, Luc Leybaert, Geert Bultynck
Connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels establish local signaling networks via the release of ATP and other molecules, but their excessive opening may result in cell death. Hence, the activity of Cx43-hemichannels ought to be critically controlled. This involves interactions between the C-terminal tail (CT) and the cytoplasmic loop (CL), more particularly the L2 domain within CL. Previous work revealed an important role for the last nine amino acids of the Cx43 CT by targeting the L2 domain, as these nine amino acids were sufficient to restore the activity of CT-truncated Cx43-hemichannels...
December 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196797/sorting-nexin-3-mutation-impairs-development-and-neuronal-function-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Neide Vieira, Carlos Bessa, Ana J Rodrigues, Paulo Marques, Fung-Yi Chan, Ana Xavier de Carvalho, Margarida Correia-Neves, Nuno Sousa
The sorting nexins family of proteins (SNXs) plays pleiotropic functions in protein trafficking and intracellular signaling and has been associated with several disorders, namely Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. Despite the growing association of SNXs with neurodegeneration, not much is known about their function in the nervous system. The aim of this work was to use the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that encodes in its genome eight SNXs orthologs, to dissect the role of distinct SNXs, particularly in the nervous system...
December 1, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184982/d2a-sequence-of-the-urokinase-receptor-induces-cell-growth-through-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-and-egfr
#6
Gabriele Eden, Marco Archinti, Ralitsa Arnaudova, Giuseppina Andreotti, Andrea Motta, Federico Furlan, Valentina Citro, Maria Vittoria Cubellis, Bernard Degryse
The urokinase receptor (uPAR) stimulates cell proliferation by forming a macromolecular complex with αvβ3 integrin and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, ErbB1 or HER1) that we name the uPAR proliferasome. uPAR transactivates EGFR, which in turn mediates uPAR-initiated mitogenic signal to the cell. EGFR activation and EGFR-dependent cell growth are blocked in the absence of uPAR expression or when uPAR activity is inhibited by antibodies against either uPAR or EGFR. The mitogenic sequence of uPAR corresponds to the D2A motif present in domain 2...
November 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184981/the-tet-enzymes
#7
REVIEW
Peppi Koivunen, Tuomas Laukka
During the past decade, we have learnt that the most common DNA modification, 5-methylcytosine (5mC), playing crucial roles in development and disease, is not stable but can be actively reversed to its unmodified form via enzymatic catalysis involving the TET enzymes. These ground-breaking discoveries have been achieved thanks to technological advances in the detection of the oxidized forms of 5mC and to the boldness of individual scientists. The TET enzymes require molecular oxygen for their catalysis, making them important targets for hypoxia research...
November 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184980/blockage-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-by-mcc950-improves-anti-tumor-immune-responses-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
Lei Chen, Cong-Fa Huang, Yi-Cun Li, Wei-Wei Deng, Liang Mao, Lei Wu, Wen-Feng Zhang, Lu Zhang, Zhi-Jun Sun
The NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical innate immune pathway responsible for producing active interleukin (IL)-1β, which is associated with tumor development and immunity. However, the mechanisms regulating the inflammatory microenvironment, tumorigenesis and tumor immunity are unclear. Herein, we show that the NLRP3 inflammasome was over-expressed in human HNSCC tissues and that the IL-1β concentration was increased in the peripheral blood of HNSCC patients. Additionally, elevated NLRP3 inflammasome levels were detected in tumor tissues of Tgfbr1/Pten 2cKO HNSCC mice, and elevated IL-1β levels were detected in the peripheral blood serum, spleen, draining lymph nodes and tumor tissues...
November 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181772/liver-cell-therapy-is-this-the-end-of-the-beginning
#9
REVIEW
Salamah M Alwahsh, Hassan Rashidi, David C Hay
The prevalence of liver diseases is increasing globally. Orthotopic liver transplantation is widely used to treat liver disease upon organ failure. The complexity of this procedure and finite numbers of healthy organ donors have prompted research into alternative therapeutic options to treat liver disease. This includes the transplantation of liver cells to promote regeneration. While successful, the routine supply of good quality human liver cells is limited. Therefore, renewable and scalable sources of these cells are sought...
November 27, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177534/structural-variations-in-wheat-hkt1-5-underpin-differences-in-na-transport-capacity
#10
Bo Xu, Shane Waters, Caitlin S Byrt, Darren Plett, Stephen D Tyerman, Mark Tester, Rana Munns, Maria Hrmova, Matthew Gilliham
An important trait associated with the salt tolerance of wheat is the exclusion of sodium ions (Na+) from the shoot. We have previously shown that the sodium transporters TmHKT1;5-A and TaHKT1;5-D, from Triticum monoccocum (Tm) and Triticum aestivum (Ta), are encoded by genes underlying the major shoot Na+-exclusion loci Nax1 and Kna1, respectively. Here, using heterologous expression, we show that the affinity (K m) for the Na+ transport of TmHKT1;5-A, at 2.66 mM, is higher than that of TaHKT1;5-D at 7.50 mM...
November 27, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170789/crebbp-and-p300-lysine-acetyl-transferases-in-the-dna-damage-response
#11
REVIEW
Ilaria Dutto, Claudia Scalera, Ennio Prosperi
The CREB-binding protein (CREBBP, or in short CBP) and p300 are lysine (K) acetyl transferases (KAT) belonging to the KAT3 family of proteins known to modify histones, as well as non-histone proteins, thereby regulating chromatin accessibility and transcription. Previous studies have indicated a tumor suppressor function for these enzymes. Recently, they have been found to acetylate key factors involved in DNA replication, and in different DNA repair processes, such as base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, and non-homologous end joining...
November 23, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164272/signaling-pathways-and-mesenchymal-transition-in-pediatric-high-grade-glioma
#12
REVIEW
Michaël H Meel, Sophie A Schaper, Gertjan J L Kaspers, Esther Hulleman
Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG), including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG), are the most lethal types of cancer in children. In recent years, it has become evident that these tumors are driven by epigenetic events, mainly mutations involving genes encoding Histone 3, setting them apart from their adult counterparts. These tumors are exceptionally resistant to chemotherapy and respond only temporarily to radiotherapy. Moreover, their delicate location and diffuse growth pattern make complete surgical resection impossible...
November 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164271/bacteriophages-targeting-intestinal-epithelial-cells-a-potential-novel-form-of-immunotherapy
#13
EDITORIAL
Andrzej Górski, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Marzanna Łusiak-Szelachowska, Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Jan Borysowski
In addition to their established role as a physical barrier to invading pathogens and other harmful agents, intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are actively involved in local immune reactions. In the past years, evidence has accumulated suggesting the role of IEC in the immunopathology of intestinal inflammatory disorders (IBD). Recent advances in research on bacteriophages strongly suggest that-in addition to their established antibacterial activity-they have immunomodulating properties that are potentially useful in the clinic...
November 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134249/early-siv-and-hiv-infection-promotes-the-lilrb2-mhc-i-inhibitory-axis-in-cdcs
#14
Lamine Alaoui, Gustavo Palomino, Sandy Zurawski, Gerard Zurawski, Sixtine Coindre, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Camille Lecuroux, Cecile Goujard, Bruno Vaslin, Christine Bourgeois, Pierre Roques, Roger Le Grand, Olivier Lambotte, Benoit Favier
Classical dendritic cells (cDCs) play a pivotal role in the early events that tip the immune response toward persistence or viral control. In vitro studies indicate that HIV infection induces the dysregulation of cDCs through binding of the LILRB2 inhibitory receptor to its MHC-I ligands and the strength of this interaction was proposed to drive disease progression. However, the dynamics of the LILRB2/MHC-I inhibitory axis in cDCs during early immune responses against HIV are yet unknown. Here, we show that early HIV-1 infection induces a strong and simultaneous increase of LILRB2 and MHC-I expression on the surface of blood cDCs...
November 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134248/the-ancient-claudin-dni2-facilitates-yeast-cell-fusion-by-compartmentalizing-dni1-into-a-membrane-subdomain
#15
M-Ángeles Curto, Sandra Moro, Francisco Yanguas, Carmen Gutiérrez-González, M-Henar Valdivieso
Dni1 and Dni2 facilitate cell fusion during mating. Here, we show that these proteins are interdependent for their localization in a plasma membrane subdomain, which we have termed the mating fusion domain. Dni1 compartmentation in the domain is required for cell fusion. The contribution of actin, sterol-dependent membrane organization, and Dni2 to this compartmentation was analysed, and the results showed that Dni2 plays the most relevant role in the process. In turn, the Dni2 exit from the endoplasmic reticulum depends on Dni1...
November 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134247/epigenetic-differences-between-na%C3%A3-ve-and-primed-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
REVIEW
Saori Takahashi, Shin Kobayashi, Ichiro Hiratani
It has been 8 years since the concept of naïve and primed pluripotent stem cell states was first proposed. Both are states of pluripotency, but exhibit slightly different properties. The naïve state represents the cellular state of the preimplantation mouse blastocyst inner cell mass, while the primed state is representative of the post-implantation epiblast cells. These two cell types exhibit clearly distinct developmental potential, as evidenced by the fact that naïve cells are able to contribute to blastocyst chimeras, while primed cells cannot...
November 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127434/brd7-regulates-the-insulin-signaling-pathway-by-increasing-phosphorylation-of-gsk3%C3%AE
#17
Lena Golick, Youngah Han, Yoo Kim, Sang Won Park
Reduced hepatic expression levels of bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) have been suggested to play a role in the development of glucose intolerance in obesity. However, the molecular mechanism by which BRD7 regulates glucose metabolism has remained unclear. Here, we show that BRD7 increases phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in response to activation of the insulin receptor-signaling pathway shortly after insulin stimulation and the nutrient-sensing pathway after feeding. BRD7 mediates phosphorylation of GSK3β at the Serine 9 residue and this effect on GSK3β occurs even in the absence of AKT activity...
November 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124309/gain-of-function-of-tmem16e-ano5-scrambling-activity-caused-by-a-mutation-associated-with-gnathodiaphyseal-dysplasia
#18
Eleonora Di Zanni, Antonella Gradogna, Joachim Scholz-Starke, Anna Boccaccio
Mutations in the human TMEM16E (ANO5) gene are associated both with the bone disease gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD; OMIM: 166260) and muscle dystrophies (OMIM: 611307, 613319). However, the physiological function of TMEM16E has remained unclear. We show here that human TMEM16E, when overexpressed in mammalian cell lines, displayed partial plasma membrane localization and gave rise to phospholipid scrambling (PLS) as well as non-selective ionic currents with slow time-dependent activation at highly depolarized membrane potentials...
November 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124308/the-%C3%AE-6-%C3%AE-7-region-of-the-hsp70-substrate-binding-domain-mediates-heat-shock-response-and-prion-propagation
#19
Linan Xu, Weibin Gong, Sarah A Cusack, Huiwen Wu, Harriët M Loovers, Hong Zhang, Sarah Perrett, Gary W Jones
Hsp70 is a highly conserved chaperone that in addition to providing essential cellular functions and aiding in cell survival following exposure to a variety of stresses is also a key modulator of prion propagation. Hsp70 is composed of a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and substrate-binding domain (SBD). The key functions of Hsp70 are tightly regulated through an allosteric communication network that coordinates ATPase activity with substrate-binding activity. How Hsp70 conformational changes relate to functional change that results in heat shock and prion-related phenotypes is poorly understood...
November 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124307/mouse-models-for-human-intestinal-microbiota-research-a-critical-evaluation
#20
REVIEW
Floor Hugenholtz, Willem M de Vos
Since the early days of the intestinal microbiota research, mouse models have been used frequently to study the interaction of microbes with their host. However, to translate the knowledge gained from mouse studies to a human situation, the major spatio-temporal similarities and differences between intestinal microbiota in mice and humans need to be considered. This is done here with specific attention for the comparative physiology of the intestinal tract, the effect of dietary patterns and differences in genetics...
November 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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