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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434038/emerging-potential-of-gene-silencing-approaches-targeting-anti-chondrogenic-factors-for-cell-based-cartilage-repair
#1
REVIEW
Andrea Lolli, Letizia Penolazzi, Roberto Narcisi, Gerjo J V M van Osch, Roberta Piva
The field of cartilage repair has exponentially been growing over the past decade. Here, we discuss the possibility to achieve satisfactory regeneration of articular cartilage by means of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) depleted of anti-chondrogenic factors and implanted in the site of injury. Different types of molecules including transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators, secreted proteins, and microRNAs have recently been identified as negative modulators of chondroprogenitor differentiation and chondrocyte function...
April 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432378/advances-in-anti-viral-immune-defence-revealing-the-importance-of-the-ifn-jak-stat-pathway
#2
REVIEW
Nicola Raftery, Nigel J Stevenson
Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a potent anti-viral cytokine, critical to the host immune response against viruses. IFN-α is first produced upon viral detection by pathogen recognition receptors. Following its expression, IFN-α embarks upon a complex downstream signalling cascade called the JAK/STAT pathway. This signalling pathway results in the expression of hundreds of effector genes known as interferon stimulated genes (ISGs). These genes are the basis for an elaborate effector mechanism and ultimately, the clearance of viral infection...
April 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432377/emerging-roles-of-calpain-proteolytic-systems-in-macrophage-cholesterol-handling
#3
REVIEW
Takuro Miyazaki, Akira Miyazaki
Calpains are Ca(2+)-dependent intracellular proteases that play central roles in the post-translational processing of functional proteins. In mammals, calpain proteolytic systems comprise the endogenous inhibitor calpastatin as well as 15 homologues of the catalytic subunits and two homologues of the regulatory subunits. Recent pharmacological and gene targeting studies in experimental animal models have revealed the contribution of conventional calpains, which consist of the calpain-1 and -2 isozymes, to atherosclerotic diseases...
April 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421278/an-efficient-method-to-enrich-for-knock-out-and-knock-in-cellular-clones-using-the-crispr-cas9-system
#4
Francesca Niccheri, Riccardo Pecori, Silvestro G Conticello
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats-associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) and Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs) are versatile tools for genome editing. Here we report a method to increase the frequency of Cas9-targeted cellular clones. Our method is based on a chimeric construct with a Blasticidin S Resistance gene (bsr) placed out-of-frame by a surrogate target sequence. End joining of the CRISPR/Cas9-induced double-strand break on the surrogate target can place the bsr in frame, thus providing temporary resistance to Blasticidin S: this is used to enrich for cells where Cas9 is active...
April 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417163/nicotinamide-is-an-inhibitor-of-sirt1-in-vitro-but-can-be-a-stimulator-in-cells
#5
REVIEW
Eun Seong Hwang, Seon Beom Song
Nicotinamide (NAM), a form of vitamin B3, plays essential roles in cell physiology through facilitating NAD(+) redox homeostasis and providing NAD(+) as a substrate to a class of enzymes that catalyze non-redox reactions. These non-redox enzymes include the sirtuin family proteins which deacetylate target proteins while cleaving NAD(+) to yield NAM. Since the finding that NAM exerts feedback inhibition to the sirtuin reactions, NAM has been widely used as an inhibitor in the studies where SIRT1, a key member of sirtuins, may have a role in certain cell physiology...
April 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417162/s100a6-protein-functional-roles
#6
REVIEW
Rosario Donato, Guglielmo Sorci, Ileana Giambanco
S100A6 protein belongs to the A group of the S100 protein family of Ca(2+)-binding proteins. It is expressed in a limited number of cell types in adult normal tissues and in several tumor cell types. As an intracellular protein, S100A6 has been implicated in the regulation of several cellular functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis, the cytoskeleton dynamics, and the cellular response to different stress factors. S100A6 can be secreted/released by certain cell types which points to extracellular effects of the protein...
April 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417161/ift54-regulates-ift20-stability-but-is-not-essential-for-tubulin-transport-during-ciliogenesis
#7
Xin Zhu, Yinwen Liang, Feng Gao, Junmin Pan
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is required for ciliogenesis by ferrying ciliary components using IFT complexes as cargo adaptors. IFT54 is a component of the IFT-B complex and is also associated with cytoplasmic microtubules (MTs). Loss of IFT54 impairs cilia assembly as well as cytoplasmic MT dynamics. The N-terminal calponin homology (CH) domain of IFT54 interacts with tubulins/MTs and has been proposed to transport tubulin during ciliogenesis, whereas the C-terminal coiled-coil (CC) domain binds IFT20. However, the precise function of these domains in vivo is not well understood...
April 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409190/methyl-accepting-chemotaxis-proteins-a-core-sensing-element-in-prokaryotes-and-archaea
#8
REVIEW
Abu Iftiaf Md Salah Ud-Din, Anna Roujeinikova
Chemotaxis is the directed motility by means of which microbes sense chemical cues and relocate towards more favorable environments. Methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) are the most common receptors in bacteria and archaea. They are arranged as trimers of dimers that, in turn, form hexagonal arrays in the cytoplasmic membrane or in the cytoplasm. Several different classes of MCPs have been identified according to their ligand binding region and membrane topology. MCPs have been further classified based on the length and sequence conservation of their cytoplasmic domains...
April 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405721/genome-editing-a-robust-technology-for-human-stem-cells
#9
REVIEW
Arun Pandian Chandrasekaran, Minjung Song, Suresh Ramakrishna
Human pluripotent stem cells comprise induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells, which have tremendous potential for biological and therapeutic applications. The development of efficient technologies for the targeted genome alteration of stem cells in disease models is a prerequisite for utilizing stem cells to their full potential. Genome editing of stem cells is possible with the help of synthetic nucleases that facilitate site-specific modification of a gene of interest. Recent advances in genome editing techniques have improved the efficiency and speed of the development of stem cells for human disease models...
April 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405720/ceramide-synthase-2-deficiency-aggravates-aom-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice-role-of-colon-barrier-integrity
#10
Stephanie Oertel, Klaus Scholich, Andreas Weigert, Dominique Thomas, Julia Schmetzer, Sandra Trautmann, Marthe-Susanna Wegner, Heinfried H Radeke, Natalie Filmann, Bernhard Brüne, Gerd Geisslinger, Irmgard Tegeder, Sabine Grösch
Loss of intestinal barrier functions is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease like ulcerative colitis. The molecular mechanisms are not well understood, but likely involve dysregulation of membrane composition, fluidity, and permeability, which are all essentially regulated by sphingolipids, including ceramides of different chain length and saturation. Here, we used a loss-of-function model (CerS2(+/+) and CerS2(-/-) mice) to investigate the impact of ceramide synthase 2, a key enzyme in the generation of very long-chain ceramides, in the dextran sodium salt (DSS) evoked model of UC...
April 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401269/vinculin-in-cell-cell-and-cell-matrix-adhesions
#11
REVIEW
Jennifer L Bays, Kris A DeMali
Vinculin was identified as a component of focal adhesions and adherens junctions nearly 40 years ago. Since that time, remarkable progress has been made in understanding its activation, regulation and function. Here we discuss the current understanding of the roles of vinculin in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions. Emphasis is placed on the how vinculin is recruited, activated and regulated. We also highlight the recent understanding of how vinculin responds to and transmits force at integrin- and cadherin-containing adhesion complexes to the cytoskeleton...
April 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391361/ultrastructural-localization-of-5-methylcytosine-on-dna-and-rna
#12
Irene Masiello, Marco Biggiogera
DNA methylation is the major epigenetic modification and it is involved in the negative regulation of gene expression. Its alteration can lead to neoplastic transformation. Several biomolecular approaches are nowadays used to study this modification on DNA, but also on RNA molecules, which are known to play a role in different biological processes. RNA methylation is one of the most common RNA modifications and 5-methylcytosine presence has recently been suggested in mRNA. However, an analysis of nucleic acid methylation at electron microscope is still lacking...
April 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389721/chemokines-in-neuron-glial-cell-interaction-and-pathogenesis-of-neuropathic-pain
#13
REVIEW
Zhi-Jun Zhang, Bao-Chun Jiang, Yong-Jing Gao
Neuropathic pain resulting from damage or dysfunction of the nervous system is a highly debilitating chronic pain state and is often resistant to currently available treatments. It has become clear that neuroinflammation, mainly mediated by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Chemokines were originally identified as regulators of peripheral immune cell trafficking and were also expressed in neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system...
April 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389720/superoxide-dismutase-1-is-positively-selected-to-minimize-protein-aggregation-in-great-apes
#14
Pouria Dasmeh, Kasper P Kepp
Positive (adaptive) selection has recently been implied in human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a highly abundant antioxidant protein with energy signaling and antiaging functions, one of very few examples of direct selection on a human protein product (exon); the molecular drivers of this selection are unknown. We mapped 30 extant SOD1 sequences to the recently established mammalian species tree and inferred ancestors, key substitutions, and signatures of selection during the protein's evolution. We detected elevated substitution rates leading to great apes (Hominidae) at ~1 per 2 million years, significantly higher than in other primates and rodents, although these paradoxically generally evolve much faster...
April 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386724/shaping-the-cellular-landscape-with-set2-setd2-methylation
#15
REVIEW
Stephen L McDaniel, Brian D Strahl
Chromatin structure is a major barrier to gene transcription that must be disrupted and re-set during each round of transcription. Central to this process is the Set2/SETD2 methyltransferase that mediates co-transcriptional methylation to histone H3 at lysine 36 (H3K36me). Studies reveal that H3K36me not only prevents inappropriate transcriptional initiation from arising within gene bodies, but that it has other conserved functions that include the repair of damaged DNA and regulation of pre-mRNA splicing. Consistent with the importance of Set2/SETD2 in chromatin biology, mutations of SETD2, or mutations at or near H3K36 in H3...
April 6, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378044/yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-supports-th17-differentiation-and-limits-de-novo-regulatory-t-cell-induction-by-directly-interfering-with-t-cell-receptor-signaling
#16
Maria Pasztoi, Agnes Bonifacius, Joern Pezoldt, Devesha Kulkarni, Jana Niemz, Juhao Yang, René Teich, Janina Hajek, Fabio Pisano, Manfred Rohde, Petra Dersch, Jochen Huehn
Adaptive immunity critically contributes to control acute infection with enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis; however, the role of CD4(+) T cell subsets in establishing infection and allowing pathogen persistence remains elusive. Here, we assessed the modulatory capacity of Y. pseudotuberculosis on CD4(+) T cell differentiation. Using in vivo assays, we report that infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis resulted in enhanced priming of IL-17-producing T cells (Th17 cells), whereas induction of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) was severely disrupted in gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs), in line with altered frequencies of tolerogenic and proinflammatory dendritic cell (DC) subsets within mLNs...
April 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378043/defining-motility-in-the-staphylococci
#17
REVIEW
Eric J G Pollitt, Stephen P Diggle
The ability of bacteria to move is critical for their survival in diverse environments and multiple ways have evolved to achieve this. Two forms of motility have recently been described for Staphylococcus aureus, an organism previously considered to be non-motile. One form is called spreading, which is a type of sliding motility and the second form involves comet formation, which has many observable characteristics associated with gliding motility. Darting motility has also been observed in Staphylococcus epidermidis...
April 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378042/mitochondrial-permeability-transition-in-cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-whether-cyclophilin-d-is-a-viable-target-for-cardioprotection
#18
REVIEW
Sabzali Javadov, Sehwan Jang, Rebecca Parodi-Rullán, Zaza Khuchua, Andrey V Kuznetsov
Growing number of studies provide strong evidence that the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), a non-selective channel in the inner mitochondrial membrane, is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion and can be targeted to attenuate reperfusion-induced damage to the myocardium. The molecular identity of the PTP remains unknown and cyclophilin D is the only protein commonly accepted as a major regulator of the PTP opening. Therefore, cyclophilin D is an attractive target for pharmacological or genetic therapies to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury in various animal models and humans...
April 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364192/protein-arginine-methylation-a-prominent-modification-and-its-demethylation
#19
REVIEW
Juste Wesche, Sarah Kühn, Benedikt M Kessler, Maayan Salton, Alexander Wolf
Arginine methylation of histones is one mechanism of epigenetic regulation in eukaryotic cells. Methylarginines can also be found in non-histone proteins involved in various different processes in a cell. An enzyme family of nine protein arginine methyltransferases catalyses the addition of methyl groups on arginines of histone and non-histone proteins, resulting in either mono- or dimethylated-arginine residues. The reversibility of histone modifications is an essential feature of epigenetic regulation to respond to changes in environmental factors, signalling events, or metabolic alterations...
March 31, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361181/putting-a-brake-on-synaptic-vesicle-endocytosis
#20
REVIEW
Ya-Long Wang, Claire Xi Zhang
In chemical synapses, action potentials evoke synaptic vesicle fusion with the presynaptic membrane at the active zone to release neurotransmitter. Synaptic vesicle endocytosis (SVE) then follows exocytosis to recapture vesicle proteins and lipid components for recycling and the maintenance of membrane homeostasis. Therefore, SVE plays an essential role during neurotransmission and is one of the most precisely regulated biological processes. Four modes of SVE have been characterized and both positive and negative regulators have been identified...
March 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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