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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS

Hui-Ching Tseng, Chih-Chung Lin, Chen-Yu Wang, Chien-Chung Yang, Li-Der Hsiao, Chuen-Mao Yang
Lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) has been shown to induce the expression of inflammatory proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), associated with cardiac fibrosis. Here, we demonstrated that LysoPC-induced COX-2 and IL-6 expression was inhibited by silencing NADPH oxidase 1, 2, 4, 5; p65; and FoxO1 in human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs). LysoPC-induced IL-6 expression was attenuated by a COX-2 inhibitor. LysoPC-induced responses were mediated via the NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species-dependent JNK1/2 phosphorylation pathway, leading to NF-κB and FoxO1 activation...
September 18, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Ping Zhu, Wangsheng Wang, Rujuan Zuo, Kang Sun
The fetus is shielded from the adverse effects of excessive maternal glucocorticoids by 11β-HSD2, an enzyme which is expressed in the syncytial layer of the placental villi and is capable of converting biologically active cortisol into inactive cortisone. Impairment of this placental glucocorticoid barrier is associated with fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and development of chronic diseases in later life. Ontogeny studies show that the expression of 11β-HSD2 is initiated at a very early stage after conception and increases with gestational age but declines around term...
September 17, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Wanfu Xu, Fangyin Zeng, Songyu Li, Guihuan Li, Xiaoju Lai, Qiming Jane Wang, Fan Deng
Protein kinase C ε (PKCε) has emerged as an oncogenic protein kinase and plays important roles in cancer cell survival, proliferation, and invasion. It is, however, still unknown whether PKCε affects cell proliferation via glucose metabolism in cancer cells. Here we report a novel function of PKCε that provides growth advantages for cancer cells by enhancing tumor cells glycolysis. We found that either PKCε or Smad2/3 promoted aerobic glycolysis, expression of the glycolytic genes encoding HIF-1α, HKII, PFKP and MCT4, and tumor cell proliferation, while overexpression of PKCε or Smad3 enhanced aerobic glycolysis and cell proliferation in a protein kinase D- or TGF-β-independent manner in PC-3M and DU145 prostate cancer cells...
September 12, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Susan E LaFlamme, Shomita Mathew-Steiner, Neetu Singh, Diane Colello-Borges, Bethsaida Nieves
Integrins engage components of the extracellular matrix, and in collaboration with other receptors, regulate signaling cascades that impact cell behavior in part by modulating the cell's cytoskeleton. Integrins have long been known to function together with the actin cytoskeleton to promote cell adhesion, migration, and invasion, and with the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to mediate the strong adhesion needed for the maintenance and integrity of epithelial tissues. Recent studies have shed light on the crosstalk between integrin and the microtubule cytoskeleton...
September 11, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Florian A Gegenfurtner, Themistoklis Zisis, Nader Al Danaf, Waldemar Schrimpf, Zane Kliesmete, Christoph Ziegenhain, Wolfgang Enard, Uli Kazmaier, Don C Lamb, Angelika M Vollmar, Stefan Zahler
Actin has emerged as a versatile regulator of gene transcription. Cytoplasmatic actin regulates mechanosensitive-signaling pathways such as MRTF-SRF and Hippo-YAP/TAZ. In the nucleus, both polymerized and monomeric actin directly interfere with transcription-associated molecular machineries. Natural actin-binding compounds are frequently used tools to study actin-related processes in cell biology. However, their influence on transcriptional regulation and intranuclear actin polymerization is poorly understood to date...
September 11, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Chao Huang, Chenying Fu, Jonathan D Wren, Xuejun Wang, Feng Zhang, Yanhui H Zhang, Samuel A Connell, Taosheng Chen, Xin A Zhang
In the original publication, abstract text, one of the co-author's name and the legend to Table 1 were incorrectly published.
September 8, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Margherita Ratti, Andrea Lampis, Jens C Hahne, Rodolfo Passalacqua, Nicola Valeri
Gastric cancer is one of the most aggressive malignancies, with limited treatment options in both locally advanced and metastatic setting, resulting in poor prognosis. Based on genomic characterization, stomach tumour has recently been described as a heterogeneous disease composed by different subtypes, each of them with peculiar molecular aspects and specific clinical behaviour. With an incidence of 22% among all western gastric tumour cases, stomach cancer with microsatellite instability was identified as one of these subgroups...
September 1, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Marta Michalik, Katarzyna Wójcik-Pszczoła, Milena Paw, Dawid Wnuk, Paulina Koczurkiewicz, Marek Sanak, Elżbieta Pękala, Zbigniew Madeja
In the original publication, funding information was inadvertently omitted.
August 29, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Niina Vuokila, Katarzyna Lukasiuk, Anna Maria Bot, Erwin A van Vliet, Eleonora Aronica, Asla Pitkänen, Noora Puhakka
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates molecular and cellular pathologies that underlie post-injury morbidities, including hippocampus-related memory decline and epileptogenesis. Non-coding small RNAs are master regulators of gene expression with the potential to affect multiple molecular pathways. To evaluate whether hippocampal gene expression networks are chronically regulated by microRNAs after TBI, we sampled the dentate gyrus of rats with severe TBI induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury 3 months earlier...
August 28, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Chunmin Li, Yanan Ming, Zhengyang Wang, Qingling Xu, Lvfeng Yao, Dongke Xu, Yingyue Tang, Xiaohong Lei, Xiaobo Li, Yimin Mao
As an analgesic and antipyretic drug, acetaminophen (APAP) is commonly used and known to be safe at therapeutic doses. In many countries, the overuse of APAP provokes acute liver injury and even liver failure. APAP-induced liver injury (AILI) is the most used experimental model of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Here, we have demonstrated elevated levels of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45α (GADD45α) in the livers of patients with DILI/AILI, in APAP-injured mouse livers and in APAP-treated hepatocytes...
August 27, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
James R Bundred, Eline Hendrix, Mathew L Coleman
Hydroxylation is a novel protein modification catalyzed by a family of oxygenases that depend on fundamental nutrients and metabolites for activity. Protein hydroxylases have been implicated in a variety of key cellular processes that play important roles in both normal homeostasis and pathogenesis. Here, in this review, we summarize the current literature on a highly conserved sub-family of oxygenases that catalyze protein histidyl hydroxylation. We discuss the evidence supporting the biochemical assignment of these emerging enzymes as ribosomal protein hydroxylases, and provide an overview of their role in immunology, bone development, and cancer...
August 27, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Natalia Arenas-Ramirez, Dilara Sahin, Onur Boyman
The recent impact of cancer immunotherapies has firmly established the ability and importance of the immune system to fight malignancies. However, the intimate interaction between the highly dynamic tumor and immune cells leads to a selection process driven by genetic and epigenetic processes. As the molecular pathways of cancer resistance mechanisms to immunotherapy become increasingly known, novel therapeutic targets are being tested in combination with immune-stimulating approaches. We here review recent insights into the molecular mechanisms of tumor resistance with particular emphasis on epigenetic processes and place these in the context of previous models...
August 23, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Stefania Martucciello, Gaetana Paolella, Carla Esposito, Marilena Lepretti, Ivana Caputo
Auto-antibodies to the ubiquitous enzyme type-2 transglutaminase (TG2) are a specific hallmark of celiac disease (CD), a widely diffused, multi-factorial disease, affecting genetically predisposed subjects. In CD an inflammatory response, at the intestinal level, is triggered by diet consumption of gluten-containing cereals. Intestinal mucosa displays various degrees of atrophy and hyperplasia, with consequent global intestinal dysfunction and other relevant extra-intestinal symptoms. Through deamidation of specific glutamines of gluten-derived gliadin peptides, TG2 strongly enhances gliadin immunogenicity...
August 22, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Federico T Bianchi, Gaia E Berto, Ferdinando Di Cunto
Maintenance of genome stability is a crucial cellular function for normal mammalian development and physiology. However, despite the general relevance of this process, genome stability alteration due to genetic or non-genetic conditions has a particularly profound impact on the developing cerebral cortex. In this review, we will analyze the main pathways involved in maintenance of genome stability, the consequences of their alterations with regard to central nervous system development, as well as the possible molecular and cellular basis of this specificity...
August 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Bruno Madio, Steve Peigneur, Yanni K Y Chin, Brett R Hamilton, Sónia Troeira Henriques, Jennifer J Smith, Ben Cristofori-Armstrong, Zoltan Dekan, Berin A Boughton, Paul F Alewood, Jan Tytgat, Glenn F King, Eivind A B Undheim
Sea anemone venoms have long been recognized as a rich source of peptides with interesting pharmacological and structural properties, but they still contain many uncharacterized bioactive compounds. Here we report the discovery, three-dimensional structure, activity, tissue localization, and putative function of a novel sea anemone peptide toxin that constitutes a new, sixth type of voltage-gated potassium channel (KV ) toxin from sea anemones. Comprised of just 17 residues, κ-actitoxin-Ate1a (Ate1a) is the shortest sea anemone toxin reported to date, and it adopts a novel three-dimensional structure that we have named the Proline-Hinged Asymmetric β-hairpin (PHAB) fold...
August 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Kodchanan Singhanat, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been an economic and health burden in most countries around the world. Reperfusion is a standard treatment for AMI as it can actively restore blood supply to the ischemic site. However, reperfusion itself can cause additional damage; a process known as cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Although several pharmacological interventions have been shown to reduce tissue damage during I/R injury, they usually have undesirable effects. Therefore, endogenous substances such as melatonin have become a field of active investigation...
August 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Iman Azimi, Alice H Bong, Greta X H Poo, Kaela Armitage, Dawn Lok, Sarah J Roberts-Thomson, Gregory R Monteith
Store-operated Ca2+ entry is a pathway that is remodelled in a variety of cancers, and altered expression of the components of store-operated Ca2+ entry is a feature of breast cancer cells of the basal molecular subtype. Studies of store-operated Ca2+ entry in breast cancer cells have used non-specific pharmacological inhibitors, complete depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores and have mostly focused on MDA-MB-231 cells (a basal B breast cancer cell line). These studies compared the effects of the selective store-operated Ca2+ entry inhibitors Synta66 and YM58483 (also known as BTP2) on global cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]CYT ) changes induced by physiological stimuli in a different breast cancer basal cell line model, MDA-MB-468...
August 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Marta Michalik, Katarzyna Wójcik-Pszczoła, Milena Paw, Dawid Wnuk, Paulina Koczurkiewicz, Marek Sanak, Elżbieta Pękala, Zbigniew Madeja
Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease in which bronchial wall remodelling plays a significant role. This phenomenon is related to enhanced proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells, elevated extracellular matrix protein secretion and an increased number of myofibroblasts. Phenotypic fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition represents one of the primary mechanisms by which myofibroblasts arise in fibrotic lung tissue. Fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition requires a combination of several types of factors, the most important of which are divided into humoural and mechanical factors, as well as certain extracellular matrix proteins...
August 12, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Francois Brial, Aurélie Le Lay, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas, Dominique Gauguier
Evidence from the literature keeps highlighting the impact of mutualistic bacterial communities of the gut microbiota on human health. The gut microbita is a complex ecosystem of symbiotic bacteria which contributes to mammalian host biology by processing, otherwise, indigestible nutrients, supplying essential metabolites, and contributing to modulate its immune system. Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled structural analysis of the human gut microbiota and allowed detection of changes in gut bacterial composition in several common diseases, including cardiometabolic disorders...
August 12, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Carla Eller, Laura Heydmann, Che C Colpitts, Eloi R Verrier, Catherine Schuster, Thomas F Baumert
Chronic hepatitis B, C and D virus (HBV, HCV and HDV) infections are a major cause of liver disease and cancer worldwide. Despite employing distinct replication strategies, the three viruses are exclusively hepatotropic, and therefore depend on hepatocyte-specific host factors. The sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), a transmembrane protein highly expressed in human hepatocytes that mediates the transport of bile acids, plays a key role in HBV and HDV entry into hepatocytes. Recently, NTCP has been shown to modulate HCV infection of hepatocytes by regulating innate antiviral immune responses in the liver...
August 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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