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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915416/opposing-effects-on-the-cell-cycle-of-t-lymphocytes-by-fbxo7-via-cdk6-and-p27
#1
Shachi P Patel, Suzanne J Randle, Sarah Gibbs, Anne Cooke, Heike Laman
G1 phase cell cycle proteins, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) and its activating partners, the D-type cyclins, are important regulators of T-cell development and function. An F-box protein, called F-box only protein 7 (Fbxo7), acts as a cell cycle regulator by enhancing cyclin D-Cdk6 complex formation and stabilising levels of p27, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. We generated a murine model of reduced Fbxo7 expression to test its physiological role in multiple tissues and found that these mice displayed a pronounced thymic hypoplasia...
December 3, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913822/more-than-just-scanning-the-importance-of-cap-independent-mrna-translation-initiation-for-cellular-stress-response-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Rafaela Lacerda, Juliane Menezes, Luísa Romão
The scanning model for eukaryotic mRNA translation initiation states that the small ribosomal subunit, along with initiation factors, binds at the cap structure at the 5' end of the mRNA and scans the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) until an initiation codon is found. However, under conditions that impair canonical cap-dependent translation, the synthesis of some proteins is kept by alternative mechanisms that are required for cell survival and stress recovery. Alternative modes of translation initiation include cap- and/or scanning-independent mechanisms of ribosomal recruitment...
December 2, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900391/erratum-to-protease-activated-receptor-2-affects-protease-activated-receptor-1-driven-breast-cancer
#3
Mohammad Jaber, Miriam Maoz, Arun Kancharla, Daniel Agranovich, Tamar Peretz, Sorina Grisaru-Granovsky, Beatrice Uziely, Rachel Bar-Shavit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891552/enteric-glial-cells-are-susceptible-to-clostridium-difficile-toxin-b
#4
Katia Fettucciari, Pamela Ponsini, Davide Gioè, Lara Macchioni, Camilla Palumbo, Elisabetta Antonelli, Stefano Coaccioli, Vincenzo Villanacci, Lanfranco Corazzi, Pierfrancesco Marconi, Gabrio Bassotti
Clostridium difficile causes nosocomial/antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. The major virulence factors are toxin A and toxin B (TcdB), which inactivate GTPases by monoglucosylation, leading to cytopathic (cytoskeleton alteration, cell rounding) and cytotoxic effects (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis). C. difficile toxins breaching the intestinal epithelial barrier can act on underlying cells, enterocytes, colonocytes, and enteric neurons, as described in vitro and in vivo, but until now no data have been available on enteric glial cell (EGC) susceptibility...
November 28, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888287/wnt-signaling-and-cellular-metabolism-in-osteoblasts
#5
REVIEW
Courtney M Karner, Fanxin Long
The adult human skeleton is a multifunctional organ undergoing continuous remodeling. Homeostasis of bone mass in a healthy adult requires an exquisite balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts; disturbance of such balance is the root cause for various bone disorders including osteoporosis. To develop effective and safe therapeutics to modulate bone formation, it is essential to elucidate the molecular mechanisms governing osteoblast differentiation and activity. Due to their specialized function in collagen synthesis and secretion, osteoblasts are expected to consume large amounts of nutrients...
November 26, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878326/a-novel-72-kda-leukocyte-derived-osteoglycin-enhances-the-activation-of-toll-like-receptor-4-and-exacerbates-cardiac-inflammation-during-viral-myocarditis
#6
Marieke Rienks, Anna Papageorgiou, Kristiaan Wouters, Wouter Verhesen, Rick van Leeuwen, Paolo Carai, Georg Summer, Dirk Westermann, Stephane Heymans
BACKGROUND: Viral myocarditis can severely damage the myocardium through excessive infiltration of immune cells. Osteoglycin (OGN) is part of the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan (SLRP) family. SLRP's may affect inflammatory and fibrotic processes, but the implication of OGN in cardiac inflammation and the resulting injury upon viral myocarditis is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study uncovered a previously unidentified 72-kDa variant of OGN that is predominant in cardiac human and mouse samples of viral myocarditis...
November 23, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866221/inter-organ-regulation-of-adipose-tissue-browning
#7
REVIEW
Simeng Wang, Xiaoyong Yang
Adaptive thermogenesis is an important component of energy expenditure. Brown adipocytes are best known for their ability to convert chemical energy into heat. Beige cells are brown-like adipocytes that arise in white adipose tissue in response to certain environmental cues to dissipate heat and improve metabolic homeostasis. A large body of intrinsic factors and external signals are critical for the function of beige adipocytes. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of neuronal, hormonal, and metabolic regulation of the development and activation of beige adipocytes, with a focus on the regulation of beige adipocytes by other organs, tissues, and cells...
November 19, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866220/molecular-basis-of-mycobacterial-survival-in-macrophages
#8
REVIEW
Jane Atesoh Awuh, Trude Helen Flo
Macrophages play an essential role in the immune system by ingesting and degrading invading pathogens, initiating an inflammatory response and instructing adaptive immune cells, and resolving inflammation to restore homeostasis. More interesting is the fact that some bacteria have evolved to use macrophages as a natural habitat and tools of spread in the host, e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and some non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Mtb is considered one of humanity's most successful pathogens and is the causal agent of tuberculosis, while NTMs cause opportunistic infections all of which are of significant public health concern...
November 19, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858084/a-threshold-of-transmembrane-potential-is-required-for-mitochondrial-dynamic-balance-mediated-by-drp1-and-oma1
#9
Edith Jones, Norma Gaytan, Iraselia Garcia, Alan Herrera, Manuel Ramos, Divya Agarwala, Maahrose Rana, Wendy Innis-Whitehouse, Erin Schuenzel, Robert Gilkerson
As an organellar network, mitochondria dynamically regulate their organization via opposing fusion and fission pathways to maintain bioenergetic homeostasis and contribute to key cellular pathways. This dynamic balance is directly linked to bioenergetic function: loss of transmembrane potential across the inner membrane (Δψ m) disrupts mitochondrial fission/fusion balance, causing fragmentation of the network. However, the level of Δψ m required for mitochondrial dynamic balance, as well as the relative contributions of fission and fusion pathways, have remained unclear...
November 17, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853834/proliferation-status-defines-functional-properties-of-endothelial-cells
#10
Christoph Lipps, Muhammad Badar, Milada Butueva, Tatyana Dubich, Vivek Vikram Singh, Sophie Rau, Axel Weber, Michael Kracht, Mario Köster, Tobias May, Thomas F Schulz, Hansjörg Hauser, Dagmar Wirth
Homeostasis of solid tissue is characterized by a low proliferative activity of differentiated cells while special conditions like tissue damage induce regeneration and proliferation. For some cell types it has been shown that various tissue-specific functions are missing in the proliferating state, raising the possibility that their proliferation is not compatible with a fully differentiated state. While endothelial cells are important players in regenerating tissue as well as in the vascularization of tumors, the impact of proliferation on their features remains elusive...
November 16, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853833/a-researcher-s-guide-to-the-galaxy-of-iress
#11
REVIEW
Ilya M Terenin, Victoria V Smirnova, Dmitri E Andreev, Sergey E Dmitriev, Ivan N Shatsky
The idea of internal initiation is frequently exploited to explain the peculiar translation properties or unusual features of some eukaryotic mRNAs. In this review, we summarize the methods and arguments most commonly used to address cases of translation governed by internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs). Frequent mistakes are revealed. We explain why "cap-independent" does not readily mean "IRES-dependent" and why the presence of a long and highly structured 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) or translation under stress conditions cannot be regarded as an argument for appealing to internal initiation...
November 16, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853832/old-drugs-with-new-skills-fenoprofen-as-an-allosteric-enhancer-at-melanocortin-receptor-3
#12
Trinidad Montero-Melendez, Rachel A E Forfar, Jennifer M Cook, Jeffrey C Jerman, Debra L Taylor, Mauro Perretti
The efficiency of drug research and development has paradoxically declined over the last decades despite major scientific and technological advances, promoting new cost-effective strategies such as drug repositioning by systematic screening for new actions of known drugs. Here, we performed a screening for positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) at melanocortin (MC) receptors. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug fenoprofen, but not the similar compound ibuprofen, presented PAM activity at MC3, MC4, and MC5 receptors...
November 16, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844098/h2s-biosynthesis-and-catabolism-new-insights-from-molecular-studies
#13
REVIEW
Peter Rose, Philip K Moore, Yi Zhun Zhu
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has profound biological effects within living organisms and is now increasingly being considered alongside other gaseous signalling molecules, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Conventional use of pharmacological and molecular approaches has spawned a rapidly growing research field that has identified H2S as playing a functional role in cell-signalling and post-translational modifications. Recently, a number of laboratories have reported the use of siRNA methodologies and genetic mouse models to mimic the loss of function of genes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of H2S within tissues...
November 14, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838745/%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-signalling-in-plants
#14
REVIEW
Sunita A Ramesh, Stephen D Tyerman, Matthew Gilliham, Bo Xu
The role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as a signal in animals has been documented for over 60 years. In contrast, evidence that GABA is a signal in plants has only emerged in the last 15 years, and it was not until last year that a mechanism by which this could occur was identified-a plant 'GABA receptor' that inhibits anion passage through the aluminium-activated malate transporter family of proteins (ALMTs). ALMTs are multigenic, expressed in different organs and present on different membranes. We propose GABA regulation of ALMT activity could function as a signal that modulates plant growth, development, and stress response...
November 12, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838744/metabolic-changes-during-b-cell-differentiation-for-the-production-of-intestinal-iga-antibody
#15
REVIEW
Jun Kunisawa
To sustain the bio-energetic demands of growth, proliferation, and effector functions, the metabolism of immune cells changes dramatically in response to immunologic stimuli. In this review, I focus on B cell metabolism, especially regarding the production of intestinal IgA antibody. Accumulating evidence has implicated not only host-derived factors (e.g., cytokines) but also gut environmental factors, including the possible involvement of commensal bacteria and diet, in the control of B cell metabolism during intestinal IgA antibody production...
November 12, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838743/intrinsic-disorder-in-proteins-involved-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#16
Nikolas Santamaria, Marwa Alhothali, Maria Harreguy Alfonso, Leonid Breydo, Vladimir N Uversky
Five structurally and functionally different proteins, an enzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a TAR-DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43), an RNA-binding protein FUS, a cofilin-binding protein C9orf72, and polypeptides generated as a result of its intronic hexanucleotide expansions, and to lesser degree actin-binding profilin-1 (PFN1), are considered to be the major drivers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the features common to these proteins is the presence of significant levels of intrinsic disorder...
November 12, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837217/the-cellular-autophagy-apoptosis-checkpoint-during-inflammation
#17
REVIEW
Jeannette S Messer
Cell death is a major determinant of inflammatory disease severity. Whether cells live or die during inflammation largely depends on the relative success of the pro-survival process of autophagy versus the pro-death process of apoptosis. These processes interact and influence each other during inflammation and there is a checkpoint at which cells irrevocably commit to either one pathway or another. This review will discuss the concept of the autophagy/apoptosis checkpoint and its importance during inflammation, the mechanisms of inflammation leading up to the checkpoint, and how the checkpoint is regulated...
November 11, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832290/sorting-receptor-sorla-cellular-mechanisms-and-implications-for-disease
#18
REVIEW
Vanessa Schmidt, Aygul Subkhangulova, Thomas E Willnow
Sorting-related receptor with A-type repeats (SORLA) is an intracellular sorting receptor that directs cargo proteins, such as kinases, phosphatases, and signaling receptors, to their correct location within the cell. The activity of SORLA assures proper function of cells and tissues, and receptor dysfunction is the underlying cause of common human malignancies, including Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, and obesity. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that govern sorting of SORLA and its cargo in multiple cell types, and why genetic defects in this receptor results in devastating diseases...
November 10, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832289/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-regulates-fractalkine-production-by-altering-its-trafficking-from-golgi-to-plasma-membrane-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Almudena Fuster-Matanzo, Jerónimo Jurado-Arjona, Stefano Benvegnù, Esther García, Patricia Martín-Maestro, Raquel Gómez-Sintes, Félix Hernández, Jesús Ávila
Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a serine-threonine kinase implicated in multiple processes and signaling pathways. Its dysregulation is associated with different pathological conditions including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we demonstrate how changes in GSK-3β activity and/or levels regulate the production and subsequent secretion of fractalkine, a chemokine involved in the immune response that has been linked to AD and to other different neurological disorders. Treatment of primary cultured neurons with GSK-3β inhibitors such as lithium and AR-A014418 decreased full-length fractalkine in total cell extracts...
November 10, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826642/exosomes-mobile-platforms-for-targeted-and-synergistic-signaling-across-cell-boundaries
#20
REVIEW
Neha Vyas, Jyotsna Dhawan
Intercellular communications play a vital role during tissue patterning, tissue repair, and immune reactions, in homeostasis as well as in disease. Exosomes are cell-derived secreted vesicles, extensively studied for their role in intercellular communication. Exosomes have the intrinsic ability to package multiple classes of proteins and nucleic acids within their lumens and on their membranes. Here, we explore the hypothesis that exosomal targeting may represent a cellular strategy that has evolved to deliver specific combinations of signals to specific target cells and influence normal or pathological processes...
November 8, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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