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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS

Dario C Altieri
Changes in cellular metabolism are now a recognized hallmark of cancer. Although this process is ripe with therapeutic potential in the clinic, its complexity and extraordinary plasticity have systematically defied dogmas and oversimplifications. Perhaps, best exemplifying this intricacy is the role of mitochondria in cancer, which in just a few years has gone from largely unnoticed to pivotal disease driver. The underlying mechanisms are only beginning to emerge. However, there is now clear evidence linking the dynamic nature of mitochondria to the machinery of tumor cell motility and metastatic spreading...
November 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Catherine Ropert
Toll-like receptors (TLR)s are central in immune response by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)s. If they are essential to eliminate pathogens in earlier stages of infection, they also might play a role in homeostasis and tissue repair. TLR versatility parallels the plasticity of monocytes, which represent an heterogeneous population of immune cells. They are rapidly recruited to sites of infection and involved in clearance of pathogens and in tissue healing. This review underlines how TLRs have proved to be an interesting tool to study the properties of monocytes and why different therapeutic strategies exploring monocyte plasticity may be relevant in the context of chronic inflammatory disorders...
November 9, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Ismael Galván, Francisco Solano, Mohammed Zougagh, Fernando de Andrés, Khaled Murtada, Ángel Ríos, Eva de la Peña, Juan Carranza
Hormones have not been found in concentrations of orders of magnitude higher than nanograms per milliliter. Here, we report urine concentrations of a catecholamine (norepinephrine) ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 g/l, and concentrations of its metabolite DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol (DOPEG) ranging from 1.0 to 44.5 g/l, in wild male red deer Cervus elaphus hispanicus after LC-MS analyses. The dark ventral patch of male red deer, a recently described sexually selected signal, contains high amounts of DOPEG (0.9-266...
November 9, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Cédric Garcia, Agnès Maurel-Ribes, Michel Nauze, Du N'Guyen, Laurent O Martinez, Bernard Payrastre, Jean-Michel Sénard, Céline Galés, Véronique Pons
P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12 -R) is one of the major targets for drug inhibiting platelet aggregation in the treatment/prevention of arterial thrombosis. However, the clinical use of P2Y12 -R antagonists faces some limitations, such as a delayed onset of action (clopidogrel) or adverse effect profile (ticagrelor, cangrelor), justifying the development of a new generation of P2Y12 -R antagonists with a better clinical benefit-risk balance. Although the recent concept of biased agonism offers the possibility to alleviate undesirable adverse effects while preserving therapeutic outcomes, it has never been explored at P2Y12 -R...
November 7, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Michael Kleemann, Helga Schneider, Kristian Unger, Jeremias Bereuther, Simon Fischer, Philip Sander, E Marion Schneider, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky, Christian U Riedel, René Handrick, Kerstin Otte
Apoptosis is a form of directed programmed cell death with a tightly regulated signalling cascade for the destruction of single cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role as fine tuners in the regulation of apoptotic processes. MiR-493-3p mimic transfection leads to the induction of apoptosis causing the breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential and the activation of Caspases resulting in the fragmentation of DNA in several ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Ovarian cancer shows with its pronounced heterogeneity a very high death-to-incidence ratio...
November 3, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Jiayun Huang, Yangwu Chen, Chenqi Tang, Yang Fei, Haoyu Wu, Dengfeng Ruan, Maswikiti Ewetse Paul, Xiao Chen, Zi Yin, Boon Chin Heng, Weishan Chen, Weiliang Shen
It is well known that biomaterial topography can exert a profound influence on various cellular functions such as migration, polarization, and adhesion. With the development and refinement of manufacturing technology, much research has recently been focused on substrate topography-induced cell differentiation, particularly in the field of tissue engineering. Even without biological and chemical stimuli, the differentiation of stem cells can also be initiated by various biomaterials with different topographic features...
November 2, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Justyna Mikuła-Pietrasik, Anna Witucka, Martyna Pakuła, Paweł Uruski, Beata Begier-Krasińska, Arkadiusz Niklas, Andrzej Tykarski, Krzysztof Książek
One of the most neglected aspects of chemotherapy are changes, and possible consequences of these changes, that occur in normal somatic cells. In this review, we summarize effects of selected drugs used to treat ovarian cancer (platin derivatives-cisplatin and carboplatin; and taxanes-paclitaxel and docetaxel) on cellular metabolism, acquisition of reactive stroma features, cellular senescence, inflammatory reactions, apoptosis, autophagy, mitophagy, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and angiogenesis in various types of normal cells, including fibroblasts, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and neurons...
October 31, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Saeedeh Tajalli-Nezhad, Mohammad Karimian, Cordian Beyer, Mohammad Ali Atlasi, Abolfazl Azami Tameh
Ischemic stroke is the most common cerebrovascular disease and considered as a worldwide leading cause of death. After cerebral ischemia, different pathophysiological processes including neuroinflammation, invasion and aggregation of inflammatory cells and up-regulation of cytokines occur simultaneously. In this respect, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the first identified important mediators for the activation of the innate immune system and are widely expressed in glial cells and neurons following brain trauma...
October 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Bjorn Baselet, Pierre Sonveaux, Sarah Baatout, An Aerts
The endothelium, a tissue that forms a single layer of cells lining various organs and cavities of the body, especially the heart and blood as well as lymphatic vessels, plays a complex role in vascular biology. It contributes to key aspects of vascular homeostasis and is also involved in pathophysiological processes, such as thrombosis, inflammation, and hypertension. Epidemiological data show that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to cardiovascular disease over time. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on endothelial cell activation and dysfunction after ionizing radiation exposure as a central feature preceding the development of cardiovascular diseases...
October 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Mengfan Pu, Jing Chen, Zhouteng Tao, Lingling Miao, Xinming Qi, Yizheng Wang, Jin Ren
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small noncoding RNAs that participate in a majority of biological processes via regulating target gene expression. The post-transcriptional repression through miRNA seed region binding to 3' UTR of target mRNA is considered as the canonical mode of miRNA-mediated gene regulation. However, emerging evidence suggests that other regulatory modes exist beyond the canonical mechanism. In particular, the function of intranuclear miRNA in gene transcriptional regulation is gradually revealed, with evidence showing their contribution to gene silencing or activating...
October 29, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Catherine Dong, Jingwen Chen, Amy Harrington, K Yaragudri Vinod, Muralidhar L Hegde, Venkatesh L Hegde
Cannabinoids are the most commonly abused illicit drugs worldwide. While cannabis can be beneficial for certain heath conditions, abuse of potent synthetic cannabinoids has been on the rise. Exposure to cannabinoids is also prevalent in women of child-bearing age and pregnant women. These compounds can cross the placental barrier and directly affect the fetus. They mediate their effects primarily through G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. In addition to significant neurological effects, cannabinoids can trigger robust immunomodulation by altering cytokine levels, causing apoptosis of lymphoid cells and inducing suppressor cells of the immune system...
October 29, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Huashan Zhao, Dewen Yan, Liang Xiang, Chen Huang, Jian Li, Xiangfang Yu, Binbin Huang, Baobei Wang, Jie Chen, Tianxia Xiao, Pei-Gen Ren, Jian V Zhang
The adipokine Chemerin and its receptor, chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1), are associated with osteoblastogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and osteoclastogenic differentiation of osteoclast precursors in vitro, suggesting that CMKLR1 would affect the bone mineral density (BMD). However, the role of CMKLR1 on BMD in vivo remains unknown. Here, using CMKLR1 knockout mouse model, we unveiled that CMKLR1 effected the amount of Leydig cells in testis and regulated androgen-dependent bone maintenance in male mice, which exhibited lower serum testosterone levels, thereby reducing the trabecular bone mass...
October 29, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Yuehong Yang, Wei Wang, Min Li, Ya Gao, Wen Zhang, Yuliang Huang, Wei Zhuo, Xiaoyi Yan, Wei Liu, Fangwei Wang, Dingwei Chen, Tianhua Zhou
Sister chromatid cohesion plays a key role in ensuring precise chromosome segregation during mitosis, which is mediated by the multisubunit cohesin complex. However, the molecular regulation of cohesin subunits stability remains unclear. Here, we show that NudCL2 (NudC-like protein 2) is essential for the stability of cohesin subunits by regulating Hsp90 ATPase activity in mammalian cells. Depletion of NudCL2 induces mitotic defects and premature sister chromatid separation and destabilizes cohesin subunits that interact with NudCL2...
October 27, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Daniel Ewerth, Stefanie Kreutmair, Andrea Schmidts, Gabriele Ihorst, Marie Follo, Dagmar Wider, Julia Felthaus, Julia Schüler, Justus Duyster, Anna Lena Illert, Monika Engelhardt, Ralph Wäsch
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) represent the lifelong source of all blood cells and continuously regenerate the hematopoietic system through differentiation and self-renewal. The process of differentiation is initiated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, when stem cells leave their quiescent state. During G1 , the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome associated with the coactivator Cdh1 is highly active and marks proteins for proteasomal degradation to regulate cell proliferation. Following Cdh1 knockdown in HSPCs, we analyzed human and mouse hematopoiesis in vitro and in vivo in competitive transplantation assays...
October 24, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Frank M J Sommerlandt, Axel Brockmann, Wolfgang Rössler, Johannes Spaethe
Social insects show complex behaviors and master cognitive tasks. The underlying neuronal mechanisms, however, are in most cases only poorly understood due to challenges in monitoring brain activity in freely moving animals. Immediate early genes (IEGs) that get rapidly and transiently expressed following neuronal stimulation provide a powerful tool for detecting behavior-related neuronal activity in vertebrates. In social insects, like honey bees, and in insects in general, this approach is not yet routinely established, even though these genes are highly conserved...
October 22, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Soo-Yeon Kim, Kwang-Hyun Baek
Ubiquitination is a reversible cellular process mediated by ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, whereas deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) detach the covalently conjugated ubiquitin from target substrates to counter ubiquitination. DUBs play a crucial role in regulating various signal transduction pathways and biological processes including apoptosis, cell proliferation, DNA damage repair, metastasis, differentiation, etc. Since the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway participates in various cellular functions such as inflammation, metastasis and embryogenesis, aberrant regulation of TGF-β signaling induces abnormal cellular functions resulting in numerous diseases...
October 22, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Yongfeng Jin, Hao Li
The complexity of neuronal wiring relies on the extraordinary recognition diversity of cell surface molecules. Drosophila Dscam1 and vertebrate clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) are two classic examples of the striking diversity from a complex genomic locus, wherein the former encodes more than 10,000 distinct isoforms via alternative splicing, while the latter employs alternative promoters to attain isoform diversity. These structurally unrelated families show remarkably striking molecular parallels and even similar functions...
October 20, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Fernando Bessone, María Valeria Razori, Marcelo G Roma
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a main hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. It represents a wide spectrum of histopathological abnormalities ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis and, eventually, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. While hepatic simple steatosis seems to be a rather benign manifestation of hepatic triglyceride accumulation, the buildup of highly toxic free fatty acids associated with insulin resistance-induced massive free fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue and the increased de novo hepatic fatty acid synthesis from glucose acts as the "first hit" for NAFLD development...
October 20, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Lydie Debaize, Marie-Bérengère Troadec
The human Far Upstream Element (FUSE) Binding Protein 1 (FUBP1) is a multifunctional DNA- and RNA-binding protein involved in diverse cellular processes. FUBP1 is a master regulator of transcription, translation, and RNA splicing. FUBP1 has been identified as a potent pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic factor by modulation of complex networks. FUBP1 is also described either as an oncoprotein or a tumor suppressor. Especially, FUBP1 overexpression is observed in a growing number of cancer and leads to a deregulation of targets that includes the fine-tuned MYC oncogene...
October 20, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Hui Liu, Junyun Luo, Siyu Luan, Chongsheng He, Zhaoyong Li
Metabolic reprogramming has now been accepted as a hallmark of cancer. Compared to normal cells, cancer cells exhibit different metabolic features, including increased glucose uptake, aerobic glycolysis, enhanced glutamine uptake and glutaminolysis, altered lipid metabolism, and so on. Cancer metabolic reprogramming, which supports excessive cell proliferation and growth, has been widely regulated by activation of oncogenes or loss of tumor suppressors. Here, we review that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can affect cancer metabolism by mutual regulation with oncogenes or tumor suppressors...
October 19, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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