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Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706392/-control-of-potential-risk-in-blood-establishments-in-brazil-a-strategy-for-regulating-authorities
#1
João Batista Silva Júnior, Daphne Rattner, Rita de Cássia Azevedo Martins
Objective To describe the sanitary status of Brazilian blood establishments (BE) assessed by the national health surveillance system in 2013. Method In the present descriptive study, the sanitary profile of BE was assessed using the Blood Establishment Potential Risk Assessment Method (Método de Avaliação de Risco Potencial de Serviços de Hemoterapia, MARPSH), developed by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (Anvisa). The MARPSH involves the evaluation of 471 structure and process items to produce an assessment of potential risk associated with critical control points in the blood cycle (vein-to-vein)...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706391/-kidney-disease-in-colombia-priority-for-risk-management
#2
Lizbeth Acuña, Patricia Sánchez, Luis Alberto Soler, Luisa Fernanda Alvis
Objective To describe the demographic and clinical manifestations of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), arterial hypertension, and/or diabetes mellitus, and to determine the association between the presence of these pathologies and the development of CKD. Methods Analytic and cross-sectional study. The information, with a cutoff date of 30 June 2013, comes from the integrated database of CKD and patients with hypertension and diabetes, which the Colombian payer entities provided to the national fund for high-cost diseases (Cuenta de Alto Costo)...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706390/-an-assessment-of-fiscal-space-for-public-health-in-peru
#3
Mauricio Matus-López, Lorena Prieto Toledo, Camilo Cid Pedraza
Objective To assess the fiscal space for public health in Peru so as to attain the goal of raising health spending to 6% of gross domestic product, as agreed upon by member countries of the Pan American Health Organization in 2014. Methods The main sources of fiscal space were identified by means of a thorough literature review. Technical feasibility was determined from statistics and national and international surveys and by reviewing various documents and official reports. Political feasibility was ascertained by studying policy guidelines...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706389/agriculture-food-and-nutrition-interventions-that-facilitate-sustainable-food-production-and-impact-health-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#4
Michelle M Haby, Evelina Chapman, Rachel Clark, Luiz A C Galvão
Objectives To identify the agriculture, food, and nutrition security interventions that facilitate sustainable food production and have a positive impact on health. Methods Systematic review methods were used to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations through a comprehensive search of 17 databases and 10 websites. The search employed a pre-defined protocol with clear inclusion criteria. Both grey and peer-reviewed literature published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese between 1 January 1997 and November 2013 were included...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706388/-emergence-of-cmy-2-type-plasmid-mediated-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamase-in-shigella-sonnei-and-salmonella-spp-in-costa-rica-2003-2015
#5
Anamariela Tijerino Ayala, Hilda María Bolaños Acuña, María Teresa Acuña Calvo, José Luis Vargas Morales, Elena Campos Chacón
Plasmid-mediated AmpC are enzymes belonging to the group of β-lactamases and encoded by bla AmpC genes. Of these enzymes, those known as type CMY-2 are the most frequently reported worldwide. Detection of enterobacteria that produce CMY-2-type plasmid-mediated AmpC is clinically important since the use of β-lactam antibiotics can result in treatment failure. It is also important from a public health standpoint owing to the capacity for conjugative plasmid transfer to other enterobacteria, both within the community and in nosocomial environments...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706387/oxacillin-disk-diffusion-testing-for-the-prediction-of-penicillin-resistance-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#6
Gertrudis Horna, María L Molero, Liliana Benites, Sigri Roman, Luz Carbajal, Erik Mercado, María E Castillo, Rito Zerpa, Eduardo Chaparro, Roger Hernandez, Wilda Silva, Francisco Campos, Andy Saenz, Isabel Reyes, Alex Villalobos, Theresa J Ochoa
Objective To 1) describe the correlation between the zones of inhibition in 1-µg oxacillin disk diffusion (ODD) tests and penicillin and ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of meningeal and non-meningeal strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 2) evaluate the usefulness of the ODD test as a predictor of susceptibility to penicillin in S. pneumoniae and as a quick and cost-effective method easily implemented in a routine clinical laboratory setting. Methods S. pneumoniae isolates from healthy nasopharyngeal carriers less than 2 years old, obtained in a multicentric cross-sectional study conducted in various Peruvian hospitals and health centers from 2007 to 2009, were analyzed...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706386/-retrospective-eco-epidemiology-as-a-tool-for-the-surveillance-of-leishmaniasis-in-misiones-argentina-1920-2014
#7
Oscar Daniel Salomón, Andrea Verónica Mastrángelo, María Soledad Santini, Domingo Javier Liotta, Zaida Estela Yadón
A retrospective analytical method is presented, based on theoretical eco-epidemiology, applied on a subnational spatial scale. This method was used here to describe scenarios for the transmission of leishmaniasis in the Argentine province of Misiones- bordering Brazil and Paraguay-and formed the basis for recommendations for surveillance and control appropriate to the subnational scale. An exhaustive search of the literature on leishmaniasis in the province was carried out. Three scenarios for the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were found, corresponding to three periods: from 1920 to 1997, during which the transmission of CL distributed over time and space was confirmed; 1998 to 2005, during which there were focal outbreaks of CL; and 2006 to 2014, during which outbreaks were also reported and the geographical dispersion of VL was documented...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706385/innovative-in-vitro-methodologies-for-establishing-therapeutic-equivalence
#8
Lisa Murray, Antonio Arias, Jibin Li, Sid Bhoopathy, Ismael J Hidalgo
To improve the quality of pharmaceutical products in their markets, several Latin American countries have begun to require that new generic products demonstrate bioequivalence against innovator or reference products. However, given the number of products involved, it is not feasible to rely on clinical studies to comply with this requirement. Instead, it makes sense to adopt or develop strategies that are appropriate to the characteristics of the region. To streamline drug development and accelerate patients' access to quality drug products, 15 years ago the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decided to grant exemptions from clinical bioequivalence studies (i...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706384/-the-debate-on-regulating-biotechnology-drugs-colombia-in-the-international-context
#9
Alejandro Gaviria, Claudia Patricia Vaca González, Carolina Gómez Muñoz, Álvaro Andrés Morales
In September 2014, Colombia issued standards for the evaluation of biological drugs within the framework of the marketing authorization process. The Colombian approach explicitly includes a fast track for evaluating competing biologicals, which caused great national and international controversy. This article explains the context that justifies the need for this fast-track approach, critically analyzes comparability as a paradigm for the evaluation of biogenerics, and shows that Colombia's position is not isolated and is based on global regulatory trends...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706383/impact-of-functional-determinants-on-5-5-year-mortality-in-amazon-riparian-elderly
#10
Tiago C Antonini, Jose A de Paz, Euler E Ribeiro, Elorídes Brito, Kennya S Mota, Terezinha L Silva, Carlos Cristi-Monteiro, Pedro V C Jung, Ivana B M da Cruz
Objective To ascertain whether modifiable physical performance-based measurements predicted 5.5-year mortality in a riparian elderly cohort in the Amazon rainforest region. Methods A longitudinal study evaluating the impact of functional determinants on 5.5-year mortality in a riparian elderly cohort from Maués City in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, was performed. The study was a follow-up of a previous observational investigation that evaluated various fitness tests in 630 Amazonian riparian elderly (291 males and 339 females) aged 72...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706438/-social-impact-of-literacy-in-the-household-analysis-of-the-association-with-smoking-in-illiterate-co-residents-in-brazil
#11
Felipe Garcia Ribeiro, André Carraro, Janaína Vieira Dos Santos Motta, Denise Petrucci Gigante
Objective To investigate the social impact of literacy on the smoking behavior of illiterate individuals who share the household with literate individuals. Method This cross-sectional study employed data from the 2008 Brazilian National Household Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios, PNAD). Smokers were defined as individuals reporting use of any tobacco product daily or less than daily. The literacy profiles of residents were identified. Poisson regressions adjusted for skin color, age, and maximum level of literacy in the household were performed...
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706437/-availability-of-indicators-for-monitoring-the-achievement-of-universal-health-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#12
Carlos E Pinzón Flórez, Evelina Chapman, Ulysses Panisset, Armando Arredondo, James Fitzgerald, Ludovic Reveiz
Objective The objective of this study was to identify the availability of health indicators for validly measuring advances in the attainment of "universal health" in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Methods A systematic search was undertaken for scientific evidence and available technical and scientific documents on assessing health system performance and advances in universal health in the following phases: phase 1, mapping of indicators; phase 2, classification of indicators; and phase 3, mapping the availability of selected indicators in LAC...
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706436/health-care-factors-associated-with-survival-among-women-with-breast-cancer-on-hormone-therapy-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-2004-2010
#13
Cláudia de Brito, Margareth Crisóstomo Portela, Mauricio Teixeira Leite de Vasconcellos
Objectives To better understand the role that health care plays in breast cancer survival by investigating the effects that hormone therapy adherence and other select health care variables, adjusted for clinical and sociodemographic factors, had among a population of women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods This was a longitudinal study based on secondary data of 5 861 women treated with hormone therapy (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors) at the National Cancer Institute of Brazil (INCA), from 1 January 2004 - 29 October 2010...
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706435/-validation-of-a-questionnaire-to-evaluate-administrative-causes-of-low-reporting-of-adverse-drug-reactions
#14
Lisset Ortiz Zamora, Dainuris Usatorres Bess, Caridad Ortiz Zamora
Objective Design and validate a survey to determine the administrative causes that can influence low reporting of adverse drug reactions. Methods The questionnaire design was based on a review of the literature and on brainstorming. The variables considered to influence reporting were professional workload and the professional perception of drug surveillance control activities. To validate the hypothesis, 60 professionals were surveyed in a convenience sample. Reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alfa and the Kuder-Richardson coefficient...
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706434/-strategy-for-determining-a-baseline-in-areas-of-vector-interruption-for-chagas-disease
#15
Diego Montenegro, Mauricio Vera, Liliana Zuleta, Violeta Llanos, Angela Junqueira
Objectives Present a strategy to determine the baseline in endemic areas in the process of vector interruption for Chagas disease (CHD). Methods A social and environmental questionnaire and an entomological survey evaluated the physical conditions of dwellings, the inhabitants' knowledge of CHD, the entomological triatomine indicators and the statistical relationship among these variables. Results Colonization and natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi exist in Rhodnius prolixus, the principal vector of CHD in Colombia...
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706433/-overview-of-regulatory-aspects-guiding-tablet-scoring
#16
Maíra Teles Teixeira, Lívia Cristina Lira Sá-Barreto, Dayde Lane Mendonça Silva, Marcílio Sergio Soares Cunha-Filho
Tablet scoring is a controversial but common practice used to adjust doses, facilitate drug intake, or lower the cost of drug treatment, especially in children and the elderly. The risks of tablet scoring are mainly related to inaccuracies in the resulting dose and stability problems. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of worldwide guidelines regarding tablet scoring. We found that regulatory health agencies in Mercosur countries as well as other South American countries do not have published standards addressing tablet splitting...
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706432/-a-fine-line-between-legal-and-illegal-oral-drug-repackaging
#17
Heberto Arboleya Casanova, Héctor Marino Zavala Sánchez, Angélica María Hernández Fernández, Dulce Janeth González Herrera
In 2009, with the implementation of the National Hospital Pharmacy Model, Mexico began regulating single-dose drugs. The repackaging of oral drugs is fundamental and critical and should be standardized by Mexican health legislation to enable quality drugs to be dispensed. Data is required on stability, compatibility, drug interactions, containers, and repackaging methods, in order to establish a new expiration date. The literature on health regulations applicable to repackaging was analyzed, revealing major conceptual imprecisions since there is no legislation in Mexico that regulates repackaging; rather, everything is carried out according to pharmacists' recommendations and criteria...
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706431/interventions-that-facilitate-sustainable-development-by-preventing-toxic-exposure-to-chemicals-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#18
Michelle M Haby, Agnes Soares, Evelina Chapman, Rachel Clark, Marcelo Korc, Luiz A C Galvão
Objective To identify interventions that 1) facilitate sustainable development by preventing toxic exposure to chemicals, including pesticides, and 2) have a positive impact on health. Methods This overview utilized systematic review methods to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations. A comprehensive search was conducted based on a predefined protocol, including clear inclusion criteria. To be classified as "sustainable" interventions needed to aim (explicitly or implicitly) to 1) have a positive impact on at least two key dimensions of the United Nations integrated framework for sustainable development and 2) include measures of health impact...
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706430/necesidad-de-nuevos-modelos-de-atenci%C3%A3-n-primaria-de-la-salud-en-los-pa%C3%A3-ses-de-bajos-y-medianos-ingresos
#19
Daniel López-Hernández, Margarita Blanco-Cornejo, Rafael Navarro-Meneses
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706429/a-multi-country-cross-sectional-observational-study-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#20
Lauren Arnesen, Pablo Durán, Juan Silva, Luisa Brumana
Objective To consolidate available information from the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region on 1) national incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and 2) national-level government inputs on ROP (existing national policies, guidelines, programs, and financing for ROP prevention, detection, and treatment, including ROP screening) in 2014. Methods In March and April 2015, a multi-country online survey was distributed to 56 medical and public health experts working on ROP in LAC countries. Respondents were instructed to provide quantitative and qualitative information representative of the national situation in 2014 for ROP incidence and national-level government inputs (existing national policies, guidelines, programs, and financing for ROP prevention, detection, and treatment, including ROP screening) in their country...
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
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