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Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069142/embedding-research-in-health-policy-and-systems-in-the-americas
#1
EDITORIAL
Etienne V Langlois, Tran T Nhan, Abdul Ghaffar, Ludovic Reveiz, Francisco Becerra-Posada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902282/-women-s-health-prevention-indicator-a-proposal-for-combining-mammography-and-papanicolaou-smear
#2
Juliana Calazans de Cerqueira, Jessica Pronestino de Lima Moreira, Alexandre Dos Santos Brito, Ronir Raggio Luiz
This article proposes a women's health prevention indicator (WHPI) reflecting the combined status of mammography and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear according to the recommendations for age and considering the time elapsed since the last exam/test. The WHPI classifies prevention status into desirable, alert, or risk categories. The risk category includes women of all ages who never had a Pap smear, those aged >60 years who had a Pap smear more than 3 years ago but never had a mammography, and those aged ≥71 years who are up to date with the Pap smear but never had a mammography...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902281/the-united-states-mexico-border-environmental-public-health-the-challenges-of-working-with-two-systems
#3
Genny Carrillo, Felipe Uribe, Rose Lucio, Alberto Ramirez Lopez, Marcelo Korc
This report shares the challenges and opportunities encountered by a binational project that examined the availability of environmental and public health information for the United States-Mexico border area. The researchers interviewed numerous national and binational agencies on both sides of the border, endeavoring to develop a framework to advance the knowledge of academic and public health professionals in the area of environmental border health. However, the lack of standardized indicators and metrics in both countries validates the emergent need to establish a viable framework for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of environmental information...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902280/-impact-of-physical-inactivity-on-mortality-and-the-economic-costs-of-cardiovascular-deaths-evidence-from-argentina
#4
Christian Martín García, José Antonio González-Jurado
Objective: Estimate mortality and economic costs from cardiovascular diseases attributable to physical inactivity in Argentina. Methods: Attributable mortality (AM) from physical inactivity was estimated as the product of the population attributable fraction and the number of deaths caused by associated cardiovascular diseases. Value of statistical life (VSL) was calculated using the human capital approach, in which VSL was estimated through lost productivity from premature death...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902279/-aging-and-long-term-care-in-chile-challenges-in-the-oecd-context
#5
Pablo Villalobos Dintrans
Chile is fully in the process of demographic transition, with a rapidly aging population. This situation poses multiple public policy challenges, including those in the public health sector. Specifically, the association between aging and the loss of autonomy calls for the rapid design of a long-term care policy in the country. The purpose of this article is to describe Chile's current situation with respect to long-term care in aging, using the experience of the countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development to draw attention to the need to move forward with the design and financing of a coordinated policy in the country that will permit early action to meet the challenges of aging in the coming decades...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902278/minimum-infectious-dose-for-chikungunya-virus-in-aedes-aegypti-and-ae-albopictus-mosquitoes
#6
Jeremy P Ledermann, Erin M Borland, Ann M Powers
Understanding the ability of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to be transmitted by Aedes vectors in the Americas is critical for assessing epidemiological risk. One element that must be considered is the minimum infectious dose of virus that can lead to transmission following the extrinsic incubation period. This study aimed to determine the minimum infection rate for the two Aedes species studied. The results revealed that doses as low as 3.9 log10 plaque-forming units per mL (pfu/mL) of an Asian genotype CHIKV strain can lead to transmission by Ae...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902277/clinical-manifestations-of-chikungunya-among-university-professors-and-staff-in-santo-domingo-the-dominican-republic
#7
Michael A Zingman, Amarilis Then Paulino, Matilde Peguero Payano
Objective: To further characterize chikungunya virus infection and its associated clinical manifestations, using a sample of university professors and staff in Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic. Methods: A cross-sectional study with quota sampling by department was performed to obtain a convenience sample of professors (n = 736) and staff (n = 499) at the Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo. Surveys were used to collect demographic and infection data during the fall term of 2014...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902276/first-detection-of-dengue-and-chikungunya-viruses-in-natural-populations-of-aedes-aegypti-in-martinique-during-the-2013-2015-concomitant-outbreak
#8
Laurence Farraudière, Fabrice Sonor, Said Crico, Manuel Étienne, Laurence Mousson, Rodolphe Hamel, Dorothée Missé, Anna-Bella Failloux, Frédéric Simard, André Yébakima
Dengue and chikungunya viruses are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. In Martinique, an island of the French West Indies, Aedes aegypti is the suspected vector of both arboviruses; there is no Aedes albopictus on the island. During the concomitant outbreak of 2013 - 2015, the authors collected wild A. aegypti populations, and for the first time, detected dengue and chikungunya viruses in field-collected females. This paper demonstrates the mosquito's role in transmission of both dengue and chikungunya on the island, and also highlights a tool that public health authorities can use for preventing outbreaks...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902275/evaluation-of-three-commercially-available-chikungunya-virus-immunoglobulin-g-immunoassays
#9
Pablo M De Salazar, Anne Marie Valadere, Christin H Goodman, Barbara W Johnson
The emergence of chikungunya virus in the Americas means the affected population is at risk of developing severe, chronic, rheumatologic disease, even months after acute infection. Accurate diagnostic methods for past infections are essential for differential diagnosis and consequence management. This study evaluated three commercially-available chikungunya Immunoglobulin G immunoassays by comparing them to an in-house Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, Georgia, United States)...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902274/chikungunya-virus-outbreak-in-sint-maarten-2013-2014
#10
Maria Henry, Lorraine Francis, Virginia Asin, Karen Polson-Edwards, Babatunde Olowokure
This report describes the outbreak of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Sint Maarten, a constituent country of Kingdom of the Netherlands comprising the southern part of the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, from 22 December 2013 (first reported case) through 5 December 2014. The outbreak was first reported by the French overseas collectivity of Saint-Martin in the northern part of the island-the first site in the Americas to report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. By 5 December 2014, Sint Maarten had reported a total of 658 cases-an overall attack rate of 1...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902273/chikungunya-important-lessons-from-the-jamaican-experience
#11
Jacqueline Duncan, Kelly Ann Gordon-Johnson, Marshall K Tulloch-Reid, Colette Cunningham-Myrie, Kacey Ernst, Nathlee McMorris, Andriene Grant, Marcia Graham, Daisylyn Chin, Karen Webster-Kerr
Objectives: To describe the clinical presentation of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) illness in adults during the 2014 outbreak in Jamaica and to determine the predictive value of the case definition. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using clinical data from suspected cases of CHIKV that were reported to the Ministry of Health in April - December 2014. In addition, charts were reviewed of all individuals over 15 years of age with suspected CHIKV based on a diagnosis of CHIKV or "acute viral illness" that presented to four major health centers in Jamaica during the week prior to and the peak week of the epidemic...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902272/-chikungunya-seroprevalence-and-clinical-case-rate-in-nicaragua-2014-2015
#12
(no author information available yet)
Objective: Estimate seroprevalence, clinical case rate, and proportion of subclinical infections from chikungunya. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2015 at 39 sites distributed across Nicaragua. Demographic and clinical information was compiled through a personal survey. Blood samples were collected to detect chikungunya antibodies using the ELISA inhibition method developed by Nicaragua's National Diagnostic and Reference Center. Results were analyzed using generalized linear models and multilevel Poisson models...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902271/-clinical-and-epidemiological-characterization-of-chikungunya-fever-in-mexico
#13
Carolina Garay-Morán, Juan Francisco Román-Pedroza, Irma López-Martínez, José Cruz Rodríguez-Martínez, Cuitláhuac Ruiz-Matus, Pablo Kuri-Morales, José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez
On 6 December 2013, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) reported confirmation of the first two cases of indigenous transmission of chikungunya fever (CHIK) in the Region of the Americas on the island of Sint Maarten (Netherlands Antilles). For the period 2013-2014, a total of 25 627 confirmed autochthonous cases were distributed in 43 countries, with Mexico reporting 155 cases in five states. Information on cases of CHIK in Mexico was obtained from the database of the General Directorate of Epidemiology (Ministry of Health of Mexico)...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902270/public-health-response-and-lessons-learned-from-the-2014-chikungunya-epidemic-in-grenada
#14
Martin S Forde, Francis Martin, George Mitchell, Satesh Bidaisee
In June 2014, the first cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) were diagnosed on the island of Carriacou, part of the tri-island state of Grenada. In the three months that followed, CHIKV spread rapidly, with conservative estimates of the population infected of at least 60%. Multiple challenges were encountered in the battle to manage the spread and impact of this high-attack rate virus, including 1) limited indigenous laboratory diagnostic capabilities; 2) an under-resourced health care system; 3) a skeptical general public, hesitant to accept facts about the origin and mode of transmission of the new virus; and 4) resistance to the vector control strategies used...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902269/development-of-in-house-serological-methods-for-diagnosis-and-surveillance-of-chikungunya
#15
Saira Saborío Galo, Karla González, Yolanda Téllez, Nadezna García, Leonel Pérez, Lionel Gresh, Eva Harris, Ángel Balmaseda
Objective: To develop and evaluate serological methods for chikungunya diagnosis and research in Nicaragua. Methods: Two IgM ELISA capture systems (MAC-ELISA) for diagnosis of acute chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections, and two Inhibition ELISA Methods (IEM) to measure total antibodies against CHIKV were developed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and hyperimmune serum at the National Virology Laboratory of Nicaragua in 2014-2015. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and agreement of the MAC-ELISAs were obtained by comparing the results of 198 samples (116 positive; 82 negative) with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's IgM ELISA (Atlanta, Georgia, United States; CDC-MAC-ELISA)...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902268/cystic-echinococcosis-in-south-america-a-call-for-action
#16
Carlos F Pavletic, Edmundo Larrieu, Eduardo A Guarnera, Natalia Casas, Pilar Irabedra, Ciro Ferreira, Julio Sayes, Cesar M Gavidia, Eduardo Caldas, Michael Laurence Zini Lise, Melody Maxwell, Marcos Arezo, Ana Maria Navarro, Marco A N Vigilato, Ottorino Cosivi, Marcos Espinal, Victor J Del Rio Vilas
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatidosis, a parasitic zoonosis caused by a cestode of the family Taeniidae, species Echinococcus granulosus, is endemic in Argentina, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, and southern Brazil. This report presents CE figures for these five countries in 2009 - 2014 and proposes indicators to measure national control programs. Nearly 5 000 new CE cases were diagnosed annually in the five countries during the study period. The average case fatality rate was 2.9%, which suggests that CE led to approximately 880 deaths in these countries during the 6-year period...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902267/-public-production-as-a-key-factor-for-access-to-antivenoms-in-the-region-of-the-americas
#17
Guillermo Temprano, Patricia Aprea, José Christian Dokmetjian
Injuries caused by venomous animals affect vast areas of Latin America, Southern Asia, Southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Oceania, and pose a serious problem for global public health. Based on an analysis of the current panorama of global production of ophidian and arachnid antivenoms, it is concluded that they are semi-orphaned products. This is a favorable scenario in which to strengthen public laboratory production. Governments should make a political decision in this regard in the interest of equity in population health...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902266/infant-morbidity-and-mortality-attributable-to-prenatal-smoking-in-chile
#18
Jaime Cerda, Claudia Bambs, Claudio Vera
Objective: To estimate annual infant morbidity and mortality attributable to prenatal smoking in Chile during 2008-2012. Methods: Population-attributable fractions (PAFs) for several infant outcomes were calculated based on previous study estimates of prenatal smoking prevalence and odds ratios associated with exposure (prenatal smoking relative to non-prenatal smoking). Prenatal smoking-attributable infant morbidity and mortality cases were calculated by multiplying the average annual number of morbidity and mortality cases registered in Chile during 2008-2012 by the corresponding PAF...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902265/-model-for-a-risk-focused-approach-to-health-inspection-surveillance-and-control-in-colombia
#19
Álvaro Aroca, Javier Guzmán
Colombian Ministry of Health Resolution 1229 of 2013 established that health inspection, surveillance, and control (IVC, Spanish acronym) should be based on a risk-focused approach. In 2014 Colombia´s National Food and Drugs Surveillance Institute (INVIMA) designed and implemented a risk-based health surveillance model called IVC-SOA. This model measures the risks of drugs, medical devices, food, and cosmetics by taking into account three factors: severity of the product (S), occurrence of product failure (O), and the potentially affected population (A) - hence its name, SOA...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902264/intimate-partner-violence-as-a-predictor-of-antenatal-care-service-utilization-in-honduras
#20
Anne K Sebert Kuhlmann, Janine Foggia, Qiang Fu, Manuel Sierra
Objective: To describe the relationship between exposure to physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and indicators of antenatal care (ANC) service utilization among Honduran women of reproductive age. Methods: Data from the 2011-2012 Honduras Demographic and Health Survey were analyzed to describe the relationship between self-reported exposure to IPV and two ANC outcomes: (1) sufficient ANC visits (defined by the Honduran Ministry of Health as five or more visits) and (2) early ANC initiation (within the first trimester)...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
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