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Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences

Cees Diks, Xindan Li, Chengyao Wu
In this article, we study the instability of a stock market with a modified version of Diks and Dindo's (2008) model where the market is characterized by nonlinear interactions between informed traders and uninformed traders. In the interaction of heterogeneous agents, we replace the replicator dynamics for the fractions by logistic strategy switching. This modification makes the model more suitable for describing realistic price dynamics, as well as more robust with respect to parameter changes. One goal of our paper is to use this model to explore if the arrival of new information (news) and investor behavior have an effect on market instability...
July 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Stephen J Guastello, David E Marra, Anthony F Peressini, Julian Castro, Maribeth Gomez
The synchronization of autonomic arousal levels within dyads and larger teams has become a potentially important variable in the explanation of team performance and group processes. Synchronization research with groups of three or more members has been challenging because of limited means for quantifying relationships that are more extensive than dyads. This article presents an empirical investigation of group performance and participation using a new synchronization coefficient that is grounded in nonlinear dynamical systems theory...
July 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Dimitrios Stamovlasis, Sofia-Eleftheria N Gonida
The present study used achievement goal theory (AGT) as a theoretical framework and examined the role of mastery and performance goals, both performance-approach and performance-avoidance, on school achieve-ment within the nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) perspective. A series of cusp catastrophe models were applied on students' achievement in a number of school subjects, such as mathematics and language for elementary school and algebra, geometry, ancient and modern Greek language for high school, using achievement goal orientations as control variables...
July 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Alejandro De la Torre-Luque, Maria Balle, Aina Fiol-Veny, Jordi Llabrés, Xavier Bornas
The risk of suffering anxiety disorders is associated with sustained subthreshold symptoms of anxiety. This study evaluated the stability of anxiety scores (high, moderate or low) across a six-month period in early adolescents (N = 95). The associations between sustained anxiety, vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV), sympathetic activity, and heart rate fractal dynamics in everyday life conditions were analyzed. The anxiety scores from 71.50% of participants remained at the same level. The linear correlations between anxiety and cardiac measures were weak but a group-based approach revealed that the fractal dimension (FD) from stable-low anxiety participants was higher than the FD from participants with stable-moderate anxiety scores but not higher than the FD from the stable-high anxiety group...
July 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Xinguang Chen, Bin Yu, Ding-Geng Chen
A growing number of young people smoke electronic (e-) cigarettes, presenting an emerging challenge to tobacco control. Analyses are needed to better understand the dynamics of mutual transitions between e-cigarette and conventional combustible (c-) cigarette smoking to advance evidence-based tobacco control. In this study we modeled the nonlinear dynamics of c- and e-cigarette smoking behavior transitions using the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) data. A model with five Markov-Chain transition stages linked by 21 transitional paths/probabilities was constructed, guided by the probabilistic discrete event systems (PDES) theory...
July 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
R P Taylor
Artists have a long tradition of capturing the essence of Nature in their creative works. This year's cover artist, Tallmadge Doyle, uses copper plates to create prints of the complex visual textures found in Nature's scenery. Originating from careful observation, her images then undergo a stylistic evolution toward a personalized artistic vision of Nature's textures.
April 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Havard R Glattre, Eystein Glattre
This paper is about how fractal connections between words can be identified and hidden fractal word-networks uncovered in corpus texts. The basis for this 'search-and-find' procedure is the hypothesis Complexity Connections in Corpuses (CCIC) consisting of four separate sub-hypotheses, each the basis of a procedure for uncovering a special part of such networks. The validity and applicability of CCIC are demonstrated by showing that each sub-hypothesis holds good for twenty-four masterpieces, selected from the world's great library of novels and treatises...
April 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Matthijs Koopmans
Few educational researchers or practitioners would question that high school attendance is an important mediator in the causal network that is used to explain academic achievement, yet attendance remains under-researched. The New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) has created an opportunity to examine the longitudinal trends and dependencies in daily attendance rates as it created a repository of daily attendance rates for all its schools, starting in 2004. The present analysis examines the dynamical patterns in daily attendance rates over a ten-year period (Sept...
April 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
David Katerndahl, Sandra Burge, Robert Ferrer, Johanna Becho, Robert Wood
This study was to determine the multi-day relationships among stressors, need and taking action (seeking counseling, taking legal action, leaving) by women in violent relationships. Women with recent husband-to-wife abuse but not at high-risk for life-threatening violence were recruited from six primary care clinics and asked to complete a daily description of the previous day's violence, need-for-action, and stressors using Interactive Voice Response via telephone for 8 weeks. Taking action (seeking counseling, taking legal action, leaving) was determined via weekly telephone contacts...
April 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Irina G Malkina-Pykh
The study presents the performance of generalized multiplicative model (GMultM) for assessing outcome in psychotherapy. GMultM is a flexible nonlinear regression method which is able to predict the impact of subjects' psychological variables (common factors such as inner directedness, time competence, sociotropy, and perfectionism, locus of control, body dissatisfaction, neuroticism, and alexithymia) as well as their changes on the outcome of psychotherapy. This nonlinear regression model including interaction effects among predictors has a higher explanatory power to predict treatment outcome, compared to any linear model...
April 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Jihoon Oh, Jeong-Ho Chae
Although heart rate variability (HRV) may be a crucial marker of mental health, how it is related to positive psychological factors (i.e. attitude to life and positive thinking) is largely unknown. Here we investigated the correlation of HRV linear and nonlinear dynamics with psychological scales that measured degree of optimism and happiness in patients with anxiety disorders. Results showed that low- to high-frequency HRV ratio (LF/HF) was increased and the HRV HF parameter was decreased in subjects who were more optimistic and who felt happier in daily living...
April 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
David Kern, Waldemar Karwowski, Edgar Gutiérrez Franco, Atsuo Murata
Research into human performance on naval ships often emphasizes the significance of shaping factors, such as vigilance, fatigue and circadian rhythm. However, few report on the presence of complex nonlinear dynamics and fractal dimensionality. This study examines over 7000 routine topside security checks on a U.S. Navy Destroyer performed over a twelve-month period. Time series analysis (0-1 test, analysis of Lyapunov exponent, state space plots, and graphical analysis) reveal the presence of chaotic behavior, harmonics attractors, and fractal structures...
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Christopher R Warren
Organizational theorists have long advocated the importance of attending to multiple stakeholders. However, limited empirical research has been devoted to the ways in which to identify balance, or imbalance, between stakeholder groups possibly due to methodological issues with modeling such complex nomological nets. The current study utilized the multiple stakeholder climate framework to test hypothesized relationships between perceptions of support and affectively-based criteria using polynomial regression and response surface methodology to test discreet regression lines representing predictions...
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Rita Rueff Lopes, José Navarro, Ana Junca Silva
Service research tends to operationalize word of mouth (WOM) behavior as one of the many responses to service satisfaction. In this sense, little is known about its antecedents or moderators. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of customers' emotions during service experiences on WOM, applying nonlinear techniques and exploring the moderating role of customers' propensity for emotional contagion. Using the critical incidents technique, 122 customers recalled significant service experiences and the emotions they aroused, and reported if they shared said experiences with other individuals...
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Claudia P Estévez-Mujica, Andrés Acero, William Jiménez-Leal, César Garcia-Diaz
Increasingly diversity researchers call for further studies of group micro-processes and dynamics to understand the paradoxical effects of diversity on group performance. In this study, based on analyses of in-group, networked, homophilous interactions, we aim to explain further the effects of diversity on group performance in a parallel problem-solving task, both experimentally and computationally. We developed a 'whodunit' problem-solving experiment with 116 participants assigned to different-sized groups...
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Guido Alessandri, Enrico Perinelli, Evelina De Longis, Annalisa Theodorou
In recent years, research in organizational psychology has witnessed a shift in attention from a mostly variable-focused approach, to a mostly person-focused approach. Indeed, it has been widely recognized that the study of worker's heterogeneity is a meaningful and necessary task of researchers dealing with human behavior in organizational contexts. As a consequence, there has been growing interest in the application of statistical analyses able to uncover latent sub-groups of workers. The present contribution was conceived as a tutorial for the application of one of these statistical analyses, namely second-order growth mixture modeling, and to illustrate its inner links with concepts from non-linear dynamic models...
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Roberto Burro, Daniela Raccanello, Margherita Pasini, Margherita Brondino
Conceptualizing affect as a complex nonlinear dynamic process, we used latent class extended mixed models (LCMM) to understand whether there were unobserved groupings in a dataset including longitudinal measures. Our aim was to identify affect profiles over time in people vicariously exposed to terrorism, studying their relations with personality traits. The participants were 193 university students who completed online measures of affect during the seven days following two terrorist attacks (Paris, November 13, 2015; Brussels, March 22, 2016); Big Five personality traits; and antecedents of affect...
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Andrea Scalco, Andrea Ceschi, Riccardo Sartori
It is likely that computer simulations will assume a greater role in the next future to investigate and understand reality (Rand & Rust, 2011). Particularly, agent-based models (ABMs) represent a method of investigation of social phenomena that blend the knowledge of social sciences with the advantages of virtual simulations. Within this context, the development of algorithms able to recreate the reasoning engine of autonomous virtual agents represents one of the most fragile aspects and it is indeed crucial to establish such models on well-supported psychological theoretical frameworks...
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Andrea Ceschi, Riccardo Sartori, Stephen J Guastello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad, Emily Piven, Bahareh Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani
Walter J. Freeman pioneered the neurodynamic model of brain activity when he described the brain dynamics for cognitive information transfer as the process of circular causality at intention, meaning, and perception (IMP) levels. This view contributed substantially to establishment of the Intention, Meaning, and Perception Model of Neuro-occupation in occupational therapy. As described by the model, IMP levels are three components of the brain dynamics system, with nonlinear connections that enable cognitive function to be processed in a circular causality fashion, known as Cognitive Process of Circular Causality (CPCC)...
October 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
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