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Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601116/nonlinearities-in-behavioral-macroeconomics
#1
Orlando Gomes
This article undertakes a journey across the literature on behavioral macroeconomics, with attention concentrated on the nonlinearities that the behavioral approach typically suggests or implies. The emphasis is placed on thinking the macro economy as a living organism, composed of many interacting parts, each one having a will of its own, which is in sharp contrast with the mechanism of the orthodox view (well represented by the neoclassical or new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium - DSGE - model)...
July 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601115/modeling-change-in-project-duration-and-completion-scheduling-dynamics-of-nasa-s-exploration-flight-test-1-eft-1-activities
#2
Travis J Wiltshire, Jonathan E Butner, Zachary Pirtle
In complex work domains and organizations, understanding schedule-ing dynamics can ensure objectives are reached and delays are mitigated. In the current paper, we examine the scheduling dynamics for NASA's Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) activities. For this examination, we specifically modeled simultaneous change in percent complete and estimated duration for a given project as they were included in monthly reports over time. In short, we utilized latent change score mixture modeling to extract the attractor dynamics within the scheduling data...
July 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601114/turn-taking-team-synchronization-and-non-stationarity-in-physiological-time-series
#3
Stephen J Guastello, David E Marra, Julian Castro, Michael Equi, Anthony F Peressini
This study investigated the stationarity of electrodermal time series collected in situations where turn taking in human interactions are involved. In this context, the stationarity of the time series is the extent to which a simple model can be used to fit the entire time series. The experiment involved seven participants in an emergency response simulation against one opponent. They generated 48 time series across six simulations, which were split and re-spliced to separate the team's turns and the opponent's turns...
July 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601113/attractor-dynamics-of-dyadic-interaction-a-recurrence-based-analysis
#4
Marlenny Guevara, Ralf F A Cox, Marijn van Dijk, Paul van Geert
The aim of this study was to investigate interpersonal coordination in young children during dyadic problem solving, by using Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQA). We examined the interactions of seven dyads of children (Mage= 5.1 years) in a longitudinal design (6 sessions) with a sequence of problem-solving tasks increasing in difficulty. An innovative implementation of CRQA is presented in order to study the attractor dynamics of dyadic coordination. The analysis consisted of distinguishing two recurrent states in the relationship between children and the task...
July 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601112/the-role-of-dysfunctional-myths-in-a-decision-making-process-under-bounded-rationality-a-complex-dynamical-systems-perspective
#5
Dimitrios Stamovlasis, Julie Vaiopoulou
The present study examines the factors influencing a decision-making process, with specific focus on the role of dysfunctional myths (DM). DM are thoughts or beliefs that are rather irrational, however influential to people's decisions. In this paper a decision-making process regarding the career choice of university students majoring in natural sciences and education (N=496) is examined by analyzing survey data taken via Career Decision Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ). The difficulty of making the choice and the certainty about one's decision were the state variables, while the independent variables were factors related to the lack of information or knowledge needed, which actually reflect a bounded rationality...
July 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601111/allometric-control-of-affective-fluctuations-in-early-adolescents-their-association-with-anxiety-symptoms-and-temperament-traits
#6
Aina Fiol-Veny, Alejandro De la Torre-Luque, Maria Balle, Xavier Bornas
Many physiological systems are multistable, i.e. they operate at different time scales under an allometric control process. The multistability of affective fluctuations has been clearly illustrated in a sample of adults, but little is known about their dynamics in adolescents. The main aim of this study was to determine whether affective fluctuations in adolescents show multistability and to explore their relationship with anxiety symptomatology and temperamental factors. Twenty-five early adolescents self-reported their daily mood, anxiety and worry levels twice a day over a 100-day period...
July 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302191/performance-and-participation-dynamics-in-an-emergency-response-simulation
#7
Stephen J Guastello, David E Marra, Julian Castro, Maribeth Gomez, Claire Perna
This study examined relationships between participation and performance within a team and performance transfer effects between opponents in an Emergency Response (ER) simulation. Classical organizational theories have emphasized the importance of group participation for organizational performance, but there have been few or no attempts to investigate participation-performance relationships in short-interval time series. The experimental task was a Stag Hunt game, as defined in game theory; performance trends would be affected by levels of participation, which in turn should be affected by recent performance experiences that modulate the players' self-efficacy for the task...
April 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302190/cooperative-learning-and-interpersonal-synchrony
#8
Roy Vink, Maarten L Wijnants, Antonius H N Cillessen, Anna M T Bosman
Cooperative learning has been shown to result in better task performance, compared to individual and competitive learning, and can lead to positive social effects. However, potential working mechanisms at a micro level remain unexplored. One potential working mechanism might be the level of interpersonal synchrony between cooperating individuals. It has been shown that increased levels of interpersonal synchrony are related to better cognitive performance (e.g., increased memory). Social factors also appear to be affected by the level of interpersonal synchrony, with more interpersonal synchrony leading to increased likeability...
April 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302189/temporal-dynamics-of-rituals-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#9
Robert W Bond, Stephen J Guastello, Andrea D Guastello
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by obsessions, defined as intrusive and persistent thoughts, and compulsions, defined as repetitive ritualistic behaviors that attempt to neutralize the anxiety associated with the obsessions. The present study investigated the patterns of symptoms as they occur over time in order to generate new insights about the triggers to symptoms. Fourteen adult participants who met the DSM-5 criteria for OCD completed 7-day logbooks of daily activities including the times when they engaged in compulsive rituals...
April 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302188/positive-disintegration-as-a-process-of-symmetry-breaking
#10
Krystyna Laycraft
This article presents an analysis of the positive disintegration as a process of symmetry breaking. Symmetry breaking plays a major role in self-organized patterns formation and correlates directly to increasing complexity and function specialization. According to Dabrowski, a creator of the Theory of Positive Disintegration, the change from lower to higher levels of human development requires a major restructuring of an individual's psychological makeup. Each level of human development is a relatively stable and coherent configuration of emotional-cognitive patterns called developmental dynamisms...
April 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302187/dynamical-systems-theory-in-quantitative-psychology-and-cognitive-science-a-fair-discrimination-between-deterministic-and-statistical-counterparts-is-required
#11
Adam Gadomski, Marcel Ausloos, Tahlia Casey
This article addresses a set of observations framed in both deterministic as well as statistical formal guidelines. It operates within the framework of nonlinear dynamical systems theory (NDS). It is argued that statistical approaches can manifest themselves ambiguously, creating practical discrepancies in psychological and cognitive data analyses both quantitatively and qualitatively. This is sometimes termed in literature as 'questionable research practices.' This communication points to the demand for a deeper awareness of the data 'initial conditions, allowing to focus on pertinent evolution constraints in such systems...
April 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938527/cover-images-flow-visualization
#12
Candace Wark, Shirley Nannini
Flow visualization is most often the 'first tool' used by investigators in their quest for understanding turbulent and other unsteady flow phenomena. The authors explain photography with the smoke-wire technique that has become an art form.
January 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938526/a-cusp-catastrophe-model-of-tax-behavior
#13
Ioannis Katerelos, Nikolaos Varotsis
The paper addresses the timeless failure of the tax system in Greece despite its constant reform, highlighting the study of tax evasion phenomenon with a different approach. This study aims to assess tax behavior with a model of cusp catastrophe, where fear and peer pressure are control parameters. The survey involved 320 taxpayers from the entire Greek territory. Mathematical study using linear analysis and catastrophe modelling showed that a non-linear system is dramatically better in representing tax behavior than is any linear model...
January 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938525/honing-theory-a-complex-systems-framework-for-creativity
#14
Liane Gabora
This paper proposes a theory of creativity, referred to as honing theory, which posits that creativity fuels the process by which culture evolves through communal exchange amongst minds that are self-organizing, self-maintaining, and self-reproducing. According to honing theory, minds, like other self-organizing systems, modify their contents and adapt to their environments to minimize entropy. Creativity begins with detection of high psychological entropy material, which provokes uncertainty and is arousal-inducing...
January 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938524/how-to-modify-psychopathological-states-hypotheses-based-on-complex-systems-theory
#15
Hermann Haken, Wolfgang Tschacher
In mathematical analysis based on the assumptions of complexity science, the emergence of a pattern is the result of a competition of modes, which each have a parameter value attached. In the context of visual pattern recognition, a specific connectionist system (the synergetic computer SC) was developed, which was derived from the assumptions of synergetics, a theory of complex systems. We adapted the processes of visual pattern recognition performed by the SC to a different context, psychopathology and therapeutic interventions, assuming these scenarios are analogous...
January 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938523/fishing-quotas-induced-allee-effect-and-fluctuation-driven-extinction
#16
Harold M Hastings, Michael Radin, Tamas Wiandt
We explore the potential of modifications to standard fishery models (for example Gordon-Schafer-Munro) to help understand events such as the collapse of the North Atlantic cod fishery. In particular we find that quota-driven and similar harvesting strategies induce an effective strong Allee effect (collapse if the population falls below a critical level). In the presence of environmental noise, fish population dynamics is similar to a random walk with (non-linear) drift. The expected survival time (first passage time to collapse) is shown to depend sensitively upon the amount of environmental noise and size of the 'safe zone' between the deterministic steady state population and the critical population level at which the system collapses; more precisely it is exponential in the cube of the size of the safe zone divided by the variance of the noise process...
January 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550707/a-cusp-catastrophe-model-for-team-learning-team-potency-and-team-culture
#17
Teresa Rebelo, Dimitrios Stamovlasis, Paulo Renato Lourenco, Isabel Dimas, Margarida Pinheiro
This paper examines team learning behaviors within a nonlinear dynamical system (NDS) perspective. The present research is based on a sample of 36 project workgroups, where data were collected at two moments of their life cycle, with visual analogue scales. Using both the least squares method and maximum likelihood, it proposes a cusp catastrophe model for explaining team learning. The cusp model is superior to its linear alternatives and implements team culture as the asymmetry variable and team potency as bifurcation...
October 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550706/cognitive-workload-and-fatigue-in-a-vigilance-dual-task-miss-errors-false-alarms-and-the-effect-of-wearing-biometric-sensors-while-working
#18
Stephen J Guastello, Katherine E Reiter, Matthew Malon
The effects of workload, fatigue, and practice on the performance of cognitive tasks are often intertwined. Previous research has shown that these influences can be separated with the two cusp catastrophe models. This study expanded an earlier investigation of the two models for workload and fatigue in a vigilance task to include a wider range of bifurcation variables that could affect the elasticity versus rigidity of the operator in response to workload and added performance variability resulting from fatigue...
October 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550705/mother-infant-verbal-and-nonverbal-interaction-as-predictor-of-attachment-nonlinear-dynamic-analyses
#19
M Angeles Cerezo, Gemma Pons-Salvador, Rosa M Trenado, Purificacion Sierra
This longitudinal study examined flexibility in early mother-infant interaction at the age of approximately 6 months (N=30) and whether flexibility indices predicted (in) secure child attachment at 15 months. Dyadic flexibility was measured using dynamic systems-based modelling of patterns during mother-child free play in terms of NDS variables derived from SSG: the propensity to change states (dynamic flexibility), number of states visited (diversity) and predictability (dispersion). Results showed significant discriminant functions on the attachment type groups, A, B & C, for the total grid, which included verbal and non-verbal, and for the reciprocal verbal region...
October 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550704/model-comparison-for-abiotic-versus-biotic-pollen-dispersal
#20
Erich L Foster, David M Chan, Rodney J Dyer
An agent-based model with a correlated random walk is used to explore pollination within a forest. For abiotic dispersal, say via the wind, we use a purely random walk where there is no correlation between consecutive steps and for biotic dispersal, say via insect, we use a moderate or highly correlated random walk. In particular, we examine the differences in a number of biological measurement between a purely random walk and a correlated random walk in terms of gene dispersal in low and high plant densities...
October 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
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