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Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences

Candace Wark, Shirley Nannini
Flow visualization is most often the 'first tool' used by investigators in their quest for understanding turbulent and other unsteady flow phenomena. The authors explain photography with the smoke-wire technique that has become an art form.
January 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Ioannis Katerelos, Nikolaos Varotsis
The paper addresses the timeless failure of the tax system in Greece despite its constant reform, highlighting the study of tax evasion phenomenon with a different approach. This study aims to assess tax behavior with a model of cusp catastrophe, where fear and peer pressure are control parameters. The survey involved 320 taxpayers from the entire Greek territory. Mathematical study using linear analysis and catastrophe modelling showed that a non-linear system is dramatically better in representing tax behavior than is any linear model...
January 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Liane Gabora
This paper proposes a theory of creativity, referred to as honing theory, which posits that creativity fuels the process by which culture evolves through communal exchange amongst minds that are self-organizing, self-maintaining, and self-reproducing. According to honing theory, minds, like other self-organizing systems, modify their contents and adapt to their environments to minimize entropy. Creativity begins with detection of high psychological entropy material, which provokes uncertainty and is arousal-inducing...
January 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Hermann Haken, Wolfgang Tschacher
In mathematical analysis based on the assumptions of complexity science, the emergence of a pattern is the result of a competition of modes, which each have a parameter value attached. In the context of visual pattern recognition, a specific connectionist system (the synergetic computer SC) was developed, which was derived from the assumptions of synergetics, a theory of complex systems. We adapted the processes of visual pattern recognition performed by the SC to a different context, psychopathology and therapeutic interventions, assuming these scenarios are analogous...
January 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Harold M Hastings, Michael Radin, Tamas Wiandt
We explore the potential of modifications to standard fishery models (for example Gordon-Schafer-Munro) to help understand events such as the collapse of the North Atlantic cod fishery. In particular we find that quota-driven and similar harvesting strategies induce an effective strong Allee effect (collapse if the population falls below a critical level). In the presence of environmental noise, fish population dynamics is similar to a random walk with (non-linear) drift. The expected survival time (first passage time to collapse) is shown to depend sensitively upon the amount of environmental noise and size of the 'safe zone' between the deterministic steady state population and the critical population level at which the system collapses; more precisely it is exponential in the cube of the size of the safe zone divided by the variance of the noise process...
January 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Teresa Rebelo, Dimitrios Stamovlasis, Paulo Renato Lourenco, Isabel Dimas, Margarida Pinheiro
This paper examines team learning behaviors within a nonlinear dynamical system (NDS) perspective. The present research is based on a sample of 36 project workgroups, where data were collected at two moments of their life cycle, with visual analogue scales. Using both the least squares method and maximum likelihood, it proposes a cusp catastrophe model for explaining team learning. The cusp model is superior to its linear alternatives and implements team culture as the asymmetry variable and team potency as bifurcation...
October 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Stephen J Guastello, Katherine E Reiter, Matthew Malon
The effects of workload, fatigue, and practice on the performance of cognitive tasks are often intertwined. Previous research has shown that these influences can be separated with the two cusp catastrophe models. This study expanded an earlier investigation of the two models for workload and fatigue in a vigilance task to include a wider range of bifurcation variables that could affect the elasticity versus rigidity of the operator in response to workload and added performance variability resulting from fatigue...
October 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
M Angeles Cerezo, Gemma Pons-Salvador, Rosa M Trenado, Purificacion Sierra
This longitudinal study examined flexibility in early mother-infant interaction at the age of approximately 6 months (N=30) and whether flexibility indices predicted (in) secure child attachment at 15 months. Dyadic flexibility was measured using dynamic systems-based modelling of patterns during mother-child free play in terms of NDS variables derived from SSG: the propensity to change states (dynamic flexibility), number of states visited (diversity) and predictability (dispersion). Results showed significant discriminant functions on the attachment type groups, A, B & C, for the total grid, which included verbal and non-verbal, and for the reciprocal verbal region...
October 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Erich L Foster, David M Chan, Rodney J Dyer
An agent-based model with a correlated random walk is used to explore pollination within a forest. For abiotic dispersal, say via the wind, we use a purely random walk where there is no correlation between consecutive steps and for biotic dispersal, say via insect, we use a moderate or highly correlated random walk. In particular, we examine the differences in a number of biological measurement between a purely random walk and a correlated random walk in terms of gene dispersal in low and high plant densities...
October 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Mariano Matilla-Garcia, Rina B Ojeda, Manuel Ruiz Marin
This paper suggests new nonparametric statistical tools and procedures for modeling linear and nonlinear univariate economic and financial processes. In particular, the tools presented help in selecting relevant lags in the model description of a general linear or nonlinear time series; that is, nonlinear models are not a restriction. The tests seem to be robust to the selection of free parameters. We also show that the test can be used as a diagnostic tool for well-defined models.
October 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Matthijs Koopmans
Educational organizations, public schools in particular, are seen as being notoriously inert and resistant to change. While school reform efforts are widespread, educational outcomes such as high school graduation rates and achievement in reading and math continue to show disparity between socio-economic groups. Why is educational change so hard to accomplish? This article approaches the question from two perspectives: the school reform literature that identifies the factors inhibiting change in school systems, and the literature on complex dynamical systems (CDS), which facilitates understanding of the dynamics underlying inertia and transformation...
July 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Gunter Schiepek, Benjamin Aas, Kathrin Viol
Psychotherapy is a dynamic process produced by a complex system of interacting variables. Even though there are qualitative models of such systems the link between structure and function, between network and network dynamics is still missing. The aim of this study is to realize these links. The proposed model is composed of five state variables (P: problem severity, S: success and therapeutic progress, M: motivation to change, E: emotions, I: insight and new perspectives) interconnected by 16 functions. The shape of each function is modified by four parameters (a: capability to form a trustful working alliance, c: mentalization and emotion regulation, r: behavioral resources and skills, m: self-efficacy and reward expectation)...
July 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Ateke Goshvarpour, Ataollah Abbasi, Atefeh Goshvarpour
The objective of the present study is to investigate the anatomical distribution of the cortical sources of emotional response to music videos by means of electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. A novel methodology is introduced to determine the nonlinear couplings between different brain regions based on the coherence analysis, nonlinear features of EEG recordings and a source localization method, standard low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 32 channels of EEG time series of 32 subjects available in DEAP database were studied...
July 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Mattia Roppolo, Saskia Kunnen, Anna Mulasso, Emanuela Rabaglietti, Paul van Geert
Intra-individual variability is a central topic in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems (NDS) studies of human development, because the theory predicts that particular forms or properties of intra-individual variability will serve as indicators or predictors of bifurcations, and stable states in individual development. Currently, there are almost no studies that address intra-individual changes and variability of Health Related Quality of Life in old age. The main aim of this paper is to analyze the role of day-to-day HRQOL variability and long term HRQOL and disability development in a sample of institutionalized older adults...
July 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
William H Sulis
Synchronization has a long history in physics where it refers to the phase matching of two identical oscillators. This notion has been extensively studied in physics as well as in biology, where it has been applied to such widely varying phenomena as the flashing of fireflies and firing of neurons in the brain. Human behavior, however, may be recurrent but it is not oscillatory even though many physiological systems do exhibit oscillatory tendencies. Moreover, much of human behaviour is collaborative and cooperative, where the individual behaviours may be distinct yet contemporaneous (if not simultaneous) and taken collectively express some functionality...
April 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Ronald Stevens, Trysha Galloway
The goal of this study was to evaluate different neurodynamic representations for their ability to describe the interactions of team members with each other and with the changing task. Electroencephalography (EEG) data streams were collected from six crew members of a submarine piloting and navigation team while they performed a required training simulation. A representation of neurodynamic organization was first generated by creating symbols every second that showed the EEG power levels of each crew member...
April 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Stephen J Guastello, David E Marra, Claire Perna, Julian Castro, Maribeth Gomez, Anthony F Peressini
Behavioral and physiological synchronization have important implications for work teams with regard to workload management, coordinated behavior and overall functioning. This study extended previous work on the nonlinear statistical structure of GSR series in dyads to larger teams and included subjective ratings of workload and contributions to problem solving. Eleven teams of 3 or 4 people played a series of six emergency response (ER) games against a single opponent. Seven of the groups worked under a time pressure instruction at the beginning of the first game...
April 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Christina L Gipson, Jamie C Gorman, Eric E Hessler
Coordination with others is such a fundamental part of human activity that it can happen unintentionally. This unintentional coordination can manifest as synchronization and is observed in physical and human systems alike. We investigated the role of top-down influences (prior knowledge of the perceptual modality their partner is using) and bottom-up factors (perceptual modality combination) on spontaneous interpersonal synchronization. We examine this phenomena with respect to two different theoretical perspectives that differently emphasize top-down and bottom-up factors in interpersonal synchronization: joint-action/shared cognition theories and ecological-interactive theories...
April 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Franco F Orsucci, Nicolò Musmeci, Benjamin Aas, Günter Schiepek, Mario A Reda, Luca Canestri, Alessandro Giuliani, Giulio de Felice
We studied the synchronization dynamics of a therapist and patient during a psychotherapy session. This investigation was developed in order to explore a new possible perspective and methodology for studying the expression of emotions. More specifically, literature concerning synchronization of in-session non-verbal variables emphasises its positive correlation with empathy and therapeutic outcomes. We compared the dynamics of galvanic skin response (GSR) and linguistic prosody, chosen as indicators of emotional expression in different domains...
April 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Fabian Ramseyer, Wolfgang Tschacher
Previous work has shown that nonverbal behavior was associated with both session-level outcome and global outcome in psychotherapy. Nonverbal synchrony--here the coordination between patient's and psychotherapist's movement behavior--is a facet of nonverbal behavior that has recently been studied with video-based motion energy analysis (MEA). The present study aimed to replicate and extend these findings by using direct acquisition of movement data. In a single-case analysis, we monitored patient's and therapist's hand movements with a high-resolution accelerometric measurement system (Vitaport (r))...
April 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
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