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Prehospital Emergency Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339320/basic-life-support-access-to-injectable-epinephrine-across-the-united-states
#1
Ian D Brasted, Michael W Dailey
BACKGROUND:  Aggressive epinephrine administration has growing support in the treatment of anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers are frequently in a position to provide the first care to someone experiencing an anaphylactic reaction. Intramuscular injection of epinephrine is the definitive pharmacologic treatment for many associated symptoms. While easy to use, epinephrine autoinjectors (EAI) are prohibitively expensive, having increased in price ten-fold in ten years...
March 24, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339314/an-analysis-of-ems-and-ed-detection-of-stroke
#2
Ian Medoro, David C Cone
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies have shown a reduction in time-to-CT and improved process measures when EMS personnel notify the ED of a "stroke alert" from the field. However, there are few data on the accuracy of these EMS stroke alerts. The goal of this study was to examine diagnostic test performance of EMS and ED stroke alerts and related process measures. METHODS: The EMS and ED records of all stroke alerts in a large tertiary ED from August 2013-January 2014 were examined and data abstracted by one trained investigator, with data accuracy confirmed by a second investigator for 15% of cases...
March 24, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339308/association-between-ems-question-bank-completion-and-passing-rates-on-the-ems-certification-examination
#3
Brian Clemency, Christian Martin-Gill, Nicole Rall, Paul May, Jeffrey Lubin, Craig Cooley, Christine Van Dillen, Salvatore Silvestri, Roberto Portela, Derek Cooney, Christian Knutsen, Juan March
INTRODUCTION: A board review question bank was created to assist candidates in their preparation for the 2015 EMS certification examination. We aimed to describe the development of this question bank and evaluate its successes in preparing candidates to obtain EMS subspecialty board certification. METHODS: An online question bank was developed by 13 subject matter experts who participated as item writers, representing eight different EMS fellowship programs. The online question bank consisted of four practice tests, with each of the tests comprised of 100 questions...
March 24, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276879/clinical-credentialing-of-ems-providers
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276878/patient-restraint-in-emergency-medical-services
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276880/effectiveness-of-prehospital-epinephrine-administration-in-improving-long-term-outcomes-of-witnessed-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-patients-with-initial-non-shockable-rhythms
#6
Jun Tomio, Shinji Nakahara, Hideto Takahashi, Masao Ichikawa, Masamichi Nishida, Naoto Morimura, Tetsuya Sakamoto
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between prehospital epinephrine administration by emergency medical services (EMS) and the long-term outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with initial pulseless electrical activity (PEA) or asystole. METHODS: We conducted a controlled, propensity-matched, retrospective cohort study by using Japan's nationwide OHCA registry database. We studied 110,239 bystander-witnessed OHCA patients aged 15-94 years with initial non-shockable rhythms registered between January 2008 and December 2012...
February 7, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166446/use-of-intranasal-naloxone-by-basic-life-support-providers
#7
Scott G Weiner, Patricia M Mitchell, Elizabeth S Temin, Breanne K Langlois, K Sophia Dyer
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Intranasal delivery of naloxone to reverse the effects of opioid overdose by Advanced Life Support (ALS) providers has been studied in several prehospital settings. In 2006, in response to the increase in opioid-related overdoses, a special waiver from the state allowed administration of intranasal naloxone by Basic Life Support (BLS) providers in our city. This study aimed to determine: 1) if patients who received a 2-mg dose of nasal naloxone administered by BLS required repeat dosing while in the emergency department (ED), and 2) the disposition of these patients...
February 6, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166435/adverse-events-during-inter-hospital-transports-on-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#8
Anders Ericsson, Björn Frenckner, L Mikael Broman
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be a lifesaving rescue therapy in refractory, severe respiratory, and/or circulatory failure. To provide the best cost efficiency to the population served and patient outcome, ECMO therapy should be provided by specialized high volume ECMO centers. This requires dedicated transport teams to organize and perform these complex transports. Concerning adverse events and complications during these transfers, only a minimal amount of data has been published...
February 6, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121261/occupational-injuries-and-exposures-among-emergency-medical-services-workers
#9
Audrey A Reichard, Suzanne M Marsh, Theresa R Tonozzi, Srinivas Konda, Mirinda A Gormley
OBJECTIVE: Emergency medical services (EMS) workers incur occupational injuries at a higher rate than the general worker population. This study describes the circumstances of occupational injuries and exposures among EMS workers to guide injury prevention efforts. METHODS: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health collaborated with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to conduct a follow-back survey of injured EMS workers identified from a national sample of hospital emergency departments (EDs) from July 2010 through June 2014...
January 25, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121225/prospective-prehospital-evaluation-of-the-cincinnati-stroke-triage-assessment-tool
#10
Jason T McMullan, Brian Katz, Joseph Broderick, Pamela Schmit, Heidi Sucharew, Opeolu Adeoye
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A simple, easily adoptable scale with good performance characteristics is needed for EMS providers to appropriately triage suspected stroke patients to comprehensive stroke centers (CSC). Many existing tools are complex, require substantial training, or have not been prospectively validated in the prehospital setting. We describe the feasibility and effectiveness of prehospital implementation of our previously retrospectively derived and validated Cincinnati Stroke Triage Assessment Tool (C-STAT) to identify subjects with severe stroke (NIHSS ≥15) among all prehospital patients with clinical suspicion of stroke/TIA...
January 25, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121217/qsofa-has-poor-sensitivity-for-prehospital-identification-of-severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#11
Maia Dorsett, Melissa Kroll, Clark S Smith, Phillip Asaro, Stephen Y Liang, Hawnwan P Moy
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis is a common and deadly disease process for which early recognition and intervention can significantly improve clinical outcomes. Despite this, sepsis remains underrecognized and therefore undertreated in the prehospital setting. Recent recommendations by the Society of Critical Care and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine advocate use of the qSOFA (quick Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment) score in non-ICU settings to screen for septic patients at greater risk for poor outcomes...
January 25, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112989/airway-management-proficiency-checklist-for-assessing-paramedic-performance
#12
David P Way, Ashish R Panchal, Geoffrey I Finnegan, Thomas E Terndrup
OBJECTIVE: To develop and derive an instrument for assessing airway management proficiency for paramedics. METHODS: Using a validated difficult airway model simulation, we recorded responses to a standard traumatic brain injury scenario requiring airway management in 197 certified paramedics. Discrete items (N = 131) were developed by an expert panel, and referenced to three performance standard subscales (i.e., intubation, ventilation, and backup airway). Responses were scored and subjected to an iterative process to create a more practical number of items for the final Airway Management Proficiency Checklist (AMPC)...
January 23, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103127/extracorporeal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-ecpr-in-the-prehospital-setting-an-illustrative-case-of-ecpr-performed-in-the-louvre-museum
#13
Lionel Lamhaut, Alice Hutin, Juliette Deutsch, Jean-Herlé Raphalen, Romain Jouffroy, Jean-Pierre Orsini, Frédéric Baud, Pierre Carli
INTRODUCTION: Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (ECPR) is now considered for the treatment of refractory cardiac arrest. CASE REPORT: In an urban city like Paris, extraction times of in-hospital ECPR can be long for patients presenting with refractory cardiac arrest. Using the medicalized prehospital system, we developed a possible early prehospital ECPR implementation. This case report is an example of ECPR prehospital implementation in the Louvre Museum...
January 19, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103121/comparison-of-helicopter-emergency-medical-services-transport-types-and-delays-on-patient-outcomes-at-two-level-i-trauma-centers
#14
Brodie Nolan, Homer Tien, Bruce Sawadsky, Sandro Rizoli, Amanda McFarlan, Andrea Phillips, Alun Ackery
BACKGROUND: Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) have become an engrained component of trauma systems. In Ontario, transportation for trauma patients is through one of three ways: scene call, modified scene call, or interfacility transfer. We hypothesize that differences exist between these types of transports in both patient demographics and patient outcomes. This study compares the characteristics of patients transported by each of these methods to two level 1 trauma centers and assesses for any impact on morbidity or mortality...
January 19, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103120/compassionate-options-for-pediatric-ems-cope-addressing-communication-skills
#15
Aaron W Calhoun, Erica R H Sutton, Anita P Barbee, Beth McClure, Carrie Bohnert, Richard Forest, Peter Taillac, Mary E Fallat
INTRODUCTION: Each year, 16,000 children suffer cardiopulmonary arrest, and in one urban study, 2% of pediatric EMS calls were attributed to pediatric arrests. This indicates a need for enhanced educational options for prehospital providers that address how to communicate to families in these difficult situations. In response, our team developed a cellular phone digital application (app) designed to assist EMS providers in self-debriefing these events, thereby improving their communication skills...
January 19, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103119/iatrogenic-spinal-cord-injury-in-a-trauma-patient-with-ankylosing-spondylitis
#16
Ahmad Maarouf, Colleen M McQuown, Jennifer A Frey, Rami A Ahmed, Lisa Derrick
BACKGROUND: The recommended practice for over 30 years has been to routinely immobilize patients with unstable cervical spinal injuries using cervical spinal collars. It is shown that patients with Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are four times more likely to suffer a spinal fracture compared to the general population and have an eleven-fold greater risk of spinal cord injury. Current protocols of spinal immobilization were responsible for secondary neurologic deterioration in some of these patients...
January 19, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059603/retention-of-basic-life-support-in-laypeople-mastery-learning-vs-time-based-education
#17
Sylvain Boet, M Dylan Bould, Ashlee-Ann Pigford, Bernhard Rössler, Pratheeban Nambyiah, Qi Li, Alexandra Bunting, Karl Schebesta
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of a mastery learning (ML) versus a time-based (TB) BLS course for the acquisition and retention of BLS knowledge and skills in laypeople. METHODS: After ethics approval, laypeople were randomized to a ML or TB BLS course based on the American Heart Association (AHA) Heartsaver course. In the ML group, subjects practiced and received feedback at six BLS stations until they reached a pre-determined level of performance. The TB group received a standard AHA six-station BLS course...
January 6, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059586/resource-document-coordination-of-pediatric-emergency-care-in-ems-systems
#18
Katherine Remick, Toni Gross, Kathleen Adelgais, Manish I Shah, Julie C Leonard, Marianne Gausche-Hill
BACKGROUND: Citing numerous pediatric-specific deficiencies within Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended that EMS systems appoint a pediatric emergency care coordinator (PECC) to provide oversight of EMS activities related to care of children, to promote the integration of pediatric elements into day-to-day services as well as local and/or regional disaster planning, and to promote pediatric education across all levels of EMS providers. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to describe the evidence for pediatric coordination across the emergency care continuum...
January 6, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059581/hot-and-cold-drugs-national-park-service-medication-stability-at-the-extremes-of-temperature
#19
Patil Armenian, Danielle Campagne, Geoff Stroh, Crystal Ives Tallman, William Z D Zeng, Thomas Lin, Roy R Gerona
STUDY OBJECTIVE: National Park Service (NPS) Parkmedics provide medical care in austere environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of specific medications used by Parkmedics at extremes of temperatures likely to be faced in the field. METHODS: This is a bench research study conducted in the laboratory setting over a 4-week period. Parenteral medications were separated into 4 temperature exposure groups: A) 45°C (hot); B) -20°C (cold); C) hot then cold temperatures alternating weekly; and D) cold then hot temperatures alternating weekly...
January 6, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257249/pediatric-prehospital-medication-dosing-errors-a-national-survey-of-paramedics
#20
John D Hoyle, Remle P Crowe, Melissa A Bentley, Gerald Beltran, William Fales
BACKGROUND: Pediatric drug dosing errors occur at a high rate in the prehospital environment. OBJECTIVE: To describe paramedic training and practice regarding pediatric drug administration, exposure to pediatric drug dose errors and safety culture among paramedics and EMS agencies in a national sample. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 10,530 nationally certified paramedics. Descriptive statistics were calculated...
March 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
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