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Personality and Social Psychology Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918699/effects-of-weapons-on-aggressive-thoughts-angry-feelings-hostile-appraisals-and-aggressive-behavior-a-meta-analytic-review-of-the-weapons-effect-literature
#1
Arlin J Benjamin, Sven Kepes, Brad J Bushman
Guns are associated with aggression. A landmark 1967 study showed that simply seeing a gun can increase aggression-called the "weapons effect." This meta-analysis integrates the findings of weapons effect studies conducted from 1967 to 2017. It includes 162 effect-size estimates from 78 independent studies involving 7,668 participants. The theoretical framework used to explain the weapons effect was the General Aggression Model (GAM), which proposes three routes to aggression-cognitive, affective, and arousal...
September 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836887/sequential-stereotype-priming-a-meta-analysis
#2
Ciara K Kidder, Katherine R White, Michelle R Hinojos, Mayra Sandoval, Stephen L Crites
Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type...
August 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770649/the-happy-culture-a-theoretical-meta-analytic-and-empirical-review-of-the-relationship-between-culture-and-wealth-and-subjective-well-being
#3
Piers Steel, Vasyl Taras, Krista Uggerslev, Frank Bosco
Do cultural values enhance financial and subjective well-being (SWB)? Taking a multidisciplinary approach, we meta-analytically reviewed the field, found it thinly covered, and focused on individualism. In counter, we collected a broad array of individual-level data, specifically an Internet sample of 8,438 adult respondents. Individual SWB was most strongly associated with cultural values that foster relationships and social capital, which typically accounted for more unique variance in life satisfaction than an individual's salary...
August 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737111/habit-in-personality-and-social-psychology
#4
Wendy Wood
Habits are largely absent from modern social and personality psychology. This is due to outdated perspectives that placed habits in conflict with goals. In modern theorizing, habits are represented in memory as implicit context-response associations, and they guide responding in conjunction with goals. Habits thus have important implications for our field. Emerging research shows that habits are an important mechanism by which people self-regulate and achieve long-term goals. Also, habits change through specific interventions, such as changes in context cues...
July 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225036/affectionate-touch-to-promote-relational-psychological-and-physical-well-being-in-adulthood-a-theoretical-model-and-review-of-the-research
#5
Brittany K Jakubiak, Brooke C Feeney
Throughout the life span, individuals engage in affectionate touch with close others. Touch receipt promotes well-being in infancy, but the impacts of touch in adult close relationships have been largely unexplored. In this article, we propose that affectionate touch receipt promotes relational, psychological, and physical well-being in adulthood, and we present a theoretical mechanistic model to explain why affectionate touch may promote these outcomes. The model includes pathways through which touch could affect well-being by reducing stress and by promoting well-being independent of stress...
August 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645226/the-fragile-spell-of-desire-a-functional-perspective-on-changes-in-sexual-desire-across-relationship-development
#6
Gurit E Birnbaum
The sexual behavioral system evolved to motivate reproductive acts by arousing sexual desire. Building on the idea that this system has also been "exploited" by evolutionary processes to promote enduring bonds between romantic partners, the present article introduces an integrative model that delineates the functional significance of sexual desire in relationship formation and maintenance. This model explains why individuals' sexual reaction to their partner is context-dependent, clarifying how changes in the nature of interdependence over the course of relationships alter the ways in which specific predictors of sexual desire tend to promote (or inhibit) desire and thereby affect relationship depth and stability...
June 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573961/revising-working-models-across-time-relationship-situations-that-enhance-attachment-security
#7
Ximena B Arriaga, Madoka Kumashiro, Jeffry A Simpson, Nickola C Overall
We propose the Attachment Security Enhancement Model (ASEM) to suggest how romantic relationships can promote chronic attachment security. One part of the ASEM examines partner responses that protect relationships from the erosive effects of immediate insecurity, but such responses may not necessarily address underlying insecurities in a person's mental models. Therefore, a second part of the ASEM examines relationship situations that foster more secure mental models. Both parts may work in tandem. We posit that attachment anxiety should decline most in situations that foster greater personal confidence and more secure mental models of the self...
June 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504021/the-theory-of-dyadic-morality-reinventing-moral-judgment-by-redefining-harm
#8
Chelsea Schein, Kurt Gray
The nature of harm-and therefore moral judgment-may be misunderstood. Rather than an objective matter of reason, we argue that harm should be redefined as an intuitively perceived continuum. This redefinition provides a new understanding of moral content and mechanism-the constructionist Theory of Dyadic Morality (TDM). TDM suggests that acts are condemned proportional to three elements: norm violations, negative affect, and-importantly-perceived harm. This harm is dyadic, involving an intentional agent causing damage to a vulnerable patient (A→P)...
May 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27149981/the-relative-state-model-integrating-need-based-and-ability-based-pathways-to-risk-taking
#9
Sandeep Mishra, Pat Barclay, Adam Sparks
Who takes risks, and why? Does risk-taking in one context predict risk-taking in other contexts? We seek to address these questions by considering two non-independent pathways to risk: need-based and ability-based. The need-based pathway suggests that risk-taking is a product of competitive disadvantage consistent with risk-sensitivity theory. The ability-based pathway suggests that people engage in risk-taking when they possess abilities or traits that increase the probability of successful risk-taking, the expected value of the risky behavior itself, and/or have signaling value...
May 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27052431/a-goal-congruity-model-of-role-entry-engagement-and-exit-understanding-communal-goal-processes-in-stem-gender-gaps
#10
Amanda B Diekman, Mia Steinberg, Elizabeth R Brown, Aimee L Belanger, Emily K Clark
The goal congruity perspective provides a theoretical framework to understand how motivational processes influence and are influenced by social roles. In particular, we invoke this framework to understand communal goal processes as proximal motivators of decisions to engage in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). STEM fields are not perceived as affording communal opportunities to work with or help others, and understanding these perceived goal affordances can inform knowledge about differences between (a) STEM and other career pathways and (b) women's and men's choices...
May 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26921410/interpersonal-autonomic-physiology-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#11
Richard V Palumbo, Marisa E Marraccini, Lisa L Weyandt, Oliver Wilder-Smith, Heather A McGee, Siwei Liu, Matthew S Goodwin
Interpersonal autonomic physiology is defined as the relationship between people's physiological dynamics, as indexed by continuous measures of the autonomic nervous system. Findings from this field of study indicate that physiological activity between two or more people can become associated or interdependent, often referred to as physiological synchrony. Physiological synchrony has been found in both new and established relationships across a range of contexts, and it correlates with a number of psychosocial constructs...
May 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26874307/beyond-content-of-conversation
#12
Namkje Koudenburg, Tom Postmes, Ernestine H Gordijn
Social interaction is pivotal to the formation of social relationships and groups. Much is known about the importance of interaction content (e.g., the transfer of information). The present review concentrates on the influence of the act of conversing on the emergence of a sense of solidarity, more or less independently of the content. Micro-characteristics of the conversation (e.g., brief silences, smooth turn-taking) can profoundly influence the emergence and the regulation of relationships and of solidarity...
February 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26563236/bridging-the-sciences-of-mindfulness-and-romantic-relationships
#13
Johan C Karremans, Melanie P J Schellekens, Gesa Kappen
Research on mindfulness, defined as paying conscious and non-judgmental attention to present-moment experiences, has increased rapidly in the past decade but has focused almost entirely on the benefits of mindfulness for individual well-being. This article considers the role of mindfulness in romantic relationships. Although strong claims have been made about the potentially powerful role of mindfulness in creating better relationships, it is less clear whether, when, and how this may occur. This article integrates the literatures on mindfulness and romantic relationship science, and sketches a theory-driven model and future research agenda to test possible pathways of when and how mindfulness may affect romantic relationship functioning...
February 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26468077/sleep-deprivation-impairs-and-caffeine-enhances-my-performance-but-not-always-our-performance
#14
Nadira S Faber, Jan A Häusser, Norbert L Kerr
What effects do factors that impair or enhance performance in individuals have when these individuals act in groups? We provide a framework, called the GIE ("Effects of Grouping on Impairments and Enhancements") framework, for investigating this question. As prominent examples for individual-level impairments and enhancements, we discuss sleep deprivation and caffeine. Based on previous research, we derive hypotheses on how they influence performance in groups, specifically process gains and losses in motivation, individual capability, and coordination...
February 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132598/the-narcissism-spectrum-model
#15
Zlatan Krizan, Anne D Herlache
The narcissism spectrum model synthesizes extensive personality, social-psychological, and clinical evidence, building on existing knowledge about narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability to reveal a view of narcissism that respects its clinical origins, embraces the diversity and complexity of its expression, and reflects extensive scientific evidence about the continuity between normal and abnormal personality expression. Critically, the proposed model addresses three key, inter-related problems that have plagued narcissism scholarship for more than a century...
January 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26231736/multidimensional-perfectionism-and-burnout-a-meta-analysis
#16
Andrew P Hill, Thomas Curran
A meta-analysis of research examining the relationships between multidimensional perfectionism and burnout is provided. In doing so, relationships before and after controlling for the relationship between dimensions of perfectionism were examined along with whether relationships were moderated by domain (work, sport, or education). A literature search yielded 43 studies (N = 9,838) and 663 effect sizes. Meta-analysis using random-effects models revealed that perfectionistic strivings had small negative or non-significant relationships with overall burnout and symptoms of burnout...
August 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26162771/the-impact-of-asking-intention-or-self-prediction-questions-on-subsequent-behavior-a-meta-analysis
#17
Chantelle Wood, Mark Conner, Eleanor Miles, Tracy Sandberg, Natalie Taylor, Gaston Godin, Paschal Sheeran
The current meta-analysis estimated the magnitude of the impact of asking intention and self-prediction questions on rates of subsequent behavior, and examined mediators and moderators of this question-behavior effect (QBE). Random-effects meta-analysis on 116 published tests of the effect indicated that intention/prediction questions have a small positive effect on behavior (d+ = 0.24). Little support was observed for attitude accessibility, cognitive dissonance, behavioral simulation, or processing fluency explanations of the QBE...
August 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26048875/mechanisms-of-identity-conflict-uncertainty-anxiety-and-the-behavioral-inhibition-system
#18
Jacob B Hirsh, Sonia K Kang
Social identities are associated with normative standards for thought and action, profoundly influencing the behavioral choices of individual group members. These social norms provide frameworks for identifying the most appropriate actions in any situation. Given the increasing complexity of the social world, however, individuals are more and more likely to identify strongly with multiple social groups simultaneously. When these groups provide divergent behavioral norms, individuals can experience social identity conflict...
August 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26015392/why-do-people-regulate-their-emotions-a-taxonomy-of-motives-in-emotion-regulation
#19
Maya Tamir
Emotion regulation involves the pursuit of desired emotional states (i.e., emotion goals) in the service of superordinate motives. The nature and consequences of emotion regulation, therefore, are likely to depend on the motives it is intended to serve. Nonetheless, limited attention has been devoted to studying what motivates emotion regulation. By mapping the potential benefits of emotion to key human motives, this review identifies key classes of motives in emotion regulation. The proposed taxonomy distinguishes between hedonic motives that target the immediate phenomenology of emotions, and instrumental motives that target other potential benefits of emotions...
August 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466269/functional-interdependence-theory-an-evolutionary-account-of-social-situations
#20
Daniel Balliet, Joshua M Tybur, Paul A M Van Lange
Social interactions are characterized by distinct forms of interdependence, each of which has unique effects on how behavior unfolds within the interaction. Despite this, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that allow people to detect and respond to the nature of interdependence in any given interaction. We propose that interdependence theory provides clues regarding the structure of interdependence in the human ancestral past. In turn, evolutionary psychology offers a framework for understanding the types of information processing mechanisms that could have been shaped under these recurring conditions...
July 26, 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
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