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Personality and Social Psychology Review

Daniel Balliet, Joshua M Tybur, Paul A M Van Lange
Social interactions are characterized by distinct forms of interdependence, each of which has unique effects on how behavior unfolds within the interaction. Despite this, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that allow people to detect and respond to the nature of interdependence in any given interaction. We propose that interdependence theory provides clues regarding the structure of interdependence in the human ancestral past. In turn, evolutionary psychology offers a framework for understanding the types of information processing mechanisms that could have been shaped under these recurring conditions...
July 26, 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Andrew P Hill, Thomas Curran
A meta-analysis of research examining the relationships between multidimensional perfectionism and burnout is provided. In doing so, relationships before and after controlling for the relationship between dimensions of perfectionism were examined along with whether relationships were moderated by domain (work, sport, or education). A literature search yielded 43 studies (N = 9,838) and 663 effect sizes. Meta-analysis using random-effects models revealed that perfectionistic strivings had small negative or non-significant relationships with overall burnout and symptoms of burnout...
August 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Chantelle Wood, Mark Conner, Eleanor Miles, Tracy Sandberg, Natalie Taylor, Gaston Godin, Paschal Sheeran
The current meta-analysis estimated the magnitude of the impact of asking intention and self-prediction questions on rates of subsequent behavior, and examined mediators and moderators of this question-behavior effect (QBE). Random-effects meta-analysis on 116 published tests of the effect indicated that intention/prediction questions have a small positive effect on behavior (d+ = 0.24). Little support was observed for attitude accessibility, cognitive dissonance, behavioral simulation, or processing fluency explanations of the QBE...
August 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Jacob B Hirsh, Sonia K Kang
Social identities are associated with normative standards for thought and action, profoundly influencing the behavioral choices of individual group members. These social norms provide frameworks for identifying the most appropriate actions in any situation. Given the increasing complexity of the social world, however, individuals are more and more likely to identify strongly with multiple social groups simultaneously. When these groups provide divergent behavioral norms, individuals can experience social identity conflict...
August 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Maya Tamir
Emotion regulation involves the pursuit of desired emotional states (i.e., emotion goals) in the service of superordinate motives. The nature and consequences of emotion regulation, therefore, are likely to depend on the motives it is intended to serve. Nonetheless, limited attention has been devoted to studying what motivates emotion regulation. By mapping the potential benefits of emotion to key human motives, this review identifies key classes of motives in emotion regulation. The proposed taxonomy distinguishes between hedonic motives that target the immediate phenomenology of emotions, and instrumental motives that target other potential benefits of emotions...
August 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Joshua Correll, Sean M Hudson, Steffanie Guillermo, Holly A Earls
Race powerfully affects perceivers' responses to faces, promoting biases in attention, classification, and memory. To account for these diverse effects, we propose a model that integrates social cognitive work with two prominent accounts of visual processing: perceptual learning and predictive coding. Our argument is that differential experience with a racial ingroup promotes both (a) perceptual enrichment, including richer, more well-integrated visual representations of ingroup relative to outgroup faces, and (b) expectancies that ingroup faces are normative, which influence subsequent visual processing...
July 12, 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Niklas K Steffens, S Alexander Haslam, Sebastian C Schuh, Jolanda Jetten, Rolf van Dick
We provide a meta-analytical review examining two decades of work on the relationship between individuals' social identifications and health in organizations (102 effect sizes, k = 58, N = 19,799). Results reveal a mean-weighted positive association between organizational identification and health (r = .21, T = .14). Analysis identified a positive relationship for both workgroup (r = .21) and organizational identification (r = .21), and in studies using longitudinal/experimental (r = .13) and cross-sectional designs (r = ...
July 7, 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Cornelia Wrzus, Brent W Roberts
The current article presents a theoretical framework of the short- and long-term processes underlying personality development throughout adulthood. The newly developed TESSERA framework posits that long-term personality development occurs due to repeated short-term, situational processes. These short-term processes can be generalized as recursive sequence of T: riggering situations, E: xpectancy, S: tates/ S: tate E: xpressions, and R: e A: ctions (TESSERA). Reflective and associative processes on TESSERA sequences can lead to personality development (i...
June 2, 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Feng Bai
Recognition has grown that moral behavior (e.g., generosity) plays a role in status attainment, yet it remains unclear how, why, and when demonstrating moral characteristics enhances status. Drawing on philosophy, anthropology, psychology, and organizational behavior, I critically review a third route to attaining status: virtue, and propose a moral virtue theory of status attainment to provide a generalized account of the role of morality in status attainment. The moral virtue theory posits that acts of virtue elicit feelings of warmth and admiration (for virtue), and willing deference, toward the virtuous actor...
May 24, 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Brittany K Jakubiak, Brooke C Feeney
Throughout the life span, individuals engage in affectionate touch with close others. Touch receipt promotes well-being in infancy, but the impacts of touch in adult close relationships have been largely unexplored. In this article, we propose that affectionate touch receipt promotes relational, psychological, and physical well-being in adulthood, and we present a theoretical mechanistic model to explain why affectionate touch may promote these outcomes. The model includes pathways through which touch could affect well-being by reducing stress and by promoting well-being independent of stress...
May 24, 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Brock Bastian, Steve Loughnan
A majority of people the world over eat meat, yet many of these same people experience discomfort when the meat on their plate is linked to the death of animals. We draw on this common form of moral conflict-the meat-paradox-to develop insights into the ways in which morally troublesome behaviors vanish into the commonplace and every day. Drawing on a motivational analysis, we show how societies may be shaped by attempts to resolve dissonance, in turn protecting their citizens from discomfort associated with their own moral conflicts...
May 19, 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Sandeep Mishra, Pat Barclay, Adam Sparks
Who takes risks, and why? Does risk-taking in one context predict risk-taking in other contexts? We seek to address these questions by considering two non-independent pathways to risk: need-based and ability-based. The need-based pathway suggests that risk-taking is a product of competitive disadvantage consistent with risk-sensitivity theory. The ability-based pathway suggests that people engage in risk-taking when they possess abilities or traits that increase the probability of successful risk-taking, the expected value of the risky behavior itself, and/or have signaling value...
May 4, 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Jonathan M Adler, Jennifer Lodi-Smith, Frederick L Philippe, Iliane Houle
Grounded in four theoretical positions-structural, cognitive, phenomenological, and ethical-the present review demonstrates the empirical evidence for the incremental validity of narrative identity as a cross-sectional indicator and prospective predictor of well-being, compared with other individual difference and situational variables. In doing so, we develop an organizational framework of four categories of narrative variables: (a) motivational themes, (b) affective themes, (c) themes of integrative meaning, and (d) structural elements...
May 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Asher Koriat, Shiri Adiv, Norbert Schwarz
Research on group influence has yielded a prototypical majority effect (PME): Majority views are endorsed faster and with greater confidence than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. The PME was attributed to conformity pressure enhancing confidence in consensual views and causing inhibition in venturing deviant opinions. Our results, however, indicate that PME for binary choices can arise from the process underlying confidence and latency independent of social influence. PME was demonstrated for tasks and conditions that are stripped of social relevance; it was observed in within-individual analyses in contrasting the individual's more frequent and less frequent responses to the same item, and was found for the predictions of others' responses...
May 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Dustin Wood, R Michael Furr
Research on similarity constructs (e.g., dyadic similarity, personality stability, judgment agreement and accuracy) frequently find them to be associated with positive outcomes. However, a methodological pitfall associated with common "overall similarity" indices, which we term the normative-desirability confound(NDC), will regularly result in similarity constructs apparently having more positive effects than they do in reality. In essence, when an individual is estimated to be similar to another person by common indices, this will strongly indicate that the individual has desirable characteristics...
May 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Amit Goldenberg, Eran Halperin, Martijn van Zomeren, James J Gross
Scholars interested in emotion regulation have documented the different goals and strategies individuals have for regulating their emotions. However, little attention has been paid to the regulation of group-based emotions, which are based on individuals' self-categorization as a group member and occur in response to situations perceived as relevant for that group. We propose a model for examining group-based emotion regulation that integrates intergroup emotions theory and the process model of emotion regulation...
May 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Arie W Kruglanski, Antonio Pierro, E Tory Higgins
We explore the psychological interface of time and motion.Locomotion, the proclivity toward movement and change, constitutes a significant determinant of persons' orientation toward time, both as a valuable resource and as a flow advancing from past to future. High locomotors act quickly, multitask and refrain from procrastination, thus conserving time as are source Their preoccupation with movement, moreover, affects their relation to the flow of time High locomotors are future oriented and eschew preoccupation with the past...
May 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Maykel Verkuyten, Kumar Yogeeswaran
The global increase in cultural and religious diversity has led to calls for toleration of group differences to achieve intergroup harmony. Although much social-psychological research has examined the nature of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination, and its impact on targets of these biases, little research has examined the nature and impact of toleration for intergroup relations. Toleration does not require that people give up their objections to out-group norms and practices but rather mutual accommodation...
April 11, 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Amanda B Diekman, Mia Steinberg, Elizabeth R Brown, Aimee L Belanger, Emily K Clark
The goal congruity perspective provides a theoretical framework to understand how motivational processes influence and are influenced by social roles. In particular, we invoke this framework to understand communal goal processes as proximal motivators of decisions to engage in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). STEM fields are not perceived as affording communal opportunities to work with or help others, and understanding these perceived goal affordances can inform knowledge about differences between (a) STEM and other career pathways and (b) women's and men's choices...
April 6, 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Richard V Palumbo, Marisa E Marraccini, Lisa L Weyandt, Oliver Wilder-Smith, Heather A McGee, Siwei Liu, Matthew S Goodwin
Interpersonal autonomic physiology is defined as the relationship between people's physiological dynamics, as indexed by continuous measures of the autonomic nervous system. Findings from this field of study indicate that physiological activity between two or more people can become associated or interdependent, often referred to as physiological synchrony. Physiological synchrony has been found in both new and established relationships across a range of contexts, and it correlates with a number of psychosocial constructs...
February 26, 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
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