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Personality and Social Psychology Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792115/using-machine-learning-to-advance-personality-assessment-and-theory
#1
Wiebke Bleidorn, Christopher James Hopwood
Machine learning has led to important advances in society. One of the most exciting applications of machine learning in psychological science has been the development of assessment tools that can powerfully predict human behavior and personality traits. Thus far, machine learning approaches to personality assessment have focused on the associations between social media and other digital records with established personality measures. The goal of this article is to expand the potential of machine learning approaches to personality assessment by embedding it in a more comprehensive construct validation framework...
May 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681223/toward-a-research-agenda-for-the-study-of-situation-perceptions-a-variance-componential-framework
#2
John Rauthmann, Ryne Sherman
Situation perception represents the fulcrum of a "psychology of situations" because situation ratings are ubiquitous. However, no systematic research program exists so far, particularly because two competing traditions have not been integrated: Objectivist views stress situations' consensually shared meanings (social reality), and subjectivist views idiosyncratic meanings (personal reality). A componential framework can disentangle social from personal reality in situation perceptions: When multiple perceivers (P) rate multiple situations (S) on multiple situation characteristics (C), variance in those ratings can be decomposed according to S × C, P × S, and P × C breakdowns...
April 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671374/the-extended-contact-hypothesis-a-meta-analysis-on-20-years-of-research
#3
Shelly Zhou, Elizabeth Page-Gould, Arthur Aron, Anne Moyer, Miles Hewstone
According to the extended contact hypothesis, knowing that in-group members have cross-group friends improves attitudes toward this out-group. This meta-analysis covers the 20 years of research that currently exists on the extended contact hypothesis, and consists of 248 effect sizes from 115 studies. The aggregate relationship between extended contact and intergroup attitudes was r = .25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [.22, .27], which reduced to r = .17, 95% CI = [.14, .19] after removing direct friendship's contribution; these results suggest that extended contact's hypothesized relationship to intergroup attitudes is small-to-medium and exists independently of direct friendship...
April 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616588/the-relationships-of-intergroup-ideologies-to-ethnic-prejudice-a-meta-analysis
#4
Bernard E Whitley, Gregory D Webster
This meta-analysis summarizes the results of research on the relationships of majority group members' endorsement of assimilation, colorblindness, multiculturalism, and the relative relationships of colorblindness and multiculturalism to ethnic prejudice. Random effects analyses found that assimilation was positively related to explicit prejudice ( g. = 0.80), multiculturalism was negatively related to both explicit ( g. = -0.26) and implicit prejudice ( g. = -0.19), and colorblindness was negatively related to explicit prejudice ( g...
April 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29591537/is-ego-depletion-real-an-analysis-of-arguments
#5
Malte Friese, David D Loschelder, Karolin Gieseler, Julius Frankenbach, Michael Inzlicht
An influential line of research suggests that initial bouts of self-control increase the susceptibility to self-control failure (ego depletion effect). Despite seemingly abundant evidence, some researchers have suggested that evidence for ego depletion was the sole result of publication bias and p-hacking, with the true effect being indistinguishable from zero. Here, we examine (a) whether the evidence brought forward against ego depletion will convince a proponent that ego depletion does not exist and (b) whether arguments that could be brought forward in defense of ego depletion will convince a skeptic that ego depletion does exist...
March 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575983/associative-attitude-learning-a-closer-look-at-evidence-and-how-it-relates-to-attitude-models
#6
Olivier Corneille, Christoph Stahl
Associative attitude learning is typically viewed as a low-level process that automatically registers mere co-occurrences between stimuli, independent of their validity and relational meaning. This view invites to critically examine how attitude formation conforms to four operating conditions (i.e., unawareness, efficiency, goal independence, and uncontrollability) and two operating principles (i.e., unqualified registration of mere co-occurrences between stimuli and formation of direct stimulus-response links), which is the main purpose of the present contribution...
March 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534642/self-enhancement-and-psychological-adjustment-a-meta-analytic-review
#7
Michael Dufner, Jochen E Gebauer, Constantine Sedikides, Jaap J A Denissen
This article advances the debate about costs and benefits of self-enhancement (the tendency to maintain unrealistically positive self-views) with a comprehensive meta-analytic review (299 samples, N = 126,916). The review considers relations between self-enhancement and personal adjustment (life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, depression), and between self-enhancement and interpersonal adjustment (informant reports of domain-general social valuation, agency, communion). Self-enhancement was positively related to personal adjustment, and this relation was robust across sex, age, cohort, and culture...
March 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359642/editorial
#8
David K Sherman, Heejung S Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482451/does-self-esteem-have-an-interpersonal-imprint-beyond-self-reports-a-meta-analysis-of-self-esteem-and-objective-interpersonal-indicators
#9
Jessica J Cameron, Steve Granger
Self-esteem promises to serve as the nexus of social experiences ranging from social acceptance, interpersonal traits, interpersonal behavior, relationship quality, and relationship stability. Yet previous researchers have questioned the utility of self-esteem for understanding relational outcomes. To examine the importance of self-esteem for understanding interpersonal experiences, we conducted systematic meta-analyses on the association between trait self-esteem and five types of interpersonal indicators...
February 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473444/bad-is-stronger-than-good-for-stigmatized-but-not-admired-outgroups-meta-analytical-tests-of-intergroup-valence-asymmetry-in-individual-to-group-generalization-experiments
#10
Stefania Paolini, Kylie McIntyre
Theories of risk aversion, epistemic defense, and ingroup enhancement converge in predicting greater impact of negative (vs. positive) experiences with outgroup members on generalized evaluations of stigmatized outgroups. However, they diverge in predictions for admired outgroups. Past tests have focused on negative outgroups using correlational designs without a control group. Consequently, they have not distinguished between alternative explanations or ascertained the direction of causality/generalization, and they have suffered from self-selection biases...
February 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444622/the-role-of-close-relationships-in-terror-management-a-systematic-review-and-research-agenda
#11
Nicholas Plusnin, Christopher A Pepping, Emiko S Kashima
Terror management theory outlines how humans seek self-esteem and worldview validation to manage death-related anxiety. Accumulating evidence reveals that close relationships serve a similar role. However, to date, there has been no synthesis of the literature that delineates when close relationships buffer mortality concerns, under what conditions, on which specific outcomes, and for whom. This systematic review presents over two decades of research to address these questions. Findings from 73 reviewed studies revealed that close relationships serve an important role in buffering death-related anxiety...
February 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573961/revising-working-models-across-time-relationship-situations-that-enhance-attachment-security
#12
Ximena B Arriaga, Madoka Kumashiro, Jeffry A Simpson, Nickola C Overall
We propose the Attachment Security Enhancement Model (ASEM) to suggest how romantic relationships can promote chronic attachment security. One part of the ASEM examines partner responses that protect relationships from the erosive effects of immediate insecurity, but such responses may not necessarily address underlying insecurities in a person's mental models. Therefore, a second part of the ASEM examines relationship situations that foster more secure mental models. Both parts may work in tandem. We posit that attachment anxiety should decline most in situations that foster greater personal confidence and more secure mental models of the self...
February 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504021/the-theory-of-dyadic-morality-reinventing-moral-judgment-by-redefining-harm
#13
Chelsea Schein, Kurt Gray
The nature of harm-and therefore moral judgment-may be misunderstood. Rather than an objective matter of reason, we argue that harm should be redefined as an intuitively perceived continuum. This redefinition provides a new understanding of moral content and mechanism-the constructionist Theory of Dyadic Morality (TDM). TDM suggests that acts are condemned proportional to three elements: norm violations, negative affect, and-importantly-perceived harm. This harm is dyadic, involving an intentional agent causing damage to a vulnerable patient (A→P)...
February 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132598/the-narcissism-spectrum-model-a-synthetic-view-of-narcissistic-personality
#14
Zlatan Krizan, Anne D Herlache
The narcissism spectrum model synthesizes extensive personality, social-psychological, and clinical evidence, building on existing knowledge about narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability to reveal a view of narcissism that respects its clinical origins, embraces the diversity and complexity of its expression, and reflects extensive scientific evidence about the continuity between normal and abnormal personality expression. Critically, the proposed model addresses three key, inter-related problems that have plagued narcissism scholarship for more than a century...
February 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140755/expression-of-concern
#15
(no author information available yet)
The Journal Editors hereby issue this note of an expression of concern for the following publication: Benjamin, A. J., Jr., Kepes, S., & Bushman, B. J. (2017). Effects of weapons on aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, hostile appraisals, and aggressive behavior: A meta-analytic review of the weapons effect literature. Personality and Social Psychology Review. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/1088868317725419 The authors of this manuscript contacted the editors indicating they had discovered some errors in the computation of effect sizes in their meta-analysis...
November 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130838/the-psychology-of-rituals-an-integrative-review-and-process-based-framework
#16
Nicholas M Hobson, Juliana Schroeder, Jane L Risen, Dimitris Xygalatas, Michael Inzlicht
Traditionally, ritual has been studied from broad sociocultural perspectives, with little consideration of the psychological processes at play. Recently, however, psychologists have begun turning their attention to the study of ritual, uncovering the causal mechanisms driving this universal aspect of human behavior. With growing interest in the psychology of ritual, this article provides an organizing framework to understand recent empirical work from social psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, behavioral economics, and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737111/habit-in-personality-and-social-psychology
#17
Wendy Wood
Habits are largely absent from modern social and personality psychology. This is due to outdated perspectives that placed habits in conflict with goals. In modern theorizing, habits are represented in memory as implicit context-response associations, and they guide responding in conjunction with goals. Habits thus have important implications for our field. Emerging research shows that habits are an important mechanism by which people self-regulate and achieve long-term goals. Also, habits change through specific interventions, such as changes in context cues...
November 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466269/functional-interdependence-theory-an-evolutionary-account-of-social-situations
#18
Daniel Balliet, Joshua M Tybur, Paul A M Van Lange
Social interactions are characterized by distinct forms of interdependence, each of which has unique effects on how behavior unfolds within the interaction. Despite this, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that allow people to detect and respond to the nature of interdependence in any given interaction. We propose that interdependence theory provides clues regarding the structure of interdependence in the human ancestral past. In turn, evolutionary psychology offers a framework for understanding the types of information processing mechanisms that could have been shaped under these recurring conditions...
November 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27407118/of-kith-and-kin-perceptual-enrichment-expectancy-and-reciprocity-in-face-perception
#19
Joshua Correll, Sean M Hudson, Steffanie Guillermo, Holly A Earls
Race powerfully affects perceivers' responses to faces, promoting biases in attention, classification, and memory. To account for these diverse effects, we propose a model that integrates social cognitive work with two prominent accounts of visual processing: perceptual learning and predictive coding. Our argument is that differential experience with a racial ingroup promotes both (a) perceptual enrichment, including richer, more well-integrated visual representations of ingroup relative to outgroup faces, and (b) expectancies that ingroup faces are normative, which influence subsequent visual processing...
November 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388779/a-meta-analytic-review-of-social-identification-and-health-in-organizational-contexts
#20
REVIEW
Niklas K Steffens, S Alexander Haslam, Sebastian C Schuh, Jolanda Jetten, Rolf van Dick
We provide a meta-analytical review examining two decades of work on the relationship between individuals' social identifications and health in organizations (102 effect sizes, k = 58, N = 19,799). Results reveal a mean-weighted positive association between organizational identification and health ( r = .21, T = .14). Analysis identified a positive relationship for both workgroup ( r = .21) and organizational identification ( r = .21), and in studies using longitudinal/experimental ( r = .13) and cross-sectional designs ( r = ...
November 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
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