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CNS Spectrums

Peter J Weiden, Yangchun Du, Chih-Chin Liu, Arielle D Stanford
OBJECTIVE: Switching antipsychotic medications is common in patients with schizophrenia who are experiencing persistent symptoms or tolerability issues associated with their current drug regimen. This analysis assessed the safety of switching from an oral antipsychotic to the long-acting injectable antipsychotic aripiprazole lauroxil (AL). METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of outpatients with schizophrenia who were prescribed an oral antipsychotic and who enrolled in an international, open-label, long-term (52-week) safety study of AL...
June 26, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Michael Cronquist Christensen, Henrik Loft, Ioana Florea, Roger S McIntyre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Joep H Schoemaker, Ad J J M Vingerhoets, Robin A Emsley
IntroductionDespite consistently high discontinuation rates due to withdrawal of consent (WOC) and insufficient therapeutic effect (ITE) in schizophrenia trials, insight into the underlying factors contributing to poor satisfaction with treatment and dropout is limited. A better understanding of these factors could help to improve trial design and completion rates. METHODS: Using data from 1,136 trial participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, we explored associations between predictor variables with (1) dropout due to WOC and ITE and (2) satisfaction with treatment among patients and investigators by means of hierarchic multiple regression analyses...
June 5, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Haythum O Tayeb, Hussam A Murad, Misbahuddin M Rafeeq, Frank I Tarazi
Approximately 20%-30% of schizophrenia patients are resistant to current standard pharmacotherapies. Recent schizophrenia research aims to identify specific pathophysiological abnormalities and novel targets in the disease, with the goals of identifying at-risk individuals, facilitating diagnosis, prompting early and personalized interventions, and helping predict response to treatment. Metabolomics involves the systematic study of the profile of biochemical alterations early in the course of a given disorder...
June 5, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Giacomo Grassi, Martijn Figee, Pieter Ooms, Lorenzo Righi, Takashi Nakamae, Stefano Pallanti, Rick Schuurman, Damiaan Denys
OBJECTIVE: Impulsivity and impaired decision-making have been proposed as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) endophenotypes, running in OCD and their healthy relatives independently of symptom severity and medication status. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the ventral limb of the internal capsule (vALIC) and the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) is an effective treatment strategy for treatment-refractory OCD. The effectiveness of vALIC-DBS for OCD has been linked to its effects on a frontostriatal network that is also implicated in reward, impulse control, and decision-making...
June 4, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Pratap Chokka, Joanna Bougie, Emmanouil Rampakakis, Jean Proulx
OBJECTIVE: The Assessment in Work Productivity and the Relationship with Cognitive Symptoms (AtWoRC) study aimed to assess the association between cognitive symptoms and work productivity in gainfully employed patients receiving vortioxetine for a major depressive episode (MDE). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and treated with vortioxetine independently of study enrollment were assessed over 52 weeks at visits that emulated a real-life setting...
May 24, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Jon E Grant, Samuel R Chamberlain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Myrela O Machado, Cristiano A Köhler, Brendon Stubbs, Paulo R Nunes-Neto, Ai Koyanagi, João Quevedo, Jair C Soares, Thomas N Hyphantis, Donatella Marazziti, Michael Maes, Dan J Stein, André F Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that skin picking disorder (SPD) could be a prevalent condition associated with comorbidity and psychosocial dysfunction. However, just a few studies have assessed the prevalence and correlates of SPD in samples from low- and middle-income countries. In addition, the impact of SPD on quality of life (QoL) dimension after multivariable adjustment to potential confounders remains unclear. METHODS: Data were obtained from a Brazilian anonymous Web-based research platform...
May 7, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Samuel R Chamberlain, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVE: Compulsivity refers to a tendency toward repetitive habitual behaviors. Multiple disorders have compulsive symptoms at their core, including substance use disorders, gambling disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The aim of this study was to validate a scale for the objective, transdiagnostic measurement of compulsivity. METHODS: The 15-item Cambridge-Chicago Compulsivity Trait Scale (CHI-T) was developed for the rapid but comprehensive measurement of compulsivity...
May 7, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Alice Medalia, Alice M Saperstein, Matthew D Erlich, Lloyd I Sederer
IntroductionWith the increasing enthusiasm to provide cognitive remediation (CR) as an evidence-based practice, questions arise as to what is involved in implementing CR in a large system of care. This article describes the first statewide implementation of CR in the USA, with the goal of documenting the implementation issues that care providers are likely to face when bringing CR services to their patients. METHODS: In 2014, the New York State Office of Mental Health set up a Cognitive Health Service that could be implemented throughout the state-operated system of care...
May 2, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Stephen M Stahl
Psychosis is now widely hypothesized to involve neural networks beyond the classical dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway, including serotonin and glutamate systems as well.
June 2018: CNS Spectrums
Sheldon Benjamin, Margo D Lauterbach
The neuropsychiatric examination includes standard neurological and cognitive examination techniques with several additional observations and tasks designed to capture abnormalities common among patients with neuropsychiatric disorders or neurocognitive complaints. Although useful as a screening tool, a single standardized rating scale such as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is insufficient to establish a neuropsychiatric diagnosis. Extra attention is paid to findings commonly seen in the setting of psychiatric disorders, dementias, movement disorders, or dysfunction of cortical or subcortical structures...
June 2018: CNS Spectrums
Jessica Ranford, David L Perez, Julie MacLean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: CNS Spectrums
Andrea E Cavanna
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a chronic and complex tic disorder accompanied by specific behavioral problems in the majority of patients. With its multifaceted interplay between motion and emotion, this condition is a paradigmatic example of the science and art of clinical neuropsychiatry. This review article encompasses the clinical phenomenology of motor and vocal tics and associated sensory experiences (premonitory urges), as well as the behavioral spectrum of the most common comorbidities, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder, affective symptoms, and impulsivity...
June 2018: CNS Spectrums
Michael Trimble
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: CNS Spectrums
Andrea Mendez-Torrijos, Silke Kreitz, Claudiu Ivan, Laura Konerth, Julie Rösch, Monika Pischetsrieder, Gunther Moll, Oliver Kratz, Arnd Dörfler, Stefanie Horndasch, Andreas Hess
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the mechanisms of how snack foods may induce non-homeostatic food intake, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as resting state networks can individually adapt to experience after short time exposures. In addition, we used graph theoretical analysis together with machine learning techniques (support vector machine) to identifying biomarkers that can categorize between high-caloric (potato chips) vs. low-caloric (zucchini) food stimulation...
April 4, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Jonathan M Meyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: CNS Spectrums
Stephen M Stahl
One of the most malignant illnesses in psychiatry is opioid addiction. This disorder has resulted in a current epidemic of addiction, overdose, and death that continues in large part because of the lack of robust treatments and the surprising lack of utilization of the treatments that are available.
April 2018: CNS Spectrums
Stephen M Stahl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: CNS Spectrums
Matteo Pacini, Icro Maremmani
Psychiatric evaluations of violent political crime were mostly performed on a case-by-case basis in a forensic environment, which made them unduly dependent on categories of presumed dangerousness and legal responsibility, rather than on a clinical definition of their mental status. In referring to such "clinical" definitions, the disorder we have in mind is not limited to the major, agitated psychotic manias or mixed states. The presence of a dominant temperament, or protracted hypomania, is enough by itself to explain an individual's engagement in a wide range of activities, not necessarily sociopathic or violent...
April 2018: CNS Spectrums
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