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CNS Spectrums

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899165/cognitive-dysfunction-in-body-dysmorphic-disorder-new-implications-for-nosological-systems-and-neurobiological-models
#1
Kiri Jefferies-Sewell, Samuel R Chamberlain, Naomi A Fineberg, Keith R Laws
: Introduction Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating disorder, characterized by obsessions and compulsions relating specifically to perceived appearance, and which has been newly classified within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders grouping. Until now, little research has been conducted into the cognitive profile of this disorder. METHODS: Participants with BDD (n=12) and participants without BDD (n=16) were tested using a computerized neurocognitive battery investigating attentional set-shifting (Intra/Extra Dimensional Set Shift Task), decision-making (Cambridge Gamble Task), motor response-inhibition (Stop-Signal Reaction Time Task), and affective processing (Affective Go-No Go Task)...
November 30, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869049/exclusion-of-overlapping-symptoms-in-dsm-5-mixed-features-specifier-heuristic-diagnostic-and-treatment-implications
#2
Gin S Malhi, Yulisha Byrow, Tim Outhred, Kristina Fritz
This article focuses on the controversial decision to exclude the overlapping symptoms of distractibility, irritability, and psychomotor agitation (DIP) with the introduction of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) mixed features specifier. In order to understand the placement of mixed states within the current classification system, we first review the evolution of mixed states. Then, using Kraepelin's original classification of mixed states, we compare and contrast his conceptualization with modern day definitions...
November 21, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869048/efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-of-vortioxetine-for-the-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder-in-patients-aged-55-years-or-older
#3
George G Nomikos, Dapo Tomori, Wei Zhong, John Affinito, William Palo
OBJECTIVE: These post hoc analyses evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of vortioxetine versus placebo in patients aged ≥55 years with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Study-level efficacy data from 12 short-term, fixed-dose, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of vortioxetine 5-20 mg/day were assessed using a random-effects meta-analysis. Adverse events (AEs), vital signs, ECG values, liver enzymes, and body weight were pooled from the same studies...
November 21, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866506/the-surprising-blindness-in-modern-psychiatry-do-guidelines-really-guide
#4
Pedro Antônio Schmidt do Prado-Lima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866502/dysphoric-mania-mixed-states-and-mania-with-mixed-features-specifier-are-we-mixing-things-up
#5
Susan L McElroy, Paul E Keck
Various terms have been used to describe mania when it is accompanied by depressive symptoms. In this article, we attempt to define and discuss 3 of these terms: dysphoric mania, mixed state, and mania with mixed features specifier. We conclude that whatever term is used, it is important to be aware that mania is more often unpleasant than pleasant, and that the unpleasantness is not limited to depression.
November 21, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866497/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-infants-exposed-in-utero-to-antipsychotics-a-systematic-review-of-published-data
#6
Salvatore Gentile, Maria Luigia Fusco
The proportion of pregnancies exposed to either second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) or first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) varies between 0.3%-2% of all pregnancies, but, until now, little is known about the potential neurobehavioral teratogenicity of antipsychotics. Assessing this safety facet is the aim of this article. PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched for eligible articles. PubMed (1954 to May 2016) was searched using several medical subject headings, variously combined. PubMed search results were also limited using the search filter for human studies published in English...
November 21, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834163/is-not-just-right-experience-njre-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-part-of-an-autistic-phenotype
#7
Josselyn Hellriegel, Caroline Barber, Maheshi Wikramanayake, Naomi A Fineberg, William Mandy
OBJECTIVE: Harm avoidance (HA) and "not just right experience" (NJRE) have been proposed to be 2 core motivational processes underlying obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The objective of this study was to explore whether NJRE demarcates a neurodevelopmental OCD subgroup distinct from HA related to autistic traits and/or to a broader phenotype of cognitive rigidity and sensory processing difficulties associated with an earlier age of OCD onset. METHODS: A correlational design investigated whether NJRE and HA are distinct entities in OCD and explored their relationship to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits measured by the Autism Quotient (AQ), sensory processing, set-shifting, and age of OCD onset in an OCD sample (N=25)...
November 11, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831463/what-is-the-role-of-conventional-antidepressants-in-the-treatment-of-major-depressive-episodes-with-mixed-features-specifier
#8
Gianni L Faedda, Ciro Marangoni
The newly introduced Mixed Features Specifier of Major Depressive Episode and Disorder (MDE/MDD) is especially challenging in terms of pharmacological management. Prior to the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, the symptoms of the mixed features specifier were intradepressive hypomanic symptoms, always and only associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Intradepressive hypomanic symptoms, mostly referred to as depressive mixed states (DMX), have been poorly characterized, and their treatment offers significant challenges...
November 10, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821210/asenapine-for-the-treatment-of-adults-with-an-acute-exacerbation-of-schizophrenia-results-from-a-randomized-double-blind-fixed-dose-placebo-controlled-trial-with-olanzapine-as-an-active-control
#9
Ronald Landbloom, Mary Mackle, Xiao Wu, Linda Kelly, Linda Snow-Adami, Roger S McIntyre, Maju Mathews, Carla Hundt
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the efficacy and safety of asenapine 2.5 mg twice daily (bid; n=97) or 5 mg bid (n=113) versus placebo (n=101) in adults with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. METHODS: Adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) schizophrenia diagnosis were randomized to asenapine 2.5 mg bid, 5 mg bid, placebo, or olanzapine 15 mg once daily. The primary objective was to test superiority of asenapine versus placebo as measured by the change from baseline to day 42 in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score...
November 8, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788697/innovation-and-pragmatism-required-to-reduce-seclusion-practices
#10
John Tully, Leo McSweeney, Katie-Lynn Harfield, Cindie Castle, Mrigendra Das
Seclusion may be harmful and traumatic to patients, detrimental to therapeutic relationships, and can result in physical injury to staff. Further, strategies to reduce seclusion have been identified as a potential method of improving cost-effectiveness of psychiatric services. However, developing alternative strategies to seclusion can be difficult. Interventions to reduce seclusion do not lend themselves to evaluation using randomized controlled trials (RCTs), though comprehensive literature reviews have demonstrated considerable non-RCT evidence for interventions to reduce seclusion in psychiatric facilities...
October 28, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702420/clinical-management-of-restless-legs-syndrome-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients
#11
Zeyad T Sahli, Jae Jo, Shaker A Mousa, Frank I Tarazi
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder, characterized by restless and unpleasant sensations in the deep inside of legs. The symptoms of RLS are less noticeable during daytime, but more prevalent at night. Therefore, the disorder can induce low quality of life, insomnia, and impairment of daytime activity. RLS in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is especially problematic due to premature discontinuation of dialysis and increased mortality. The prevalence of RLS among dialysis patients is much higher compared to the prevalence of the same disorder in patients with normal renal functions...
October 5, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702411/effect-of-agomelatine-treatment-on-c-reactive-protein-levels-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-an-exploratory-study-in-real-world-everyday-clinical-practice
#12
Domenico De Berardis, Michele Fornaro, Laura Orsolini, Felice Iasevoli, Carmine Tomasetti, Andrea de Bartolomeis, Nicola Serroni, Ida De Lauretis, Gabriella Girinelli, Monica Mazza, Alessandro Valchera, Alessandro Carano, Federica Vellante, Ilaria Matarazzo, Giampaolo Perna, Giovanni Martinotti, Massimo Di Giannantonio
OBJECTIVE: Agomelatine is a newer antidepressant but, to date, no studies have been carried out investigating its effects on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in major depressive disorder (MDD) before and after treatment. The present study aimed (i) to investigate the effects of agomelatine treatment on CRP levels in a sample of patients with MDD and (ii) to investigate if CRP variations were correlated with clinical improvement in such patients. METHODS: 30 adult outpatients (12 males, 18 females) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of MDD were recruited in "real-world," everyday clinical practice and treated with a flexible dose of agomelatine for 12 weeks...
October 5, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680974/adhd-symptoms-in-non-treatment-seeking-young-adults-relationship-with-other-forms-of-impulsivity
#13
Samuel R Chamberlain, Konstantinos Ioannidis, Eric W Leppink, Faiza Niaz, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with various manifestations of impulsivity in adults, including elevated rates of other impulsive disorders, substance use, questionnaire-based impulsivity scores, and inhibitory dysregulation on neurocognitive tests. The relationship between ADHD and all these other forms of impulsivity has yet to be explored within the context of a single comprehensive study. METHODS: A total of 423 young adults, who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year, were recruited using media advertisements and undertook detailed assessment including structured psychiatric interview, questionnaires, and neurocognitive tests...
September 29, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669819/schizo-obsessive-spectrum-disorders-an-update
#14
Estêvão Scotti-Muzzi, Osvaldo Luis Saide
The presence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) in schizophrenia is frequent, and a new clinical entity has been proposed for those who show the dual diagnosis: the schizo-obsessive disorder. This review scrutinizes the literature across the main academic databases, and provides an update on different aspects of schizo-obsessive spectrum disorders, which include schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) with OCD, OCD with poor insight, schizophrenia with OCS, and schizophrenia with OCD (schizo-obsessive disorder)...
September 27, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629292/once-monthly-paliperidone-palmitate-compared-with-conventional-and-atypical-daily-oral-antipsychotic-treatment-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
Edward Kim, Christoph U Correll, Lian Mao, H Lynn Starr, Larry Alphs
OBJECTIVE: This analysis of the Paliperidone Palmitate Research in Demonstrating Effectiveness (PRIDE) study (NCT01157351) compared outcomes after administration of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP) vs conventional oral antipsychotics (COAs) or atypical oral antipsychotics (AOAs). METHODS: PRIDE was a 15-month study of 444 individuals with schizophrenia and a history of incarceration. They were randomly assigned to PP or to 1 of 7 commonly prescribed OAs...
September 15, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629159/treatment-recommendations-for-dsm-5-defined-mixed-features
#16
Joshua D Rosenblat, Roger S McIntyre
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) mixed features specifier provides a less restrictive definition of mixed mood states, compared to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), including mood episodes that manifest with subthreshold symptoms of the opposite mood state. A limited number of studies have assessed the efficacy of treatments specifically for DSM-5-defined mixed features in mood disorders. As such, there is currently an inadequate amount of data to appropriately inform evidence-based treatment guidelines of DSM-5 defined mixed features...
September 15, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620665/elective-amputation-of-a-healthy-limb
#17
Rianne M Blom, Valeria Guglielmi, Damiaan Denys
Patients with body integrity identity disorder (BIID) experience a strong desire for amputation from very early on. BIID patients are often dismissed when they share their wish for amputation with surgeons. Consequently, patients resort to self-amputation, including complications and sometimes death. BIID patients are not psychotic and are mentally competent to oversee the consequences of an elective amputation. The authors offer arguments in favor of elective amputation.
September 13, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618746/treatment-of-mixed-features-in-bipolar-disorder
#18
Joshua D Rosenblat, Roger S McIntyre
Mood episodes with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)-defined mixed features are highly prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD), affecting ~40% of patients during the course of illness. Mixed states are associated with poorer clinical outcomes, greater treatment resistance, higher rates of comorbidity, more frequent mood episodes, and increased rates of suicide. The objectives of the current review are to identify, summarize, and synthesize studies assessing the efficacy of treatments specifically for BD I and II mood episodes (ie, including manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes) with DSM-5-defined mixed features...
September 13, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855728/dextromethorphan-quinidine-responsive-pseudobulbar-affect-pba-psychopharmacological-model-for-wide-ranging-disorders-of-emotional-expression
#19
Stephen M Stahl
The symptoms of emotional dysregulation associated with the syndrome known as pseudobulbar affect (PBA) can be effectively treated by the sigma, glutamate, and serotonergic agent dextromethorphan combined with quinidine. If the same brain circuits affected in PBA are also compromised in related disorders of emotional expression, dextromethorphan-quinidine and other novel sigma-glutamate-serotonin agents could prove to be novel psychopharmacologic treatments for these conditions as well.
December 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686028/lamotrigine-compared-to-placebo-and-other-agents-with-antidepressant-activity-in-patients-with-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression-a-comprehensive-meta-analysis-of-efficacy-and-safety-outcomes-in-short-term-trials
#20
Marco Solmi, Nicola Veronese, Leonardo Zaninotto, Marc L M van der Loos, Keming Gao, Ayal Schaffer, Catherine Reis, Claus Normann, Ion-George Anghelescu, Christoph U Correll
OBJECTIVES: To meta-analytically summarize lamotrigine's effectiveness and safety in unipolar and bipolar depression. METHODS: We conducted systematic PubMed and SCOPUS reviews (last search =10/01/2015) of randomized controlled trials comparing lamotrigine to placebo or other agents with antidepressant activity in unipolar or bipolar depression. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis of depression ratings, response, remission, and adverse effects calculating standardized mean difference (SMD) and risk ratio (RR) ±95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
October 2016: CNS Spectrums
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