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CNS Spectrums

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173224/occupational-therapy-for-functional-neurological-disorders-a-scoping-review-and-agenda-for-research
#1
Paula Gardiner, Lindsey MacGregor, Alan Carson, Jon Stone
Functional neurological disorders (FND)-also called psychogenic, nonorganic, conversion, and dissociative disorders-constitute one of the commonest problems in neurological practice. An occupational therapist (OT) is commonly involved in management, but there is no specific literature or guidance for these professionals. Classification now emphasizes the importance of positive diagnosis of FND based on physical signs, more than psychological features. Studies of mechanism have produced new clinical and neurobiological ways of thinking about these disorders...
November 27, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140227/categorical-improvement-in-functional-impairment-in-depressed-patients-treated-with-desvenlafaxine
#2
Claudio N Soares, Min Zhang, Matthieu Boucher
OBJECTIVE: This post-hoc pooled analysis evaluated categorical change in functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) treated with desvenlafaxine versus placebo and examined whether early improvement in functioning predicted functional outcomes at study endpoint. METHODS: Data were pooled from eight randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of desvenlafaxine for the treatment of MDD, including adults who were randomly assigned to receive desvenlafaxine 50 or 100 mg/d or placebo (N=3,384)...
November 15, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117870/is-there-enough-interest-in-and-pleasure-in-the-concept-of-depression-the-development-of-the-leuven-affect-and-pleasure-scale-laps
#3
Koen Demyttenaere, Philippe Mortier, Glenn Kiekens, Ronny Bruffaerts
OBJECTIVE: Presence of negative mood (depressed mood) and anhedonia (lack of interest and pleasure) are considered core symptoms of depression, while absence of positive mood is not taken into account. It is therefore remarkable that the depression scales routinely used to assess changes during antidepressant treatment (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS], Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS]) do not really take into account anhedonia. Several scales were developed to assess positive mood and hedonic tone, but they only partially cover the multidimensional concept...
November 9, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115197/the-international-scenario-of-terrorism
#4
Donato Marzano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098976/pimavanserin-for-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis-number-needed-to-treat-number-needed-to-harm-and-likelihood-to-be-helped-or-harmed
#5
Leslie Citrome, James C Norton, Kathy Chi-Burris, George Demos
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the efficacy and tolerability of pimavanserin, a highly selective serotonin 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist/antagonist indicated for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP), using the metrics of number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH). METHODS: Categorical efficacy and tolerability data were extracted from the clinical trial databases of the double-blind placebo-controlled studies of pimavanserin in persons with PDP...
November 3, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091022/evolution-of-circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-with-the-habenula-in-control
#6
Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
The habenula, which in humans is a small nuclear complex within the epithalamus, plays an essential role in regulating the intensity of reward-seeking and adversity-avoiding behavior in all vertebrate ancestors by regulating the activity of ascending midbrain monoaminergic tracts. In lampreys, considered to possess a brain comparable to humans' earliest evolutionary vertebrate ancestor, the activity of the lateral habenula is controlled by a subset of glutamatergic neurons of the animal's pallidum (habenula-projecting globus pallidus) that inhibit reward-seeking behavior when this conduct is not successful enough...
November 1, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081316/conditions-of-life-and-death-of-psychiatric-patients-in-france-during-world-war-ii-euthanasia-or-collateral-casualties
#7
Patrick Lemoine, Stephen M Stahl
Between 1940 and 1944, an estimated 48,588 patients resident in French psychiatric hospitals died of starvation. Standard prisons, while facing similar problems, did not experience the same number of deaths by starvation, partly due to their ability to develop a black market for food and rations. Patients in psychiatric hospitals, on the other hand, were completely at the mercy of their doctors and the personnel in charge. At Hôpital du Vinatier, a psychiatric facility in Lyon, the mortality rate increased sharply from 1940 to 1944...
October 30, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081313/is-trazodone-more-effective-than-clomipramine-in-major-depressed-outpatients-a-single-blind-study-with-intravenous-and-oral-administration
#8
Massimiliano Buoli, Chiara Rovera, Sara Maria Pozzoli, Alessio Fiorentini, Laura Cremaschi, Alice Caldiroli, A Carlo Altamura
OBJECTIVE: Some antidepressants, such as trazodone or clomipramine, can be administered intravenously in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), with potential benefits compared to the standard oral treatment, but available data about their efficacy are limited. The present study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of trazodone and clomipramine (intravenous [i.v.] followed by oral administration). METHODS: Some 42 patients with a diagnosis of MDD according to the DSM-5 were selected and treated with i...
October 30, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081307/efficacy-of-vortioxetine-in-working-patients-with-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#9
Michael Cronquist Christensen, Henrik Loft, Ioana Florea, Roger S McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Vortioxetine is an approved antidepressant that has also demonstrated positive effects on anxiety symptoms in subjects with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). This post-hoc analysis evaluates the efficacy of vortioxetine in GAD subjects who are working and/or pursuing an education. METHODS: In study NCT00744627, 301 GAD subjects were randomized to vortioxetine 5 mg or placebo for 8 weeks. Efficacy measures included the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) total score, response/remission, global functioning (Sheehan Disability Scale [SDS]), and quality of life (Short Form-36 Health Survey)...
October 30, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076800/neurodegeneration-of-brain-networks-in-the-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-als-ftld-continuum-evidence-from-mri-and-meg-studies
#10
Francesca Trojsi, Pierpaolo Sorrentino, Giuseppe Sorrentino, Gioacchino Tedeschi
Brain imaging techniques, especially those based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), have been increasingly applied to study multiple large-scale distributed brain networks in healthy people and neurological patients. With regard to neurodegenerative disorders, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), clinically characterized by the predominant loss of motor neurons and progressive weakness of voluntary muscles, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), the second most common early-onset dementia, have been proven to share several clinical, neuropathological, genetic, and neuroimaging features...
October 27, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070091/how-to-fight-terrorism-political-and-strategic-aspects
#11
Erich Vad
"Fighting terrorism is like eating soup with a fork" (Shimon Peres). Peres's quote symbolically captures the key problem of countering terrorism. 9/11 proved to be a hallmark in the global perception of modern terrorism. The following questions form the framework of the present essay: What is the essence of modern terrorism? How did it develop during the past two decades? Who are the key players within the terror framework? What are the root causes for global terrorism? How are we to deal appropriately with the global phenomenon of terrorism? Are there any solutions (short-, medium-, long-term) to terrorism? If yes, where do we have to look for them? The underlying essay provides a strategic overview of antiterrorism policy that is based on the author's years-long experience as a high-level expert and advisor within the security policy framework...
October 26, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061200/a-neuropsychiatric-case-report-kl%C3%A3-ver-bucy-and-gastaut-geschwind-syndromes-in-one-patient-with-schizoaffective-disorder-presenting-with-brain-99-mtc-hmpao-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-showing-bilateral-discrete-decrease-of-temporal-lobes-perfusion
#12
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019296/addiction-to-death
#13
Marc Reisinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990542/psychopharmacological-options-for-adult-patients-with-anorexia-nervosa-the-patients-and-carers-perspectives-integrated-by-the-spectrum-model
#14
Mario Miniati, Donatella Marazziti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965532/pharmacogenetic-testing-for-the-guidance-of-psychiatric-treatment-of-a-schizoaffective-patient-with-haltlose-personality-disorder
#15
João Gama Marques
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931447/psychopathology-of-terrorists
#16
Armando Piccinni, Donatella Marazziti, Antonello Veltri
Terrorist behavior represents a subtype of human aggression probably determined by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors, as well as by peculiar environmental influences and group dynamics. As regards terrorists' psychological characteristics, the available studies (mostly carried out with no sound scientific design) have failed to identify the common or typical pathological personality traits of modern terrorists. The popular opinion that terrorists must be insane or psychopathic is still widespread; however, no evidence exists that terrorist behavior may be caused either by prior or current psychiatric disorders or psychopathy...
September 21, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927482/treating-depressive-episodes-or-symptoms-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#17
Geeske van Rooijen, Jentien Marloes Vermeulen, Henricus Gerardus Ruhé, Lieuwe de Haan
Depressive episodes or symptoms occur frequently in patients with schizophrenia and may have far-reaching consequences. Despite the high prevalence rate and clinical relevance of this comorbidity, knowledge about treatment options is still limited. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature concerning treatment options for depressive episodes or symptoms in schizophrenia. Based on the current evidence, we present a stepwise treatment approach. The first step is to evaluate the current antipsychotic treatment of psychotic symptoms and consider lowering the dosage, since increased blockade of the dopamine D2 receptors may be associated with a worse subjective sense of well-being and dysphoria...
September 20, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205123/neuronal-traffic-signals-in-tardive-dyskinesia-not-enough-stop-in-the-motor-striatum
#18
Stephen M Stahl
Tardive dyskinesia is a disturbance in the balance between dopamine receptor stimulation and dopamine receptor blockade in the motor striatum, with hypothetically too much stimulation of supersensitive D2 receptors, resulting in "don't stop" signaling to motor output.
December 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965530/drugs-for-psychosis-and-mood-unique-actions-at-d3-d2-and-d1-dopamine-receptor-subtypes
#19
Stephen M Stahl
Drugs for psychosis and mood that bind dopamine D2 receptors can be classified not only by whether they also block serotonin 2A receptors, but by whether they also bind D3 or D1 receptors.
October 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659216/response-to-the-letters-addressing-much-ado-about-nothing
#20
Ken Gillman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: CNS Spectrums
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