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CNS Spectrums

Brenda Cabrera, César Romero-Rebollar, Luis Jiménez-Ángeles, Alma D Genis-Mendoza, Julio Flores, Nuria Lanzagorta, María Arroyo, Camilo de la Fuente-Sandoval, Daniel Santana, Verónica Medina-Bañuelos, Emilio Sacristán, Humberto Nicolini
OBJECTIVE: An obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) subtype has been associated with streptococcal infections and is called pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococci (PANDAS). The neuroanatomical characterization of subjects with this disorder is crucial for the better understanding of its pathophysiology; also, evaluation of these features as classifiers between patients and controls is relevant to determine potential biomarkers and useful in clinical diagnosis...
November 15, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Sarah Atkinson, Louise Thurman, Sara Ramaker, Gina Buckley, Sarah Ruta Jones, Richard England, Dalia Wajsbrot
OBJECTIVE: Two similarly designed extension studies evaluated the long-term safety and tolerability of desvenlafaxine for the treatment of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Efficacy was evaluated as a secondary objective. METHODS: Both 6-month, open-label, flexible-dose extension studies enrolled children and adolescents who had completed one of two double-blind, placebo-controlled, lead-in studies. One lead-in study included a 1-week transition period prior to the extension study...
November 13, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Rami Bou Khalil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Paula Vigne, Pedro Fortes, Rafaela V Dias, Luana D Laurito, Carla P Loureiro, Gabriela B de Menezes, Ulrich Stangier, Leonardo F Fontenelle
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we compared duration of untreated illness (DUI) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients and investigated its correlates, both within specific diagnoses and across the whole sample. METHODS: Eighty-eight patients (33 OCD, 24 SAD, and 31 PD) had their diagnosis confirmed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, were assessed for treatment-seeking variables, and were evaluated with instruments aimed at quantifying transdiagnostic features (i...
November 13, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Roger S McIntyre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Christoph U Correll, Lily Shi, Catherine Weiss, Mary Hobart, Anna Eramo, Ruth A Duffy, Emmanuelle Weiller, Ross A Baker
OBJECTIVE: To compare the tolerability and efficacy of different antipsychotic cross-titration schedules, using data from a brexpiprazole study (Equator; NCT01668797). METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia were cross-titrated from other antipsychotics to brexpiprazole monotherapy in a 1-4 week open-label conversion phase, then entered a single-blind brexpiprazole treatment phase. Patients were stratified into four "conversion groups," according to the amount of time spent in the conversion phase...
October 11, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Brandy L Callahan, André Plamondon
OBJECTIVE: It is crucial to clarify the structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology in all age groups to determine how to best conceptualize this disorder across the lifespan. We tested the ADHD factor structure across adulthood and investigated independent associations with executive functions. METHOD: Data from 645 adults aged 18-59 and 233 adults aged 60-85 were drawn from the Nathan Kline Institute Rockland Sample. Participants completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale and tests of executive functioning...
October 8, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Kellie J Goodlet, Monika T Zmarlicka, Alyssa M Peckham
Psychotropic medications are frequently co-prescribed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), owing to a high prevalence of psychiatric illness within the population living with HIV, as well as a 7-fold increased risk of HIV infection among patients with psychiatric illness. While ART has been notoriously associated with a multitude of pharmacokinetic drug interactions involving the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, the magnitude and clinical impact of these interactions with psychotropics may range from negligible effects on plasma concentrations to life-threatening torsades de pointes or respiratory depression...
October 8, 2018: CNS Spectrums
David C Houghton, Samuel L Howard, Thomas W Uhde, Caitlin Paquet, Rodney J Schlosser, Bernadette M Cortese
OBJECTIVE: Enhanced odor sensitivity, particularly toward threat-related cues, may be adaptive during periods of danger. Research also suggests that chronic psychological distress may lead to functional changes in the olfactory system that cause heightened sensitivity to odors. Yet, the association between self-reported odor sensitivity, objective odor detection, and affective psychopathology is currently unclear, and research suggests that persons with affective problems may only be sensitive to specific, threat-related odors...
September 27, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Tamsyn E Van Rheenen, Kathryn E Lewandowski, Jessica M Lipschitz, Katherine E Burdick
Cognitive dysfunction is common in many psychiatric disorders. While it has long been described as a core feature in schizophrenia, more recent data suggest qualitatively similar impairments in patients with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. There is compelling evidence to suggest that cognitive impairment contributes directly to functional disability and reduced quality of like across these disorders. As current treatments focus heavily on "primary" symptoms of mood and psychosis, the standard of care typically leaves cognitive deficits unmanaged...
September 24, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Kamilla W Miskowiak, Cecilia S Petersen
Neuropsychiatric illnesses including mood disorders are accompanied by cognitive impairment, which impairs work capacity and quality of life. However, there is a lack of treatment options that would lead to solid and lasting improvement of cognition. This is partially due to the absence of valid and reliable neurocircuitry-based biomarkers for pro-cognitive effects. This systematic review therefore examined the most consistent neural underpinnings of cognitive impairment and cognitive improvement in unipolar and bipolar disorders...
September 10, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Yael Manor, Yael Oestreicher-Kedem, Alona Gad, Jennifer Zitser, Achinoam Faust-Socher, Dina Shpunt, Stav Naor, Noit Inbar, Meir Kestenbaum, Nir Giladi, Tanya Gurevich
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by increasing dysphagia as the disease progresses. Specific characteristics of the HD dysphagia are not well defined. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the swallowing disturbances of HD patients, to evaluate the feasibility of Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES) in assessing dysphagia in HD patients, and to discern the relation between FEES findings and patients' self-report on dysphagia symptoms and swallowing related quality of life (SWAL-QOL)...
September 10, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Stephen M Stahl
More than a decade of failure to find disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's dementia has driven the field back to finding better symptomatic treatments for behavioral symptoms of dementia, especially psychosis and agitation.
October 2018: CNS Spectrums
Giacomo Grassi, Martijn Figee, Pieter Ooms, Lorenzo Righi, Takashi Nakamae, Stefano Pallanti, Rick Schuurman, Damiaan Denys
OBJECTIVE: Impulsivity and impaired decision-making have been proposed as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) endophenotypes, running in OCD and their healthy relatives independently of symptom severity and medication status. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the ventral limb of the internal capsule (vALIC) and the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) is an effective treatment strategy for treatment-refractory OCD. The effectiveness of vALIC-DBS for OCD has been linked to its effects on a frontostriatal network that is also implicated in reward, impulse control, and decision-making...
October 2018: CNS Spectrums
Jon E Grant, Samuel R Chamberlain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: CNS Spectrums
Myrela O Machado, Cristiano A Köhler, Brendon Stubbs, Paulo R Nunes-Neto, Ai Koyanagi, João Quevedo, Jair C Soares, Thomas N Hyphantis, Donatella Marazziti, Michael Maes, Dan J Stein, André F Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that skin picking disorder (SPD) could be a prevalent condition associated with comorbidity and psychosocial dysfunction. However, just a few studies have assessed the prevalence and correlates of SPD in samples from low- and middle-income countries. In addition, the impact of SPD on quality of life (QoL) dimension after multivariable adjustment to potential confounders remains unclear. METHODS: Data were obtained from a Brazilian anonymous Web-based research platform...
October 2018: CNS Spectrums
Samuel R Chamberlain, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVE: Compulsivity refers to a tendency toward repetitive habitual behaviors. Multiple disorders have compulsive symptoms at their core, including substance use disorders, gambling disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The aim of this study was to validate a scale for the objective, transdiagnostic measurement of compulsivity. METHODS: The 15-item Cambridge-Chicago Compulsivity Trait Scale (CHI-T) was developed for the rapid but comprehensive measurement of compulsivity...
October 2018: CNS Spectrums
Andrea Mendez-Torrijos, Silke Kreitz, Claudiu Ivan, Laura Konerth, Julie Rösch, Monika Pischetsrieder, Gunther Moll, Oliver Kratz, Arnd Dörfler, Stefanie Horndasch, Andreas Hess
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the mechanisms of how snack foods may induce non-homeostatic food intake, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as resting state networks can individually adapt to experience after short time exposures. In addition, we used graph theoretical analysis together with machine learning techniques (support vector machine) to identifying biomarkers that can categorize between high-caloric (potato chips) vs. low-caloric (zucchini) food stimulation...
October 2018: CNS Spectrums
Lingxiao Wang, Yifen Zhang, Xiao Lin, Hongli Zhou, Xiaoxia Du, Guangheng Dong
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated that individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) showed attentional bias toward gaming-related cues and exhibited impaired executive functions. The purpose of this study was to explore the alternations in related functional brain networks underlying attentional bias in IGD subjects. METHODS: Eighteen IGD subjects and 19 healthy controls (HC) were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they were performing an addiction Stroop task...
October 2018: CNS Spectrums
Henry A Nasrallah, Ralph Aquila, Yangchun Du, Arielle D Stanford, Amy Claxton, Peter J Weiden
OBJECTIVE: Safety and tolerability of long-term treatment with the long-acting antipsychotic aripiprazole lauroxil (AL) were evaluated in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: This was an international, multicenter, phase 3, 52-week safety study of 2 fixed doses of AL (441 mg or 882 mg intramuscular every 4 weeks). Safety endpoints included adverse events (AEs) and extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) including akathisia, injection-site reactions (ISRs), and clinically relevant changes in metabolic and endocrine values...
August 15, 2018: CNS Spectrums
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