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CNS Spectrums

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219455/clinical-and-therapeutic-role-of-mentalization-in-schizophrenia-a-review
#1
Trisevgeni Dimopoulou, Frank I Tarazi, Evangelia M Tsapakis
Recent empirical findings from clinical and genetic studies suggest that mentalization, a key area of social cognition, is a distinct construct, although it is closely related to the neurocognitive deficits and symptoms of schizophrenia. Mentalization contributes a great deal to impaired social functioning. Current measures often display methodological problems, and many aspects should be taken into account when assessing mentalization. Moreover, advances in cognitive and affective neurosciences have led to the development of more advanced behavioral methods to assess the relationship between cognitive functions, symptoms, and social cognition based on their underlying neural mechanisms...
February 21, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209212/optimization-of-acute-stroke-care-in-the-emergency-department-a-call-for-better-utilization-of-healthcare-resources-amid-growing-shortage-of-neurologists-in-the-united-states
#2
Jagannadha Avasarala, Keith Wesley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196556/approach-to-atypical-alzheimer-s-disease-and-case-studies-of-the-major-subtypes
#3
Bradford C Dickerson, Scott M McGinnis, Chenjie Xia, Bruce H Price, Alireza Atri, Melissa E Murray, Mario F Mendez, David A Wolk
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has long been recognized as a heterogeneous illness, with a common clinical presentation of progressive amnesia and less common "atypical" clinical presentations, including syndromes dominated by visual, aphasic, "frontal," or apraxic symptoms. Our knowledge of atypical clinical phenotypes of AD comes from clinicopathologic studies, but with the growing use of in vivo molecular biomarkers of amyloid and tau pathology, we are beginning to recognize that these syndromes may not be as rare as once thought...
February 15, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181901/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-minocycline-in-schizophrenia
#4
Marco Solmi, Nicola Veronese, Nita Thapa, Silvia Facchini, Brendon Stubbs, Michele Fornaro, André F Carvalho, Christoph U Correll
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of adjunctive minocycline as a treatment of schizophrenia. METHODS: We conducted a PubMed/Scopus database search from inception to 3 February 2016 for randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs), open non-randomized studies, and case reports/series evaluating minocycline in patients with schizophrenia. Random-effects meta-analysis of positive, negative, depressive, and cognitive symptom rating scales, discontinuation and adverse effects rates calculating standardized mean difference (SMD), and risk ratios±95% confidence intervals (CI 95%) were calculated...
February 9, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179047/do-no-harm-a-paradigm-shift-in-the-unchecked-use-of-antidepressants
#5
Debbi Ann Morrissette
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179043/measurement-of-agitation-and-aggression-in-adult-and-aged-neuropsychiatric-patients-review-of-definitions-and-frequently-used-measurement-scales
#6
Ladislav Volicer, Leslie Citrome, Jan Volavka
Agitation and aggression in adult psychiatric patients with psychoses and in persons with dementia increase the burden of disease and frequently cause hospitalization. The implementation of currently available management strategies and the development of new ones is hindered by inconsistent terminology that confuses agitation with aggression. This confusion is maintained by many rating scales that fail to distinguish between these two syndromes. We review the frequently used rating scales with a particular focus on their ability to separate agitation from aggression...
February 9, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179041/standardization-of-mri-data-and-disability-quantification-in-the-post-epic-era
#7
Jagannadha Avasarala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173886/comparison-of-the-dsm-5-and-icd-10-panic-and-other-anxiety-disorders
#8
Borwin Bandelow
Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental disorders and are associated with substantial healthcare costs and a high burden of disease. In this article, changes in the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (the DSM-5) with respect to panic disorder/agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, and selective mutism are compared with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) system.
February 8, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148312/-much-ado-about-nothing-monoamine-oxidase-inhibitors-drug-interactions-and-dietary-tyramine
#9
Ken Gillman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077190/measures-of-the-dsm-5-mixed-features-specifier-of-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Mark Zimmerman
During the past two decades, a number of studies have found that depressed patients frequently have manic symptoms intermixed with depressive symptoms. While the frequency of mixed syndromes are more common in bipolar than in unipolar depressives, mixed states are also common in patients with major depressive disorder. The admixture of symptoms may be evident when depressed patients present for treatment, or they may emerge during ongoing treatment. In some patients, treatment with antidepressant medication might precipitate the emergence of mixed states...
January 12, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065178/investigating-the-role-of-anticipatory-reward-and-habit-strength-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
Gabriela M Ferreira, Murat Yücel, Andrew Dawson, Valentina Lorenzetti, Leonardo F Fontenelle
: Aims To determine the rates and associated illness characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients who describe their symptoms as either rewarding or habitual. METHODS: Seventy-three treatment-seeking OCD patients had their dominant compulsive behavior assessed with a structured interview (the Temporal Impulsive-Compulsive Scale-Revised) to track the progression of rewarding (ie, gain in positive affect), aversive (ie, decrease in negative affect), and neutral (or non-affective) states and a self-report scale (the Self-Report Habit Index) to evaluate their habitual features...
January 9, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059046/long-term-effects-of-aripiprazole-exposure-on-monoaminergic-and-glutamatergic-receptor-subtypes-comparison-with-cariprazine
#12
Yong Kee Choi, Nika Adham, Béla Kiss, István Gyertyán, Frank I Tarazi
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the chronic effects of aripiprazole and cariprazine on serotonin (5-HT1A and 5-HT2A) and glutamate (NMDA and AMPA) receptor subtypes. In addition, the effects of aripiprazole on D2 and D3 receptors were tested and compared with previously reported cariprazine data. METHODS: Rats received vehicle, aripiprazole (2, 5, or 15 mg/kg), or cariprazine (0.06, 0.2, or 0.6 mg/kg) for 28 days. Receptor levels were quantified using autoradiographic assays on brain sections from the medial prefrontal cortex (MPC), dorsolateral frontal cortex (DFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate-putamen medial (CPu-M), caudate-putamen lateral (CPu-L), hippocampal CA1 (HIPP-CA1) and CA3 (HIPP-CA3) regions, and the entorhinal cortex (EC)...
January 6, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031070/mixed-features-in-bipolar-disorder
#13
Eva Solé, Marina Garriga, Marc Valentí, Eduard Vieta
Mixed affective states, defined as the coexistence of depressive and manic symptoms, are complex presentations of manic-depressive illness that represent a challenge for clinicians at the levels of diagnosis, classification, and pharmacological treatment. The evidence shows that patients with bipolar disorder who have manic/hypomanic or depressive episodes with mixed features tend to have a more severe form of bipolar disorder along with a worse course of illness and higher rates of comorbid conditions than those with non-mixed presentations...
December 29, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031054/decreased-lymphocyte-dopamine-transporter-in-romantic-lovers
#14
Donatella Marazziti, Stefano Baroni, Gino Giannaccini, Armando Piccinni, Federico Mucci, Mario Catena-Dell'Osso, Grazia Rutigliano, Gabriele Massimetti, Liliana Dell'Osso
OBJECTIVE: The role of dopamine (DA) in romantic love is suggested by different evidence and is supported by the findings of some brain imaging studies. The DA transporter (DAT) is a key structure in regulating the concentration of the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft. Given the presence of DAT in blood cells, the present study aimed to explore it in resting lymphocytes of 30 healthy subjects of both sexes in the early stage of romantic love (no longer than 6 months), as compared with 30 subjects involved in a long-lasting relationship...
December 29, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004626/treating-mixed-mania-hypomania-a-review-and-synthesis-of-the-evidence
#15
Minoru Takeshima
The DSM-5 incorporates a broad concept of mixed states and captured ≥3 nonoverlapping symptoms of the opposite polarity using a "with mixed features" specifier to be applied to manic/hypomanic and major depressive episodes. Pharmacotherapy of mixed states is challenging because of the necessity to treat both manic/hypomanic and depressive symptoms concurrently. High-potency antipsychotics used to treat manic symptoms and antidepressants can potentially deteriorate symptoms of the opposite polarity. This review aimed to provide a synthesis of the current evidence for pharmacotherapy of mixed states with an emphasis on mixed mania/hypomania...
December 22, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004621/augmentation-of-phenelzine-with-aripiprazole-and-quetiapine-in-a-treatment-resistant-patient-with-psychotic-unipolar-depression-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Jonathan M Meyer, Michael A Cummings, George Proctor
Irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) antidepressants have significant efficacy in treatment-resistant unipolar depression, but in some instances patients may not achieve remission. Among the adjunctive and augmentation strategies, certain second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have approval for inadequate responders to antidepressant therapy, including aripiprazole, brexpiprazole, and quetiapine, with lurasidone and the olanzapine/fluoxetine combination indicated for bipolar depression. Clinicians may eschew SGA options in part due to the limited literature on SGA-MAOI combinations, with only one published case involving aripiprazole, and none for olanzapine, lurasidone, or brexpiprazole...
December 22, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989265/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptom-severity-is-associated-with-left-hippocampal-volume-reduction-a-meta-analytic-study
#17
Michael D Nelson, Alecia M Tumpap
OBJECTIVE: Many studies have reported hippocampal volume reductions associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while others have not. Here we provide an updated meta-analysis of such reductions associated with PTSD and evaluate the association between symptom severity and hippocampal volume. METHODS: A total of 37 studies met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Mean effect sizes (Hedges' g) and 95% confidence intervals (CI 95%) were computed for each study and then averaged to obtain an overall mean effect size across studies...
December 19, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989258/musical-hallucinations-a-brief-review-of-functional-neuroimaging-findings
#18
Francesco Bernardini, Luigi Attademo, Karen Blackmon, Orrin Devinsky
Musical hallucinations are uncommon phenomena characterized by intrusive and frequently distressful auditory musical percepts without an external source, often associated with hypoacusis, psychiatric illness, focal brain lesion, epilepsy, and intoxication/pharmacology. Their physiological basis is thought to involve diverse mechanisms, including "release" from normal sensory or inhibitory inputs as well as stimulation during seizures, or they can be produced by functional or structural disorders in diverse cortical and subcortical areas...
December 19, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168945/psychiatric-pharmacogenomics-how-to-integrate-into-clinical-practice
#19
Stephen M Stahl
Pharmacogenomic testing can be integrated into modern mental health practices to help select psychotropic drugs for individuals who have failed first-line evidence-based treatments. This can be done by the process of "equipoise"-namely, balancing the weight of all available evidence. That evidence now includes not only diagnosis-specific treatment guidelines and "personalized" patient information, such as an individual's specific symptom profile, past response to medications, side effects, family history, and patient preference, but also "precision medicine," which incorporates the ever-expanding base of pharmacogenomic evidence for how an individual's own biomarkers alter the odds for that individual's treatment response or treatment intolerance...
February 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168944/kick-off-editorial-for-2017-cns-spectrums-is-on-the-move
#20
Stephen M Stahl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: CNS Spectrums
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