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CNS Spectrums

Zeyad T Sahli, Jae Jo, Shaker A Mousa, Frank I Tarazi
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder, characterized by restless and unpleasant sensations in the deep inside of legs. The symptoms of RLS are less noticeable during daytime, but more prevalent at night. Therefore, the disorder can induce low quality of life, insomnia, and impairment of daytime activity. RLS in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is especially problematic due to premature discontinuation of dialysis and increased mortality. The prevalence of RLS among dialysis patients is much higher compared to the prevalence of the same disorder in patients with normal renal functions...
October 5, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Domenico De Berardis, Michele Fornaro, Laura Orsolini, Felice Iasevoli, Carmine Tomasetti, Andrea de Bartolomeis, Nicola Serroni, Ida De Lauretis, Gabriella Girinelli, Monica Mazza, Alessandro Valchera, Alessandro Carano, Federica Vellante, Ilaria Matarazzo, Giampaolo Perna, Giovanni Martinotti, Massimo Di Giannantonio
OBJECTIVE: Agomelatine is a newer antidepressant but, to date, no studies have been carried out investigating its effects on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in major depressive disorder (MDD) before and after treatment. The present study aimed (i) to investigate the effects of agomelatine treatment on CRP levels in a sample of patients with MDD and (ii) to investigate if CRP variations were correlated with clinical improvement in such patients. METHODS: 30 adult outpatients (12 males, 18 females) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of MDD were recruited in "real-world," everyday clinical practice and treated with a flexible dose of agomelatine for 12 weeks...
October 5, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Samuel R Chamberlain, Konstantinos Ioannidis, Eric W Leppink, Faiza Niaz, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with various manifestations of impulsivity in adults, including elevated rates of other impulsive disorders, substance use, questionnaire-based impulsivity scores, and inhibitory dysregulation on neurocognitive tests. The relationship between ADHD and all these other forms of impulsivity has yet to be explored within the context of a single comprehensive study. METHODS: A total of 423 young adults, who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year, were recruited using media advertisements and undertook detailed assessment including structured psychiatric interview, questionnaires, and neurocognitive tests...
September 29, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Estêvão Scotti-Muzzi, Osvaldo Luis Saide
The presence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) in schizophrenia is frequent, and a new clinical entity has been proposed for those who show the dual diagnosis: the schizo-obsessive disorder. This review scrutinizes the literature across the main academic databases, and provides an update on different aspects of schizo-obsessive spectrum disorders, which include schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) with OCD, OCD with poor insight, schizophrenia with OCS, and schizophrenia with OCD (schizo-obsessive disorder)...
September 27, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Edward Kim, Christoph U Correll, Lian Mao, H Lynn Starr, Larry Alphs
OBJECTIVE: This analysis of the Paliperidone Palmitate Research in Demonstrating Effectiveness (PRIDE) study (NCT01157351) compared outcomes after administration of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP) vs conventional oral antipsychotics (COAs) or atypical oral antipsychotics (AOAs). METHODS: PRIDE was a 15-month study of 444 individuals with schizophrenia and a history of incarceration. They were randomly assigned to PP or to 1 of 7 commonly prescribed OAs...
September 15, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Joshua D Rosenblat, Roger S McIntyre
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) mixed features specifier provides a less restrictive definition of mixed mood states, compared to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), including mood episodes that manifest with subthreshold symptoms of the opposite mood state. A limited number of studies have assessed the efficacy of treatments specifically for DSM-5-defined mixed features in mood disorders. As such, there is currently an inadequate amount of data to appropriately inform evidence-based treatment guidelines of DSM-5 defined mixed features...
September 15, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Rianne M Blom, Valeria Guglielmi, Damiaan Denys
Patients with body integrity identity disorder (BIID) experience a strong desire for amputation from very early on. BIID patients are often dismissed when they share their wish for amputation with surgeons. Consequently, patients resort to self-amputation, including complications and sometimes death. BIID patients are not psychotic and are mentally competent to oversee the consequences of an elective amputation. The authors offer arguments in favor of elective amputation.
September 13, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Joshua D Rosenblat, Roger S McIntyre
Mood episodes with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)-defined mixed features are highly prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD), affecting ~40% of patients during the course of illness. Mixed states are associated with poorer clinical outcomes, greater treatment resistance, higher rates of comorbidity, more frequent mood episodes, and increased rates of suicide. The objectives of the current review are to identify, summarize, and synthesize studies assessing the efficacy of treatments specifically for BD I and II mood episodes (ie, including manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes) with DSM-5-defined mixed features...
September 13, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Paul Hodgkins, Andrew Lloyd, M Haim Erder, Juliana Setyawan, Margaret D Weiss, Rahul Sasané, Beenish Nafees
OBJECTIVE: Defining minimal important difference (MID) is critical to interpreting patient-reported outcomes data and treatment efficacy in clinical trials. This study estimates the MID for the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report (WFIRS-P) and the Child Health and Illness Profile-Parent Report (CHIP-CE-PRF76) among parents of young people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the UK. METHODS: Parents of children (6-12 years; n=100) and adolescents (13-17 years; n=117) with ADHD completed a socio-demographic form, the CHIP-CE-PRF76, the WFIRS-P, and the Pediatric Quality of Life scale at baseline and 4 weeks later...
August 18, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Timothy Peters-Strickland, Cathy Zhao, Pamela P Perry, Anna Eramo, Phyllis M Salzman, Robert D McQuade, Brian R Johnson, Raymond Sanchez
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg (AOM 400) on clinical symptoms and global improvement in schizophrenia after switching from an oral antipsychotic. METHODS: In a multicenter, open-label, mirror-image, naturalistic study in patients with schizophrenia (>1 year, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] criteria), changes in efficacy measures were assessed during prospective treatment (6 months) with AOM 400 after switching from standard-of-care oral antipsychotics...
August 17, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Marco Solmi, Nicola Veronese, Leonardo Zaninotto, Marc L M van der Loos, Keming Gao, Ayal Schaffer, Catherine Reis, Claus Normann, Ion-George Anghelescu, Christoph U Correll
OBJECTIVES: To meta-analytically summarize lamotrigine's effectiveness and safety in unipolar and bipolar depression. METHODS: We conducted systematic PubMed and SCOPUS reviews (last search =10/01/2015) of randomized controlled trials comparing lamotrigine to placebo or other agents with antidepressant activity in unipolar or bipolar depression. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis of depression ratings, response, remission, and adverse effects calculating standardized mean difference (SMD) and risk ratio (RR) ±95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
October 2016: CNS Spectrums
Stephen M Stahl
Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) is theoretically a serotonin-dopamine imbalance syndrome due to disruption of the normal balance between the serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems in key brain circuits.
October 2016: CNS Spectrums
David S Baldwin, Robert Gordon, Marianna Abelli, Stefano Pini
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) categorization of mental disorders places "separation anxiety disorder" within the broad group of anxiety disorders, and its diagnosis no longer rests on establishing an onset during childhood or adolescence. In previous editions of DSM, it was included within the disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, with the requirement for an onset of symptoms before the age of 18 years: symptomatic adults could only receive a retrospective diagnosis, based on establishing this early onset...
August 2016: CNS Spectrums
Stefano Pallanti
The two main diagnostic systems, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), have undergone a number of revisions since their first editions: whereas the fifth edition of the DSM has been published in 2013, the eleventh revision of the ICD is expected by 2018. Although the process of harmonization between the 2 systems is still a debated topic, the forthcoming revision of the ICD is seemingly converging toward the DSM approach in regard to the reclassification of a number of disorders...
August 2016: CNS Spectrums
Stephen M Stahl
Pimavanserin, a novel agent approved for the treatment of Parkinson's disease psychosis, has potent actions as an antagonist/inverse agonist at serotonin 5HT2A receptors and less potent antagonist/inverse agonist actions at 5HT2C receptors.
August 2016: CNS Spectrums
Stuart Montgomery
Two widely used diagnostic systems, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), are reviewed for their ability to define those who will benefit from active treatment rather than placebo. Both systems suffer from a weakness in defining symptoms sufficiently clearly to separate depression from normal mood variations in the general population. Consequently, normal individuals may be medicalized and defined as suffering from and treated for depression...
August 2016: CNS Spectrums
Falko Biedermann, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) was published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 2013, and the Work Group on the Classification of Psychotic disorders (WGPD), installed by the World Health Organization (WHO), is expected to publish the new chapter about schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders in 2017. We reviewed the available literature to summarize the major changes, innovations, and developments of both manuals. If available and possible, we outline the theoretical background behind these changes...
August 2016: CNS Spectrums
Lior Carmi, Leah Fostick, Shimon Burshtein, Shlomit Cwikel-Hamzany, Joseph Zohar
One of the main changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) was the separation of Stress Related Disorders from the Anxiety chapter. This separation paves the way to examine the unique characteristics of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (ie, identifiable onset, memory processes, etc) and related neural mechanisms. The time that elapses between the traumatic event and the manifestation of the disorder may also be addressed as the "golden hours," or the window of opportunity in which critical processes take place and relevant interventions may be administrated...
August 2016: CNS Spectrums
Anna Marras, Naomi Fineberg, Stefano Pallanti
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been recognized as mainly characterized by compulsivity rather than anxiety and, therefore, was removed from the anxiety disorders chapter and given its own in both the American Psychiatric Association (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the Beta Draft Version of the 11th revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This revised clustering is based on increasing evidence of common affected neurocircuits between disorders, differently from previous classification systems based on interrater agreement...
August 2016: CNS Spectrums
Alexander Kaltenboeck, Dietmar Winkler, Siegfried Kasper
Bipolar disorders are a group of psychiatric disorders with profound negative impact on affected patients. Even if their symptomatology has long been recognized, diagnostic criteria have changed over time and diagnosis often remains difficult. The Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), issued in May 2013, comprises several changes regarding the diagnosis of bipolar disorders compared to the previous edition. Diagnostic categories and criteria for bipolar disorders show some concordance with the internationally also widely used Tenth Edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10)...
August 2016: CNS Spectrums
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