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Journal of Neural Transmission

David Godefroy, William Rostène, Youssef Anouar, Annabelle Reaux-Le Goazigo
Unfortunately, the given name and family name of the fourth author was incorrectly tagged in the xml data, therefore it is abbreviated wrongly as ''Goazigo AR'' in Pubmed. The correct given name is Annabelle and family name is Reaux‑Le Goazigo.
November 17, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Yun-Ai Su, Chad Bousman, Qian Li, Ji-Tao Li, Jing-Yu Lin, Tian-Mei Si
Genome-wide association study results have linked ADCK1 genetic variation with paliperidone efficacy in a European cohort. However, the generalizability of this locus to non-European populations is unknown. Han Chinese schizophrenia patients (n = 159) were treated with paliperidone palmitate and symptom severity was assessed over 3 months. Examination of 13 ADCK1 genetic variants revealed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs12590199, rs11159291) and one haplotype (rs2364747-rs12590199) associated with paliperidone palmitate response...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Ruth Djaldetti, Adam Steinmetz, Amihai Rigbi, Christoph Scherfler, Werner Poewe, Yaniv Roditi, Lior Greenbaum, Mordechai Lorberboym
Susceptibility to Parkinson's disease (PD) is believed to involve an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The role of pesticides as a risk factor of PD and neurodegeneration remains controversial. An asymmetric decrease in ligand uptake on 18 F-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET), especially in the dorsal putamen, is a sensitive marker of PD. The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of ligand uptake on 18 F-DOPA PET in patients with PD exposed or not exposed to pesticides. The main sample included 26 Israeli patients with PD, 13 who were exposed to pesticides and 13 who were not, matched for age and disease duration...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
John P M Finberg
MAO-B and COMT are both enzymes involved in dopamine breakdown and metabolism. Inhibitors of these enzymes are used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. This review article describes the scientific background to the localization and function of the enzymes, the physiological changes resulting from their inhibition, and the basic and clinical pharmacology of the various inhibitors and their role in treatment of Parkinson's disease.
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Victoria S Marshe, Ilona Gorbovskaya, Sarah Kanji, Maxine Kish, Daniel J Müller
Alzheimer's disease is a genetically complex neurodegenerative disorder representing the leading cause of dementia. Advances in personal genomics are increasing the public uptake of genetic susceptibility testing for complex diseases such as late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). For LOAD, the discovery of the major risk ε4 allele of the APOE gene has prompted a debate on the ethics and utility of presymptomatic (i.e., predictive) testing. Although the mechanistic contribution of APOE to disease onset remains uncertain, presymptomatic genetic testing provides a relative risk of developing LOAD...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Seunghee Na, Jooyeon Jamie Im, Hyeonseok Jeong, Eek-Sung Lee, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Yong-An Chung, In-Uk Song
Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is a recently defined syndrome with chronic dizziness interrupting daily life. Although the high levels of anxiety and functional changes in postural control strategy and multi-sensory information processing and integration may be underlying the pathophysiology, its neural mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with PPPD using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Susan Schloß, Viola Müller, Katja Becker, Nadine Skoluda, Urs M Nater, Ursula Pauli-Pott
Associations between mothers' and children's cortisol secretion parameters are well established. According to the bio-behavioral synchrony model, these associations reflect influences of the mother-child relationship, the child's social adjustment, and might also reflect shared genetic dispositions. From the bio-behavioral synchrony model, we predicted a stronger mother-child hair cortisol concentration (HCC) link in mothers showing highly adequate (compared to those showing less adequate) parenting behaviors and in children showing low (compared to those showing high) ADHD symptoms...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Slawomir Michalak, Alicja Kalinowska-Lyszczarz, Joanna Rybacka-Mossakowska, Mikolaj Zaborowski, Wojciech Kozubski
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is a critical step in paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) development. Several cytokines have been implicated in BBB breakdown. However, the exact step-by-step mechanism in which PNS develops is unknown, and the relationship between a systemic neoplasm and BBB is multilevel. The aim of the present study was to examine serum markers of BBB breakdown (S100B protein, neuron-specific enolase, NSE) and concentrations of proinflammatory (TNF-alpha, VEGF) and anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-4), and to establish their interrelationship in patients with PNS...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Nayron Medeiros Soares, Gabriela Magalhães Pereira, Vivian Altmann, Rosa Maria Martins de Almeida, Carlos R M Rieder
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive and multifactorial neurodegenerative disease. It has been suggested that a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) occurs in PD. Furthermore, this dysregulation may be involved in triggering, exacerbation or progression of disease. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding cortisol levels and their relation with motor, cognitive and behavioral symptoms in patients with PD. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and Embase databases, according to PRISMA norms...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Hannah V Oakes, Carley E DeVee, Brandon Farmer, Serena A Allen, Alexis N Hall, Tucker Ensley, Kristen Medlock, Angela Hanley, Brooks B Pond
Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and can be altered by psychoactive medications; however, the impact of methylphenidate on neurogenesis is not fully understood. We investigated the effects of chronic low (1 mg/kg) and high (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneal doses of methylphenidate on neurogenesis in mouse hippocampus following 28 days and 56 days of treatment. Interestingly, methylphenidate, at both doses, increased neurogenesis...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Anderson R Stolf, Renata B Cupertino, Diana Müller, Breno Sanvicente-Vieira, Tatiana Roman, Eduardo S Vitola, Eugenio H Grevet, Lisia von Diemen, Felix H P Kessler, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Claiton H D Bau, Diego L Rovaris, Flavio Pechansky, Jaqueline B Schuch
There is evidence that dopamine receptors D2 (DRD2) and D4 (DRD4) polymorphisms may influence substance use disorders (SUD) susceptibility both individually and through their influence in the formation of DRD2-DRD4 heteromers. The dopaminergic role on the vulnerability to addiction appears to be influenced by sex. A cross-sectional study with 307 crack cocaine addicts and 770 controls was conducted. The influence of DRD2 rs2283265 and DRD4 48 bp VNTR in exon 3 variants, as well as their interaction on crack cocaine addiction susceptibility and severity were evaluated in women and men separately...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Eman M Khedr, Bastawy Al Fawal, Ahmed Abdelwarith, Mostafa Saber, John C Rothwell
Tardive syndromes (TDS) typically manifest 3 months or later after exposure to antipsychotic drugs, and unfortunately have no satisfactory medical treatment. We explored the possibility of using therapeutic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Twenty-six patients were allocated to receive real or sham rTMS over the hand/arm area of motor cortex (M1). Each received a daily total of 2000 rTMS pulses (20 Hz at 100% rMT: 1000 stimuli per hemisphere) for 10 consecutive days. Outcome was assessed using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) and TMS measures of M1 excitability...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Malgorzata Maciukiewicz, Ilona Gorbovskaya, Arun K Tiwari, Clement C Zai, Natalie Freeman, Herbert Y Meltzer, James L Kennedy, Daniel J Müller
Schizophrenia is a severe, debilitating disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 1% irrespective of gender or ethnicity and is typically treated with antipsychotic drugs. Antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) is a leading factor of patient non-compliance and has previously been shown to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular events. The current study intends to replicate findings from a recent genome-wide association study in Han-Chinese patients implicating two gene variants (rs10977144 and rs10977154) of the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D (PTPRD) in antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG)...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Sarah Hartman, Jay Belsky
Two separate lines of inquiry indicate (a) that prenatal stress is associated with heightened behavioral and physiological reactivity, and (b) that these postnatal phenotypes are associated with increased susceptibility to both positive and negative developmental experiences and environmental exposures. This research considered together raises the intriguing hypothesis first advanced by Pluess and Belsky (Dev Psychopathol 23:29-38, 2011) that prenatal-stress fosters, promotes or "programs" postnatal developmental plasticity...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
David Godefroy, William Rostène, Youssef Anouar, Annabelle Reaux-Le Goazigo
Working on catecholamine systems for years, the neuropharmacologist Arvid Carlsson has made a number of important and pioneering discoveries, which have highlighted the key role of these neuronal and peripheral neurotransmitters in brain functions and adrenal regulations. Since then, major advances have been made concerning the distribution of the catecholaminergic systems in particular by studying their rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Recently new methods of tissue transparency coupled with in toto immununostaining and three-dimensional (3D) imaging technologies allow to precisely map TH immunoreactive pathways in the mouse brain and adrenal glands...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Sam Mostafa, Carl M J Kirkpatrick, Keith Byron, Leslie Sheffield
Common polymorphisms in the genes encoding CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 enzymes have an important role in predicting the occurrence of adverse effects and the efficacy of substrate medications. Drug-induced changes to the enzyme's phenotype, a process called phenoconversion, comprise another important factor contributing to interindividual variability in drug response. To date, there is lack of data on the frequency of these common polymorphisms and phenoconversion in the pan-ethnic Australian population...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Lucia Ricciardi, Federica Visco-Comandini, Roberto Erro, Francesca Morgante, Daniele Volpe, James Kilner, Mark J Edwards, Matteo Bologna
People with Parkinson's disease (PD) have a deficit of facial expression. Previous studies indicate that hemispheric dominance for emotional processing can give rise to an asymmetric pattern of facial expression of emotion. In this study, we aimed to evaluate possible asymmetry in facial emotion expressivity in PD. Twenty PD patients and twenty healthy controls were video-recorded while posing the 6 basic emotions. The most expressive pictures were derived from the videos and chimeric faces were created. Nine healthy raters were asked to judge which of the two chimeras looked more expressive...
December 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Joan Esse Wilson, Michael C Trumbo, J Kevin Wilson, Claudia D Tesche
Social deficits are core to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Current treatments are extremely time- and labor-intensive. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be a promising treatment modality to safely enhance treatments targeting social cognition and social skills. This pilot study investigates the effectiveness of social skills treatment interventions paired with anodal tDCS for six adults 18-58 years with ASD. Differences were predicted on the verbal fluency (VF) test and a test of social skills (TASSK-M) for verum (2...
December 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Bilal Sirhan, Lior Frid, Alon Kalron
The objective of the study was to investigate cognitive-motor interference of walking while texting in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). The study included 30 PwMS, mean disease duration 11.8 (SD = 6.8) years, and 15 healthy controls. The investigation included a cognitive assessment; texting assessment based on 100 typed characters; and gait assessment under two different conditions: normal walking and walking while texting. Outcome measures included the Symbol Digit Modalities Test to assess cognition...
December 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
José Fidel Baizabal-Carvallo, Marlene Alonso-Juarez, Robert Fekete
Hand deformities are well-known abnormalities observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We determined the frequency and diagnostic accuracy of hand deformities in PD. We studied 44 consecutive patients with PD, 44 age- and gender-matched normal controls and 22 patients with essential tremor (ET). By means of photographs taken in both hands of all participants, the degree of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint flexion was quantified by software and by blinded evaluations using a semiquantitative scale from the radial aspect, we grouped hands into four grades...
December 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
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