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Journal of Neural Transmission

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909828/the-dopamine-related-polymorphisms-bdnf-comt-drd2-drd3-and-drd4-are-not-linked-with-changes-in-csf-dopamine-levels-and-frequency-of-hiv-infection
#1
Anne Horn, C Scheller, S du Plessis, R Burger, G Arendt, J Joska, S Sopper, C M Maschke, M Obermann, I W Husstedt, J Hain, P Riederer, E Koutsilieri
We showed previously that higher levels in CSF dopamine in HIV patients are associated with the presence of the dopamine transporter (DAT) 10/10-repeat allele which was also detected more frequently in HIV-infected individuals compared to uninfected subjects. In the current study, we investigated further whether other genetic dopamine (DA)-related polymorphisms may be related with changes in CSF DA levels and frequency of HIV infection in HIV-infected subjects. Specifically, we studied genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and dopamine receptors DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 genetic polymorphisms in uninfected and HIV-infected people in two different ethnical groups, a German cohort (Caucasian, 72 individuals with HIV infection and 22 individuals without HIV infection) and a South African cohort (Xhosan, 54 individuals with HIV infection and 19 individuals without HIV infection)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904950/age-dependent-alpha-synuclein-accumulation-is-correlated-with-elevation-of-mitochondrial-trpc3-in-the-brains-of-monkeys-and-mice
#2
Min Chen, Jia Liu, Yongquan Lu, Chunli Duan, Lingling Lu, Ge Gao, Piu Chan, Shun Yu, Hui Yang
Aberrant α-synuclein (α-syn) accumulation has been shown to impair mitochondrial function by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels are a diverse group of non-selective Ca(2+) channels, among which TRPC3 is the only one that is localized in mitochondria and plays a role in maintaining the normal MMP. This raises a possibility that altered TRPC3 expression may play a role in the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by α-syn accumulation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900470/influence-of-the-selective-antagonist-of-the-nr2b-subunit-of-the-nmda-receptor-traxoprodil-on-the-antidepressant-like-activity-of-desipramine-paroxetine-milnacipran-and-bupropion-in-mice
#3
Weronika Stasiuk, Aleksandra Szopa, Anna Serefko, Elżbieta Wyska, Katarzyna Świąder, Jarosław Dudka, Piotr Wlaź, Ewa Poleszak
Pre-clinical and clinical studies indicated that a blockade of the NMDA receptor complex creates new opportunities for the treatment of affective disorders, including depression. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of traxoprodil (10 mg/kg) on the activity of desipramine (10 mg/kg), paroxetine (0.5 mg/kg), milnacipran (1.25 mg/kg), and bupropion (10 mg/kg), each at sub-therapeutic doses. Moreover, brain levels of traxoprodil and tested agents were determined using HPLC. The obtained results were used to ascertain the nature of occurring interaction between traxoprodil and studied antidepressants...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885433/discussing-sexuality-with-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-survey-among-dutch-neurologists
#4
Petra J M van Hees, Anton A van der Plas, Gaby F van Ek, Hein Putter, Brenda L Den Oudsten, Marjolein E M den Ouden, Henk W Elzevier
Sexual functioning is often impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and may affect quality of life of patients and their spouse. However, little is known about the practice patterns of neurologists with regard to discussing sexuality in this field. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate to what extent neurologists discuss sexuality with PD patients. A 22-item questionnaire was sent to 139 neurologists specializing in PD. The survey contained questions about their attitudes, knowledge, and practice patterns with respect to sexual dysfunction (SD) in patients with PD...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878585/motion-and-emotion-anxiety-axial-connections-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Rastislav Šumec, Irena Rektorová, Robert Jech, Kateřina Menšíková, Jan Roth, Evžen Růžička, Dana Sochorová, Ladislav Dušek, Petr Kaňovský, Ivan Rektor, Tomáš Pavlík, Pavel Filip, Martin Bareš
Anxiety is a serious and frequent complication in Parkinson's disease (PD) that significantly affects the quality of life of patients. Multiple neuroanatomical, experimental, and clinical studies suggest its close association with axial disturbances. However, whether this relation applies for PD patients (commonly suffering from axial difficulties, such as balance and gait disturbance) has not been properly tested yet. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PD patients suffering from axial symptoms have higher levels of anxiety than others and to identify other factors associated with anxiety-axial connections...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878377/relationship-between-the-plasma-levels-of-neurodegenerative-proteins-and-motor-subtypes-of-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Jian Ding, Jiejin Zhang, Xixi Wang, Li Zhang, Siming Jiang, Yongsheng Yuan, Junyi Li, Lin Zhu, Kezhong Zhang
The aim of our study is to examine the plasma levels of the four kinds of neurodegenerative proteins in plasma: α-syn, T-tau, P-tau181, and Aβ-42 in Parkinson's disease (PD) and to evaluate the relationship between their plasma levels and PD motor subtypes. 84 patients with PD were enrolled in our study, and finally, 73 of them were classified into the tremor-dominant subtype (TD) and the postural instability gait difficulty subtype (PIGD). Their motor performance was evaluated by a series of clinical assessments: Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOGQ), Timed Up and Go (TUGs), Tinetti balance, and Tinetti gait...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873015/muscarinic-receptor-binding-changes-in-postmortem-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Caitlin McOmish, Geoff Pavey, Catriona McLean, Malcolm Horne, Brian Dean, Elizabeth Scarr
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a devastating disorder, affecting approximately 2% of people aged 60 and above. It is marked by progressive neurodegeneration that has long been known to impact dopaminergic cells and circuits, but more recently the acetylcholine system has also been implicated in the complex aetiology and symptomatology of the disease. While broad changes in cholinergic markers have been described, insight into the contribution of specific acetylcholine receptors is less clear. To address this important unknown, in this study we performed [(3)H] pirenzepine, [(3)H] 4DAMP, and [(3)H] AF-DX 384 in situ radioligand binding on postmortem tissues from Brodmann's area 6, 9, 46, and the caudate putamen, from PD and matched controls to detect muscarinic M1, M3, and M1/2/4 receptors, respectively...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866280/proteasome-mediated-degradation-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-triggered-by-its-phosphorylation-a-new-question-as-to-the-intracellular-location-at-which-the-degradation-occurs
#8
REVIEW
Akira Nakashima, Yu Kodani, Yoko S Kaneko, Hiroshi Nagasaki, Akira Ota
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, and its stability is a fundamental factor to maintain the level of the catecholamines in cells. However, the intracellular stability of TH determined by the degradation remains unknown; although the TH molecule phosphorylated at its Ser19 was observed in the nucleus, and the phosphorylation suspected to trigger its proteasome-mediated degradation. Computer-assisted analysis using the cNLS Mapper program predicted that two sequences of nuclear localization signals (NLS) exist in the N-terminus of TH molecule containing the phosphorylation sites Ser19, Ser31, and Ser40 (Pro(9)-Arg(38) and Lys(12)-Ile(42)): the NLS scores indicated that TH could become localized in both nucleus and cytoplasm...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853928/d1-and-d2-specific-dopamine-antagonist-modulate-the-caudate-nucleus-neuronal-responses-to-chronic-methylphenidate-exposure
#9
Sidish Venkataraman, Catherine Claussen, Nachum Dafny
The psychostimulant, methylphenidate (MPD), is the first line treatment as a pharmacotherapy to treat behavioral disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). MPD is commonly misused in non-ADHD (normal) youth and young adults both as a recreational drug and for cognitive enhancing effects to improve their grades. MPD is known to act on the reward circuit; including the caudate nucleus (CN). The CN is comprised of medium spiny neurons containing largely dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptors...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853927/the-impact-of-parkinson-disease-on-patients-sexuality-and-relationship
#10
C Buhmann, S Dogac, E Vettorazzi, U Hidding, C Gerloff, T P Jürgens
This study aimed at examining the impact of Parkinson disease (PD) on patients' sexuality and relationship and to evaluate gender-specific differences. Using a standardized questionnaire on sexual functioning in chronic diseases (SFCE), the impact of PD diagnosis on 38 domains of sexuality before and since PD diagnosis was evaluated retrospectively in 53 consecutive patients in a relationship. Changes in self-assessed ratings on a four-point Likert scale were determined for all patients. In addition, gender-specific differences and the influence of age, depression (BDI-II), medication, disease severity and disease duration on domains of the SFCE were calculated...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853926/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improves-clinical-symptoms-in-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
Cornelia Soff, Anna Sotnikova, Hanna Christiansen, Katja Becker, Michael Siniatchkin
Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex has repeatedly been shown to improve working memory. As patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by both underactivation of the prefrontal cortex and deficits in working memory that correlate with clinical symptoms, it is hypothesized that the modulation of prefrontal activity with tDCS in patients with ADHD increases performance in working memory and reduces symptoms of ADHD. To test this hypothesis, fifteen adolescents with ADHD (12-16 years old, three girls and 12 boys) were treated according to the randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled, crossover design with either 1 mA anodal tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or with the sham protocol 5 days each with a 2 weeks pause between these conditions...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848034/vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-psychiatry-a-systematic-review-of-the-available-evidence
#12
REVIEW
Camelia-Lucia Cimpianu, Wolfgang Strube, Peter Falkai, Ulrich Palm, Alkomiet Hasan
Invasive and non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a promising add-on treatment for treatment-refractory depression, but is also increasingly evaluated for its application in other psychiatric disorders, such as dementia, schizophrenia, somatoform disorder, and others. We performed a systematic review aiming to give a detailed overview of the available evidence of the efficacy of VNS for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Data derived from animal models, experimental trials without health-related outcomes, case reports, single-session studies, and reviews were excluded...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848033/impaired-learning-of-punishments-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-and-without-impulse-control-disorder
#13
Bernd Leplow, Maria Sepke, Robby Schönfeld, Johannes Pohl, Henriette Oelsner, Lea Latzko, Georg Ebersbach
To document specific learning mechanisms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with and without impulse control disorder (ICD). Thirty-two PD patients receiving dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) were investigated. Sixteen were diagnosed with ICD (ICD (+) ) and 16 PD patients matched for levodopa equivalence dosage, and DRT duration and severity of disease did not show impulsive behavior (non-ICD). Short-term learning of inhibitory control was assessed by an experimental procedure which was intended to mimic everyday life...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844166/from-sleep-to-arousal-to-attention-deficits-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#14
EDITORIAL
Johannes Thome, Oliver Tucha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837280/thr105ile-rs11558538-polymorphism-in-the-histamine-1-methyl-transferase-hnmt-gene-and-risk-for-restless-legs-syndrome
#15
Félix Javier Jiménez-Jiménez, Elena García-Martín, Hortensia Alonso-Navarro, Carmen Martínez, Martín Zurdo, Laura Turpín-Fenoll, Jorge Millán-Pascual, Teresa Adeva-Bartolomé, Esther Cubo, Francisco Navacerrada, Ana Rojo-Sebastián, Lluisa Rubio, Sara Ortega-Cubero, Pau Pastor, Marisol Calleja, José Francisco Plaza-Nieto, Belén Pilo-de-la-Fuente, Margarita Arroyo-Solera, Esteban García-Albea, José A G Agúndez
A recent meta-analysis suggests an association between the rs11558538 single nucleotide polymorphism in the histamine-N-methyl-transferase (HNMT) gene and the risk for Parkinson's disease. Based on the possible relationship between PD and restless legs syndrome (RLS), we tried to establish whether rs11558538 SNP is associated with the risk for RLS. We studied the genotype and allelic variant frequencies of HNMT rs11558538 SNP 205 RLS patients and 410 healthy controls using a TaqMan assay. The frequencies of the HNMT rs11558538 genotypes allelic variants were similar between RLS patients and controls, and were not influenced by gender, family history of RLS, or RLS severity...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826809/vasomotor-regulation-in-patients-with-multiple-system-atrophy
#16
Kazumasa Shindo, Mai Tsuchiya, Yuta Ichinose, Kishin Koh, Takanori Hata, Nobuo Yamashiro, Fumikazu Kobayashi, Takamura Nagasaka, Yoshihisa Takiyama
To investigate the vasomotor regulation in multiple system atrophy (MSA), we simultaneously recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate, and blood pressure in 14 MSA patients without syncope and 18 healthy subjects. Resting MSNA bursts were significantly less frequent in MSA patients than healthy subjects (p < 0.001), while the increase of MSNA bursts with head-up tilt was significantly greater in MSA patients (p < 0.01). In patients with MSA, orthostatic hypotension may be prevented by an augmented MSNA response...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816992/impaired-heart-rate-variability-in-cervical-dystonia-is-associated-to-depression
#17
F Hentschel, D Dressler, M Abele, S Paus
Causes of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in cervical dystonia (CD) are poorly understood. Studies examining effects of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) therapy on heart rate variability (HRV) yielded contradictory results. There is compelling evidence that depression shifts autonomic balance towards sympathetic predominance. As depression is the most frequent non-motor symptom in CD, we sought to determine if it is associated to dysfunction of cardiovascular autonomic regulation. Standardized interviews, clinical examinations, self-rating forms, autonomic symptom questionnaire, and automated autonomic testing in outpatients with idiopathic CD were used...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816991/frontalis-suspension-surgery-to-treat-patients-with-blepharospasm-and-eyelid-opening-apraxia-long-term-results
#18
Dirk Dressler, Chrisanthi Karapantzou, Saskia Rohrbach, Simon Schneider, Rainer Laskawi
Blepharospasm may be accompanied by eyelid opening apraxia (EOA) reducing the efficacy of botulinum toxin (BT) therapy. The frontalis suspension operation (FSO) is then the only effective treatment option available. We want to report the first long-term results with FSO. We studied 15 patients with blepharospasm and EAO unresponsive to BT therapy (9 females, 6 males, age 61.9 ± 11.5 years). FSO was performed by applying 2 polytetrafluoroethylene threads (PTFE, Gore-Tex(®)) per eye connecting the frontalis muscle to the upper eye lid...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812756/a-prospective-evaluation-of-taste-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
M J Ricatti, S Ottaviani, F Boschi, A Fasano, M Tinazzi, M P Cecchini
It is well known that Parkinson's disease is characterized by a variety of non-motor symptoms. A gustatory deficit is hypothesized to be one of them although few and only cross-sectional studies are available. The aim of our pilot study was to prospectively investigate the taste function in Parkinson's disease patients after some years from the first evaluation (mean follow-up 4.35 ± 0.49 years; time range 3.5-5.6 years). A group of 26 patients was re-examined (16 males and 10 females; mean age 70.9 ± 8...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796511/neuromolecular-imaging-a-nanobiotechnology-for-parkinson-s-disease-advancing-pharmacotherapy-for-personalized-medicine
#20
P A Broderick, L Wenning, Y-S Li
Evaluating each patient and animal as its own control achieves personalized medicine, which honors the hippocratic philosophy, explaining that "it is far more important to know what person has the disease than what disease the person has." Similarly, individualizing molecular signaling directly from the patient's brain in real time is essential for providing prompt, patient-based treatment as dictated by the point of care. Fortunately, nanotechnology effectively treats many neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, the new medicinal frontier for the discovery of therapy for Parkinson's disease is nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
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