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Journal of Neural Transmission

Manolo Carta, Etienne Hirsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Angelo Antonini, Bianca Nitu
Development of motor fluctuations and dyskinesia characterizes the transition from early to advanced Parkinson disease stage. Current therapeutic strategies to manage motor complications aim at increasing the number of levodopa administrations and extending its benefit by the association of enzyme blockers and dopamine agonists. However, as disease progresses, mobility becomes progressively dependent on levodopa absorption and its plasma bioavailability, resulting in loss of independence, worse quality of life and increased caregiver burden...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Young-Kyoung Ryu, Hye-Yeon Park, Jun Go, Yong-Hoon Kim, Jung Hwan Hwang, Dong-Hee Choi, Jung-Ran Noh, Myungchull Rhee, Pyung-Lim Han, Chul-Ho Lee, Kyoung-Shim Kim
Histone acetylation is a key regulatory factor for gene expression in cells. Modulation of histone acetylation by targeting of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) effectively alters many gene expression profiles and synaptic plasticity in the brain. However, the role of HATs on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia of Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been reported. Our aim was to determine whether HAT inhibitors such as anacardic acid, garcinol, and curcumin from natural plants reduce severity of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia using a unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned PD mouse model...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Toshiharu Nagatsu, Akira Nakashima, Hiroshi Ichinose, Kazuto Kobayashi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an aging-related movement disorder mainly caused by a deficiency of neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) in the striatum of the brain and is considered to be due to progressive degeneration of nigro-striatal DA neurons. Most PD is sporadic without family history (sPD), and there are only a few percent of cases of young-onset familial PD (fPD, PARKs) with the chromosomal locations and the genes identified. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-dependent and iron-containing monooxygenase, catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamines (DA, noradrenaline, and adrenaline)...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Udo Bonnet, Dieter Bingmann, Erwin-Josef Speckmann, Martin Wiemann
The intracellular pH (pHi) in the cytosol of mammalian central neurons is tightly regulated and small pHi-fluctuations are deemed to modulate inter-/intracellular signaling, excitability, and synaptic plasticity. The resting pHi of young rodent hippocampal pyramidal neurons is known to decrease alongside aging for about 0.1 pH-units. There is no information about the relationship between age and pHi of human central neurons. We addressed this knowledge gap using 26 neocortical slices from 12 patients (1-56-years-old) who had undergone epilepsy surgery...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Yoshihiro Miyake, Keiko Tanaka, Masashi Arakawa
ITIH3 and ITIH4 are involved in the stabilization of the extracellular matrix. Several genome-wide association studies and case-control studies regarding psychiatric disorders have identified ITIH3 and ITIH4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The present case-control study examined the relationship between ITIH3 SNPs rs2535629 and rs736408 and ITIH4 SNPs rs3821831 and rs2239547 and depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan. Cases comprised 273 women with depressive symptoms during pregnancy defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score ≥ 16...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
S H Lee, M J Lee, C H Lyoo, H Cho, M S Lee
Impaired finger dexterity occurs in Parkinson's disease (PD) and has been considered a limb-kinetic apraxia associated with primary sensory cortical dysfunction. To study the role of nigrostriatal dopamine loss and elementary parkinsonian motor deficits in impaired finger dexterity of PD. Thirty-two right-handed untreated PD patients and 30 right-handed healthy controls were included. All patients underwent [18 F] FP-CIT positron emission tomography studies. We examined the associations among unilateral coin rotation (CR) score, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) subscores for bradykinesia and rigidity of the corresponding arm, and contralateral regional striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) uptake...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Tai N Tran, Trang N N Vo, Karen Frei, Daniel D Truong
Symptoms of Parkinson's disease have been controlled with levodopa for many years; however, motor complications consisting of wearing off of medication effect and dyskinesias tend to occur within a few years of starting levodopa. Motor complications can begin a few months after taking levodopa, with the average time to onset estimated to be 6.5 years. Dyskinesias can be troublesome and require intervention. Levodopa-induced dyskinesia can be composed of a variety of movement disorders including chorea, dystonia, ballism, myoclonus, and akathisia...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Nick Van Laeken, Glenn Pauwelyn, Robrecht Dockx, Benedicte Descamps, Boudewijn Brans, Kathelijne Peremans, Chris Baeken, Ingeborg Goethals, Christian Vanhove, Filip De Vos
Preclinical research has been indispensable in the exploration of the neurological basis of major depressive disorder (MDD). The present study aimed to examine effects on regional brain activity of two frequently used depression models, the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)- and the chronic corticosterone (CORT) depression model. The CUMS and CORT depression model were induced by exposing male Long-Evans rats to a 4-week procedure of unpredictable mild stressors or a 3-week procedure of chronic corticosterone, respectively...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Dirk Dressler, Lizhen Pan, Hans Bigalke
Botulinum toxin (BT) is provided by several manufacturers producing a number of different drugs. Their potency is given in internationally standardised mouse units (MU). Clinical practise, however, reveals that the potency labelling of different BT drugs may not be identical. We wanted to use the mouse diaphragm assay (MDA) to compare the two BT drugs onabotulinumtoxinA (ONA) and incobotulinumtoxinA (INCO). For this, we measured the paresis time (PT) of different ONA or INCO doses. All BT came from several different and unexpired drug batches...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Kurt A Jellinger
Braak et al. proposed that cases with Lewy pathology in the peripheral nervous sytem, spinal cord and brain stem are prodromal Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting a hypothesized progression of PD pathology. However, the putative potential of peripheral α-synuclein to promote brain pathology has been questioned recently. The Braak staging is a matter of vigorous debate, since < 100% of cases with Lewy pathology fitting the proposed PD staging scheme; however, most studies assessing typical PD cases show that the vast majority (80-100%) fit the Braak staging scheme...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Ken Yonezawa, Shunsuke Nonaka, Yuka Iwakura, Yuka Kusano, Yuko Funamoto, Nobukazu Kanchi, Naohiro Yamaguchi, Yuko Kusumoto, Akira Imamura, Hiroki Ozawa
Several studies report that patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a low plasma concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Since fish intake varies among countries and is high in Japan, those results may not apply to Japanese patients with ADHD. However, there is currently not enough evidence to support this. We compared the plasma PUFAs levels of patients with ADHD with the standard reference levels for healthy subjects, and examined the relationship between those PUFAs levels and the subject's psychological evaluation...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Yan Wang, Xiaoling Wu, Xun Deng, Yanjiao Ma, Siyi Huang, Yong Wang
Current studies have evaluated the association between CD14-260 (also known as -159) C/T polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease (AD) susceptibility. However, the association remains inconclusive. The aim of this study was to draw an accurate conclusion of the association. The literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biological Medicine Database, and Wanfang Databases for related articles. Four case-control studies with a total of 868 cases and 766 controls were eligible to be included in this meta-analysis...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Andrius Baskys
This paper discusses difficulties of pharmacogenomic data integration into clinical practice. It emphasizes the need for developing simple and easy to use bioinformatics tools to help prescribers to rapidly access and use genetic data in clinical decision-making at the point of encounter.
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Tommaso Schirinzi, Giulia Maria Sancesario, Giulia Di Lazzaro, Simona Scalise, Vito Luigi Colona, Paola Imbriani, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Sergio Bernardini, Anthony E Lang, Antonio Pisani
Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is a four-repeat tauopathy with high phenotypic and neuropathological variability, highlighting the urgent need for effective disease biomarkers. Quantitative analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins reflecting pathological changes of CNS is currently used as biomarkers of multiple neurodegenerative disorders for both early differential diagnosis and prognostic clustering of patients. In this study, we thus assessed the clinical usefulness of a panel of CSF biomarker in PSP patients presenting with Richardson's Syndrome...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Kent W Nilsson, Cecilia Åslund, Erika Comasco, Lars Oreland
Since the pioneering finding of Caspi and co-workers in 2002 that exposure to childhood maltreatment predicted later antisocial behaviour (ASB) in male carriers of the low-activity MAOA-uVNTR allele, frequent replication studies have been published. Two meta-analyses, one in 2006 and the other in 2014, confirmed the original findings by Caspi and co-workers. In the present paper, we review the literature, note some methodological aspects of candidate gene-environment interaction (cG×E) studies and suggest some future directions...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Abhishek Lenka, Madhura Ingalhalikar, Apurva Shah, Jitender Saini, Shyam Sundar Arumugham, Shantala Hegde, Lija George, Venkateswara Reddy, Y C Janardhana Reddy, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Kumar Pal
Psychosis, manifested through formed visual hallucinations or minor hallucinations, is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathogenesis of psychosis in PD remains unclear; however, is possibly linked to structural and functional alterations in the hippocampus. To explore the role of hippocampus in psychosis, a detailed hippocampal subfield analysis was performed on PD patients with (PD-P) and without psychosis (PD-NP), and healthy controls (HC). An automated subfield parcellation was performed on T1 MRI images of 141 subjects (PD-P:42, PD-NP:51, and HC:48)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Marco Bortolato, Gabriele Floris, Jean C Shih
The two monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes, A and B, catalyze the metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. The phenotypic outcomes of MAO congenital deficiency have been studied in humans and animal models, to explore the role of these enzymes in behavioral regulation. The clinical condition caused by MAOA deficiency, Brunner syndrome, was first described as a disorder characterized by overt antisocial and aggressive conduct. Building on this discovery, subsequent studies were focused on the characterization of the role of MAOA in the neurobiology of antisocial conduct...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
J M Menchón, J Espadaler, M Tuson, J Saiz-Ruiz, J Bobes, E Vieta, E Álvarez, V Pérez
Clinical utility of commercial multi-gene pharmacogenetic tests in depression is starting to be studied with some promising results on efficacy and tolerability. Among the next steps is the definition of the patient profile that is most likely to benefit from testing. Here we present a reanalysis of data from the AB-GEN randomized clinical trial showing that clinical utility of pharmacogenetic testing can be markedly influenced by patient characteristics such as age, baseline severity and duration of current depressive episode...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Manish Chamoli, Shankar J Chinta, Julie K Andersen
Several studies have suggested that increases in astrocytic monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) levels in conjunction with Parkinson's disease (PD) may contribute to subsequent neuropathology associated with the disorder. MAO-B inhibitors are currently widely used as symptomatic therapeutics for PD and, although somewhat controversial, these drugs may also exhibit disease-modifying properties. To obtain a better understanding of the potential role of MAO-B in disease neuropathology, we created an inducible astrocyte-specific transgenic MAO-B mouse model...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
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