Read by QxMD icon Read

Journal of Neural Transmission

Augusta Pisanu, Laura Boi, Giovanna Mulas, Saturnino Spiga, Sandro Fenu, Anna R Carta
Neuroinflammation is a main component of Parkinson's disease (PD) neuropathology, where unremitting reactive microglia and microglia-secreted soluble molecules such as cytokines, contribute to the neurodegenerative process as part of an aberrant immune reaction. Besides, pro-inflammatory cytokines, predominantly TNF-α, play an important neuromodulatory role in the healthy and diseased brain, being involved in neurotransmitter metabolism, synaptic scaling and brain plasticity. Recent preclinical studies have evidenced an exacerbated neuroinflammatory reaction in the striatum of parkinsonian rats that developed dyskinetic responses following L-DOPA administration...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Daniela Mannarelli, Caterina Pauletti, Tommaso Accinni, Luca Carlone, Marianna Frascarelli, Guido Maria Lattanzi, Antonio Currà, Francesco Fattapposta
The 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), or DiGeorge syndrome (DG), is one of the most common genetic deletion syndromes. DG also carries a high risk for psychiatric disorders, with learning disabilities frequently being reported. Impairments in specific cognitive domains, such as executive functioning and attention, have also been described. The aim of this study was to investigate attentional functioning in a group of subjects with DG using ERPs, and in particular the P300 and CNV components. We studied ten patients with DG and ten healthy subjects that performed a P300 Novelty task and a CNV motor task...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Femke Visser, Koenraad A Vermeer, Babak Ghafaryasl, Annemarie M M Vlaar, Valentin Apostolov, Jan van Hellenberg Hubar, Henry C Weinstein, Johannes F de Boer, Henk W Berendse
Thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) is a recently discovered feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Its exact pathological mechanism is yet unknown. We aimed to determine whether morphological changes of the RNFL are limited to RNFL thinning or also comprise an altered internal structure of this layer. Therefore, we investigated RNFL thickness and applied the RNFL attenuation coefficient (RNFL-AC), a novel method derived from optical coherence tomography, in PD patients and healthy controls (HCs)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Rona R Ramsay, Alen Albreht
Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) catalyse the oxidation of neurotransmitter amines and a wide variety of primary, secondary and tertiary amine xenobiotics, including therapeutic drugs. While inhibition of MAO activity in the periphery removes protection from biogenic amines and so is undesirable, inhibition in the brain gives vital antidepressant and behavioural advantages that make MAO a major pharmaceutical target for inhibitor design. In neurodegenerative diseases, MAO inhibitors can help to maintain neurotransmitter levels, making it a common feature in novel multi-target combinations designed to combat Alzheimer's disease, albeit not yet proven clinically...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Ana Marques, Franck Durif, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut
Impulse control disorders (ICD) are frequent side effects of dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) used in Parkinson's disease (PD) with devastating consequences on the patients and caregivers. ICD are behavioural addictions including compulsive gambling, shopping, sexual behaviour, and binge eating that are mainly associated with dopamine D2/D3 agonists. Their management is a real clinical challenge due to the lack of therapeutic alternative. Clinical studies have identified demographic and clinical risk factors for ICD such as younger age at disease onset, male gender, prior history of depression or substance abuse, REM sleep behaviour disorders and higher rate of dyskinesia...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Santiago Perez-Lloret, Olivier Rascol
L-DOPA induced dyskinesias (LIDs) may affect up to 40% of Parkinson's disease (PD) and impact negatively health-related quality of life. Amantadine has demonstrated significant antidyskinetic effects in animal PD models and in randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) in patients with PD. These effects are thought to be related to the blockade of NMDA receptors modulating cortico-striatal glutamatergic-dopaminergic interactions involved in the genesis of LIDs. There are three pharmaceutical forms of amantadine currently available in the market: an oral immediate-release (IR) formulation, which is widely available; an extended-release (ER) formulation (ADS-5102) which has been recently developed and approved by the FDA; and an intravenous infusion (IV) solution, which is not commonly used in clinical practice...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Véronique Sgambato, Léon Tremblay
The MPTP monkey model of Parkinson's disease (PD) has allowed huge advances regarding the understanding of the pathological mechanisms of PD and L-DOPA-induced adverse effects. Among the main findings were the imbalance between the efferent striatal pathways in opposite directions between the hypokinetic and hyperkinetic states of PD. In both normal and parkinsonian monkeys, the combination of behavioral and anatomical studies has allowed the deciphering of the cortico-basal ganglia circuits involved in both movement and behavioral disorders...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
X A Perez, T Bordia, M Quik
Cholinergic signaling plays a key role in regulating striatal function. The principal source of acetylcholine in the striatum is the cholinergic interneurons which, although low in number, densely arborize to modulate striatal neurotransmission. This modulation occurs via strategically positioned nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors that influence striatal dopamine, GABA and other neurotransmitter release. Cholinergic interneurons integrate multiple striatal synaptic inputs and outputs to regulate motor activity under normal physiological conditions...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Barbara Picconi, Elvira De Leonibus, Paolo Calabresi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons located in the midbrain. The gold-standard therapy for PD is the restoration of dopamine (DA) levels through the chronic administration of the DA precursor levodopa (L-DOPA). Although levodopa therapy is the main therapeutic approach for PD, its use is limited by the development of very disabling dyskinetic movements, mainly due to the fluctuation of DA cerebral content. Experimental animal models of PD identified in DA D1/ERK-signaling pathway aberrant activation, occurring in striatal projection neurons, coupled with structural spines abnormalities, the molecular and neuronal basis of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LIDs) occurrence...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Uwe Walter, Ales Dudesek, Urban M Fietzek
The obliquus capitis inferior (OCI) muscle may be crucially involved in generating the tremulous component of spasmodic torticollis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a simplified ultrasonography-guided approach of botulinum neurotoxin injection into the OCI in the management of spasmodic torticollis. Here, a novel off-plane technique of ultrasonography-guided botulinum neurotoxin injection into the OCI is demonstrated on video. We investigated its effect in five patients with tremulous torticollis with only partial response to conventional injection technique not injecting OCI...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Artur Pałasz, Marcelina Pałka, Łukasz Filipczyk, Itiana Castro Menezes, Ewa Rojczyk, John J Worthington, Aneta Piwowarczyk-Nowak, Marek Krzystanek, Ryszard Wiaderkiewicz
Neuroleptics modulate the expression level of some regulatory neuropeptides in the brain. However, if these therapeutics influence the peptidergic circuits in the amygdala remains unclear. This study specifies the impact profile of the classical antipsychotic drugs on mRNA expression of the spexin/NPQ, kisspeptin-1 and POMC in the rat amygdala. Animals were treated with haloperidol and chlorpromazine for 28 days prior to transcript quantification via qPCR. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine induced a change in the expression of all neuropeptides analyzed...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Lena Grünewald, Nils Becker, Annika Camphausen, Aet O'Leary, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Florian Freudenberg, Andreas Reif
The distinct subgroup of the Ras family member 2 (DIRAS2) gene has been found to be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in one of our previous studies. This gene is coding for a small Ras GTPase with unknown function. DIRAS2 is highly expressed in the brain. However, the exact neural expression pattern of this gene was unknown so far. Therefore, we investigated the expressional profile of DIRAS2 in the human and murine brain. In the present study, qPCR analyses in the human and in the developing mouse brain, immunocytological double staining on murine hippocampal primary cells and RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) on brain sections of C57BL/6J wild-type mice, have been used to reveal the expression pattern of DIRAS2 in the brain...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Thomas Müller, Eduardo Tolosa, Letitia Badea, Mahnaz Asgharnejad, Frank Grieger, Michael Markowitz, Xavier Nondonfaz, Lars Bauer, Lars Timmermann
Real-world data from large cohorts of patients with Parkinson's disease on the long-term effectiveness of different dopamine-substituting drug therapies are rare. The objective of this study was to obtain information on real-world management of PD with dopamine-substituting drugs. SP0854 (NCT00599339) was a prospective, multicenter, non-interventional, multiple-cohort, post-authorization safety study of rotigotine versus other dopaminergic therapies. The study was also part of a European Medicines Agency risk-management plan for the non-ergoline dopamine agonist rotigotine, focussing on cardiovalvular fibrosis...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Manolo Carta, Anders Björklund
During the last decade, the serotonergic system has emerged as a key player in the appearance of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in animal models of Parkinson's disease. Clinical investigations, based on imaging and postmortem analyses, suggest that the serotonin neurons are also involved in the etiology of this complication of long-term L-DOPA treatment in parkinsonian patients. These findings have stimulated efforts to develop new therapies using drugs targeting the malfunctioning serotonin neurons. In this review, we summarize the experimental and clinical data obtained so far and discuss the prospects for further development of this therapeutic strategy...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Sabine Hellwig, Lars Frings, Annette Masuch, Werner Vach, Katharina Domschke, Claus Normann, Philipp T Meyer
We investigated if sleep deprivation (SD) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) affect striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and123 I-FP-CIT, if dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3; DAT) variation modifies aforementioned parameters, and if SD response or SD-induced DAT changes correlate with ECT response. Sixteen patients with major depression (MDD) referred for ECT and 12 matched controls were prospectively recruited for imaging and SLC6A3 VNTR genotyping...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Hana Weisman, Shula Parush, Alan Apter, Silvana Fennig, Noa Benaroya-Milshtein, Tamar Steinberg
Disrupted somatosensory processing characterized by over- or under- responsiveness to environmental stimuli plays an important, yet often overlooked, role in typical development and is aberrant in various neurodevelopmental disorders. These dysfunctional somatosensory processes have been conceptualized as an entity termed somatosensory dysregulation (SMD). Since Tourette syndrome (TS) is a prototypical example of developmental psychopathological disorder, we hypothesised that SMD would be a feature found in children suffering from the disorder...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Dareia S Roos, Oscar J M Oranje, Anneleen F D Freriksen, Henk W Berendse, Sanne Boesveldt
Flavor perception involves both olfactory and gustatory function. In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), hyposmia is a frequent finding, as well as an increased risk of malnutrition. We performed a pilot study to investigate the relationship between flavor perception and risk of malnutrition in PD patients. 63 PD patients participated to perform an olfactory (Sniffin' Sticks) and gustatory (Taste Strips) task, and a questionnaire to establish nutritional risk (MUST), which includes BMI measurements. The relationship between olfactory and gustatory function and BMI was analyzed using partial correlations, corrected for disease duration, and regression analysis...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Talia Herman, S Shema-Shiratzky, L Arie, N Giladi, J M Hausdorff
In a prospective 5-year study among Parkinson's disease (PD) tremor-dominant (TD) patients, we investigated who will remain TD and who will later convert into the postural instability gait difficulty (PIGD) phenotype. At follow-up, 38% were still considered TD. At baseline the TD non-convertors had more years of education and better cognitive function than the convertors and significantly smaller deterioration in gait, balance, cognitive function and other non-motor symptoms. These results highlight the potential role of cognition in protecting against the development of PIGD symptoms...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Branislav Veselý, Michal Dufek, Vojtech Thon, Miroslav Brozman, Silvia Királová, Tatiana Halászová, Eva Koriťáková, Ivan Rektor
The objective of this study is to assess whether elevation of serum inflammatory markers levels may indicate the progression of clinical impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. In 47 PD patients, the serum levels of the C3 and C4 part of the complement and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. The results at baseline and after 2 years were correlated with scales measuring memory, depression, motor symptoms, and quality of life. Patients with higher levels of C3 and C4 at baseline had decreased quality of life, verbal ability, and memory...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Michele Matarazzo, Alexandra Perez-Soriano, A Jon Stoessl
Throughout the years there has been a longstanding discussion on whether levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease should be started in early vs. later stages, in order to prevent or delay motor complications such as fluctuations and dyskinesias. This controversial topic has been extensively debated for decades, and the prevailing view today is that levodopa should not be postponed. However, there is still fear associated with its use in early stages, especially in younger patients, who are more prone to develop dyskinesias...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"