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Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics

Sean D Boothe, Jackson D Myers, Seokwon Pok, Junping Sun, Yutao Xi, Raymond M Nieto, Jie Cheng, Jeffrey G Jacot
The stiffness of myocardial tissue changes significantly at birth and during neonatal development, concurrent with significant changes in contractile and electrical maturation of cardiomyocytes. Previous studies by our group have shown that cardiomyocytes generate maximum contractile force when cultured on a substrate with a stiffness approximating native cardiac tissue. However, effects of substrate stiffness on the electrophysiology and ion currents in cardiomyocytes have not been fully characterized. In this study, neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were cultured on the surface of flat polyacrylamide hydrogels with elastic moduli ranging from 1 to 25 kPa...
October 8, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Bilu Xiang, Yang Liu, Lu Xie, Qian Zhao, Ling Zhang, Xueqi Gan, Haiyang Yu
Osteoclasts demineralize and resorb bone once they attach to its surface. However, it's still unclear how the osteoclasts choose the specific sites for their attachments. It is postulated in this article that the decreased extracellular free ionized calcium concentration (Ca(2+)[e]) can provide a microenvironment for osteoclasts to recognize and then initiate the attachment process. The osteoclasts initially attach to the bone surface via integrating its integrin αvβ3 and RGD containing ligands in bone matrix...
October 7, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Christopher Prescott, Steven E Bottle
Nitroxides are stable, kinetically-persistent free radicals which have been successfully used in the study and intervention of oxidative stress, a critical issue pertaining to cellular health which results from an imbalance in the levels of damaging free radicals and redox-active species in the cellular environment. This review gives an overview of some of the biological processes that produce radicals and other reactive oxygen species with relevance to oxidative stress, and then discusses interactions of nitroxides with these species in terms of the use of nitroxides as redox-sensitive probes and redox-active therapeutic agents...
October 6, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Lanlan Xiao, Yang Liu, Shuo Chen, Bingmei Fu
The motion of two red blood cells in a stenosed microvessel was simulated using dissipative particle dynamics. The effects of intercellular interaction, red blood cell deformability and the initial cell orientation on the deformation and aggregation of the RBCs and on the flow resistance were investigated. The red blood cell membrane was treated as a three-dimensional coarse-grained network model and the intercellular interaction was modeled by the Morse potential based on a depletion-mediated assumption. It is shown that the flow resistance increases dramatically when the red blood cells enter into the stenosis and decreases rapidly as RBCs move away from the stenosis...
October 4, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Friso de Beer, Wim Lagrand, Gerie J Glas, Charlotte J P Beurskens, Gerard van Mierlo, Diana Wouters, Sacha Zeerleder, Joris J T H Roelofs, Nicole P Juffermans, Janneke Horn, Marcus J Schultz
Complement activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. We hypothesized that inhibition of the complement system in the lungs by repeated treatment with nebulized plasma-derived human C1-esterase inhibitor reduces pulmonary complement activation and subsequently attenuates lung injury and lung inflammation. This was investigated in a rat model of severe Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Rats were intra-tracheally challenged with S. pneumoniae to induce pneumonia. Nebulized C1-esterase inhibitor or saline (control animals) was repeatedly administered to rats, 30 min before induction of pneumonia and every 6 h thereafter...
September 28, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Kgothatso E Machaba, Favorite N Cele, Ndumiso N Mhlongo, Mahmoud E S Soliman
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Mycobacterium tuberculosis -sliding clamp is a protein essential for many important DNA transactions including replication and DNA repair proteins, thus, a potential drug target for tuberculosis. Further investigation is needed in understanding DNA polymerase sliding clamp structure, especially from a computational perspective. In this study, we employ a wide-range of comparative molecular dynamic analyses on two systems: Mycobacterium tuberculosis - sliding clamp enzyme in its apo and bound form...
September 20, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Barney L Bales
A simple analytical approximation to an inhomogeneously-broadened dispersion signal is proposed and tested with resonance lines broadened by unresolved hyperfine structure. Spectral parameters may be rapidly and accurately extracted using a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm. Combining the new approximation to a dispersion signal with a well-known approximation to the absorption signal allows dispersion-absorption admixtures, a problem of growing importance, to be analyzed quickly and accurately. For pure dispersion signals, the maximum difference between the fit and the signal for unresolved lines is 1...
September 19, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Fereniki Perperopoulou, Farid S Ataya, Dalia Fouad, Ajamaluddin Malik, Hesham Mahmoud Saeed, Nikolaos E Labrou
Glutathione transferase (GST, EC is a primary line of defense against toxicities of electrophile compounds and oxidative stress and therefore is involved in stress-response and cell detoxification. In the present study, we investigated the catalytic and structural properties of the glutathione transferase (GST) isoenzyme P1-1 from Camelus dromedarius (CdGSTP1-1). Recombinant CdGSTP1-1 was produced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Kinetic analysis revealed that CdGSTP1-1 displays broad substrate specificity and shows high activity towards halogenated aryl-compounds, isothiocyanates and hydroperoxides...
September 17, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Robert H Cox, Samantha Fromme
We have shown that three components contribute to functional voltage gated K(+) (K v) currents in rat small mesenteric artery myocytes: (1) Kv1.2 plus Kv1.5 with Kvβ1.2 subunits, (2) Kv2.1 probably associated with Kv9.3 subunits, and (3) Kv7.4 subunits. To confirm and address subunit stoichiometry of the first two, we have compared the biophysical properties of K v currents in small mesenteric artery myocytes with those of Kv subunits heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells using whole cell voltage clamp methods...
September 16, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Olga I Guliy, Victor D Bunin, Vyacheslav I Korzhenevich, Alexey A Volkov, Oleg V Ignatov
The effects of ampicillin; kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline on electrophysical characteristics of cells of sensitive (ampicillin; kanamycin, chloramphenicol) and resistant (ampicillin; kanamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline) Escherichia coli strains were studied. Under the action of antibiotics sensitive and resistant E. coli strains acquire different electro-optical properties. Changes in suspension-orientational spectra, that are observed under the action of ampicillin; kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline can be used in determination of antibiotic resistance of the studied bacterial strains...
September 16, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Ziba Nariman-Saleh-Fam, Milad Bastami, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Naser Samadi, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Farkhondeh Behjati, Hamid Ghaedi, Javad Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Andrea Masotti
Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide. Also middle-aged obese adults with higher body mass index during childhood have a greater risk to develop esophageal cancer. The contribution of microRNAs to esophageal cancer has been extensively studied and it became clear that these noncoding RNAs may play crucial roles in pathogenesis, diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. Increasing evidences have suggested that polymorphisms perturbing microRNA targetome (i.e., the compendium of all microRNA target sites) are associated with cancers including esophageal cancer...
August 12, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Ying Li, Liyuan Lu, Juan Li
Hereditary spherocytosis is an inherited red blood cell membrane disorder resulting from mutations of genes encoding erythrocyte membrane and cytoskeletal proteins. Few equipments can observe the structural characteristics of hereditary spherocytosis directly expect for atomic force microscopy In our study, we proved atomic force microscopy is a powerful and sensitive instrument to describe the characteristics of hereditary spherocytosis. Erythrocytes from hereditary spherocytosis patients were small spheroidal, lacking a well-organized lattice on the cell membrane, with smaller cell surface particles and had reduced valley to peak distance and average cell membrane roughness vs...
September 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Mitra Shojania Feizabadi
The extent to which beta tubulin isotypes contribute to the function of microtubules and the microtubule-driven transport of molecular motors is poorly understood. The major differences in these isotypes are associated with the structure of their C-terminal tails. Recent studies have revealed a few aspects of the C-terminal tails' regulatory role on the activities of some of the motor proteins on a single-molecule level. However, little attention is given to the degree to which the function of a team of motor proteins can be altered by the microtubule's tail...
September 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Favourite N Cele, Hezekiel Kumalo, Mahmoud E S Soliman
Heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 an emerging and attracting target in the anti-HIV drug discovery process due to the key role it plays in the pathogenicity of HIV-1 virus. In this research study, long-range all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were engaged for the bound and the unbound proteins to enhance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the Hsp90 dimerization and inhibition. Results evidently showed that coumermycin A1 (C-A1), a recently discovered Hsp90 inhibitor, binds at the dimer's active site of the Hsp90 protein and leads to a substantial parting between dimeric opposed residues, which include Arg591...
September 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
V K Morya, Virendra K Yadav, Sangeeta Yadav, Dinesh Yadav
A total of 129 proteases sequences comprising 43 serine proteases, 36 aspartic proteases, 24 cysteine protease, 21 metalloproteases, and 05 neutral proteases from different Aspergillus species were analyzed for the catalytically active site residues using MEROPS database and various bioinformatics tools. Different proteases have predominance of variable active site residues. In case of 24 cysteine proteases of Aspergilli, the predominant active site residues observed were Gln193, Cys199, His364, Asn384 while for 43 serine proteases, the active site residues namely Asp164, His193, Asn284, Ser349 and Asp325, His357, Asn454, Ser519 were frequently observed...
September 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Eugene A Permyakov, Vladimir N Uversky, Sergei E Permyakov
Cytokine interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a multifunctional protein with diverse roles in the normal cell signaling and in various pathologies. The structure of IL-11 is characterized by a four-helix bundle motif comprising two pairs of antiparallel α-helices arranged in an up-up-down-down configuration. Evaluation of the intrinsic disorder predisposition of human IL-11 by several computational tools clearly shows that this protein is predicted to have functional disordered regions potentially involved in interaction with natural binding partners...
September 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
A Margaryan, H Badalyan, A Trchounian
Microorganisms have a large number of tools to withstand different, and sometimes strong, environmental stresses, including irradiation, but this ability should be further evaluated for certain applications. Growth inhibition and morphological alterations of Escherichia coli M-17 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa GRP3 wild-type cells caused by UV-A irradiation have been detected in the present study. Comparative analysis was carried out using well-established microbiological methods (determination of specific growth rate, growth lag phase duration, and colony-forming unit number-CFU) and computational approaches, employing light microscopy and digital image analysis to evaluate bacterial cell morphology...
September 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Cathryn L Haigh, Carolin Tumpach, Steven J Collins, Simon C Drew
Eight-hydroxyquinolines (8HQs) are a class of compounds that have been identified as potential therapeutics for a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the influence of structural modifications to the 8HQ scaffold on cellular behaviour will aid the identification of compounds that might be effective in treating dementias. In this study, we describe the action of 2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline (DMAMQ) on adult murine neural stem cells (NSCs) cultured in vitro. Treatment of NSCs with DMAMQ resulted in enhanced self-renewal and increased neurite outgrowth...
September 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Yeong-Ae Seong, Dukhyun Hwang, Gun-Do Kim
Gnaphalium affine is an annual herbaceous plant that is used as a traditional medicine in some Latin American and Asian countries. However, systematic studies on its anti-inflammatory activity and signaling pathways have not yet been reported. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of G. affine methanol extract in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells and fractioned the methanol extract into hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butyl alcohol (BuOH), and distilled water (DW) by measuring the generation of nitric oxide (NO)...
September 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Bhanu P Jagilinki, Rajan Kumar Choudhary, Pankaj S Thapa, Nikhil Gadewal, M V Hosur, Satish Kumar, Ashok K Varma
Ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) are the major functional components in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and these are activated by upstream Extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Upon activation, RSKs activate a number of substrate molecules involved in transcription, translation and cell-cycle regulation. But how cellular binding partners are engaged in the MAPK pathways and regulate the molecular mechanisms have not been explored. Considering the importance of protein-protein interactions in cell signalling and folding pattern of native protein, functional C-terminal kinase domain of RSK3 has been characterized using in vitro, in silico and biophysical approaches...
September 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
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