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Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914004/hybrid-receptor-bound-mm-gbsa-per-residue-energy-based-pharmacophore-modelling-enhanced-approach-for-identification-of-selective-lta4h-inhibitors-as-potential-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#1
Patrick Appiah-Kubi, Mahmoud Soliman
Leukotriene A4 hydrolase has been identified as an enzyme with dual anti- and pro-inflammatory role, thus, the conversion of leukotriene to leukotriene B4 in the initiation stage of inflammation and the removal of the chemotactic Pro-Gly-Pro tripeptide. These findings make leukotriene A4 hydrolase an attractive drug target: suggesting an innovative approach towards the identification and design of novel class of compounds that can selectively inhibit leukotriene B4 synthesis while sparing the aminopeptidase activity...
December 2, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914003/n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-levels-are-linked-with-modified-child-pugh-classification-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-cirrhosis-nt-probnp-and-liver-cirrhosis
#2
Abdulbaki Kumbasar, Mehtap Navdar, Esra Ataoglu, Isil Uzunhasan, Kadir Ergen, Sule Poturoglu, Filiz Basinoglu, Fatih Yilmaz, Mustafa Yenigun, Fuat Sar, Ozgur Tanriverdi
Excess N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide secretion has been linked to cirrhosis in previously studies. The relationship of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and cardiac dysfunction determined by echocardiography were investigated in patients with nonalcoholic cirrhosis and a control group of chronic hepatitis. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. Thirty-two men and thirty-three women who gave informed consent who were followed-up for chronic liver failure were enrolled...
December 2, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830366/maturation-of-adipocytes-is-suppressed-by-fluid-shear-stress
#3
Jongyun Choi, Sei Young Lee, Yeong-Min Yoo, Chi Hyun Kim
Preadipocytes are mechano-responsive cells and their differentiation to adipocytes may be regulated by various types of physical stimulation. Understanding the mechanism of differentiation, which increases the number of adipocytes and lipid accumulation is important in the study of obesity-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of physical stimulation at different stages of adipogenic differentiation using physiological levels of fluid shear stress. Preadipocytes were treated with dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and insulin for 3 days (induction period) and incubated for additional 6 days for maturation...
November 9, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815780/interfacial-electrostatic-properties-of-hydrated-mesoporous-and-nanostructured-alumina-powders-by-spin-labeling-epr
#4
Elena G Kovaleva, Leonid S Molochnikov, Darya P Stepanova, Alexander V Pestov, Dmitrii G Trofimov, Igor A Kirilyuk, Alex I Smirnov
Acid-base equilibria and interfacial electrostatic properties of hydrated mesoporous and nanostructured alumina powders are determining factors for the use of these materials in heterogeneous catalysis and as a sorption media for filtration and chromatographic applications including life sciences. Here spin probe electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of pH-sensitive nitroxides was employed to evaluate the surface charge and interfacial acid-base equilibria at the pore surface of mesoporous powders of α-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3, Al2O3 × nH2O, and basic γ-Al2O3 and nanostructured Al2O3 in the form of pristine materials and modified with aluminum-tri-sec-butoxide, hydroxyaluminum glycerate, and several phospholipids...
November 4, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796789/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-microrna-size-secretable-small-rna-in-streptococcus-sanguinis
#5
Ji-Woong Choi, Tae-Yub Kwon, Su-Hyung Hong, Heon-Jin Lee
MicroRNAs in eukaryotic cells are thought to control highly complex signal transduction and other biological processes by regulating coding transcripts, accounting for their important role in cellular events in eukaryotes. Recently, a novel class of bacterial RNAs similar in size [18-22 nucleotides (nt)] to microRNAs has been reported. Herein, we describe microRNAs, small RNAs from the oral pathogen Streptococcus sanguinis. The bacteria are normally present in the oral cavities and cause endocarditis by contaminating bloodstreams...
October 31, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796788/can-we-rely-on-computational-predictions-to-correctly-identify-ligand-binding-sites-on-novel-protein-drug-targets-assessment-of-binding-site-prediction-methods-and-a-protocol-for-validation-of-predicted-binding-sites
#6
REVIEW
Neal K Broomhead, Mahmoud E Soliman
In the field of medicinal chemistry there is increasing focus on identifying key proteins whose biochemical functions can firmly be linked to serious diseases. Such proteins become targets for drug or inhibitor molecules that could treat or halt the disease through therapeutic action or by blocking the protein function respectively. The protein must be targeted at the relevant biologically active site for drug or inhibitor binding to be effective. As insufficient experimental data is available to confirm the biologically active binding site for novel protein targets, researchers often rely on computational prediction methods to identify binding sites...
October 31, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796787/simplified-murine-3d-neuronal-cultures-for-investigating-neuronal-activity-and-neurodegeneration
#7
Steven J Collins, Cathryn L Haigh
The ability to model brain tissue in three-dimensions offers new potential for elucidating functional cellular interactions and corruption of such functions during pathogenesis. Many protocols now exist for growing neurones in three-dimensions and these vary in complexity and cost. Herein, we describe a straight-forward method for generating three-dimensional, terminally differentiated central nervous system cultures from adult murine neural stem cells. The protocol requires no specialist equipment, is not labour intensive or expensive and produces mature cultures within 10 days that can survive beyond a month...
October 28, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718044/the-osteoclasts-attach-to-the-bone-surface-where-the-extracellular-calcium-concentration-decreases
#8
Bilu Xiang, Yang Liu, Lu Xie, Qian Zhao, Ling Zhang, Xueqi Gan, Haiyang Yu
Osteoclasts demineralize and resorb bone once they attach to its surface. However, it's still unclear how the osteoclasts choose the specific sites for their attachments. It is postulated in this article that the decreased extracellular free ionized calcium concentration (Ca(2+)[e]) can provide a microenvironment for osteoclasts to recognize and then initiate the attachment process. The osteoclasts initially attach to the bone surface via integrating its integrin αvβ3 and RGD containing ligands in bone matrix...
October 7, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709467/biological-relevance-of-free-radicals-and-nitroxides
#9
Christopher Prescott, Steven E Bottle
Nitroxides are stable, kinetically-persistent free radicals which have been successfully used in the study and intervention of oxidative stress, a critical issue pertaining to cellular health which results from an imbalance in the levels of damaging free radicals and redox-active species in the cellular environment. This review gives an overview of some of the biological processes that produce radicals and other reactive oxygen species with relevance to oxidative stress, and then discusses interactions of nitroxides with these species in terms of the use of nitroxides as redox-sensitive probes and redox-active therapeutic agents...
October 6, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704373/simulation-of-deformation-and-aggregation-of-two-red-blood-cells-in-a-stenosed-microvessel-by-dissipative-particle-dynamics
#10
Lanlan Xiao, Yang Liu, Shuo Chen, Bingmei Fu
The motion of two red blood cells in a stenosed microvessel was simulated using dissipative particle dynamics. The effects of intercellular interaction, red blood cell deformability and the initial cell orientation on the deformation and aggregation of the RBCs and on the flow resistance were investigated. The red blood cell membrane was treated as a three-dimensional coarse-grained network model and the intercellular interaction was modeled by the Morse potential based on a depletion-mediated assumption. It is shown that the flow resistance increases dramatically when the red blood cells enter into the stenosis and decreases rapidly as RBCs move away from the stenosis...
October 4, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651172/sliding-clamp-of-dna-polymerase-iii-as-a-drug-target-for-tb-therapy-comprehensive-conformational-and-binding-analysis-from-molecular-dynamic-simulations
#11
Kgothatso E Machaba, Favorite N Cele, Ndumiso N Mhlongo, Mahmoud E S Soliman
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Mycobacterium tuberculosis -sliding clamp is a protein essential for many important DNA transactions including replication and DNA repair proteins, thus, a potential drug target for tuberculosis. Further investigation is needed in understanding DNA polymerase sliding clamp structure, especially from a computational perspective. In this study, we employ a wide-range of comparative molecular dynamic analyses on two systems: Mycobacterium tuberculosis - sliding clamp enzyme in its apo and bound form...
September 20, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646660/a-simple-analytical-approximation-to-an-inhomogeneously-broadened-dispersion-spectrum-application-to-absorption-dispersion-admixtures
#12
Barney L Bales
A simple analytical approximation to an inhomogeneously-broadened dispersion signal is proposed and tested with resonance lines broadened by unresolved hyperfine structure. Spectral parameters may be rapidly and accurately extracted using a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm. Combining the new approximation to a dispersion signal with a well-known approximation to the absorption signal allows dispersion-absorption admixtures, a problem of growing importance, to be analyzed quickly and accurately. For pure dispersion signals, the maximum difference between the fit and the signal for unresolved lines is 1...
September 19, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639582/biochemical-characterization-of-the-detoxifying-enzyme-glutathione-transferase-p1-1-from-the-camel-camelus-dromedarius
#13
Fereniki Perperopoulou, Farid S Ataya, Dalia Fouad, Ajamaluddin Malik, Hesham Mahmoud Saeed, Nikolaos E Labrou
Glutathione transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) is a primary line of defense against toxicities of electrophile compounds and oxidative stress and therefore is involved in stress-response and cell detoxification. In the present study, we investigated the catalytic and structural properties of the glutathione transferase (GST) isoenzyme P1-1 from Camelus dromedarius (CdGSTP1-1). Recombinant CdGSTP1-1 was produced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Kinetic analysis revealed that CdGSTP1-1 displays broad substrate specificity and shows high activity towards halogenated aryl-compounds, isothiocyanates and hydroperoxides...
September 17, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638047/comparison-of-voltage-gated-k-currents-in-arterial-myocytes-with-heterologously-expressed-k-v-subunits
#14
Robert H Cox, Samantha Fromme
We have shown that three components contribute to functional voltage gated K(+) (K v) currents in rat small mesenteric artery myocytes: (1) Kv1.2 plus Kv1.5 with Kvβ1.2 subunits, (2) Kv2.1 probably associated with Kv9.3 subunits, and (3) Kv7.4 subunits. To confirm and address subunit stoichiometry of the first two, we have compared the biophysical properties of K v currents in small mesenteric artery myocytes with those of Kv subunits heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells using whole cell voltage clamp methods...
September 16, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638046/electrooptical-analysis-of-microbial-cell-suspensions-fordetermination-of-antibiotic-resistance
#15
Olga I Guliy, Victor D Bunin, Vyacheslav I Korzhenevich, Alexey A Volkov, Oleg V Ignatov
The effects of ampicillin; kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline on electrophysical characteristics of cells of sensitive (ampicillin; kanamycin, chloramphenicol) and resistant (ampicillin; kanamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline) Escherichia coli strains were studied. Under the action of antibiotics sensitive and resistant E. coli strains acquire different electro-optical properties. Changes in suspension-orientational spectra, that are observed under the action of ampicillin; kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline can be used in determination of antibiotic resistance of the studied bacterial strains...
September 16, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722948/the-effect-of-substrate-stiffness-on-cardiomyocyte-action-potentials
#16
Sean D Boothe, Jackson D Myers, Seokwon Pok, Junping Sun, Yutao Xi, Raymond M Nieto, Jie Cheng, Jeffrey G Jacot
The stiffness of myocardial tissue changes significantly at birth and during neonatal development, concurrent with significant changes in contractile and electrical maturation of cardiomyocytes. Previous studies by our group have shown that cardiomyocytes generate maximum contractile force when cultured on a substrate with a stiffness approximating native cardiac tissue. However, effects of substrate stiffness on the electrophysiology and ion currents in cardiomyocytes have not been fully characterized. In this study, neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were cultured on the surface of flat polyacrylamide hydrogels with elastic moduli ranging from 1 to 25 kPa...
December 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683129/nebulized-c1-esterase-inhibitor-does-not-reduce-pulmonary-complement-activation-in-rats-with-severe-streptococcus-pneumoniae-pneumonia
#17
Friso de Beer, Wim Lagrand, Gerie J Glas, Charlotte J P Beurskens, Gerard van Mierlo, Diana Wouters, Sacha Zeerleder, Joris J T H Roelofs, Nicole P Juffermans, Janneke Horn, Marcus J Schultz
Complement activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. We hypothesized that inhibition of the complement system in the lungs by repeated treatment with nebulized plasma-derived human C1-esterase inhibitor reduces pulmonary complement activation and subsequently attenuates lung injury and lung inflammation. This was investigated in a rat model of severe Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Rats were intra-tracheally challenged with S. pneumoniae to induce pneumonia. Nebulized C1-esterase inhibitor or saline (control animals) was repeatedly administered to rats, 30 min before induction of pneumonia and every 6 h thereafter...
December 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557951/topological-structures-and-membrane-nanostructures-of-erythrocytes-after-splenectomy-in-hereditary-spherocytosis-patients-via-atomic-force-microscopy
#18
Ying Li, Liyuan Lu, Juan Li
Hereditary spherocytosis is an inherited red blood cell membrane disorder resulting from mutations of genes encoding erythrocyte membrane and cytoskeletal proteins. Few equipments can observe the structural characteristics of hereditary spherocytosis directly expect for atomic force microscopy In our study, we proved atomic force microscopy is a powerful and sensitive instrument to describe the characteristics of hereditary spherocytosis. Erythrocytes from hereditary spherocytosis patients were small spheroidal, lacking a well-organized lattice on the cell membrane, with smaller cell surface particles and had reduced valley to peak distance and average cell membrane roughness vs...
September 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503105/the-contribution-of-the-c-terminal-tails-of-microtubules-in-altering-the-force-production-specifications-of-multiple-kinesin-1
#19
Mitra Shojania Feizabadi
The extent to which beta tubulin isotypes contribute to the function of microtubules and the microtubule-driven transport of molecular motors is poorly understood. The major differences in these isotypes are associated with the structure of their C-terminal tails. Recent studies have revealed a few aspects of the C-terminal tails' regulatory role on the activities of some of the motor proteins on a single-molecule level. However, little attention is given to the degree to which the function of a team of motor proteins can be altered by the microtubule's tail...
September 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376828/mechanism-of-inhibition-of-hsp90-dimerization-by-gyrase-b-inhibitor-coumermycin-a1-c-a1-revealed-by-molecular-dynamics-simulations-and-thermodynamic-calculations
#20
Favourite N Cele, Hezekiel Kumalo, Mahmoud E S Soliman
Heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 an emerging and attracting target in the anti-HIV drug discovery process due to the key role it plays in the pathogenicity of HIV-1 virus. In this research study, long-range all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were engaged for the bound and the unbound proteins to enhance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the Hsp90 dimerization and inhibition. Results evidently showed that coumermycin A1 (C-A1), a recently discovered Hsp90 inhibitor, binds at the dimer's active site of the Hsp90 protein and leads to a substantial parting between dimeric opposed residues, which include Arg591...
September 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
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