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Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101696/role-of-the-helix-in-talin-f3-domain-f3-helix-in-talin-mediated-integrin-activation
#1
Ang Li, Qiang Guo, Ailin Wei, Yaliang Zhou, Weiming Hu
Increases in ligand binding to cellular integrins (activation) play an important role in platelet and leukocyte function. Talin is necessary in vivo and sufficient in vitro for integrin αIIbβ3 activation. The precise mechanisms by which talin activates integrin are still being elucidated. In particular, talin undergoes conformational changes (around the F3 helix) and inserts the F3 helix into lipid bilayer; however, the connection between this lipid-inserting mechanism of talin and talin's capacity to activate integrin has never been explored before...
January 18, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054303/amino-acid-properties-of-trafficking-determinants-in-the-outer-pore-forming-region-of-kv1-potassium-channels-in-cell-lines
#2
Barbara Gomez, Jing Zhu, Esperanza Recio-Pinto, William B Thornhill
Different classes of Kv1 potassium channels have different trafficking patterns despite having very similar amino acid sequences. Two amino acids responsible for these differences have been identified in the outer pore turret region of Kv1.1 and Kv1.4. Here we tested a series of substitutions at these two determinants on Kv1.4. All P506 substitutions tested resulted in a significant decrease in surface protein, total protein, and protein half-life, indicating that proline is required at 506 to stabilize protein conformation and increase trafficking to the cell surface...
January 5, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025803/metabolic-transition-of-milk-lactose-synthesis-and-up-regulation-by-akt1-in-sows-from-late-pregnancy-to-lactation
#3
Fang Chen, Baoliang Chen, Wutai Guan, Jun Chen, Yantao Lv, Hanzhen Qiao, Chaoxian Wang, Yinzhi Zhang
Lactose plays a crucial role in controlling milk volume by inducing water toward into the mammary secretory vesicles from the mammary epithelial cell cytoplasm, thereby maintaining osmolality. In current study, we determined the expression of several lactose synthesis related genes, including glucose transporters (glucose transporter 1, glucose transporter 8, sodium-glucose cotransporter 1, sodium-glucose cotransporter 3, and sodium-glucose cotransporter 5), lactose synthases (α-lactalbumin and β1,4-galactosyltransferase), and hexokinases (hexokinase-1 and hexokinase-2) in sow mammary gland tissue at day 17 before delivery, on the 1st day of lactation and at peak lactation...
December 26, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990613/site-specific-acetyl-lysine-antibodies-reveal-differential-regulation-of-histone-acetylation-upon-kinase-inhibition
#4
Shi Chen, Suping Chen, Qianqian Duan, Guoqiang Xu
Lysine acetylation regulates diverse biological functions for the modified proteins. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches have identified thousands of lysine acetylation sites in cells and tissues. However, functional studies of these acetylation sites were limited by the lack of antibodies recognizing the specific modification sites. Here, we generated 55 site-specific acetyl lysine antibodies for the detection of this modification in cell lysates and evaluated the quality of these antibodies. Based on the immunoblotting analyses, we found that the nature of amino acid sequences adjacent to the modification sites affected the specificity of the site-specific acetyl lysine antibodies...
December 19, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981422/effects-of-electroporation-on-tamoxifen-delivery-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-er-human-breast-carcinoma-cells
#5
Meric Arda Esmekaya, Handan Kayhan, Munci Yagci, Alaaddin Coskun, Ayse G Canseven
Estrogen receptor positive breast cancer is the most common type of breast cancer and in most cases, hormone therapy is considered complementary to surgery. Tamoxifen is one of the most common drugs used in hormone therapy for treating estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells. However, it has severe side-effects depending on the duration of treating breast cancer and amount of tamoxifen used. In this study, we examined the effects of electroporation on the tamoxifen uptake in estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells...
December 16, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981421/identification-of-binding-mode-and-prospective-structural-features-of-novel-nef-protein-inhibitors-as-potential-anti-hiv-drugs
#6
Suri Moonsamy, Soumendranath Bhakat, Muthusamy Ramesh, Mahmoud E S Soliman
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative factor (Nef) protein is an accessory pathogenic factor, which plays a significant role in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nef deficient HIV virus took a longer time to progress into AIDS. Therefore, targeting Nef protein is considered as a key strategy towards HIV/AIDS treatment. Up-to-date, only few compounds were reported as Nef inhibitors. This has prompted us to provide a first account of an integrated computational framework in order to identify more potential Nef inhibitors...
December 16, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933465/nano-mechanical-characterization-of-ataxia-telangiectasia-cells-treated-with-dexamethasone
#7
Michele Menotta, Sara Biagiotti, Giulia Bartolini, Bianchi Marzia, Sara Orazi, Aldo Germani, Luciana Chessa, Mauro Magnani
Ataxia telangiectasia is a rare genetic disease and no therapy is currently available. Glucocorticoid analogues have been shown to improve the neurological symptoms of treated patients. In the present study ataxia telangiectasia and wild type cells were used as a cellular model and treated with dexamethasone. The cells were subsequently investigated for membrane and whole cell mechanical properties by atomic force microscopy. In addition, cytoskeleton protein dynamics and nuclear shapes were assayed by fluorescence microscopy, while western blots were used to assess actin and tubulin content...
December 8, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914004/hybrid-receptor-bound-mm-gbsa-per-residue-energy-based-pharmacophore-modelling-enhanced-approach-for-identification-of-selective-lta4h-inhibitors-as-potential-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#8
Patrick Appiah-Kubi, Mahmoud Soliman
Leukotriene A4 hydrolase has been identified as an enzyme with dual anti- and pro-inflammatory role, thus, the conversion of leukotriene to leukotriene B4 in the initiation stage of inflammation and the removal of the chemotactic Pro-Gly-Pro tripeptide. These findings make leukotriene A4 hydrolase an attractive drug target: suggesting an innovative approach towards the identification and design of novel class of compounds that can selectively inhibit leukotriene B4 synthesis while sparing the aminopeptidase activity...
December 2, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914003/n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-levels-are-linked-with-modified-child-pugh-classification-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-cirrhosis-nt-probnp-and-liver-cirrhosis
#9
Abdulbaki Kumbasar, Mehtap Navdar, Esra Ataoglu, Isil Uzunhasan, Kadir Ergen, Sule Poturoglu, Filiz Basinoglu, Fatih Yilmaz, Mustafa Yenigun, Fuat Sar, Ozgur Tanriverdi
Excess N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide secretion has been linked to cirrhosis in previously studies. The relationship of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and cardiac dysfunction determined by echocardiography were investigated in patients with nonalcoholic cirrhosis and a control group of chronic hepatitis. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. Thirty-two men and thirty-three women who gave informed consent who were followed-up for chronic liver failure were enrolled...
December 2, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830366/maturation-of-adipocytes-is-suppressed-by-fluid-shear-stress
#10
Jongyun Choi, Sei Young Lee, Yeong-Min Yoo, Chi Hyun Kim
Preadipocytes are mechano-responsive cells and their differentiation to adipocytes may be regulated by various types of physical stimulation. Understanding the mechanism of differentiation, which increases the number of adipocytes and lipid accumulation is important in the study of obesity-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of physical stimulation at different stages of adipogenic differentiation using physiological levels of fluid shear stress. Preadipocytes were treated with dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and insulin for 3 days (induction period) and incubated for additional 6 days for maturation...
November 9, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815780/interfacial-electrostatic-properties-of-hydrated-mesoporous-and-nanostructured-alumina-powders-by-spin-labeling-epr
#11
Elena G Kovaleva, Leonid S Molochnikov, Darya P Stepanova, Alexander V Pestov, Dmitrii G Trofimov, Igor A Kirilyuk, Alex I Smirnov
Acid-base equilibria and interfacial electrostatic properties of hydrated mesoporous and nanostructured alumina powders are determining factors for the use of these materials in heterogeneous catalysis and as a sorption media for filtration and chromatographic applications including life sciences. Here spin probe electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of pH-sensitive nitroxides was employed to evaluate the surface charge and interfacial acid-base equilibria at the pore surface of mesoporous powders of α-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3, Al2O3 × nH2O, and basic γ-Al2O3 and nanostructured Al2O3 in the form of pristine materials and modified with aluminum-tri-sec-butoxide, hydroxyaluminum glycerate, and several phospholipids...
November 4, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796789/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-microrna-size-secretable-small-rna-in-streptococcus-sanguinis
#12
Ji-Woong Choi, Tae-Yub Kwon, Su-Hyung Hong, Heon-Jin Lee
MicroRNAs in eukaryotic cells are thought to control highly complex signal transduction and other biological processes by regulating coding transcripts, accounting for their important role in cellular events in eukaryotes. Recently, a novel class of bacterial RNAs similar in size [18-22 nucleotides (nt)] to microRNAs has been reported. Herein, we describe microRNAs, small RNAs from the oral pathogen Streptococcus sanguinis. The bacteria are normally present in the oral cavities and cause endocarditis by contaminating bloodstreams...
October 31, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796788/can-we-rely-on-computational-predictions-to-correctly-identify-ligand-binding-sites-on-novel-protein-drug-targets-assessment-of-binding-site-prediction-methods-and-a-protocol-for-validation-of-predicted-binding-sites
#13
REVIEW
Neal K Broomhead, Mahmoud E Soliman
In the field of medicinal chemistry there is increasing focus on identifying key proteins whose biochemical functions can firmly be linked to serious diseases. Such proteins become targets for drug or inhibitor molecules that could treat or halt the disease through therapeutic action or by blocking the protein function respectively. The protein must be targeted at the relevant biologically active site for drug or inhibitor binding to be effective. As insufficient experimental data is available to confirm the biologically active binding site for novel protein targets, researchers often rely on computational prediction methods to identify binding sites...
October 31, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796787/simplified-murine-3d-neuronal-cultures-for-investigating-neuronal-activity-and-neurodegeneration
#14
Steven J Collins, Cathryn L Haigh
The ability to model brain tissue in three-dimensions offers new potential for elucidating functional cellular interactions and corruption of such functions during pathogenesis. Many protocols now exist for growing neurones in three-dimensions and these vary in complexity and cost. Herein, we describe a straight-forward method for generating three-dimensional, terminally differentiated central nervous system cultures from adult murine neural stem cells. The protocol requires no specialist equipment, is not labour intensive or expensive and produces mature cultures within 10 days that can survive beyond a month...
October 28, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722948/the-effect-of-substrate-stiffness-on-cardiomyocyte-action-potentials
#15
Sean D Boothe, Jackson D Myers, Seokwon Pok, Junping Sun, Yutao Xi, Raymond M Nieto, Jie Cheng, Jeffrey G Jacot
The stiffness of myocardial tissue changes significantly at birth and during neonatal development, concurrent with significant changes in contractile and electrical maturation of cardiomyocytes. Previous studies by our group have shown that cardiomyocytes generate maximum contractile force when cultured on a substrate with a stiffness approximating native cardiac tissue. However, effects of substrate stiffness on the electrophysiology and ion currents in cardiomyocytes have not been fully characterized. In this study, neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were cultured on the surface of flat polyacrylamide hydrogels with elastic moduli ranging from 1 to 25 kPa...
December 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718044/the-osteoclasts-attach-to-the-bone-surface-where-the-extracellular-calcium-concentration-decreases
#16
Bilu Xiang, Yang Liu, Lu Xie, Qian Zhao, Ling Zhang, Xueqi Gan, Haiyang Yu
Osteoclasts demineralize and resorb bone once they attach to its surface. However, it's still unclear how the osteoclasts choose the specific sites for their attachments. It is postulated in this article that the decreased extracellular free ionized calcium concentration (Ca(2+)[e]) can provide a microenvironment for osteoclasts to recognize and then initiate the attachment process. The osteoclasts initially attach to the bone surface via integrating its integrin αvβ3 and RGD containing ligands in bone matrix...
December 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704373/simulation-of-deformation-and-aggregation-of-two-red-blood-cells-in-a-stenosed-microvessel-by-dissipative-particle-dynamics
#17
Lanlan Xiao, Yang Liu, Shuo Chen, Bingmei Fu
The motion of two red blood cells in a stenosed microvessel was simulated using dissipative particle dynamics. The effects of intercellular interaction, red blood cell deformability and the initial cell orientation on the deformation and aggregation of the RBCs and on the flow resistance were investigated. The red blood cell membrane was treated as a three-dimensional coarse-grained network model and the intercellular interaction was modeled by the Morse potential based on a depletion-mediated assumption. It is shown that the flow resistance increases dramatically when the red blood cells enter into the stenosis and decreases rapidly as RBCs move away from the stenosis...
December 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683129/nebulized-c1-esterase-inhibitor-does-not-reduce-pulmonary-complement-activation-in-rats-with-severe-streptococcus-pneumoniae-pneumonia
#18
Friso de Beer, Wim Lagrand, Gerie J Glas, Charlotte J P Beurskens, Gerard van Mierlo, Diana Wouters, Sacha Zeerleder, Joris J T H Roelofs, Nicole P Juffermans, Janneke Horn, Marcus J Schultz
Complement activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. We hypothesized that inhibition of the complement system in the lungs by repeated treatment with nebulized plasma-derived human C1-esterase inhibitor reduces pulmonary complement activation and subsequently attenuates lung injury and lung inflammation. This was investigated in a rat model of severe Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Rats were intra-tracheally challenged with S. pneumoniae to induce pneumonia. Nebulized C1-esterase inhibitor or saline (control animals) was repeatedly administered to rats, 30 min before induction of pneumonia and every 6 h thereafter...
December 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651172/sliding-clamp-of-dna-polymerase-iii-as-a-drug-target-for-tb-therapy-comprehensive-conformational-and-binding-analysis-from-molecular-dynamic-simulations
#19
Kgothatso E Machaba, Favorite N Cele, Ndumiso N Mhlongo, Mahmoud E S Soliman
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Mycobacterium tuberculosis -sliding clamp is a protein essential for many important DNA transactions including replication and DNA repair proteins, thus, a potential drug target for tuberculosis. Further investigation is needed in understanding DNA polymerase sliding clamp structure, especially from a computational perspective. In this study, we employ a wide-range of comparative molecular dynamic analyses on two systems: Mycobacterium tuberculosis - sliding clamp enzyme in its apo and bound form...
December 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639582/biochemical-characterization-of-the-detoxifying-enzyme-glutathione-transferase-p1-1-from-the-camel-camelus-dromedarius
#20
Fereniki Perperopoulou, Farid S Ataya, Dalia Fouad, Ajamaluddin Malik, Hesham Mahmoud Saeed, Nikolaos E Labrou
Glutathione transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) is a primary line of defense against toxicities of electrophile compounds and oxidative stress and therefore is involved in stress-response and cell detoxification. In the present study, we investigated the catalytic and structural properties of the glutathione transferase (GST) isoenzyme P1-1 from Camelus dromedarius (CdGSTP1-1). Recombinant CdGSTP1-1 was produced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Kinetic analysis revealed that CdGSTP1-1 displays broad substrate specificity and shows high activity towards halogenated aryl-compounds, isothiocyanates and hydroperoxides...
December 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
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