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Biological Chemistry

Bianca Schrul, Wolfgang Schliebs
In order to adapt to environmental changes, such as nutrient availability, cells have to orchestrate multiple metabolic pathways, which are catalyzed in distinct specialized organelles. Lipid droplets (LDs) and peroxisomes are both endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived organelles that fulfill complementary functions in lipid metabolism: Upon nutrient supply, LDs store metabolic energy in the form of neutral lipids and, when energy is needed, supply fatty acids for oxidation in peroxisomes and mitochondria. How these organelles communicate with each other for a concerted metabolic output remains a central question...
April 6, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Simone Fulda
Macroautophagy (herein termed autophagy) is evolutionarily highly conserved across eukaryotic cells and represents an intracellular catabolic process that targets damaged macromolecules and organelles for degradation. Autophagy is dysregulated in various human diseases including cancer. In addition, many drugs currently used for the treatment of cancer can engage autophagy, which typically promotes cancer cell survival by mitigating cellular stress. However, under certain circumstances activation of autophagy upon anticancer drug treatment can also trigger a lethal type of autophagy termed autophagic cell death (ACD)...
April 6, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Meriem Haddada, Hend Draoui, Lydia Deschamps, Francine Walker, Tiphaine Delaunay, Maria Brattsand, Viktor Magdolen, Dalila Darmoul
We recently reported that human melanoma cells, but not benign melanocytes, aberrantly express kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7). Here, we show a KLK7 overexpression-mediated decrease of cell adhesion to extracellular matrix binding proteins, associated with downregulation of α5/β1/αv/β3 integrin expression. We also report an up-regulation of MCAM/CD146 and an increase in spheroid formation of these cells. Our results demonstrate that aberrant KLK7 expression leads to a switch to a more malignant phenotype suggesting a potential role of KLK7 in melanoma invasion...
April 6, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Valerio Vitali, Florian Horn, Francesco Catania
Insulin signaling is pivotal in controlling animals' lifespan and responses to environmental changes and, when altered, it may lead to pathogenic states. Despite its importance and relevance for biomedical research, insulin's mechanism of action and the full range of its pathophysiological effects remain incompletely understood. Likewise, the evolutionary origin of insulin and its associated signaling components are unclear. Notwithstanding the common view that insulin signaling originated within metazoans, experimental evidence from nonmetazoans suggest a more widespread distribution across eukaryotes...
April 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Fabienne De Graeve, Florence Bessé
Neuronal cells rely on macro- and micro-cellular compartmentalization to rapidly process information, and locally respond to external stimuli. Such a cellular organization is achieved via the assembly of neuronal RNP granules, dynamic membrane-less organelles enriched in RNAs and associated regulatory proteins. In this review, we discuss how these high-order structures transport mRNAs to dendrites and axons, and how they contribute to the spatio-temporal regulation of localized mRNA translation. We also highlight how recent biophysical studies have shed light on the mechanisms underlying neuronal RNP granule dynamic assembly, remodeling, and maturation, in both physiological and pathological contexts...
April 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Simone Keitsch, Joachim Riethmüller, Matthias Soddemann, Carolin Sehl, Barbara Wilker, Michael J Edwards, Charles C Caldwell, Martin Fraunholz, Erich Gulbins, Nd Katrin Anne Becker
Pulmonary infections of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) occur very early in the disease. The molecular details that cause infection-susceptibility of CF patients to and mediate infection with S. aureus are poorly characterized. Therefore, we aimed to identify the role of α-toxin, a major S. aureus toxin, for pulmonary infection of CF mice. Infection with S. aureus JE2 resulted in severe pneumonia in CF mice, while wildtype mice were almost unaffected. Deficiency of α-toxin in JE2-Δhla reduced pathogenicity of S...
April 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Daniela Schmid, Annette Buntz, Thi Ngoc Hanh Phan, Klaus Mayer, Eike Hoffmann, Irmgard Thorey, Jens Niewöhner, Katrin Vasters, Ranjan Sircar, Olaf Mundigl, Roland E Kontermann, Ulrich Brinkmann
A transcellular shuttle system was generated for the delivery of non-covalently linked payloads across blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells. Transcytosis-enabling shuttles are composed of bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) that simultaneously bind transferrin receptor (TfR) and haptens such as digoxigenin or biocytinamide. Haptenylated payloads are attached to these vehicles via non-covalent hapten-antibody complexation. This enables targeting to and internalization into human BBB-derived microvascular endothelial hCMEC/D3 cells...
March 30, 2018: Biological Chemistry
David Ulbricht, Catherine A Tindall, Kathrin Oertwig, Stefanie Hanke, Norbert Sträter, John T Heiker
Kallikrein-related peptidases KLK5, KLK7 and KLK14 are important proteases in skin desquamation and aberrant KLK activity is associated with inflammatory skin diseases such as Netherton syndrome but also with various serious forms of cancer. Previously, we have identified KLK7 as the first protease target of vaspin (Serpin A12). Here, we report KLK14 as a second KLK protease to be inhibited by vaspin. In conclusion, vaspin represents a multi-specific serpin targeting the kallikrein proteases KLK7 and KLK14, with distinct exosites regulating recognition of these target proteases and opposing effects of heparin binding on the inhibition reaction...
March 23, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Andrea Princz, Konstantinos Kounakis, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Mitochondria are critical to tissues and organs characterized by high-energy demands, such as the nervous system. They provide essential energy and metabolites, and maintain Ca2+ balance, which is imperative for proper neuronal function and development. Emerging findings further underline the role of mitochondria in neurons. Technical advances in the last decades made it possible to investigate key mechanisms in neuronal development and the contribution of mitochondria therein. In this article, we discuss the latest findings relevant to the involvement of mitochondria in neuronal development, placing emphasis on mitochondrial metabolism and dynamics...
March 23, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Panagiotis S Athanasopoulos, Rolf Heumann, Arjan Kortholt
Mutations in human leucine-rich-repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been found to be the most frequent cause of late-onset Parkinson's Disease (PD). LRRK2 is a large protein with two enzymatic domains, a GTPase and a kinase domain. A cluster of (auto)-phosphorylation sites within the N-terminus of LRRK2 have been shown to be crucial for the localization of LRRK2 and is important for PD pathogenesis. In addition, phosphorylation of sites within the G-domain of the protein affect GTPase activity. Here we discuss the role of these (auto)-phosphorylation sites of LRRK2 and their regulation by phosphatases and upstream kinases...
March 12, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Xuhua Xie, Xiaopei Xu, Changyu Sun, Zujiang Yu
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) played a key role in the development of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Emerging evidence has demonstrated that miR-181b and the inhibitor of growth protein 5 (ING5) participated in the pathophysiological process. However, the regulatory mechanism of HBx remained unknown. The expression of miR-181b and ING5 in HCC tissues and cell lines were examined using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Cell viability was determined using MTT method following HCC cell lines transfection...
March 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Peter Sandner
Nitric Oxide (NO) signaling represents one of the major regulatory pathways for cardiovascular function. After the discovery of NO, awarded with the Nobel Prize in 1998, this signaling cascade was stepwise clarified. We now have a good understanding of NO production and NO downstream targets such as the soluble guanylyl cyclases (sGCs) which catalyze cGMP production. Based on the important role of NO-signaling in the cardiovascular system, intense research and development efforts are currently ongoing to fully exploit the therapeutic potential of cGMP increase...
March 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Hyesook Yoon, Maja Radulovic, Isobel A Scarisbrick
Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (Klk6) is the most abundant serine proteinase in the adult central nervous system (CNS), yet we know little regarding its physiological roles or mechanisms of action. Levels of Klk6 in the extracellular environment are dynamically regulated in CNS injury and disease positioning this secreted enzyme to affect cell behavior by potential receptor dependent and independent mechanisms. Here we show that recombinant Klk6 evokes increases in intracellular Ca2+ in primary astrocyte monolayer cultures through activation of proteinase activated receptor 1 (PAR1)...
March 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Woodys Lenga Ma Bonda, Sophie Iochmann, Mélia Magnen, Yves Courty, Pascale Reverdiau
Human tissue kallikreins (KLKs) are 15 members of the serine protease family and are present in various healthy human tissues including airway tissues. Multiple studies have revealed their crucial role in the pathophysiology of a number of chronic, infectious and tumour lung diseases. KLK1, 3 and 14 are involved in asthma pathogenesis, and KLK1 could be also associated with the exacerbation of this inflammatory disease caused by rhinovirus. KLK5 was demonstrated as an influenza virus activating protease in humans, and KLK1 and 12 could also be involved in the activation and spread of these viruses...
March 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Ashley Di Meo, Cong Wang, Yufeng Cheng, Eleftherios P Diamandis, George M Yousef
The kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) constitute a family of 15 highly conserved serine proteases with trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like activities. Dysregulated expression and/or aberrant activation of KLKs have been linked to various pathophysiological processes, including cancer. Many KLKs have been identified as potential cancer biomarkers. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by pairing to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of complimentary mRNA targets. miRNAs are dysregulated in many cancers, including prostate, kidney, and ovarian cancers...
March 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Wolfgang Pfeifer, Barbara Saccà
Natural filaments, such as microtubules and actin filaments, are fundamental components of the cell. Despite their relatively simple linear structure, filaments play a number of crucial roles in living organisms, from scaffolding to cellular adhesion and motility. The mechanical properties of natural filaments mostly rely on the structural features of the component units and on the way they are connected together, thus providing an ideal molecular model for emulation purposes. In this review, we describe the progresses done in this field using DNA for the rational design of synthetic filamentous-like materials with tailored structural and physical characteristics...
March 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Manfred Schmitt
No abstract available.
March 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Brian Lu, Miguel Munoz-Gomez, Yasuhiro Ikeda
Glucokinase (GCK) is crucial to regulating glucose metabolism in the liver and in pancreatic β-cells. There are two major GCK isoforms, hepatic and pancreatic GCKs, which differ only in exon 1. However, the functional differences between the two GCK isoforms remain poorly understood. Here, we used a β-cell-targeted gene transfer vector to determine the impact of isoform-specific GCK overexpression on β-cells in vitro and in vivo. We showed that pancreatic GCK had a nuclear localization signal unique to the pancreatic isoform, facilitating its nuclear distribution in β-cells...
March 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Hongchao He, Jun Dai, Xiaoqun Yang, Xiaojing Wang, Fukang Sun, Yu Zhu
This study aimed to explore the effect of MED27 on the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins and β-catenin in adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC). The functional mechanism of MED27 on ACC processes was also explored. The expression of MED27 was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). siRNA was utilized to knockdown the expression of MED27. CCK8 assays were performed to evaluate SW-13 cell proliferation. Transwell assays were performed to assess the invasion ability, and wound healing assays were utilized to detect migration...
May 24, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Kelei Li, Zhe Cong, Zhuoying Peng, Ting Chen, Jing Xue, Qiang Wei
CD45 has been reported to regulate the HIV-1 gp120-induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells. Here, we demonstrate that the extracellular domain of CD45 plays an important role in this function. We observed that CD45RO-transfected cells, but not cells transfected with other CD45 isoforms, underwent significant apoptosis induced by gp120. However, a CD45RA-transfected cell line treated with an O-glycan inhibitor was able to undergo apoptosis. The role of the extracellular domain of CD45 was further confirmed using CD45 isoform-transfected cell lines by analyzing the phosphorylation of Lck, which is a direct substrate of CD45 tyrosine phosphatase, and by using an Lck inhibitor...
May 24, 2018: Biological Chemistry
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