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Biological Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926477/intra-or-extra-exosomal-secretion-of-hdgf-isoforms-the-extraordinary-function-of-the-hdgf-a-n-terminal-peptide
#1
Jessica Nüße, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Ursula Mirastschijski, Lennart Kappelmann, Sørge Kelm, Frank Dietz
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a protein with diverse intracellular functions. Moreover, after non-conventional secretion, extracellular HDGF is able to influence different signalling pathways, leading for example to induction of processes like epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration. Intriguingly, in recent proteome studies, HDGF was also found secreted by special microvesicles called exosomes. Recently, we demonstrated the existence of two new HDGF isoforms (B and C). These isoforms are involved in different cellular processes than HDGF-A...
December 7, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926476/mitochondrial-cytochrome-c-oxidase-is-inhibited-by-atp-only-at-very-high-atp-adp-ratios
#2
Rabia Ramzan, Andreas K Schaper, Petra Weber, Annika Rhiel, Muhammad Saad Siddiq, Sebastian Vogt
In the past, divergent results have been reported based on different methods and conditions used for enzymatic activity measurements of cytochrome c oxidase (CytOx). Here, we analyze in detail and show comparable and reproducible polarographic activity measurements of ATP- dependent inhibition of CytOx kinetics in intact and non-intact rat heart mitochondria and mitoplasts. We found that this mechanism is always present in isolated rat heart mitochondria and mitoplasts; however, it is measurable only at high ATP/ADP ratios using optimal protein concentrations...
December 7, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902449/is-n-n-dimethylglycine-n-oxide-a-choline-and-betaine-metabolite
#3
Michael Lever, Christopher J McEntyre, Peter M George, Stephen T Chambers
Choline metabolism is by oxidation to betaine, which is demethylated to N,N-dimethylglycine; dimethylglycine is oxidatively demethylated to sarcosine. This pathway is important for osmoregulation and as a source of methyl groups. We asked whether another metabolite was involved. We synthesized the N-oxide of dimethylglycine (DMGO) by oxidizing dimethylglycine with peracetic acid, and measured DMGO in human plasma and urine by HPLC-MS/MS with positive ion detection, using two chromatography procedures, based on ion exchange and HILIC separations...
November 30, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865090/characterization-of-the-subcellular-localization-and-nuclear-import-molecular-mechanisms-of-herpes-simplex-virus-1-ul2
#4
Mingsheng Cai, Zebin Huang, Zongmin Liao, Tao Chen, Ping Wang, Si Jiang, Daixiong Chen, Tao Peng, Yun Bian, Gengde Hong, Hang Yang, Zhancheng Zeng, Xiaowei Li, Meili Li
As a crucial protein, the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) tegument component UL2 has been shown to take part in various stages of viral infection, nonetheless, its exact subcellular localization and transport molecular determinants is not well known thus far. In the present study, by using live cells fluorescent microscopy assay, UL2 tagged with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein was transient expressed in live cells and showed a completely nuclear accumulation without the presence of other HSV-1 proteins. Moreover, the nuclear transport of UL2 was characterized to be assisted by multiple transport pathways through Ran-, importin α1-, α5-, α7-, β1- and transportin-1 cellular transport receptors...
November 19, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865089/the-novel-class-of-seven-transmembrane-segment-inverted-repeat-carriers
#5
Yung-Ning Chang, Eric R Geertsma
Solute carriers from the SLC4, SLC23, and SLC26 families are involved in pH regulation, vitamin C transport, and ion homeostasis. While these families do not share any obvious sequence relationship, they are united by their unique and novel architecture. Each member of this structural class is organized into two structurally related halves of seven transmembrane segments each. These halves span the membrane with opposite orientations and form an intricately intertwined structure of two inverted repeats. This review highlights the general design principles of this fold and reveals the diversity between the different families...
November 19, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845878/mechanisms-of-action-of-rab-proteins-key-regulators-of-intracellular-vesicular-transport
#6
Roger Sidney Goody, Matthias Philipp Müller, Yao-Wen Wu
Our understanding of the manner in which Rab proteins regulate intracellular vesicular transport has progressed remarkably in the last 1-2 decades by application of a wide spectrum of biochemical, biophysical and cell biological methods, augmented by the methods of chemical biology. Important additional insights have arisen from examination of the manner in which certain bacteria can manipulate vesicular transport mechanisms. The progress in these areas is summarized here.
November 15, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845877/substrate-processing-in-intramembrane-proteolysis-by-%C3%AE-secretase-the-role-of-protein-dynamics
#7
Dieter Langosch, Harald Steiner
Intramembrane proteases comprise a number of different membrane proteins with different types of catalytic sites. Their common denominator is cleavage within the plane of the membrane, which usually results in peptide bond scission within the transmembrane helices of their substrates. Despite recent progress in the determination of high-resolution structures, as illustrated here for the γ-secretase complex and its substrate C99, it is still unknown how these enzymes function and how they distinguish between substrates and non-substrates...
November 15, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845876/hypoxia-induced-microrna-146a-represses-bcl-2-through-traf6-irak1-but-not-smad4-to-promote-chondrocyte-autophagy
#8
Guanghui Chen, Xin Gao, Jing Wang, Cheng Yang, Yang Wang, Yonggang Liu, Weiwei Zou, Tielong Liu
It has been showed hypoxia stimulation promotes chondrocytes autophagy partly through HIF-1alpha, miR-146a and Bcl-2 progressively, and this mechanism represented the connection among hypoxia, miR-146a and autophagy, and provides a possible therapeutic strategy for osteoarthritis. However, the interaction between miR-146a and Bcl-2 is still unclear. Here in hypoxia environment, we quantified the three reported miR-146a targets: two inflammation related targets Traf6, IRAK1; and the only reported target in chondrocytes Smad4...
November 15, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811341/the-insect-derived-antimicrobial-peptide-metchnikowin-targets-fusarium-graminearum-%C3%AE-1-3-glucanosyltransferase-gel1-which-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-cell-wall-integrity
#9
Mohammad-Reza Bolouri Moghaddam, Andreas Vilcinskas, Mohammad Rahnamaeian
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are essential components of the insect innate immune system. Their diversity provides protection against a broad spectrum of microbes and they have several distinct modes of action. Insect-derived AMPs are currently being developed for both medical and agricultural applications, and their expression in transgenic crops confers resistance against numerous plant pathogens. The antifungal peptide metchnikowin (Mtk), which was originally discovered in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, is of particular interest because it has potent activity against economically important phytopathogenic fungi of the phylum Ascomycota, such as Fusarium graminearum, but it does not harm beneficial fungi such as the mycorrhizal basidiomycete Piriformospora indica...
November 3, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811340/analysis-of-anticoagulants-for-blood-based-quantitation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-in-the-sfida-assay
#10
Kateryna Kravchenko, Andreas Kulawik, Maren Hülsemann, Katja Kühbach, Christian Zafiu, Yvonne Herrmann, Christina Linnartz, Luriano Peters, Tuyen Bujnicki, Johannes Willbold, Oliver Bannach, Dieter Willbold
Early diagnostics at the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease is of utmost importance for drug development in clinical trials and prognostic guidance. Since soluble Aβ oligomers are considered to play a crucial role in the disease pathogenesis, several methods aim to quantify Aβ oligomers in body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood plasma. The highly specific and sensitive method surface-based fluorescence intensity distribution analysis (sFIDA) has successfully been established for oligomer quantitation in CSF samples...
November 2, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805907/human-and-rodent-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr-from-mediator-of-dioxin-toxicity-to-physiologic-ahr-functions-and-therapeutic-options
#11
Karl Walter Bock
Metabolism of aryl hydrocarbons and toxicity of dioxins led to the discovery of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Tremendous advances have been made on multiplicity of AHR signaling and identification of endogenous ligands including the tryptophan metabolites FICZ and kynurenine. However, human AHR functions are still poorly understood due to marked species differences as well as cell-type- and cell context-dependent AHR functions. Observations in dioxin-poisoned individuals may provide hints to physiologic AHR functions in humans...
November 1, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787227/control-of-membrane-fluidity-the-ole-pathway-in-focus
#12
Stephanie Ballweg, Robert Ernst
The maintenance of a fluid lipid bilayer is key for membrane integrity and cell viability. We are only beginning to understand how eukaryotic cells sense and maintain the characteristic lipid compositions and bulk membrane properties of their organelles. One of the key factors determining membrane fluidity and phase behavior is the proportion of saturated and unsaturated acyl chains in membrane lipids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ideal model organism to study the regulation of the lipid acyl chain composition via the OLE pathway...
October 26, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768581/the-structural-and-functional-changes-of-blood-cells-and-molecular-components-in-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Leszek Szablewski, Anna Sulima
It is known fact that diabetes mellitus (DM) affects blood cells. Changes in the erythrocyte membrane, disorder in hemoglobin oxygen-binding and modification in mechanical characteristics, are effects of hyperglycemia on red blood cells. Altered susceptibility infection of patients with diabetes has been ascribed to a depression in the function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Neutrophil function in case of patients with diabetes with good glucose control is slightly different than in the case of healthy ones...
October 21, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727142/mitochondrial-carriers-in-inflammation-induced-by-bacterial-endotoxin-and-cytokines
#14
Vito Iacobazzi, Vittoria Infantino, Alessandra Castegna, Alessio Menga, Erika Mariana Palmieri, Paolo Convertini, Ferdinando Palmieri
Significant metabolic changes occur in the shift from resting to activated cellular status in inflammation. Thus, changes in expression of a large number of genes and extensive metabolic reprogramming gives rise to acquisition of new functions (e.g. production of cytokines, intermediates for biosynthesis, lipid mediators, PGE, ROS and NO). In this context, mitochondrial carriers, which catalyze the transport of solute across mitochondrial membrane, change their expression to transport mitochondrially produced molecules, among which citrate and succinate, to be used as intracellular signalling molecules in inflammation...
October 11, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727141/biophysical-methods-toolbox-to-study-abc-exporter-structure-and-function
#15
Thomas Marcellino, Vasundara Srinivasan
ABC exporters are highly dynamic membrane proteins that span a huge spectrum of different conformations. A detail integrated approach of cellular, biochemical and biophysical characterization of these 'open', 'closed' and other intermediate states is central to understanding their function. Almost 40 years after the discovery of the first ABC transporter, thanks to the enormous development in methodologies, a picture is slowly emerging to visualize how these fascinating molecules transport their substrates...
October 11, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710912/highlight-remodelling-the-klk-landscape-down-under
#16
Judith Clements
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710911/mechanistic-insight-from-murine-models-of-netherton-syndrome
#17
Zela Keuylian, Alain Hovnanian
Protease regulation plays a crucial role in skin homeostasis and inflammation as revealed by the identification of loss-of-function mutations in SPINK5 (serine protease inhibitor of Kazal type 5) in Netherton sydrome (NS). SPINK5 encodes LEKTI (lympho-epithelial Kazal type related inhibitor), a multi-domain serine protease inhibitor expressed in all stratified epithelia. Our laboratory has developed a number of murine models which have been instrumental to dissecting the pathogenesis of NS. This mini-review discusses the major findings of these models and emphasizes the role of protease regulation, especially Kallikrein related peptidases in NS...
October 6, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676605/structural-and-lipid-binding-characterization-of-human-annexin-a13a-reveals-strong-differences-with-its-long-a13b-isoform
#18
Sara Fernández-Lizarbe, Emilio Lecona, Angélica Santiago-Gómez, Nieves Olmo, M Antonia Lizarbe, Javier Turnay
Annexin A13 is the founder member of the vertebrate family of annexins, which are comprised of a tetrad of unique conserved domains responsible for calcium-dependent binding to membranes. Its expression is restricted to epithelial intestinal and kidney cells. Alternative splicing in the N-terminal region generates two isoforms, A13a and A13b, differing in a deletion of 41 residues in the former. We have confirmed the expression of both isoforms in human colon adenocarcinoma cells at the mRNA and protein levels...
September 27, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676604/tropane-alkaloids-as-substrates-and-inhibitors-of-human-organic-cation-transporters-of-the-slc22-oct-and-the-slc47-mate-families
#19
Jiayin Chen, Jürgen Brockmöller, Tina Seitz, Jörg König, Xijing Chen, Mladen V Tzvetkov
Tropane alkaloids and their derivatives are anticholinergic drugs with narrow therapeutic range. Here we characterize the organic cation transporters from the SLC22 (OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3) and the SLC47 families (MATE1 and MATE2-K) as potential mediators of the renal and extra-renal excretion, the two major roads of elimination of these substances. All analyzed compounds inhibited and the quaternary amine derivatives ipratropium and trospium were strongly transported by OCTs and MATEs. Overexpression of OCTs or MATEs in HEK293 cells resulted in up to 63-fold increase in the uptake of ipratropium (Km of 0...
September 27, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664774/stoichiometry-determination-of-macromolecular-membrane-protein-complexes
#20
Susann Zilkenat, Iwan Grin, Samuel Wagner
Gaining knowledge of the structural makeup of protein complexes is critical to advance our understanding of their formation and functions. This task is particularly challenging for transmembrane protein complexes, and grows ever more imposing with increasing size of these large macromolecular structures. The last 10 years have seen a steep increase in solved high-resolution membrane protein structures due to both new and improved methods in the field, but still most structures of large transmembrane complexes remain elusive...
September 24, 2016: Biological Chemistry
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