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Biological Chemistry

Lindsay R Stolzenburg, Ann Harris
Chronic respiratory diseases encompass a group of diverse conditions affecting the airways, which all impair lung function over time. They include cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma, which together affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene repression, are now recognized as major regulators in the development and progression of chronic lung disease. Alterations in miRNA abundance occur in lung tissue, inflammatory cells, and freely circulating in blood and are thought to function both as drivers and modifiers of disease...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Rebeca Froes Rocha, Juliana Lemos Del Sarto, Rafael Elias Marques, Vivian Vasconcelos Costa, Mauro Martins Teixeira
In the 20th century, socioeconomic and environmental changes facilitated the reintroduction of mosquitoes in developing cities, resulting in the reintroduction of mosquito-borne viral diseases and the dispersal of their causative agents in a worldwide scale. Recurrent outbreaks of arboviral diseases are being reported, even in regions without a previous history of arboviral disease transmission. Of note, arboviral infections represented approximately 30% of all emerging vector-borne diseases of the last decade...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Lars Friedrich, Petra Kornberger, Claudia T Mendler, Gabriele Multhoff, Markus Schwaiger, Arne Skerra
We describe the selection of Anticalins against a common tumour surface antigen, human Hsp70, using functional display on live E. coli cells as fusion with a truncated EspP autotransporter. While found intracellularly in normal cells, Hsp70 is frequently exposed in a membrane-bound state on the surface of tumour cells and, even more pronounced, in metastases or after radiochemotherapy. Employing a recombinant Hsp70 fragment comprising residues 383-548 as target, Anticalins were selected from a naive bacterial library...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Sonja Lorenz
Ubiquitin ligases (E3 enzymes) transfer ubiquitin from ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzymes to target proteins. By determining the selection of target proteins, modification sites on those target proteins, and the types of ubiquitin modifications that are formed, E3 enzymes are key specificity factors in ubiquitin signaling. Here, I summarize our knowledge of the structural mechanisms in the HECT E3 subfamily, many members of which play important roles in human disease. I discuss interactions of the conserved HECT domain with E2 enzymes, ubiquitin and target proteins, as well as macromolecular interactions with regulatory functions...
November 8, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Anja Matena, Edisa Rehic, Dana Hönig, Bianca Kamba, Peter Bayer
Parvulins belong to the family of peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) assisting in protein folding and in regulating the function of a broad variety of proteins in all branches of life. The human representatives Pin1 and Par14/17 are directly involved in processes influencing cellular maintenance and cell fate decisions such as cell-cycle progression, metabolic pathways and ribosome biogenesis. This review on human parvulins summarizes the current knowledge of these enzymes and intends to oppose the well-studied Pin1 to its less well-examined homolog human Par14/17 with respect to structure, catalytic and cellular function...
October 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Weifeng Yang, Houting Zhang, Lin Xin
Nanoparticles (NPs) is recognized as an attractive vehicles for cancer treatment due to their targeting drug release. Gastric cancer is an important death-related disease, and its therapy methods still need improvement. The NPs were prepared using a precipitation method, and were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). MTT and Transwell assays were used to determine cell viability and apoptosis. In vivo experiments were performed to validate the effects of NPs on tumor growth. METase/5-Fu co-encaspulated NPs showed highest zeta size and lowest zeta potential than other NPs...
October 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Esther Barreiro, Joaquim Gea
Skeletal muscle dysfunction and mass loss is a characteristic feature in patients with chronic diseases including cancer and acute conditions such as critical illness. Maintenance of an adequate muscle mass is crucial for the patients' prognosis irrespective of the underlying condition. Moreover, aging-related sarcopenia may further aggravate the muscle wasting process associated with chronic diseases and cancer. Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation has been demonstrated to contribute to the pathophysiology of muscle mass loss and dysfunction in animal models of cancer-induced cachexia...
October 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Yuanyuan Meng, Qi Li, Lianwei Li, Rong Ma
This study was intended to analyze effects of lncRNA CRNDE on cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis. Fifty pairs of cervical cancer tissues and corresponding adjacent tissues were collected. Expressions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in tissue samples were detected by microarray analysis. Expression levels of CRNDE in cervical cancer cells and normal cells were detected by qRT-PCR. Cell-counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and clone formation assay were utilized to evaluate cell growth. Wound healing assay and Transwell assay were conducted to detect the migratory and invasive capability of cervical cancer cells...
December 20, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Eugenia Belcastro, Caroline Gaucher, Alessandro Corti, Pierre Leroy, Isabelle Lartaud, Alfonso Pompella
Decades of chemical, biochemical and pathophysiological research have established the relevance of post-translational protein modifications induced by processes related to oxidative stress, with critical reflections on cellular signal transduction pathways. A great deal of the so-called 'redox regulation' of cell function is in fact mediated through reactions promoted by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species on more or less specific aminoacid residues in proteins, at various levels within the cell machinery...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Yumin Zhao, Zhisheng Dang, Shuo Xu, Shigui Chong
The study aimed to explore the regulation of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) on expressions of receptors associated with hepatic stellate cell (HSC) in liver fibrosis mouse models induced by Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum). Mouse fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) were transfected with HSP47 shRNA plasmid by lipofectamine transfection, and experimental fibrosis in HSCs was studied in S. japonicum mouse models treated with HSP47 shRNA in vivo. HSP47 expression was assessed using Western blot and real-time PCR. Flow cytometry was adopted to determine the expression of cell membrane receptors...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Lingyu Liu, Janak L Pathak, Yong-Qiang Zhu, Matthias Bureik
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are important for bone homeostasis, but only limited information is available on their expression in human bone cells. We analyzed the expression levels of eight CYPs in osteoblasts cultured in human bone pieces, in osteoblasts differentiated from human periosteum mesenchymal stem cells, in primary human osteoblasts and in the human osteoblast cell line MG63, respectively. Our results confirm previous reports about the presence of CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP24A1 and CYP27B1, while demonstrating expression of CYP2E1, CYP26A1, CYP39A1 and CYP51A1 for the first time...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Zhaohui Tang, Sijuan Ding, Honglin Huang, Pengfei Luo, Bohua Qing, Siyuan Zhang, Ruoting Tang
Targeted inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) is one of the potent anticancer therapy approaches. Our data showed that mRNA and protein levels of HDAC1 in breast cancer cells were greater than that in normal fibroblast 3T3 cells and normal epithelial breast MCF10A cells. The mRNA levels of HDAC1 in 75% of breast cancer tissues (18/24) were greater than that in their corresponding adjacent normal tissues. Knockdown of HDAC1 by specific siRNAs can suppress the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells and inhibit the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), while not IL-6...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Maria Grazia Signorello, Giuliana Leoncini
We have compared the effect of three legume lectins, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA) and Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA), on the function of human platelets. We have found that WGA is more active than PHA in stimulating platelet activation/aggregation, while LCA has no effect. Studies on the mechanisms involved show that WGA and PHA induce phosphorylation/activation of PLCγ2 and increase [Ca2+]i. For the first time, it has been shown that Src/Syk pathway, the adapter protein SLP-76 and the exchange protein VAV, participate in the PLCγ2 activation by these lectins...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Elisabeth Schwarz
The cystine knot disulfide pattern has been found to be widespread in nature, since it has been detected in proteins from plants, marine snails, spiders and mammals. Cystine knot proteins are secreted proteins. Their functions range from defense mechanisms as toxins, e.g. ion channel or enzyme inhibitors, to hormones, blood factors and growth factors. Cystine knot proteins can be divided into two superordinate groups. (i) The cystine knot peptides, also referred to - with other non-cystine knot proteins - as knottins, with linear and cyclic polypeptide chains...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Julie Chao, Pengfei Li, Lee Chao
Kallistatin, via its two structural elements - an active site and a heparin-binding domain - displays a double-edged function in angiogenesis, apoptosis and oxidative stress. First, kallistatin has both anti-angiogenic and pro-angiogenic effects. Kallistatin treatment attenuates angiogenesis and tumor growth in cancer-bearing mice. Kallistatin via its heparin-binding site inhibits angiogenesis by blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced growth, migration and adhesion of endothelial cells. Conversely, kallistatin via the active site promotes neovascularization by stimulating VEGF levels in endothelial progenitor cells...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Yang Chen, Yu Cao
Sphingomyelin (SM) is among the most important biomolecules in eukaryotes and acts as both constructive components and signal carrier in physiological processes. SM is catalyzed by a membrane protein family, sphingomyelin synthases (SMSs), consisting of three members, SMS1, SMS2 and SMSr. SMSs modulate sphingomyelin and other sphingolipids levels, thereby regulating membrane mobility, ceramide-dependent apoptosis and DAG-dependent signaling pathways. SMSs was found associated with various diseases. Downregulation of SMS2 activity results in protective effects against obesity, atherosclerosis and diabetes and makes SMS2 inhibitors potential medicines...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Vasily Golotin, Olga Portnyagina, Natalia Chopenko, Natalia Kim, Valery Rasskazov, Olga Novikova
OmpF porin from the outer membrane of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was cloned into pET-40b(+) plasmid. Using E. coli Rosetta (DE3) strain, MX medium, IPTG concentration of 0.2 mm and post-induction cultivation at 14°C overnight allowed us to obtain a water-soluble form of the recombinant protein (rs-OmpF). Rs-OmpF was shown to have the ordered spatial structure at the levels of secondary and tertiary structure. Rs-OmpF was found to be effective as diagnostic antigen in ELISA for pseudotuberculosis diagnostics...
October 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Nidhi Kuksal, Julia Chalker, Ryan J Mailloux
The molecular oxygen (O2) paradox was coined to describe its essential nature and toxicity. The latter characteristic of O2 is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage structures vital for cellular function. Mammals are equipped with antioxidant systems to fend off the potentially damaging effects of ROS. However, under certain circumstances antioxidant systems can become overwhelmed leading to oxidative stress and damage. Over the past few decades, it has become evident that ROS, specifically H2O2, are integral signaling molecules complicating the previous logos that oxyradicals were unfortunate by-products of oxygen metabolism that indiscriminately damage cell structures...
October 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Teng Ma, Chenxi Lu, Yafei Guo, Chunfeng Zhang, Xiaojuan Du
Human U three protein 14a (hUTP14a) binds p53 and promotes p53 degradation. Here, we report that hUTP14a plays an anti-apoptotic role in tumor cells through a p53-independent pathway. Knockdown of hUTP14a activated the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and sensitized tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis. In addition, the protein level of hUTP14a decreased upon chemotherapeutic drug- or irradiation-induced apoptosis. Importantly, the decrease of hUTP14a during induced apoptosis was not blocked by pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK, indicating that the down-regulation of hUTP14a is an upstream event in apoptosis...
October 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Virginia Lorenz, Romina B Cejas, Eric P Bennett, Gustavo A Nores, Fernando J Irazoqui
O-GalNAc glycans are important structures in cellular homeostasis. Their biosynthesis is initiated by members of the polypeptide GalNAc-transferase (ppGalNAc-T) enzyme family. Mutations in ppGalNAc-T3 isoform cause diseases (congenital disorders of glycosylation) in humans. The K626 residue located in the C-terminal β-trefoil fold of ppGalNAc-T3 was predicted to be a site with high likelihood of acetylation by CBP/p300 acetyltransferase. We used a site-directed mutagenesis approach to evaluate the role of this acetylation site in biological properties of the enzyme...
October 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
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