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Biological Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723607/production-of-recombinant-porin-from-y-pseudotuberculosis-in-a-water-soluble-form-for-pseudotuberculosis-diagnostics
#1
Vasily A Golotin, Olga Y Portnyagina, Natalia S Chopenko, Natalia Y Kim, Valery A Rasskazov, Olga D Novikova
OmpF porin from the outer membrane of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was cloned into pET-40b(+) plasmid. Using E. coli Rosetta (DE3) strain, MX-medium, IPTG concentration of 0.2 mM and post-induction cultivation at 14 °C overnight allowed us to obtain a water-soluble form of the recombinant protein (rs-OmpF). Rs-OmpF was shown to have the ordered spatial structure at the levels of secondary and tertiary structure. Rs-OmpF was found to be effective as diagnostic antigen in ELISA for pseudotuberculosis diagnostics...
July 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675747/review-progress-in-understanding-the-molecular-oxygen-paradox-function-of-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-in-cell-signaling
#2
Nidhi Kuksal, Julia Chalker, Ryan J Mailloux
The molecular oxygen (O2) paradox was coined to describe its essential nature and toxicity. The latter characteristic of O2 is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can damage structures vital for cellular function. Mammals are equipped with antioxidant systems to fend off the potentially damaging effects of ROS. However, under certain circumstances antioxidant systems can become overwhelmed leading to oxidative stress and damage.Over the past few decades, it has become evident that ROS, specifically H2O2, are integral signaling molecules complicating the previous logos that oxyradicals were unfortunate by-products of oxygen metabolism that indiscriminately damage cell structures...
July 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672776/human-u3-protein-14a-plays-an-anti-apoptotic-role-in-cancer-cells
#3
Teng Ma, Chenxi Lu, Yafei Guo, Chunfeng Zhang, Xiaojuan Du
Human U three protein 14a (hUTP14a) binds p53 and promotes p53 degradation. Here, we report that hUTP14a plays an anti-apoptotic role in tumor cells through a p53-independent pathway. Knockdown of hUTP14a activated the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and sensitized tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis. In addition, the protein level of hUTP14a decreased upon chemotherapeutic drug- or irradiation-induced apoptosis. Importantly, the decrease of hUTP14a during induced apoptosis was not blocked by pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK, indicating that the down-regulation of hUTP14a is an upstream event in apoptosis...
June 29, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672761/functional-control-of-polypeptide-galnac-transferase-3-through-an-acetylation-site-in-the-c-terminal-lectin-domain
#4
Virginia Lorenz, Romina B Cejas, Eric P Bennett, Gustavo A Nores, Fernando J Irazoqui
O-GalNAc glycans are important structures in cellular homeostasis. Their biosynthesis is initiated by members of polypeptide GalNAc-transferase (ppGalNAc-T) enzyme family. Mutations in ppGalNAc-T3 isoform cause diseases (congenital disorders of glycosylation) in humans. The K626 residue located in the C-terminal β-trefoil fold of ppGalNAc-T3 was predicted to be a site with high likelihood of acetylation by CBP/p300 acetyltransferase. We used a site-directed mutagenesis approach to evaluate the role of this acetylation site in biological properties of the enzyme...
June 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253193/structural-and-functional-insight-into-pan-endopeptidase-inhibition-by-%C3%AE-2-macroglobulins
#5
REVIEW
Theodoros Goulas, Irene Garcia-Ferrer, Aniebrys Marrero, Laura Marino-Puertas, Stephane Duquerroy, F Xavier Gomis-Rüth
Peptidases must be exquisitely regulated to prevent erroneous cleavage and one control is provided by protein inhibitors. These are usually specific for particular peptidases or families and sterically block the active-site cleft of target enzymes using lock-and-key mechanisms. In contrast, members of the +1400-residue multi-domain α2-macroglobulin inhibitor family (α2Ms) are directed against a broad spectrum of endopeptidases of disparate specificities and catalytic types, and they inhibit their targets without disturbing their active sites...
June 24, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141544/the-monoheme-cytochrome-c-subunit-of-alternative-complex-iii-is-a-direct-electron-donor-to-caa3-oxygen-reductase-in-rhodothermus-marinus
#6
Patrícia N Refojo, Filipa Calisto, Miguel A Ribeiro, Miguel Teixeira, Manuela M Pereira
Alternative Complex III (ACIII) is an example of the robustness and flexibility of prokaryotic respiratory chains. It performs quinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity, being functionally equivalent to the bc1 complex but structurally unrelated. In this work we further explored ACIII investigating the role of its monoheme cytochrome c subunit (ActE). We expressed and characterized the individually isolated ActE, which allowed us to suggest that ActE is a lipoprotein and to show its function as a direct electron donor to the caa3 oxygen reductase...
June 24, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343163/s100a6-focus-on-recent-developments
#7
REVIEW
Wiesława Leśniak, Tomasz Wilanowski, Anna Filipek
The Ca2+-binding protein, S100A6, belongs to the S100 family. Binding of Ca2+ induces a conformational change, which causes an increase in the overall S100A6 hydrophobicity and allows it to interact with many targets. S100A6 is expressed in different normal tissues and in many tumors. Up to now it has been shown that S100A6 is involved in cell proliferation, cytoskeletal dynamics and tumorigenesis, and that it might have some extracellular functions. In this review, we summarize novel discoveries concerning S100A6 targets, its involvement in cellular signaling pathways, and presence in stem/progenitor cells, extracellular matrix and body fluids of diseased patients...
June 23, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315854/mutation-of-n-linked-glycosylation-in-epcam-affected-cell-adhesion-in-breast-cancer-cells
#8
Xue Liu, Jiujiao Gao, Yan Sun, Dandan Zhang, Tingjiao Liu, Qiu Yan, Xuesong Yang
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) expression is elevated in breast cancer tissue, and correlates with the cancer metastasis and cell adhesion. Although EpCAM glycosylation is supposed to be associated with its function, the contribution of N-glycosylation to its function remains unclear. Here we analyzed cell adhesion ability of EpCAM in breast cancer cells. The results showed that EpCAM expression was associated with cell adhesion and N-glycosylation mutation of EpCAM decreased adhesion capacity. N-glycosylation mutation of EpCAM was correlated with lower levels of integrin β1 and fibronectin...
June 23, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284029/shared-function-and-moonlighting-proteins-in-molybdenum-cofactor-biosynthesis
#9
REVIEW
Silke Leimkühler
The biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) is a highly conserved pathway in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. The molybdenum atom in Moco-containing enzymes is coordinated to the dithiolene group of a tricyclic pyranopterin monophosphate cofactor. The biosynthesis of Moco can be divided into three conserved steps, with a fourth present only in bacteria and archaea: (1) formation of cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate, (2) formation of molybdopterin (MPT), (3) insertion of molybdenum into MPT to form Mo-MPT, and (4) additional modification of Mo-MPT in bacteria with the attachment of a GMP or CMP nucleotide, forming the dinucleotide variants of Moco...
June 23, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253192/the-role-of-sirtuins-in-mitochondrial-function-and-doxorubicin-induced-cardiac-dysfunction
#10
REVIEW
Vernon W Dolinsky
Anthracycline chemotherapeutics such as doxorubicin continue to be important treatments for many cancers. Through improved screening and therapy, more patients are surviving and living longer after the diagnosis of their cancer. However, anthracyclines are associated with both short- and long-term cardiotoxic effects. Doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is a central mechanism in the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin that contributes to impaired cardiac energy levels, increased reactive oxygen species production, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the decline in cardiac function...
June 23, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253191/%C3%AE-ngf-and-%C3%AE-ngf-receptor-upregulation-in-blood-and-synovial-fluid-in-osteoarthritis
#11
Claudia Montagnoli, Roberto Tiribuzi, Lucia Crispoltoni, Alessandra Pistilli, Anna Maria Stabile, Francesco Manfreda, Giacomo Placella, Mario Rende, Giuliano G Cerulli
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common form of non-traumatic joint disease. Previous studies have shown the involvement of β-NGF and its receptors TrKA and p75NTR in OA-related pain, but their role in its pathogenesis is still unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the amount of β-NGF and the expression levels of its receptors on cells isolated from synovial fluid and blood from OA patients who had undergone total knee arthroplasty, in order to check any possible correlation with the disease staging...
June 23, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141543/molecular-challenges-imposed-by-mhc-i-restricted-long-epitopes-on-t-cell-immunity
#12
REVIEW
Tracy M Josephs, Emma J Grant, Stephanie Gras
It has widely been accepted that major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC-I) are limited to binding small peptides of 8-10 residues in length. However, this consensus has recently been challenged with the identification of longer peptides (≥11 residues) that can also elicit cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses. Indeed, a growing number of studies demonstrate that these non-canonical epitopes are important targets for the immune system. As long epitopes represent up to 10% of the peptide repertoire bound to MHC-I molecules, here we review their impact on antigen presentation by MHC-I, TCR recognition, and T cell immunity...
June 23, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095368/iron-overload-and-altered-iron-metabolism-in-ovarian-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Stephanie Rockfield, Joseph Raffel, Radhe Mehta, Nabila Rehman, Meera Nanjundan
Iron is an essential element required for many processes within the cell. Dysregulation in iron homeostasis due to iron overload is detrimental. This nutrient is postulated to contribute to the initiation of cancer; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. Defining how iron promotes the development of ovarian cancers from precursor lesions is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies. In this review, we discuss (1) how iron overload conditions may initiate ovarian cancer development, (2) dysregulated iron metabolism in cancers, (3) the interplay between bacteria, iron, and cancer, and (4) chemotherapeutic strategies targeting iron metabolism in cancer patients...
June 23, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622140/reactive-nitrogen-species-rns-resistant-microbes-adaptation-and-medical-implications
#14
Sujeenthar Tharmalingam, Azhar Alhasawi, Varun P Appanna, Joe Lemire, Vasu D Appanna
Nitrosative stress results from an increase in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) within the cell. Though the RNS - nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) - play pivotal physiological roles, at elevated concentrations, these moieties can be poisonous to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells alike due to their capacity to disrupt a variety of essential biological processes. Numerous microbes are known to adapt to nitrosative stress by elaborating intricate strategies aimed at neutralizing RNS. In this review, we will discuss both the enzymatic systems dedicated to the elimination of RNS as well as the metabolic networks that are tailored to generate RNS-detoxifying metabolites - α-keto-acids...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622139/immune-regulation-and-functions-of-eicosanoid-lipid-mediators
#15
Julia Esser-von Bieren
Bioactive lipids regulate most physiological processes, from digestion to blood flow and from hemostasis to labor. Lipid mediators are also involved in multiple pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity or asthma. The pathological roles of lipid mediators are based on their intricate involvement in the immune system, which comprises source and target cells of these mediators. Based on their biosynthetic origin, bioactive lipids can be grouped into different classes (e.g. sphingolipids, formed from sphingosine or eicosanoids, formed from arachidonic acid)...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622138/cellular-and-plasma-nitrite-levels-in-myeloid-leukemia-a-pathogenetic-decrease
#16
Mili Jain, Ashutosh Kumar, Uma Shankar Singh, Rashmi Kushwaha, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Madhu Dikshit, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Nitric oxide (NO) has contributory role in hemopoietic cell growth and differentiation. The effects of NO on leukemic cell growth have been predominantly studied in in vitro settings. This study was done to assess the alterations in nitrite level in myeloid leukemias.Thirty six newly diagnosed cases of myeloid leukemia (16 AML and 20 CML) were enrolled in the study. Neutrophil precursors from the marrow aspirate and peripheral blood were separated into cell bands using Percoll density gradient method of Borregard and Cowland...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525358/galanin-suppresses-proliferation-of-human-u251-and-t98g-glioma-cells-via-its-subtype-1-receptor
#17
REVIEW
Zhu Mei, Yutao Yang, Yun Li, Feiya Yang, Junfa Li, Nianzeng Xing, Zhi-Qing David Xu
Galanin is a neuropeptide with a widespread distribution throughout the nervous and endocrine systems, and recent studies have shown an anti-proliferative effect of galanin on several types of tumors. However, whether and how galanin and its receptors are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation in glioma cells remains unclear. In this study, the roles of galanin and its subtype 1 receptor (GAL1) in the proliferation of human U251 and T98G glioma cells were investigated. We found that galanin significantly suppressed the proliferation of U251 and T98G cells as well as tumor growth in nude mice...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593905/targeting-and-inactivation-of-bacterial-toxins-by-human-defensins
#18
REVIEW
Elena Kudryashova, Stephanie M Seveau, Dmitri S Kudryashov
Defensins, as a prominent family of antimicrobial peptides (AMP), are major effectors of the innate immunity with a broad range of immune modulatory and antimicrobial activities. In particular, defensins are the only recognized fast-response molecules that can neutralize a broad range of bacterial toxins, many of which are among the deadliest compounds on the planet. For a decade, the mystery of how a small and structurally conserved group of peptides can neutralize a heterogeneous group of toxins with little to no sequential and structural similarity remained unresolved...
June 14, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525360/role-of-sigma-1-receptor-in-high-fat-diet-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#19
Tieying Song, Jianhui Zhao, Xiaojing Ma, Zaiwang Zhang, Bo Jiang, Yunliang Yang
The neurobiological mechanisms of obesity-induced peripheral neuropathy are poorly understood. We evaluated the role of Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) and NMDA receptor (NMDARs) in the spinal cord in peripheral neuropathy using an animal model of high fat diet-induced diabetes. We examined the expression of Sig-1R and NMDAR subunits GluN2A and GluN2B along with postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) in the spinal cord after 24-week HFD treatment in both wild-type and Sig-1R-/- mice. Finally, we examined the effects of repeated intrathecal administrations of selective Sig-1R antagonists BD1047 in HFD-fed wild-type mice on peripheral neuropathy...
June 14, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600903/oxidised-protein-metabolism-recent-insights
#20
Kate Samardzic, Kenneth J Rodgers
The 'oxygen paradox' arises from the fact that oxygen, the molecule that aerobic life depends on, threatens its very existence. An oxygen rich environment provided life on Earth with more efficient bioenergetics and, with it, the challenge of having to deal with a host of oxygenderived reactive species capable of damaging proteins and other crucial cellular components. In this Minireview we explore recent insights into the metabolism of proteins that have been reversibly or irreversibly damaged by oxygen-derived species...
June 9, 2017: Biological Chemistry
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