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Biological Chemistry

Tao Yin, Jikun Wang, Hai Xiang, Carl A Pinkert, Qiuyan Li, Xingbo Zhao
Most animals generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are heteroplasmic; inheriting mitochondrial genetics from both donor cells and recipient oocytes. However, the mitochondrial genome and functional mitochondrial gene expression in SCNT animals are rarely studied. Here, we report the production of SCNT pigs to study introduction, segregation, persistence and heritability of mitochondrial DNA transfer during the SCNT process. Porcine embryonic fibroblast cells from male and female Xiang pigs were transferred into enucleated oocytes from Yorkshire or Landrace pigs...
November 13, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Yong Chen
The shelterin complex protects telomeric DNA and plays critical roles in maintaining chromosome stability. The structures and functions of the shelterin complex have been extensively explored in the past decades. This review summarizes the current progress on structural studies of shelterin complexes from different species. It focuses on the structural features and assembly of common structural domains, highlighting the evolutionary plasticity and conserved roles of shelterin proteins in telomere homeostasis and protection...
November 8, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Anke Schmidt, Thomas von Woedtke
No abstract available.
November 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Jana K Böcker, Wolfgang Dörner, Henning D Mootz
Head-to-tail cyclization of genetically encoded peptides and proteins can be achieved with the SICLOPPS method by inserting the desired polypeptide between the C- and N-terminal fragments of a split intein. To prevent the intramolecular protein splicing reaction from spontaneously occurring upon folding of the intein domain, we have previously rendered this process light-dependent in a photo-controllable variant of the M86 intein, using genetically encoded ortho-nitrobenzyltyrosine at a structurally important position...
November 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Kristian Wende, Thomas von Woedtke, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann, Sander Bekeschus
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species deposited by cold physical plasma are proposed as predominant effectors in the interaction between discharge and biomedical application. Most reactive species found in plasma sources are known in biology for inter- and intracellular communication (redox signaling) and mammalian cells are equipped to interpret the plasma derived redox signal. Such, considerable effort has been put on the investigation of potential clinical applications and the underlying mechanism, with a special emphasis on conditions orchestrated significantly via redox signaling...
November 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Sybille Hasse, Marie-Christine Müller, Karin Uta Schallreuter, Thomas von Woedtke
Skin color is derived from epidermal melanocytes that contain specialized organelles in which melanin is formed. The formation of melanin is a well-orchestrated process, and reactive oxygen species play a role in numerous enzymatic conversions, such as the reactions catalyzed by tyrosinase and tyrosine hydroxylase. Currently, there is ample evidence that cold plasma exerts biological effects on cells through the impact of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Modulation of melanin biosynthesis by cold plasma has not yet been investigated...
November 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Danhua Zhang, Xinguang Qiu, Jianhua Li, Shouhua Zheng, Liwen Li, Hongchao Zhao
This study aims to investigate the mechanism of miR-23a-3p in regulating Treg dysfunction in Graves disease (GD). The percentage of Treg cells and IL-17+ T cells were determined by flow cytometry. The expression of FOXP3, SIRT1, RORγt and miR-23a-3p was analyzed by qRT-PCR or Western blot. CD4+ T cells were treated with SIRT1 specific inhibitor EX-527 or left untreated. MiR-23a-3p mimic or inhibitor were transfected into CD4+ T cells. Acetylation expression of FOXP3 was analyzed by immunoprecipitation. The suppressive function of Treg was analyzed by CFSE assay...
November 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Nadine Schmidt, Lisa Kowald, Sjoerd J L van Wijk, Simone Fulda
Smac mimetics (SMs) are considered promising cancer therapeutics. However, the mechanisms responsible for mediating cell death by SMs are still only partly understood. In this study, we therefore investigated signaling pathways upon treatment with the bivalent SM BV6 using two SM-sensitive breast cancer cell lines as models. Interestingly, genetic silencing of transforming growth factor (TGF)β activated kinase (TAK)1, an upstream activator of p65, increased BV6-induced cell death only in EVSA-T cells, although it reduced BV6-mediated upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α in both EVSA-T and MDA-MB- 231 cells...
November 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Elham Abedini Bakhshmand, Bahram Mohammad Soltani
Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling acts as suppressor and inducer of tumor progression during early and late stages of cancer, respectively. Some miRNAs have shown regulatory effect on TGFβ signaling and here, we have used combination of bioinformatics and experimental tools to show that hsa-miR-5590-3p is a regulator of multiple genes expression in TGFβ signaling pathway. Consistent to the bioinformatics predictions, hsa-miR- 5590-3p had a negative correlation of expression with TGFβ-R1, TGFβ-R2, SMAD3 and SMAD4 genes, detected by RT-qPCR...
November 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Elena Obrador, Feng Liu-Smith, Ryan W Dellinger, Rosario Salvador, Frank L Meyskens, José M Estrela
The high number of somatic mutations in the melanoma genome associated with cumulative ultra violet (UV) exposure has rendered it one of the most difficult of cancers to treat. With new treatment approaches based on targeted and immune therapies, drug resistance has appeared as a consistent problem. Redox biology, including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), plays a central role in all aspects of melanoma pathophysiology, from initiation to progression and to metastatic cells. The involvement of melanin production and UV radiation in ROS/RNS generation has rendered the melanocytic lineage a unique system for studying redox biology...
October 31, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Bastian Breiner, Laura Preuss, Nora Roos, Marcel Conrady, Hauke Lilie, Thomas Iftner, Claudia Simon
The minor capsid protein L2 of papillomaviruses exhibits multiple functions during viral entry including membrane interaction. Information on the protein is scarce, because of its high tendency of aggregation. We determined suitable conditions to produce a functional human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 L2 protein and thereby provide the opportunity for extensive in vitro analysis with respect to structural and biochemical information on L2 proteins and mechanistic details in viral entry. We produced the L2 protein of high-risk HPV 16 in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies and purified the protein under denaturing conditions...
October 30, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Tobias Krüger, Thomas Dierks, Norbert Sewald
Site-specific bioconjugation strategies offer many possibilities for directed protein modifications. Among the various enzyme-based conjugation protocols, formylglycine-generating enzymes allow to posttranslationally introduce the amino acid Cα-formylglycine (FGly) into recombinant proteins, starting from cysteine or serine residues within distinct consensus motifs. The aldehyde-bearing FGly-residue displays orthogonal reactivity to all other natural amino acids and can, therefore, be used for site-specific labeling reactions on protein scaffolds...
October 25, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Min Cai, Jin Chen, Caihua Yu, Lingling Xi, Qin Jiang, Yizhen Wang, Xinxia Wang
Family with sequence similarity 134, Member B (FAM134B), is a cis-Golgi transmembrane protein that is known to be necessary for the long-term survival of nociceptive and autonomic ganglion neurons. Recent work has shown that FAM134B plays a pivotal role in autophagy-mediated turnover of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, tumor inhibition and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we provide mechanistic links between FAM134B and ARF-related protein 1 (ARFRP1) and further show that FAM134B resides in the Golgi apparatus...
October 23, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Jinhua Yang, Fudong Hu, Xin Fu, Zhengming Jiang, Wencai Zhang, Kui Chen
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) induced by ischemia hypoxia severely threatens human life. Cell apoptosis of neurocytes was identified to mediate the pathogenesis, while the potential mechanism was still unclear. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used to establish the AMI rat model. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot were performed to detect gene expression in mRNA and protein levels, respectively. A TUNEL assay was carried out to determine cell apoptosis. The relationship between SRY-related HMG-box (SOX7) and miR-128 was verified using luciferase reporter assay...
October 23, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Kaiyao Shi, Huan Sun, Hongli Zhang, Di Xie, Bo Yu
Myocardial infarction (MI) is an unsolved health problem which seriously affects human health around the world. miR-34a-5p acting as a tumor-suppressor is associated with left ventricular remodeling. We aimed to explore the functional roles of miR-34a-5p in cardiomyocytes. Hypoxia-induced cell injury in H9c2, HL-1 and human cardiac myocytes was analyzed according to the decrease of cell viability and increase of apoptosis. Expression of miR-34a-5p was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) when the concentration of O2 was decreased...
October 12, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Annemarie Wolmarans, Allison Kwantes, Paul LaPointe
SUMO is covalently attached to lysine side chains in target proteins by the action of a cascade of E1, E2, and E3 ligases. Unlike ubiquitin, SUMO does not target proteins for degradation but rather plays a regulatory role in activating target proteins or directing them to multiprotein complexes. Isolating SUMOylated proteins from native sources is challenging because of the low stoichiometry of SUMOylation that occurs for any given target protein in cells. Here we report a novel strategy to couple SUMO to the site of a target lysine for the purpose of in vitro study...
October 12, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Xiuxin Han, Fengting Liu, Chao Zhang, Zhiwu Ren, Lili Li, Guowen Wang
Osteosarcoma (OS) patients often exhibit pulmonary metastasis, which results in high patient mortality. Our present study established the doxorubicin (Dox) resistant human OS MG-63 and HOS cells and named them MG-63/Dox and HOS/Dox, respectively. The Dox resistant OS cells had greater invasion ability than that of parental cells. The expression of ZEB1, while not FOXM1, Snail, HIF-1α, or Sp1, was significantly increased in Dox resistant OS cells. Silencing of ZEB1 can attenuate the metastasis and increase Dox sensitivity of MG-63/Dox and HOS/Dox cells...
October 11, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Lukas Deweid, Olga Avrutina, Harald Kolmar
Research on bacterial transglutaminase dates back to 1989, when the enzyme has been isolated from Streptomyces mobaraensis. Initially discovered during an extensive screening campaign to reduce costs in food manufacturing, it quickly appeared as a robust and versatile tool for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications due to its excellent activity and simple handling. While pioneering attempts to make use of its extraordinary cross-linking ability resulted in heterogeneous polymers, currently it is applied to site-specifically ligate diverse biomolecules yielding precisely modified hybrid constructs comprising two or more components...
October 6, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Hiromasa Tanaka, Masaaki Mizuno, Kenji Ishikawa, Shinya Toyokuni, Hiroaki Kajiyama, Fumitaka Kikkawa, Masaru Hori
Plasma is the fourth state of matter with higher energy than gas; non-thermal plasma (NTP) is currently available. As NTP is useful in sterilization, promoting wound healing and cancer treatments, the molecular mechanisms of plasma-induced effects in living cells and microorganisms are of significant interest in plasma medicine with medical-engineering collaboration. Molecular mechanisms of plasma-induced effects in cancer cells will be described in this minireview. Both direct and indirect methods to treat cancer cells with NTP have been developed...
October 6, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Sérgio F Sousaa, Rui P P Neves, Sodiq O Waheed, Pedro A Fernandes, Maria João Ramos
Disulphide bonds play a critical role in a variety of structural and mechanistic processes associated to proteins inside the cells and in the extracellular environment. The thioredoxinfamily of proteins like thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, and protein disulphide isomerase are involved in the formation, transfer or isomerization of disulphide bonds through a characteristic thiol-disulphide exchange reaction. Here, we review the structural and mechanistic determinants behind the thiol-disulphide exchange reactions for the different enzyme types within this family, rationalizing the known experimental data in light of the results from computational studies...
October 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
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