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Biological Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315855/mechanisms-and-strategies-of-papillomavirus-replication
#1
Alison A McBride
Animal and human papillomaviruses (HPVs) replicate persistently in specific types of stratified epithelia of their host. After the initial infection, the viral genome replicates at low levels in the dividing cells of the epithelium, and these cells form a reservoir of infection that can last for decades. When the infected cells differentiate, viral genomes replicate to high levels to form progeny virus that is released from the surface of the epithelium. This complex life cycle requires several different modes of viral DNA replication, but papillomaviruses are masters at hijacking key cellular processes to facilitate their own reproduction...
March 18, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315854/mutation-of-n-linked-glycosylation-in-epcam-affected-cell-adhesion-in-breast-cancer-cells
#2
Xue Liu, Jiujiao Gao, Yan Sun, Dandan Zhang, Tingjiao Liu, Qiu Yan, Xuesong Yang
EpCAM expression is elevated in breast cancer tissue, and correlates with the cancer metastasis and cell adhesion. Although EpCAM glycosylation is supposed to be associated with its function, the contribution of N-glycosylation to its function remains unclear. Here we analyzed cell adhesion ability of EpCAM in breast cancer cells. The results showed that EpCAM expression was associated with cell adhesion and N-glycosylation mutation of EpCAM decreased adhesion capacity. N-glycosylation mutation of EpCAM was correlated with lower levels of integrin β1 and fibronectin...
March 18, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284029/shared-function-and-moonlighting-proteins-in-molybdenum-cofactor-biosynthesis
#3
Silke Leimkühler
The biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) is a highly conserved pathway in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. The molybdenum atom in Moco containing enzymes is coordinated to the dithiolene group of a tricyclic pyranopterin monophosphate cofactor. The biosynthesis of Moco can be divided into three conserved steps, with a fourth one present only in bacteria and archaea: 1) formation of cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate, 2) formation of molybdopterin (MPT), 3) insertion of molybdenum into MPT to form Mo-MPT, and 4) additional modification of Mo-MPT in bacteria with the attachment of a GMP or CMP nucleotide, forming the dinucleotide variants of Moco...
March 11, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284028/modulation-of-oncogenic-signaling-networks-by-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus
#4
Jason P Wong, Blossom Damania
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of three human malignancies Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. To persist and replicate within host cells, KSHV encodes proteins that modulate different signaling pathways. Manipulation of cell survival and proliferative networks by KSHV can promote the development of KSHV-associated malignancies. In this review, we discuss recent updates on KSHV pathogenesis and the viral life cycle. We focus on proteins encoded by KSHV that modulate the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3 kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 pathways to create an environment favorable for viral replication and the development of KSHV malignancies...
March 11, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291733/erratum-to-tropane-alkaloids-as-substrates-and-inhibitors-of-human-organic-cation-transporters-of-the-slc22-oct-and-the-slc47-mate-families
#5
Jiayin Chen, Jürgen Brockmöller, Tina Seitz, Jörg König, Xijing Chen, Mladen V Tzvetkov
No abstract available.
March 10, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282288/strategies-in-relative-and-absolute-quantitative-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics
#6
Claudia Lindemann, Nikolas Thomanek, Franziska Christine Hundt, Thilo Lerari, Helmut E Meyer, Dirk Wolters, Katrin Marcus
Quantitative mass spectrometry approaches are used for absolute and relative quantification in global proteome studies. Up to date different relative and absolute quantification techniques are available that differ in quantification accuracy, proteome coverage, complexity and robustness. This review focuses on most common relative or absolute quantification strategies exemplified by three experimental studies. A label-free relative quantification approach was performed for the investigation of the membrane proteome of sensory cilia to the depth of olfactory receptors in Mus musculus...
March 7, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253193/structural-and-functional-insight-into-pan-endopeptidase-inhibition-by-%C3%AE-2-macroglobulins
#7
Theodoros Goulas, Irene Garcia-Ferrer, Aniebrys Marrero, Laura Marino-Puertas, Stephane Duquerroy, F Xavier Gomis-Rüth
Peptidases must be exquisitely regulated to prevent erroneous cleavage and one control is provided by protein inhibitors. These are usually specific for particular peptidases or families and sterically block the active-site cleft of target enzymes using lock-and-key mechanisms. In contrast, members of the +1400-residue multi-domain α2-macroglobulin inhibitor family (α2Ms) are directed against a broad spectrum of endopeptidases of disparate specificities and catalytic types, and they inhibit their targets without disturbing their active sites...
March 2, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253192/the-role-of-sirtuins-in-mitochondrial-function-and-doxorubicin-induced-cardiac-dysfunction
#8
Vernon W Dolinsky
Anthracycline chemotherapeutics such as doxorubicin continue to be important treatments for many cancers. Through improved screening and therapy more patients are surviving and living longer after the diagnosis of their cancer. However, anthracyclines are associated with both short- and long-term cardiotoxic effects. Doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is a central mechanism in the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin that contributes to impaired cardiac energy levels, increased reactive oxygen species production, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the decline in cardiac function...
March 2, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253191/%C3%AE-ngf-and-%C3%AE-ngf-receptor-upregulation-in-blood-and-synovial-fluid-in-osteoarthritis
#9
Claudia Montagnoli, Roberto Tiribuzi, Lucia Crispoltoni, Alessandra Pistilli, Anna Maria Stabile, Francesco Manfreda, Giacomo Placella, Mario Rende, Giuliano Cerulli
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common form of non traumatic joint disease. Previous studies have shown the involvement of β-NGF and its receptors TrKA and p75NTR in OA-related pain, but their role in its pathogenesis is still unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the amount of β-NGF and the expression levels of its receptors on cells isolated from synovial fluid and blood from OA patients who had undergone total knee arthroplasty, in order to check any possible correlation with the disease staging...
March 2, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245182/common-mechanisms-of-catalysis-in-small-and-heterotrimeric-gtpases-and-their-respective-gaps
#10
Klaus Gerwert, Daniel Mann, Carsten Kötting
GTPases are central switches in cells. Their dysfunctions are involved in severe diseases. The small GTPase Ras regulates cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis by transmitting external signals to the nucleus. In one group of oncogenic mutations, the "switch-off" reaction is inhibited, leading to persistent activation of the signaling pathway. The switch reaction is regulated by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which catalyze GTP hydrolysis in Ras, and by guanine nucleotide exchange factors, which catalyze the exchange of GDP for GTP...
February 24, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095367/micrornas-are-important-regulators-of-drug-resistance-in-colorectal-cancer
#11
Yang Zhang, Jing Wang
Despite of continuous development of cancer treatment over the past decades, drug resistance is still one of the major hurdles of effective therapy for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) worldwide and the understanding of its underlying mechanisms remains limited. Data which have emerged suggests that many microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to drug resistance in CRC. Major findings on miRNA functions in drug resistance of CRC are systemically reviewed here, with the goal of providing new updates to broaden our comprehension of its mechanisms and evidence to utilize miRNAs as potential therapeutic targets for CRC treatment...
February 21, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214347/involvement-of-the-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-vav3-in-central-nervous-system-development-and-plasticity
#12
Annika Ulc, Christine Gottschling, Ina Schäfer, David Wegrzyn, Simon van Leeuwen, Veronika Luft, Jacqueline Reinhard, Andreas Faissner
Small GTP-hydrolysing enzymes (GTPases) of the RhoA family play manifold roles in cell biology and are regulated by upstream guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Herein, we focus on the GEFs of the Vav subfamily. Vav1 was originally described as a protooncogene of the hematopoietic lineage. The GEFs Vav2 and Vav3 are more broadly expressed in various tissues. In particular, the GEF Vav3 may play important roles in the developing nervous system during the differentiation of neural stem cells into the major lineages, namely neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes...
February 18, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212107/rheb-in-neuronal-degeneration-regeneration-and-connectivity
#13
Veena Nambiar Potheraveedu, Miriam Schöpel, Raphael Stoll, Rolf Heumann
The small GTPase Rheb was originally detected as an immediate early response protein whose expression was induced by NMDA-dependent synaptic activity in the brain. Rheb's activity is highly regulated by its GTPase activating protein (GAP), the tuberous sclerosis complex protein, which stimulates the conversion from the active, GTP-loaded into the inactive, GDP-loaded conformation. Rheb has been established as an evolutionarily conserved molecular switch protein regulating cellular growth, cell volume, cell cycle, autophagy, and amino acid uptake...
February 17, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141544/the-monoheme-cytochrome-c-subunit-of-alternative-complex-iii-is-a-direct-electron-donor-to-caa3-oxygen-reductase-in-rhodothermus-marinus
#14
Patrícia N Refojo, Filipa Calisto, Miguel A Ribeiro, Miguel Teixeira, Manuela M Pereira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141543/molecular-challenges-imposed-by-mhc-i-restricted-long-epitopes-on-t-cell-immunity
#15
Tracy M Josephs, Emma J Grant, Stephanie Gras
It has widely been accepted that major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC-I) are limited to binding small peptides of 8 to 10 residues in length. However, this dogma has recently been challenged with the identification of longer peptides (≥11 residues) that can also elicit cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses. Indeed, a growing number of studies demonstrate that these non-canonical epitopes are important targets for the immune system. As long epitopes represent up to 10% of the peptide repertoire bound to MHC-I molecules, here we review their impact on antigen presentation by MHC-I, TCR recognition, and T cell immunity...
January 31, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141542/kinetic-characterization-of-apoptotic-ras-signalling-through-nore1-mst1-complex-formation
#16
Agne Koturenkiene, Cihan Makbul, Christian Herrmann, Diana Constantinescu-Aruxandei
The Ras-mediated apoptotic signaling is expected to be mediated via Rassf-MST complexes, but the system has been poorly characterized in vitro until now. Here we demonstrate that active H-Ras, Nore1A and MST1 form a stable ternary complex in vitro without other external factors, Nore1A interacting simultaneously with H-Ras and MST1 via its RBD and SARAH domain, respectively. Moreover, our data show for the first time that the SARAH domain of Nore1A plays a role in the Nore1A binding to H-Ras. Finally, we analyse the relation between the electrostatic and hydrophobic forces and kinetic constants of the Nore1A - H-Ras complex...
January 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095368/iron-overload-and-altered-iron-metabolism-in-ovarian-cancer
#17
Stephanie Rockfield, Joseph Raffel, Radhe Mehta, Nabila Rehman, Meera Nanjundan
Iron is an essential element required for many processes within the cell. Dysregulation in iron homeostasis due to iron overload is detrimental. This nutrient is postulated to contribute to the initiation of cancer; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. Defining how iron promotes the development of ovarian cancers from precursor lesions is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies. In this review, we discuss (1) how iron overload conditions may initiate ovarian cancer development, (2) dysregulated iron metabolism in cancers, (3) the interplay between bacteria, iron, and cancer, and (4) chemotherapeutic strategies targeting iron metabolism in cancer patients...
January 14, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085670/when-how-and-why-regulated-proteolysis-by-the-essential-ftsh-protease-in-escherichia-coli
#18
Lisa-Marie Bittner, Jan Arends, Franz Narberhaus
Cellular proteomes are dynamic and adjusted to permanently changing conditions by ATP-fueled proteolytic machineries. Among the five AAA+ proteases in Escherichia coli FtsH is the only essential and membrane-anchored metalloprotease. FtsH is a homohexamer that uses its ATPase domain to unfold and translocate substrates that are subsequently degraded without the need of ATP in the proteolytic chamber of the protease domain. FtsH eliminates misfolded proteins in the context of general quality control and properly folded proteins for regulatory reasons...
January 13, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935845/stability-and-aggregation-propensity-do-not-fully-account-for-the-association-of-various-germline-variable-domain-gene-segments-with-light-chain-amyloidosis
#19
Sergio A Garay Sánchez, Francisco Javier Rodríguez Álvarez, Guadalupe Zavala-Padilla, Luz María Mejia-Cristobal, Armando Cruz-Rangel, Miguel Costas, D Alejandro Fernández Velasco, Jorge Melendez-Zajgla, Luis Del Pozo-Yauner
Variable domain (VL) gene segments exhibit variable tendencies to be associated with light chain amyloidosis (AL). While few of them are very frequent in AL and give rise to most of the amyloidogenic light chains compiled at the sequence databases, other are rarely found among the AL cases. To analyze to which extent these tendencies depend on folding stability and aggregation propensity of the germline VL protein, we characterized VL proteins encoded by four AL-associated germline gene segments and one not associated to AL...
January 13, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926477/intra-or-extra-exosomal-secretion-of-hdgf-isoforms-the-extraordinary-function-of-the-hdgf-a-n-terminal-peptide
#20
Jessica Nüße, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Ursula Mirastschijski, Lennart Kappelmann, Sørge Kelm, Frank Dietz
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a protein with diverse intracellular functions. Moreover, after non-conventional secretion, extracellular HDGF is able to influence different signaling pathways, leading for example to induction of processes like epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration. Intriguingly, in recent proteome studies, HDGF was also found secreted by special microvesicles called exosomes. Recently, we demonstrated the existence of two new HDGF isoforms (B and C). These isoforms are involved in different cellular processes than HDGF-A...
January 13, 2017: Biological Chemistry
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