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Biological Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628473/viruses-and-cancer-molecular-relations-and-perspectives
#1
Mario Schelhaas
No abstract available.
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622140/reactive-nitrogen-species-rns-resistant-microbes-adaptation-and-medical-implications
#2
Sujeenthar Tharmalingam, Azhar Alhasawi, Varun P Appanna, Joe Lemire, Vasu D Appanna
Nitrosative stress results from an increase in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) within the cell. Though the RNS - nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) - play pivotal physiological roles, at elevated concentrations, these moieties can be poisonous to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells alike due to their capacity to disrupt a variety of essential biological processes. Numerous microbes are known to adapt to nitrosative stress by elaborating intricate strategies aimed at neutralizing RNS. In this review, we will discuss both the enzymatic systems dedicated to the elimination of RNS as well as the metabolic networks that are tailored to generate RNS-detoxifying metabolites - α-keto-acids...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622139/immune-regulation-and-functions-of-eicosanoid-lipid-mediators
#3
Julia Esser-von Bieren
Bioactive lipids regulate most physiological processes, from digestion to blood flow and from hemostasis to labor. Lipid mediators are also involved in multiple pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity or asthma. The pathological roles of lipid mediators are based on their intricate involvement in the immune system, which comprises source and target cells of these mediators. Based on their biosynthetic origin, bioactive lipids can be grouped into different classes (e.g. sphingolipids, formed from sphingosine or eicosanoids, formed from arachidonic acid)...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622138/cellular-and-plasma-nitrite-levels-in-myeloid-leukemia-a-pathogenetic-decrease
#4
Mili Jain, Ashutosh Kumar, Uma Shankar Singh, Rashmi Kushwaha, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Madhu Dikshit, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Nitric oxide (NO) has contributory role in hemopoietic cell growth and differentiation. The effects of NO on leukemic cell growth have been predominantly studied in in vitro settings. This study was done to assess the alterations in nitrite level in myeloid leukemias.Thirty six newly diagnosed cases of myeloid leukemia (16 AML and 20 CML) were enrolled in the study. Neutrophil precursors from the marrow aspirate and peripheral blood were separated into cell bands using Percoll density gradient method of Borregard and Cowland...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525358/galanin-suppresses-proliferation-of-human-u251-and-t98g-glioma-cells-via-its-subtype-1-receptor
#5
REVIEW
Zhu Mei, Yutao Yang, Yun Li, Feiya Yang, Junfa Li, Nianzeng Xing, Zhi-Qing David Xu
Galanin is a neuropeptide with a widespread distribution throughout the nervous and endocrine systems, and recent studies have shown an anti-proliferative effect of galanin on several types of tumors. However, whether and how galanin and its receptors are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation in glioma cells remains unclear. In this study, the roles of galanin and its subtype 1 receptor (GAL1) in the proliferation of human U251 and T98G glioma cells were investigated. We found that galanin significantly suppressed the proliferation of U251 and T98G cells as well as tumor growth in nude mice...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593905/targeting-and-inactivation-of-bacterial-toxins-by-human-defensins
#6
REVIEW
Elena Kudryashova, Stephanie M Seveau, Dmitri S Kudryashov
Defensins, as a prominent family of antimicrobial peptides (AMP), are major effectors of the innate immunity with a broad range of immune modulatory and antimicrobial activities. In particular, defensins are the only recognized fast-response molecules that can neutralize a broad range of bacterial toxins, many of which are among the deadliest compounds on the planet. For a decade, the mystery of how a small and structurally conserved group of peptides can neutralize a heterogeneous group of toxins with little to no sequential and structural similarity remained unresolved...
June 14, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525360/role-of-sigma-1-receptor-in-high-fat-diet-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#7
Tieying Song, Jianhui Zhao, Xiaojing Ma, Zaiwang Zhang, Bo Jiang, Yunliang Yang
The neurobiological mechanisms of obesity-induced peripheral neuropathy are poorly understood. We evaluated the role of Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) and NMDA receptor (NMDARs) in the spinal cord in peripheral neuropathy using an animal model of high fat diet-induced diabetes. We examined the expression of Sig-1R and NMDAR subunits GluN2A and GluN2B along with postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) in the spinal cord after 24-week HFD treatment in both wild-type and Sig-1R-/- mice. Finally, we examined the effects of repeated intrathecal administrations of selective Sig-1R antagonists BD1047 in HFD-fed wild-type mice on peripheral neuropathy...
June 14, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493815/the-biology-of-jc-polyomavirus
#8
Benedetta Assetta, Walter J Atwood
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is the causative agent of a fatal central nervous system demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML occurs in people with underlying immunodeficiency or in individuals being treated with potent immunomodulatory therapies. JCPyV is a DNA tumor virus with a double-stranded DNA genome and encodes a well-studied oncogene, large T antigen. Its host range is highly restricted to humans and only a few cell types support lytic infection in vivo or in vitro...
June 13, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600903/oxidised-protein-metabolism-recent-insights
#9
Kate Samardzic, Kenneth J Rodgers
The 'oxygen paradox' arises from the fact that oxygen, the molecule that aerobic life depends on, threatens its very existence. An oxygen rich environment provided life on Earth with more efficient bioenergetics and, with it, the challenge of having to deal with a host of oxygenderived reactive species capable of damaging proteins and other crucial cellular components. In this Minireview we explore recent insights into the metabolism of proteins that have been reversibly or irreversibly damaged by oxygen-derived species...
June 9, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525359/i36t%C3%A2-t-mutation-in-south-african-subtype-c-c-sa-hiv-1-protease-significantly-alters-protease-drug-interactions
#10
Sibusiso B Maseko, Eden Padayachee, Thavendran Govender, Yasien Sayed, Gert Kruger, Glenn E M Maguire, Johnson Lin
The efficacy of HIV-1 protease inhibition therapies is often compromised by the emergence of mutations in the protease molecule that reduces the binding affinity of inhibitors while maintaining viable catalytic activity and affinity for natural substrates. In the present study, we used a recombinant HIV-1 C-SA protease and a recently reported variant for inhibition (Ki, IC50) and thermodynamic studies against nine clinically used inhibitors. This is the first time that binding free energies for C-SA PR and the mutant are reported...
May 19, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315855/mechanisms-and-strategies-of-papillomavirus-replication
#11
Alison A McBride
Animal and human papillomaviruses (HPVs) replicate persistently in specific types of stratified epithelia of their host. After the initial infection, the viral genome replicates at low levels in the dividing cells of the epithelium, and these cells form a reservoir of infection that can last for decades. When the infected cells differentiate, viral genomes replicate to high levels to form progeny virus that is released from the surface of the epithelium. This complex life cycle requires several different modes of viral DNA replication, but papillomaviruses are masters at hijacking key cellular processes to facilitate their own reproduction...
May 12, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455951/chronic-viral-hepatitis-and-its-association-with-liver-cancer
#12
Thomas Tu, Sandra Bühler, Ralf Bartenschlager
Chronic infection with hepatitis viruses represents the major causative factor for end-stage liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis and primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC). In this review, we highlight the current understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive the hepatocarcinogenesis associated with chronic hepatitis virus infections. While chronic inflammation (associated with a persistent, but impaired anti-viral immune response) plays a major role in HCC initiation and progression, hepatitis viruses can also directly drive liver cancer...
April 29, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455950/rhadinoviral-interferon-regulatory-factor-homologues
#13
Sandra Koch, Thomas F Schulz
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is a gammaherpesvirus and the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease. The KSHV genome contains genes for a unique group of proteins with homology to cellular interferon regulatory factors, termed viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs). This review will give an overview over the oncogenic, antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory characteristics of KSHV and related vIRFs.
April 29, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441138/employing-rna-viruses-to-fight-cancer-novel-insights-into-oncolytic-virotherapy
#14
Dörthe Masemann, Yvonne Boergeling, Stephan Ludwig
Within the last decades, viruses that specifically target tumor cells have emerged as novel therapeutic agents against cancer. These viruses do not only act via their cell-lytic properties, but also harbor immunostimulatory features to re-direct the tumor-microenvironment and stimulate tumor-directed immune responses. Furthermore, oncolytic viruses are considered to be superior to classical cancer therapies due to higher selectivity towards tumor cell destruction and, consequently, less collateral damage of non-transformed healthy tissue...
April 25, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432839/copper-catalyzed-straightforward-synthesis-of-5-arylindazolo-3-2-b-quinazolin-7-5h-ones-from-2-nitrobenzaldehydes
#15
Takahisa Imamura, Yoji Murakami, Hidetoshi Nitta
No abstract available.
April 21, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284028/modulation-of-oncogenic-signaling-networks-by-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus
#16
REVIEW
Jason P Wong, Blossom Damania
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of three human malignancies: Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. To persist and replicate within host cells, KSHV encodes proteins that modulate different signaling pathways. Manipulation of cell survival and proliferative networks by KSHV can promote the development of KSHV-associated malignancies. In this review, we discuss recent updates on KSHV pathogenesis and the viral life cycle. We focus on proteins encoded by KSHV that modulate the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3 kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 pathways to create an environment favorable for viral replication and the development of KSHV malignancies...
April 21, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384098/catalase-a-remarkable-enzyme-targeting-the-oldest-antioxidant-enzyme-to-find-a-new-cancer-treatment-approach
#17
Christophe Glorieux, Pedro Buc Calderon
This review is centered on the antioxidant enzyme catalase and will present different aspects of this particular protein. Among them: historical discovery, biological functions, types of catalases and recent data with regard to molecular mechanisms regulating its expression. The main goal is to understand the biological consequences of chronic exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide leading to cellular adaptation. Such issues are of utmost importance with potential therapeutic extrapolation for various pathologies...
April 6, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291733/erratum-to-tropane-alkaloids-as-substrates-and-inhibitors-of-human-organic-cation-transporters-of-the-slc22-oct-and-the-slc47-mate-families
#18
Jiayin Chen, Jürgen Brockmöller, Tina Seitz, Jörg König, Mladen V Tzvetkov, Xijing Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002024/the-cancer-cell-adhesion-resistome-mechanisms-targeting-and-translational-approaches
#19
REVIEW
Ellen Dickreuter, Nils Cordes
Cell adhesion-mediated resistance limits the success of cancer therapies and is a great obstacle to overcome in the clinic. Since the 1990s, where it became clear that adhesion of tumor cells to the extracellular matrix is an important mediator of therapy resistance, a lot of work has been conducted to understand the fundamental underlying mechanisms and two paradigms were deduced: cell adhesion-mediated radioresistance (CAM-RR) and cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). Preclinical work has evidently demonstrated that targeting of integrins, adapter proteins and associated kinases comprising the cell adhesion resistome is a promising strategy to sensitize cancer cells to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy...
June 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002023/valproic-acid-vpa-enhances-cisplatin-sensitivity-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-via-hdac2-mediated-down-regulation-of-abca1
#20
Jian-Hui Chen, Yu-Long Zheng, Chuan-Qin Xu, Li-Zhi Gu, Zong-Li Ding, Ling Qin, Yi Wang, Ran Fu, Yu-Feng Wan, Cheng-Ping Hu
Valproic acid (VPA) has been suggested to be a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI). Our present study revealed that VPA at 1 mm, which had no effect on cell proliferation, can significantly increase the sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to cisplatin (DDP). VPA treatment markedly decreased the mRNA and protein levels of ABCA1, while had no significant effect on ABCA3, ABCA7 or ABCB10. Luciferase reporter assays showed that VPA can decrease the ABCA1 promoter activity in both A549 and H358 cells...
June 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
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