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Biological Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885980/domain-topology-of-human-rasal
#1
Jorge Cuellar, José María Valpuesta, Alfred Wittinghofer, Begoña Sot
Rasal is a modular multi-domain protein of the GAP1 (GTPase-activating protein 1) family; its four known members, GAP1m, Rasal, GAP1IP4BP and Capri, have a Ras GTPase-activating domain (RasGAP). This domain supports the intrinsically slow GTPase activity of Ras by actively participating in the catalytic reaction. In the case of Rasal, GAP1IP4BP and Capri, their remaining domains are responsible for converting the RasGAP domains into dual Ras- and Rap-GAPs, via an incompletely understood mechanism. Although Rap proteins are small GTPase homologues of Ras, their catalytic residues are distinct, which reinforces the importance of determining the structure of full-length GAP1 family proteins...
September 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771427/cystine-knot-growth-factors-and-their-functionally-versatile-proregions
#2
REVIEW
Elisabeth Schwarz
The cystine knot disulfide pattern has been found to be widespread in nature, since it has been detected in proteins from plants, marine snails, spiders and mammals. Cystine knot proteins are secreted proteins. Their functions range from defense mechanisms as toxins, e.g. ion channel or enzyme inhibitors, to hormones, blood factors and growth factors. Cystine knot proteins can be divided into two superordinate groups. (i) The cystine knot peptides, also referred to - with other non-cystine knot proteins - as knottins, with linear and cyclic polypeptide chains...
September 5, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858842/the-consequences-of-deglycosylation-of-recombinant-intra-melanosomal-domain-of-human-tyrosinase
#3
Monika B Dolinska, Yuri V Sergeev
Tyrosinase, a melanosomal glycoenzyme, catalyzes initial steps of the melanin biosynthesis. While glycosylation was previously studied in vivo, we present three recombinant mutant variants of human tyrosinase, which were obtained using multiple site-directed mutagenesis, expressed in insect larvae, purified, and characterized biochemically. The mutagenesis demonstrated the reduced protein expression and enzymatic activity due to possible loss of protein stability and protein degradation. However, the complete deglycosylation of asparagine residues in vitro, including the residue in position 371, interrupts tyrosinase function, which is consistent with a melanin loss in OCA1 patients...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850541/targeted-degradomics-in-protein-terminomics-and-protease-substrate-discovery
#4
Simonas Savickas, Ulrich Auf dem Keller
Targeted degradomics integrates positional information into mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics workflows and thereby enables analysis of proteolytic cleavage events with unprecedented specificity and sensitivity. Rapid progress in establishment of protease-substrate relations provides extensive degradomics target lists that now can be tested with help of selected and parallel reaction monitoring (S/PRM) in complex biological systems, where proteases act in physiological environments. In this minireview, we describe the general principles of targeted degradomics, outline the generic experimental workflow of the methodology and highlight recent and future applications in protease research...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850540/maintaining-protein-composition-in-cilia
#5
Louise A Stephen, Yasmin Elmaghloob, Shehab Ismail
The primary cilium is a sensory organelle that is vital in regulating several signalling pathways. Unlike most organelles cilia are open to the rest of the cell, not enclosed by membranes. The distinct protein composition is crucial to the function of cilia and many signalling proteins and receptors are specifically concentrated within distinct compartments. To maintain this composition, a mechanism is required to deliver proteins to the cilium whilst another must counter the entropic tendency of proteins to distribute throughout the cell...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822221/brain-plasticity-cognitive-functions-and-neural-stem-cells-a-pivotal-role-for-the-brain-specific-neural-master-gene-srgap2-fam72
#6
Nguyen Thi Thanh Ho, Arne Kutzner, Klaus Heese
Due to an aging society with an increased dementia-induced threat to higher cognitive functions, it has become imperative to understand the molecular and cellular events controlling the memory and learning processes in the brain. Here, we suggest that the novel master gene pair |-SRGAP2-FAM72-| (SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2 - family with sequence similarity to 72) reveals a new dogma for the regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) gene expression and is a distinctive player in the control of human brain plasticity...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822220/eremophilane-type-sesquiterpenes-from-fungi-and-their-medicinal-potential
#7
Kamila Tomoko Yuyama, Diana Fortkamp, Wolf-Rainer Abraham
Eremophilanes are sesquiterpenes with a rearranged carbon skeleton formed both by plants and fungi, however, almost no plant eremophilanes are found in fungi. These eremophilanes possess mainly phytotoxic, antimicrobial, anticancer and immunomodulatory properties and in this review fungal eremophilanes with bioactivities of potential medicinal applications are reviewed and discussed. A special focus is set on natural products bearing highly functionalized fatty acids at C-1 or C-3 position of the eremophilane backbone...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822219/regulation-of-protein-function-by-s-nitrosation-and-s-glutathionylation-processes-and-targets-in-cardiovascular-pathophysiology
#8
Eugenia Belcastro, Caroline Gaucher, Alessandro Corti, Pierre Leroy, Isabelle Lartaud, Alfonso Pompella
Decades of chemical, biochemical and pathophysiological research have established the relevance of post-translational protein modifications induced by processes related to oxidative stress, with critical reflections on cellular signal transduction pathways. A great deal of the socalled 'redox regulation' of cell function is in fact mediated through reactions promoted by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species on more or less specific aminoacid residues in proteins, at various levels within the cell machinery. Modifications involving cysteine residues have received most attention, due to the critical roles they play in determining the structure/function correlates in proteins...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822218/locally-produced-xenin-and-the-neurotensinergic-system-in-pancreatic-islet-function-and-%C3%AE-cell-survival
#9
Dawood Khan, Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Victor A Gault, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin
Modulation of neuropeptide receptors is important for pancreatic β-cell function. Here, islet distribution and effects of the neurotensin (NT) receptor modulators, xenin and NT, was examined. Xenin, but not NT, significantly improved glucose disposal and insulin secretion, in mice. However, both peptides stimulated insulin secretion from rodent β-cells at 5.6 mM glucose, with xenin having similar insulinotropic actions at 16.7 mM glucose. In contrast, NT inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion. Similar observations were made in human 1...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802097/heat-shock-protein-47-effects-on-hepatic-stellate-cell-associated-receptors-in-hepatic-fibrosis-of-schistosoma-japonicum-infected-mice
#10
Yumin Zhao, Zhisheng Dang, Shuo Xu, Shigui Chong
The study aimed to explore the regulation of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) on expressions of receptors associated with hepatic stellate cell (HSC) in liver fibrosis mouse models induced by Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum). Mouse fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) were transfected with HSP47 shRNA plasmid by lipofectamine transfection, and experimental fibrosis in HSCs was studied in S. japonicum mouse models treated with HSP47 shRNA in vivo. HSP47 expression was assessed using Western blot and real-time PCR. Flow cytometry was adopted to determine the expression of cell membrane receptors...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779563/comparison-of-cytochrome-p450-expression-in-four-different-human-osteoblast-models
#11
Lingyu Liu, Janak L Pathak, Yong-Qiang Zhu, Matthias Bureik
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are important for bone homeostasis, but only limited information is available on their expression in human bone cells. We analyzed the expression levels of eight CYPs in osteoblasts cultured in human bone pieces, in osteoblasts differentiated from human periosteum mesenchymal stem cells, in primary human osteoblasts, and in the human osteoblast cell line MG63, respectively. Our results confirm previous reports about the presence of CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP24A1, and CYP27B1, while demonstrating expression of CYP2E1, CYP26A1, CYP39A1, and CYP51A1 for the first time...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779562/hdac1-triggers-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-breast-cancer-cells-via-upregulation-of-interleukin-8
#12
Zhaohui Tang, Sijuan Ding, Honglin Huang, Pengfei Luo, Bohua Qing, Bohua Qing, Siyuan Zhang, Ruoting Tang
Targeted inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) is one of the potent anticancer therapy approaches. Our data showed that mRNA and protein levels of HDAC1 in breast cancer cells were greater than that in normal fibroblast 3T3 cells and normal epithelial breast MCF10A cells. The mRNA levels of HDAC1 in 75% breast cancer tissues (18/24) were greater than that in their corresponding adjacent normal tissues. Knockdown of HDAC1 by specific siRNAs can suppress the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells and inhibit the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), while not IL-6...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779561/the-molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-lectin-induced-human-platelet-aggregation
#13
Maria Grazia Signorello, Giuliana Leoncini
We have compared the effect of three legume lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA) and Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) on function of human platelets. We have found that WGA is more active than PHA in stimulating platelet activation/aggregation, while LCA has no effect. Studies on the mechanisms involved put in evidence that WGA and PHA induce phosphorylation/activation of PLCγ2 and increase [Ca2+]i. For the first time it has been shown that Src/Syk pathway, the adapter protein SLP-76 and the exchange protein VAV participate in the PLCγ2 activation by these lectins...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755528/tissue-kallikrein-related-peptidase-4-klk4-a-novel-biomarker-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#14
Feng Yang, Michaela Aubele, Axel Walch, Eva Gross, Rudolf Napieralski, Shuo Zhao, Nancy Ahmed, Marion Kiechle, Ute Reuning, Julia Dorn, Fred Sweep, Viktor Magdolen, Manfred Schmitt
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), lacking the steroid hormone receptors ER and PR and the oncoprotein HER2, is characterized by its aggressive pattern and insensitivity to endocrine and HER2-directed therapy. Human kallikrein-related peptidases KLK1-15 provide a rich source of serine protease-type biomarkers associated with tumor growth and cancer progression for a variety of malignant diseases. In this study, recombinant KLK4 protein was generated and affinity-purified KLK4-directed polyclonal antibody pAb587 established to allow localization of KLK4 protein expression in tumor cell lines and archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded TNBC tumor tissue specimens...
July 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384098/catalase-a-remarkable-enzyme-targeting-the-oldest-antioxidant-enzyme-to-find-a-new-cancer-treatment-approach
#15
REVIEW
Christophe Glorieux, Pedro Buc Calderon
This review is centered on the antioxidant enzyme catalase and will present different aspects of this particular protein. Among them: historical discovery, biological functions, types of catalases and recent data with regard to molecular mechanisms regulating its expression. The main goal is to understand the biological consequences of chronic exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide leading to cellular adaptation. Such issues are of the utmost importance with potential therapeutic extrapolation for various pathologies...
July 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742513/kallistatin-double-edged-role-in-angiogenesis-apoptosis-and-oxidative-stress
#16
Julie Chao, Pengfei Li, Lee Chao
Kallistatin via its two structural elements - an active site and a heparin-binding domain - displays double-edged function in angiogenesis, apoptosis and oxidative stress. First, kallistatin has both anti-angiogenic and pro-angiogenic effects. Kallistatin treatment attenuates angiogenesis and tumor growth in cancer-bearing mice. Kallistatin via its heparinbinding site inhibits angiogenesis by blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)- induced growth, migration and adhesion of endothelial cells. Conversely, kallistatin via the active site promotes neovascularization by stimulating VEGF levels in endothelial progenitor cells...
July 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742512/the-sphingomyelin-synthase-family-proteins-diseases-and-inhibitors
#17
Yang Chen, Yu Cao
Sphingomyelin (SM) is among the most important biomolecules in eukaryotes and acts as both constructive components and signal carrier in physiological process. SM is catalyzed by a membrane protein family, sphingomyelin synthases (SMSs), consisting of three members, SMS1, SMS2 and SMSr. SMSs modulate sphingomyelin and other sphingolipids levels, thereby regulating membrane mobility, ceramide-dependent apoptosis and DAG-dependent signaling pathway. SMSs was found associated with various diseases. Downregulation of SMS2 activity results in protective effects against obesity, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, makes SMS2 inhibitors potential medicines...
July 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723607/production-of-recombinant-porin-from-y-pseudotuberculosis-in-a-water-soluble-form-for-pseudotuberculosis-diagnostics
#18
Vasily A Golotin, Olga Y Portnyagina, Natalia S Chopenko, Natalia Y Kim, Valery A Rasskazov, Olga D Novikova
OmpF porin from the outer membrane of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was cloned into pET-40b(+) plasmid. Using E. coli Rosetta (DE3) strain, MX-medium, IPTG concentration of 0.2 mM and post-induction cultivation at 14 °C overnight allowed us to obtain a water-soluble form of the recombinant protein (rs-OmpF). Rs-OmpF was shown to have the ordered spatial structure at the levels of secondary and tertiary structure. Rs-OmpF was found to be effective as diagnostic antigen in ELISA for pseudotuberculosis diagnostics...
July 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675747/review-progress-in-understanding-the-molecular-oxygen-paradox-function-of-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-in-cell-signaling
#19
Nidhi Kuksal, Julia Chalker, Ryan J Mailloux
The molecular oxygen (O2) paradox was coined to describe its essential nature and toxicity. The latter characteristic of O2 is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can damage structures vital for cellular function. Mammals are equipped with antioxidant systems to fend off the potentially damaging effects of ROS. However, under certain circumstances antioxidant systems can become overwhelmed leading to oxidative stress and damage.Over the past few decades, it has become evident that ROS, specifically H2O2, are integral signaling molecules complicating the previous logos that oxyradicals were unfortunate by-products of oxygen metabolism that indiscriminately damage cell structures...
July 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672776/human-u3-protein-14a-plays-an-anti-apoptotic-role-in-cancer-cells
#20
Teng Ma, Chenxi Lu, Yafei Guo, Chunfeng Zhang, Xiaojuan Du
Human U three protein 14a (hUTP14a) binds p53 and promotes p53 degradation. Here, we report that hUTP14a plays an anti-apoptotic role in tumor cells through a p53-independent pathway. Knockdown of hUTP14a activated the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and sensitized tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis. In addition, the protein level of hUTP14a decreased upon chemotherapeutic drug- or irradiation-induced apoptosis. Importantly, the decrease of hUTP14a during induced apoptosis was not blocked by pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK, indicating that the down-regulation of hUTP14a is an upstream event in apoptosis...
June 29, 2017: Biological Chemistry
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