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Biological Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802097/heat-shock-protein-47-effects-on-hepatic-stellate-cell-associated-receptors-in-hepatic-fibrosis-of-schistosoma-japonicum-infected-mice
#1
Yumin Zhao, Zhisheng Dang, Shuo Xu, Shigui Chong
The study aimed to explore the regulation of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) on expressions of receptors associated with hepatic stellate cell (HSC) in liver fibrosis mouse models induced by Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum). Mouse fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) were transfected with HSP47 shRNA plasmid by lipofectamine transfection, and experimental fibrosis in HSCs was studied in S. japonicum mouse models treated with HSP47 shRNA in vivo. HSP47 expression was assessed using Western blot and real-time PCR. Flow cytometry was adopted to determine the expression of cell membrane receptors...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779563/comparison-of-cytochrome-p450-expression-in-four-different-human-osteoblast-models
#2
Lingyu Liu, Janak L Pathak, Yong-Qiang Zhu, Matthias Bureik
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are important for bone homeostasis, but only limited information is available on their expression in human bone cells. We analyzed the expression levels of eight CYPs in osteoblasts cultured in human bone pieces, in osteoblasts differentiated from human periosteum mesenchymal stem cells, in primary human osteoblasts, and in the human osteoblast cell line MG63, respectively. Our results confirm previous reports about the presence of CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP24A1, and CYP27B1, while demonstrating expression of CYP2E1, CYP26A1, CYP39A1, and CYP51A1 for the first time...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779562/hdac1-triggers-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-breast-cancer-cells-via-upregulation-of-interleukin-8
#3
Zhaohui Tang, Sijuan Ding, Honglin Huang, Pengfei Luo, Bohua Qing, Bohua Qing, Siyuan Zhang, Ruoting Tang
Targeted inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) is one of the potent anticancer therapy approaches. Our data showed that mRNA and protein levels of HDAC1 in breast cancer cells were greater than that in normal fibroblast 3T3 cells and normal epithelial breast MCF10A cells. The mRNA levels of HDAC1 in 75% breast cancer tissues (18/24) were greater than that in their corresponding adjacent normal tissues. Knockdown of HDAC1 by specific siRNAs can suppress the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells and inhibit the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), while not IL-6...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779561/the-molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-lectin-induced-human-platelet-aggregation
#4
Maria Grazia Signorello, Giuliana Leoncini
We have compared the effect of three legume lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA) and Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) on function of human platelets. We have found that WGA is more active than PHA in stimulating platelet activation/aggregation, while LCA has no effect. Studies on the mechanisms involved put in evidence that WGA and PHA induce phosphorylation/activation of PLCγ2 and increase [Ca2+]i. For the first time it has been shown that Src/Syk pathway, the adapter protein SLP-76 and the exchange protein VAV participate in the PLCγ2 activation by these lectins...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771427/cystine-knot-growth-factors-and-their-functionally-versatile-proregions
#5
Elisabeth Schwarza
The cystine knot disulfide pattern has been found to be wide-spread in nature, since it has been detected in proteins from plants, marine snails, spiders and mammals. Cystine knot proteins are secreted proteins. Their functions range from defense mechanisms as toxins, e.g. ion channel or enzyme inhibitors, to hormones, blood factors and growth factors. Cystine knot proteins can be divided into two superordinate groups: (i) The cystine knot peptides, also referred to - with other non-cystine knot proteins - as knottins, with linear and cyclic polypeptide chains...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755528/tissue-kallikrein-related-peptidase-4-klk4-a-novel-biomarker-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#6
Feng Yang, Michaela Aubele, Axel Walch, Eva Gross, Rudolf Napieralski, Shuo Zhao, Nancy Ahmed, Marion Kiechle, Ute Reuning, Julia Dorn, Fred Sweep, Viktor Magdolen, Manfred Schmitt
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), lacking the steroid hormone receptors ER and PR and the oncoprotein HER2, is characterized by its aggressive pattern and insensitivity to endocrine and HER2-directed therapy. Human kallikrein-related peptidases KLK1-15 provide a rich source of serine protease-type biomarkers associated with tumor growth and cancer progression for a variety of malignant diseases. In this study, recombinant KLK4 protein was generated and affinity-purified KLK4-directed polyclonal antibody pAb587 established to allow localization of KLK4 protein expression in tumor cell lines and archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded TNBC tumor tissue specimens...
July 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384098/catalase-a-remarkable-enzyme-targeting-the-oldest-antioxidant-enzyme-to-find-a-new-cancer-treatment-approach
#7
REVIEW
Christophe Glorieux, Pedro Buc Calderon
This review is centered on the antioxidant enzyme catalase and will present different aspects of this particular protein. Among them: historical discovery, biological functions, types of catalases and recent data with regard to molecular mechanisms regulating its expression. The main goal is to understand the biological consequences of chronic exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide leading to cellular adaptation. Such issues are of the utmost importance with potential therapeutic extrapolation for various pathologies...
July 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742513/kallistatin-double-edged-role-in-angiogenesis-apoptosis-and-oxidative-stress
#8
Julie Chao, Pengfei Li, Lee Chao
Kallistatin via its two structural elements - an active site and a heparin-binding domain - displays double-edged function in angiogenesis, apoptosis and oxidative stress. First, kallistatin has both anti-angiogenic and pro-angiogenic effects. Kallistatin treatment attenuates angiogenesis and tumor growth in cancer-bearing mice. Kallistatin via its heparinbinding site inhibits angiogenesis by blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)- induced growth, migration and adhesion of endothelial cells. Conversely, kallistatin via the active site promotes neovascularization by stimulating VEGF levels in endothelial progenitor cells...
July 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742512/the-sphingomyelin-synthase-family-proteins-diseases-and-inhibitors
#9
Yang Chen, Yu Cao
Sphingomyelin (SM) is among the most important biomolecules in eukaryotes and acts as both constructive components and signal carrier in physiological process. SM is catalyzed by a membrane protein family, sphingomyelin synthases (SMSs), consisting of three members, SMS1, SMS2 and SMSr. SMSs modulate sphingomyelin and other sphingolipids levels, thereby regulating membrane mobility, ceramide-dependent apoptosis and DAG-dependent signaling pathway. SMSs was found associated with various diseases. Downregulation of SMS2 activity results in protective effects against obesity, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, makes SMS2 inhibitors potential medicines...
July 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723607/production-of-recombinant-porin-from-y-pseudotuberculosis-in-a-water-soluble-form-for-pseudotuberculosis-diagnostics
#10
Vasily A Golotin, Olga Y Portnyagina, Natalia S Chopenko, Natalia Y Kim, Valery A Rasskazov, Olga D Novikova
OmpF porin from the outer membrane of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was cloned into pET-40b(+) plasmid. Using E. coli Rosetta (DE3) strain, MX-medium, IPTG concentration of 0.2 mM and post-induction cultivation at 14 °C overnight allowed us to obtain a water-soluble form of the recombinant protein (rs-OmpF). Rs-OmpF was shown to have the ordered spatial structure at the levels of secondary and tertiary structure. Rs-OmpF was found to be effective as diagnostic antigen in ELISA for pseudotuberculosis diagnostics...
July 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675747/review-progress-in-understanding-the-molecular-oxygen-paradox-function-of-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-in-cell-signaling
#11
Nidhi Kuksal, Julia Chalker, Ryan J Mailloux
The molecular oxygen (O2) paradox was coined to describe its essential nature and toxicity. The latter characteristic of O2 is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can damage structures vital for cellular function. Mammals are equipped with antioxidant systems to fend off the potentially damaging effects of ROS. However, under certain circumstances antioxidant systems can become overwhelmed leading to oxidative stress and damage.Over the past few decades, it has become evident that ROS, specifically H2O2, are integral signaling molecules complicating the previous logos that oxyradicals were unfortunate by-products of oxygen metabolism that indiscriminately damage cell structures...
July 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672776/human-u3-protein-14a-plays-an-anti-apoptotic-role-in-cancer-cells
#12
Teng Ma, Chenxi Lu, Yafei Guo, Chunfeng Zhang, Xiaojuan Du
Human U three protein 14a (hUTP14a) binds p53 and promotes p53 degradation. Here, we report that hUTP14a plays an anti-apoptotic role in tumor cells through a p53-independent pathway. Knockdown of hUTP14a activated the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and sensitized tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis. In addition, the protein level of hUTP14a decreased upon chemotherapeutic drug- or irradiation-induced apoptosis. Importantly, the decrease of hUTP14a during induced apoptosis was not blocked by pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK, indicating that the down-regulation of hUTP14a is an upstream event in apoptosis...
June 29, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672761/functional-control-of-polypeptide-galnac-transferase-3-through-an-acetylation-site-in-the-c-terminal-lectin-domain
#13
Virginia Lorenz, Romina B Cejas, Eric P Bennett, Gustavo A Nores, Fernando J Irazoqui
O-GalNAc glycans are important structures in cellular homeostasis. Their biosynthesis is initiated by members of polypeptide GalNAc-transferase (ppGalNAc-T) enzyme family. Mutations in ppGalNAc-T3 isoform cause diseases (congenital disorders of glycosylation) in humans. The K626 residue located in the C-terminal β-trefoil fold of ppGalNAc-T3 was predicted to be a site with high likelihood of acetylation by CBP/p300 acetyltransferase. We used a site-directed mutagenesis approach to evaluate the role of this acetylation site in biological properties of the enzyme...
June 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343163/s100a6-focus-on-recent-developments
#14
REVIEW
Wiesława Leśniak, Tomasz Wilanowski, Anna Filipek
The Ca2+-binding protein, S100A6, belongs to the S100 family. Binding of Ca2+ induces a conformational change, which causes an increase in the overall S100A6 hydrophobicity and allows it to interact with many targets. S100A6 is expressed in different normal tissues and in many tumors. Up to now it has been shown that S100A6 is involved in cell proliferation, cytoskeletal dynamics and tumorigenesis, and that it might have some extracellular functions. In this review, we summarize novel discoveries concerning S100A6 targets, its involvement in cellular signaling pathways, and presence in stem/progenitor cells, extracellular matrix and body fluids of diseased patients...
June 23, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315854/mutation-of-n-linked-glycosylation-in-epcam-affected-cell-adhesion-in-breast-cancer-cells
#15
Xue Liu, Jiujiao Gao, Yan Sun, Dandan Zhang, Tingjiao Liu, Qiu Yan, Xuesong Yang
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) expression is elevated in breast cancer tissue, and correlates with the cancer metastasis and cell adhesion. Although EpCAM glycosylation is supposed to be associated with its function, the contribution of N-glycosylation to its function remains unclear. Here we analyzed cell adhesion ability of EpCAM in breast cancer cells. The results showed that EpCAM expression was associated with cell adhesion and N-glycosylation mutation of EpCAM decreased adhesion capacity. N-glycosylation mutation of EpCAM was correlated with lower levels of integrin β1 and fibronectin...
June 23, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622140/reactive-nitrogen-species-rns-resistant-microbes-adaptation-and-medical-implications
#16
Sujeenthar Tharmalingam, Azhar Alhasawi, Varun P Appanna, Joe Lemire, Vasu D Appanna
Nitrosative stress results from an increase in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) within the cell. Though the RNS - nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) - play pivotal physiological roles, at elevated concentrations, these moieties can be poisonous to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells alike due to their capacity to disrupt a variety of essential biological processes. Numerous microbes are known to adapt to nitrosative stress by elaborating intricate strategies aimed at neutralizing RNS. In this review, we will discuss both the enzymatic systems dedicated to the elimination of RNS as well as the metabolic networks that are tailored to generate RNS-detoxifying metabolites - α-keto-acids...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622139/immune-regulation-and-functions-of-eicosanoid-lipid-mediators
#17
Julia Esser-von Bieren
Bioactive lipids regulate most physiological processes, from digestion to blood flow and from hemostasis to labor. Lipid mediators are also involved in multiple pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity or asthma. The pathological roles of lipid mediators are based on their intricate involvement in the immune system, which comprises source and target cells of these mediators. Based on their biosynthetic origin, bioactive lipids can be grouped into different classes (e.g. sphingolipids, formed from sphingosine or eicosanoids, formed from arachidonic acid)...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622138/cellular-and-plasma-nitrite-levels-in-myeloid-leukemia-a-pathogenetic-decrease
#18
Mili Jain, Ashutosh Kumar, Uma Shankar Singh, Rashmi Kushwaha, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Madhu Dikshit, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Nitric oxide (NO) has contributory role in hemopoietic cell growth and differentiation. The effects of NO on leukemic cell growth have been predominantly studied in in vitro settings. This study was done to assess the alterations in nitrite level in myeloid leukemias.Thirty six newly diagnosed cases of myeloid leukemia (16 AML and 20 CML) were enrolled in the study. Neutrophil precursors from the marrow aspirate and peripheral blood were separated into cell bands using Percoll density gradient method of Borregard and Cowland...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525358/galanin-suppresses-proliferation-of-human-u251-and-t98g-glioma-cells-via-its-subtype-1-receptor
#19
REVIEW
Zhu Mei, Yutao Yang, Yun Li, Feiya Yang, Junfa Li, Nianzeng Xing, Zhi-Qing David Xu
Galanin is a neuropeptide with a widespread distribution throughout the nervous and endocrine systems, and recent studies have shown an anti-proliferative effect of galanin on several types of tumors. However, whether and how galanin and its receptors are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation in glioma cells remains unclear. In this study, the roles of galanin and its subtype 1 receptor (GAL1) in the proliferation of human U251 and T98G glioma cells were investigated. We found that galanin significantly suppressed the proliferation of U251 and T98G cells as well as tumor growth in nude mice...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593905/targeting-and-inactivation-of-bacterial-toxins-by-human-defensins
#20
REVIEW
Elena Kudryashova, Stephanie M Seveau, Dmitri S Kudryashov
Defensins, as a prominent family of antimicrobial peptides (AMP), are major effectors of the innate immunity with a broad range of immune modulatory and antimicrobial activities. In particular, defensins are the only recognized fast-response molecules that can neutralize a broad range of bacterial toxins, many of which are among the deadliest compounds on the planet. For a decade, the mystery of how a small and structurally conserved group of peptides can neutralize a heterogeneous group of toxins with little to no sequential and structural similarity remained unresolved...
June 14, 2017: Biological Chemistry
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