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Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress

Ross W May, Gregory S Seibert, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez, Michael C Fitzgerald, Frank D Fincham
The psychological, behavioral and psychosocial implications of self-control are well established, but relatively little is known about its implications for physical health. This study examined the association between self-control and two important indicators of cardiovascular risk: morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) and maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max). Undergraduate students (N = 78) completed a measure of dispositional self-control (Brief Self-Control Scale), participated in a 24-h ambulatory assessment of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), and completed the YMCA Cycle Ergometer Submaximal Test...
November 30, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
María J García-Rubio, Laura Espín, Vanesa Hidalgo, Alicia Salvador, Jesús Gómez-Amor
The study of autonomic nervous system changes associated with generalized social phobia (GSP) disorder has increased in recent years, showing contradictory results. The present study aimed to evaluate how young people with GSP reacted before, during, and after exposure to the Trier Stress Social Test (TSST), focusing on their autonomic changes (heart rate variability, HRV, and salivary alpha-amylase, sAA) compared to a control group (non-GSP). Some psychological variables were also considered. Sex was specifically studied as a possible modulator of autonomic fluctuations and psychological state...
November 28, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Paulina Valuskova, Vladimir Farar, Katerina Janisova, Katarina Ondicova, Boris Mravec, Richard Kvetnansky, Jaromir Myslivecek
Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) variant AChER expression increases with acute stress, and this persists for an extended period, although the timing, strain and laterality differences, have not been explored previously. Acute stress transiently increases acetylcholine release, which in turn may increase activity of cholinesterases. Also the AChE gene contains a glucocorticoid response element (GRE), and stress-inducible AChE transcription and activity changes are linked increased glucocorticoid levels. Corticotropin-releasing hormone knockout (CRH-KO) mice have basal glucocorticoid levels similar to wild type (WT) mice, but much lower levels during stress...
November 22, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Evan E Hart, Alexandra Stolyarova, Michael A Conoscenti, Thomas R Minor, Alicia Izquierdo
Physical effort is a common cost of acquiring rewards, and decreased effort is a feature of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Stress affects performance on several tests of cognition and decision-making in both humans and nonhumans. Only a few recent reports show impairing effects of stress in operant tasks involving effort and cognitive flexibility. Brain regions affected by stress such as the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala are also implicated in mediating effortful choices. Here we assessed effort-based decision-making after an acute stress procedure known to induce persistent impairment in shuttle escape and elevated plasma corticosterone...
November 8, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Dominik Langgartner, Sandra Foertsch, Andrea M Füchsl, Stefan O Reber
While animal housing conditions are highly controlled and standardized between different laboratories, there are still many subtle differences that unavoidably influence the host organisms and, consequently, inter-laboratory reproducibility. Here, we investigated the physiological and immunological consequences between two light-dark cycle (LDC) lengths (14h/10h versus 12h/12h LDC) and two commonly used forms of drinking water (acidified drinking water (AW) versus normal tap water (NW)) in single-housed (SH) mice...
October 27, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Li Dai, Xue-Chen Liu, Sen Ye, Hua-Wei Li, Dian-Fu Chen, Xiao-Jian Yu, Xue-Ting Huang, Li Zhang, Fan Yang, Jin-Shu Yang, Wei-Jun Yang
The most widespread type of RNA editing, conversion of adenosine to inosine (A→I), is catalyzed by two members of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family, ADAR1 and ADAR2. These enzymes edit transcripts for neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels during adaption to changes in the physical environment. In the primitive crustacean Artemia, when maternal adults are exposed to unfavorable conditions, they release diapause embryos to withstand harsh environments. The aim of the current study was therefore to elucidate the role of ADAR of Artemia diapause embryos in resistance to stress...
October 4, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Mariusz Sikora, Piotr Konopelski, Kinga Pham, Aleksandra Wyczalkowska-Tomasik, Marcin Ufnal
Non-invasive hemodynamic measurements in rats require placing animals in restrainers. To minimize restraint stress-induced artifacts several habituation protocols have been proposed, however, the results are inconclusive. Here, we evaluated if a 4-week habituation is superior to a shorter habituation, or no habituation. This is the first study comparing different habituation protocols with the use of 4-week continuous telemetry measurements. We did the experiments on male, 16-week old, Sprague Dawley rats. Continuous recordings of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate (HR) were made before and during habituation protocols...
October 4, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Antonella Pollano, María I Zalosnik, Patricia E Durando, Marta M Suárez
Early maternal separation (MS) may produce lasting effects in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) that can change its response to chronic stress in adulthood. Chronic stress affects DH morphology and function, but tianeptine (an anti-depressant) can reverse the stress-induced morphological impairments. Morphologic alterations of hippocampus can affect contextual memory. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of tianeptine in MS and chronically stressed rats, on: 1) volume of the DH and its areas using stereology, and 2) hippocampal dependent memory using a fear conditioning test...
September 8, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Catherine E Myers, Milen L Radell, Christine Shind, Yasheca Ebanks-Williams, Kevin D Beck, Mark W Gilbertson
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur in the wake of exposure to a traumatic event. Currently, PTSD symptoms are assessed mainly through self-report in the form of questionnaire or clinical interview. Self-report has inherent limitations, particularly in psychiatric populations who may have limited awareness of deficit, reduced attention span, or poor vocabulary and/or literacy skills. Diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy would be aided by behavioral measures. A viable alternative may be virtual environments, in which the participant guides an on-screen "avatar" through a series of onscreen events meant to simulate real-world situations...
November 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Kristian T Jones, Richard C Shelton, Jun Wan, Li Li
Individuals with insulin resistance (IR) are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Psychological stress may contribute to develop CVD in IR although mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that individuals with IR have enhanced emotional and physiological responses to acute psychological stress, leading to increased CVD risk. Sixty participants were enrolled into the study, and classified into IR group (n = 31) and insulin sensitive group (n = 29) according to the Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, which was calculated based on an oral glucose tolerance test...
September 2, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Heidemarie Laurent, Chrystal Vergara-Lopez, Laura R Stroud
Efforts to define hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis profiles conferring risk for psychopathology have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps in part due to limited assessment of the stress response. In particular, research has typically focused on HPA responses to performance tasks, while neglecting the interpersonal stressors that become salient during adolescence. In this study we investigated links between psychosocial adjustment - youth internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as competence - and HPA responses to both performance and interpersonal stressors in a normative sample of children and adolescents...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Meghan E Pierce, Laurel M Pritchard
Female veterans are a growing yet understudied population. Currently, 14.6% of all troops deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq are female. Military service is associated with an increased risk for trauma exposure and subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is frequently associated with PTSD. Few studies have examined females diagnosed with PTSD and only one study, to our knowledge, has examined HPA-axis dysregulation in female veterans...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Lubica Horvathova, Alexandra Padova, Andrej Tillinger, Jana Osacka, Jozef Bizik, Boris Mravec
Accumulated evidence indicates that sympathetic nerves may potentiate tumor growth, including melanoma. To elucidate possible mechanisms for this effect, we performed chemical sympathectomy by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (100 mg/kg of body weight); in nine adult male C57BL/6J mice; nine control mice received i.p. vehicle (VEH). Seven days later, all mice were injected subcutaneously with 3 × 10(3) B16-F10 melanoma cells. Mice were euthanized 20 d after injection of melanoma cells, for measurement of tumor weight and expression of genes related to sympathetic signaling, apoptosis, hypoxia and angiogenesis in tumor tissue...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Lindsay Till Hoyt, Katherine B Ehrlich, Heining Cham, Emma K Adam
Despite the increasing popularity of incorporating salivary cortisol measurement into health and social science research, relatively little empirical work has been conducted on the number of saliva samples across the day required to capture key features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm, such as the diurnal cortisol slope, the area under the curve (AUC), and the cortisol awakening response (CAR). The primary purpose of this study is to compare slope, AUC, and CAR measures obtained from an intensive sampling protocol with estimates from less intensive protocols, to identify sampling protocols with minimal participant burden that still provide reasonably accurate assessment of each of these measures...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Yvette Z Szabo, Tamara L Newton, James J Miller, Keith B Lyle, Rafael Fernandez-Botran
The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress-reactivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in saliva and to determine how salivary IL-10 levels change in relation to those of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, following stress. Healthy young adults were randomly assigned to retrieve a negative emotional memory (n = 46) or complete a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 45). Saliva samples were taken 10 min before (baseline) and 50 min after (post-stressor) onset of a 10-min stressor, and were assayed using a high sensitivity multiplex assay for cytokines...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Natal'ya A Orekhova, Makar V Modorov
This work is based on the comparative analysis of data obtained in the course of monitoring pygmy wood mouse populations (Apodemus uralensis Pallas, 1811) in the East-Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) area and background territories. The effect of population size and its interaction with the radioactivity on biochemical parameters in the spleen and adrenal glands was studied. The concentrations of total lipids, proteins, DNA and RNA, activity of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and catalase as well as the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Michelle Dreiling, Sabine Bischoff, Rene Schiffner, Sven Rupprecht, Michael Kiehntopf, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Peter W Nathanielsz, Matthias Schwab, Florian Rakers
Prenatal maternal stress can be transferred to the fetus via a catecholamine-dependent decrease of uterine blood flow (UBF). However, it is unclear which group of adrenergic receptors mediates this mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer. We hypothesized that in sheep, alpha 1-adrenergic receptors may play a key role in catecholamine mediated UBF decrease, as these receptors are mainly involved in peripheral vasoconstriction and are present in significant number in the uterine vasculature. After chronic instrumentation at 125 ± 1 days of gestation (dGA; term 150 dGA), nine pregnant sheep were exposed at 130 ± 1 dGA to acute isolation stress for one hour without visual, tactile, or auditory contact with their flockmates...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Jana Strahler, Johanna M Doerr, Beate Ditzen, Alexandra Linnemann, Nadine Skoluda, Urs M Nater
Fatigue is one of the most commonly reported complaints in the general population. As physical activity (PA) has been shown to have beneficial effects, we hypothesized that everyday life PA improves fatigue. Thirty-three healthy students (21 women, 22.8 ± 3.3 years, 21.7 ± 2.3 kg/m(2)) completed two ambulatory assessment periods. During five days at the beginning of the semester (control condition) and five days during final examination preparation (examination condition), participants repeatedly reported on general fatigue (awakening, 10 am, 2 pm, 6 pm and 9 pm) by means of an electronic diary, collected saliva samples for the assessment of cortisol and α-amylase immediately after providing information on fatigue and wore a triaxial accelerometer to continuously record PA...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Richard McCarty
In this review, nonassociative learning is advanced as an organizing principle to draw together findings from both sympathetic-adrenal medullary and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to chronic intermittent exposure to a variety of stressors. Studies of habituation, facilitation and sensitization of stress effector systems are reviewed and linked to an animal's prior experience with a given stressor, the intensity of the stressor and the appraisal by the animal of its ability to mobilize physiological systems to adapt to the stressor...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Grant S Shields, Brian C Trainor, Jovian C W Lam, Andrew P Yonelinas
Psychosocial stress influences cognitive abilities, such as long-term memory retrieval. However, less is known about the effects of stress on cognitive flexibility, which is mediated by different neurobiological circuits and could thus be regulated by different neuroendocrine pathways. In this study, we randomly assigned healthy adults to an acute stress induction or control condition and subsequently assessed participants' cognitive flexibility using an open-source version of the Wisconsin Card Sort task. Drawing on work in rodents, we hypothesized that stress would have stronger impairing effects on cognitive flexibility in men than women...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
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