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Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress

Ugo Cappucci, Giulia Torromino, Assunta Maria Casale, Jeremy Camon, Fabrizio Capitano, Maria Berloco, Andrea Mele, Sergio Pimpinelli, Arianna Rinaldi, Lucia Piacentini
Transposable elements (TEs) are conserved mobile genetic elements that are highly abundant in most eukaryotic genomes. Although the exact function of TEs is still largely unknown, it is increasingly clear that they are significantly modulated in response to stress in a wide range of organisms, either directly or indirectly through regulation of epigenetic silencing. We investigated the effect of repeated restraint stress (2 h a day, for 5 d) on transcription levels of LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon in the brain of inbred BALB/c, DBA/2, C57BL/6N, and outbred CD1 mice...
July 11, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Alina Kistenmacher, Jakob Goetsch, Dorothee Ullmann, Ewelina K Wardzinski, Uwe H Melchert, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Kerstin M Oltmanns
Psychosocial stress may lead to increased food consumption and overweight. In turn, obesity is related to reduced brain energy content. We hypothesized that psychosocial stress influencing food intake may alter the neuroenergetic status in the human brain. We tested 14 healthy normal weight men in a randomized crossover design. A modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was carried out to induce psychosocial stress vs. control in a neuroimaging setting. Cerebral energy content, i.e. high energy phosphates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr), was measured by 31 phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
July 3, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Yung-Nien Yang, Yia-Ping Liu, Mong-Ting Hsieh, Yu-Chieh Lin, Che-Se Tung
Prolonged paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and cold stress (CS) are known to cause sympathoexcitation and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. The present study examined the effect of PSD with CS on hemodynamic perturbations by investigating blood pressure and heart rate variability (BPV and HRV) in conscious rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n = 10, each): normal sleep (NS), PSD of 72 h, and recovery sleep of 7 days after PSD. When compared with NS, PSD increased systolic blood pressure in all three conditions: before CS (PreCS), CS, and after CS (PostCS)...
June 25, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
M Nazmul Huda, Shaikh M Ahmad, Md Jahangir Alam, Afsana Khanam, Md Nure Alam Afsar, Yukiko Wagatsuma, Rubhana Raqib, Charles B Stephensen, Kevin D Laugero
Stress can impair T cell-mediated immunity. To determine if infants with high stress responses had deficits in T-cell mediated immunity, we examined the association of pain-induced cortisol responsiveness with thymic function and vaccine responses in infants. This study was performed among 306 (male = 153 and female = 153) participants of a randomized, controlled trial examining the effect of neonatal vitamin A supplementation on immune function in Bangladesh (NCT01583972). Salivary cortisol was measured before and 20 min after a needle stick (vaccination) at 6 weeks of age...
June 22, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Brooke N Dulka, Richa Koul-Tiwari, J Alex Grizzell, Marquinta L Harvey, Subimal Datta, Matthew A Cooper
Stress is a well-known risk factor for psychopathology and rodent models of social defeat have strong face, etiological, construct and predictive validity for these conditions. Syrian hamsters are highly aggressive and territorial, but after an acute social defeat experience they become submissive and no longer defend their home territory, even from a smaller, non-aggressive intruder. This defeat-induced change in social behavior is called conditioned defeat (CD). We have shown that dominant hamsters show increased neural activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) following social defeat stress and exhibit a reduced CD response at social interaction testing compared to subordinates...
June 22, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Adrián Alacreu-Crespo, Raquel Costa, Diana Abad-Tortosa, Alicia Salvador, Miguel Ángel Serrano
Competition elicits different psychological and cardiovascular responses depending on a person's skills. Decision-making has been considered a distal factor that influences competition, but there are no studies analyzing this relationship. Our objective was to analyze whether decision-making affects the response to competition. Specifically, we aimed to test whether good performers on a decision-making test, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), showed an adaptive cardiovascular response to competition. In all, 116 participants (44 women) performed the IGT and were classified into Good or Poor decision-makers...
June 22, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Damek Homiack, Emma O'Cinneide, Sema Hajmurad, Gary P Dohanich, Laura A Schrader
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by the development of paradoxical memory disturbances including intrusive memories and amnesia for specific details of the traumatic experience. Despite evidence that women are at higher risk to develop PTSD, most animal research has focused on the processes by which male rodents develop adaptive fear memory. As such, the mechanisms contributing to sex differences in the development of PTSD-like memory disturbances are poorly understood. In this investigation, we exposed adult male and female Wistar rats to the synthetic alarm odor 2,4,5-trimethylthiazole (TMT) to assess development of generalized fear behavior and rapid modulation of glutamate uptake and signaling cascades associated with hippocampus-dependent long-term memory...
June 19, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Chrisanthi Marakaki, Panagiota Pervanidou, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George Mastorakos, Ze'ev Hochberg, George Chrousos, Anastasios Papadimitriou
Concerns over anxiety and depressive symptoms in children with premature adrenarche (PA) have been recently raised. However, to date, most relevant studies are on a small number of girls. In this cross-sectional study, 82 pre-pubertal children (66 girls and 16 boys) diagnosed with PA, were compared to 63 control children regarding their psychological characteristics and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as assessed by salivary cortisol measurement. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by child self-report (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Depression self-rating scale for Children (DSRS)) and parent-report (Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL)) tests validated for the Greek population...
June 19, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Magdalena Katharina Wekenborg, LaBarron K Hill, Robert Miller, Tobias Stalder, Julian Francis Thayer, Marlene Sophie Penz, Clemens Kirschbaum
Burnout, a pathological consequence of chronic work stress, shows an increasing incidence rate in industrialized countries. Previous findings indicate that burnout may be linked to a detachment of the negative association between subjectively appraised task demand and cognitive performance, which is typically seen in healthy individuals. The present study sought to confirm this relationship and to investigate whether this dissociation is mirrored in a biological marker of self-regulation, i.e., resting vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV)...
June 9, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Romana Petrovic, Laslo Puskas, Gordana Jevtic Dozudic, Tihomir Stojkovic, Milica Velimirovic, Tatjana Nikolic, Milica Zivkovic, Djordje J Djorovic, Milutin Nenadovic, Natasa Petronijevic
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent and impairing disorder. Oxidative stress is implicated in its pathogenesis. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is an important source of free radicals. The aim of the study was to assess oxidative stress parameters, activities of respiratory chain enzymes, and the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (gp91phox, p22phox, and p67phox) in the single prolonged stress (SPS) animal model of PTSD. Twenty-four (12 controls; 12 subjected to SPS), 9-week-old, male Wistar rats were used...
May 26, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Jens H van Dalfsen, C Rob Markus
The short (S) allele of a functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) within the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is found to predispose the risk for stress-related affective disorders relative to the long (L) allele. Evidence suggests that elevated stress reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis might underlie this association although there is little understanding about the origin of inconsistent findings. Since inadequate sleep is commonly known to promote HPA stress reactivity, it might well play an important modulating role...
May 23, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Julia K Gjerstad, Stafford L Lightman, Francesca Spiga
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the major neuroendocrine axis regulating homeostasis in mammals. Glucocorticoid hormones are rapidly synthesized and secreted from the adrenal gland in response to stress. In addition, under basal conditions glucocorticoids are released rhythmically with both a circadian and an ultradian (pulsatile) pattern. These rhythms are important not only for normal function of glucocorticoid target organs, but also for the HPA axis responses to stress. Several studies have shown that disruption of glucocorticoid rhythms is associated with disease both in humans and in rodents...
May 15, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Marianela Masis-Calvo, Anna K Schmidtner, Vinícius E de Moura Oliveira, Cindy P Grossmann, Trynke R de Jong, Inga D Neumann
Social stress occurs in all social species, including humans, and shape both mental health and future interactions with conspecifics. Animal models of social stress are used to unravel the precise role of the main stress system - the HPA axis - on the one hand, and the social behavior network on the other, as these are intricately interwoven. The present review aims to summarize the insights gained from three highly useful and clinically relevant animal models of psychosocial stress: the resident-intruder (RI) test, the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC), and the social fear conditioning (SFC)...
May 10, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Hanna Malmberg Gavelin, Therese Eskilsson, Carl-Johan Boraxbekk, Maria Josefsson, Anna Stigsdotter Neely, Lisbeth Slunga Järvholm
Stress-related exhaustion has been associated with selective and enduring cognitive impairments. However, little is known about how to address cognitive deficits in stress rehabilitation and how this influences stress recovery over time. The aim of this open-label, parallel randomized controlled trial ( NCT03073772) was to investigate the long-term effects of 12 weeks cognitive or aerobic training on cognitive function, psychological health, and work ability for patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED)...
April 25, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Franco Nicolas Nazar, Emiliano Ariel Videla, Maria Emilia Fernandez, Maria Carla Labaque, Raul Hector Marin
Avian require comfortable temperatures for optimal development and heat stress is a high concern in warm weather countries. We aimed to assess the dynamics of immunoendocrine and biochemical variables responses of birds exposed to a heat stressor applied during daylight hours, during the chronic stress and the recovery periods. We hypothesize that variables involved in the birds response will be differentially and gradually modified during those periods. Female quail (n = 210) were housed in six rearing boxes...
May 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Daniel E Altman, Laurence P Simmons, Chau T Vuong, Rachel M Taylor, Jason C Sousa, Sean R Marcsisin, Victor E Zottig, Nicole L T Moore
Adolescence is a distinct developmental period characterized by behavioral and physiological maturation. Rapid ongoing changes during neurodevelopment in particular present potential opportunities for stress to have lasting effects on longitudinal outcomes of behavioral and neuroendocrine function. While adult stress effects on outcomes during adulthood have been characterized, little is known about the lasting effects of adolescent repeated stressor exposure on outcomes during adolescence. We have previously reported different stress responses in adolescent rats relative to adult rats, including a blunted fear response outcome in adulthood in rats stressed during adolescence...
May 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Bruna B Simas, Everson A Nunes, Carlos C Crestani, Guilherme F Speretta
Obesity and chronic stress are considered independent risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and changes in autonomic system activity. However, the cardiovascular consequences induced by the association between high-fat diet (HFD) and chronic stress are not fully understood. We hypothesized that the association between HFD and exposure to a chronic variable stress (CVS) protocol for four weeks might exacerbate the cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances in rats when compared to these factors singly...
May 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Chisato Shimanoe, Megumi Hara, Yuichiro Nishida, Hinako Nanri, Yasuko Otsuka, Mikako Horita, Jun Yasukata, Nobuyuki Miyoshi, Yosuke Yamada, Yasuki Higaki, Keitaro Tanaka
Inconsistent associations have been reported between perceived stress and C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation. We previously observed a male-specific inverse relationship between perceived stress and CRP in a cross-sectional study. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal association between changes in perceived stress and CRP, and further analyzed whether changes in coping strategies and social support modify this association. This study included 8454 participants in both a baseline survey and a follow-up survey 5 years later...
May 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Michael A Smith, Victoria C Riccalton, Denise H Kelly-Hughes, Olivia A Craw, Sarah F Allen, Daryl B O'Connor, Mark A Wetherell
Type D personality has been associated with minor health complaints in the general population and dysregulation of basal cortisol secretion in coronary patients. The aims of the present study were to investigate (i) whether there is an association between Type D personality and basal cortisol secretion in the general population, and (ii) whether subjective measures of stress and anxiety, as well as indices of basal cortisol secretion, mediate the relationship between Type D personality and self-reported physical symptoms in this group...
May 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Katharina M Hillerer, Barbara Woodside, Emily Parkinson, Hong Long, Silvanna Verlezza, Claire-Dominique Walker
In early lactation (EL), stressor salience modulates neuroendocrine stress responses, but it is unclear whether this persists throughout lactation and which neural structures are implicated. We hypothesized that this process is specific to EL and that the infralimbic (IL) medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) might provide a critical link between assessment of threat and activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in EL. We measured neuroendocrine responses and neuronal Fos induction to a salient (predator odor) or non-salient (tail pinch) psychogenic stressor in EL and late lactation (LL) females...
May 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
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