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Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress

Oliver Sturman, Pierre-Luc Germain, Johannes Bohacek
Stressful experiences are linked to anxiety disorders in humans. Similar effects are observed in rodent models, where anxiety is often measured in classic conflict tests such as the open-field test. Spontaneous rearing behavior, in which rodents stand on their hind legs to explore, can also be observed in this test yet is often ignored. We define two forms of rearing, supported rearing (in which the animal rears against the walls of the arena) and unsupported rearing (in which the animal rears without contacting the walls of the arena)...
February 16, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Daniel E Altman, Laurence P Simmons, Chau T Vuong, Rachel M Taylor, Jason C Sousa, Sean R Marcsisin, Victor E Zottig, Nicole L T Moore
Adolescence is a distinct developmental period characterized by behavioral and physiological maturation. Rapid ongoing changes during neurodevelopment in particular present potential opportunities for stress to have lasting effects on longitudinal outcomes of behavioral and neuroendocrine function. While adult stress effects on outcomes during adulthood have been characterized, little is known about the lasting effects of adolescent repeated stressor exposure on outcomes during adolescence. We have previously reported different stress responses in adolescent rats relative to adult rats, including a blunted fear response outcome in adulthood in rats stressed during adolescence...
February 16, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Bruna B Simas, Everson A Nunes, Carlos C Crestani, Guilherme F Speretta
Obesity and chronic stress are considered independent risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and changes in autonomic system activity. However, the cardiovascular consequences induced by the association between high-fat diet (HFD) and chronic stress are not fully understood. We hypothesized that the association between HFD and exposure to a chronic variable stress (CVS) protocol for four weeks might exacerbate the cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances in rats when compared to these factors singly...
February 10, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Sophie E Walker, Carmen Sandi
Experience of adversity early in life and dysregulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity are risk factors often independently associated with the development of psychopathological disorders, including depression, PTSD and pathological aggression. Additional evidence suggests that in combination these factors may interact to shape the development and expression of psychopathology differentially, though little is known about underlying mechanisms. Here, we studied the long-term consequences of early life stress exposure on individuals with differential constitutive glucocorticoid (GR) responsiveness to repeated stressor exposure, assessing both socio-affective behaviors and brain activity in regions sensitive to pathological alterations following stress...
February 7, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Chisato Shimanoe, Megumi Hara, Yuichiro Nishida, Hinako Nanri, Yasuko Otsuka, Mikako Horita, Jun Yasukata, Nobuyuki Miyoshi, Yosuke Yamada, Yasuki Higaki, Keitaro Tanaka
Inconsistent associations have been reported between perceived stress and C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation. We previously observed a male-specific inverse relationship between perceived stress and CRP in a cross-sectional study. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal association between changes in perceived stress and CRP, and further analyzed whether changes in coping strategies and social support modify this association. This study included 8454 participants in both a baseline survey and a follow-up survey 5 years later...
February 5, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Michael A Smith, Victoria C Riccalton, Denise H Kelly-Hughes, Olivia A Craw, Sarah F Allen, Daryl B O'Connor, Mark A Wetherell
Type D personality has been associated with minor health complaints in the general population and dysregulation of basal cortisol secretion in coronary patients. The aims of the present study were to investigate (i) whether there is an association between Type D personality and basal cortisol secretion in the general population, and (ii) whether subjective measures of stress and anxiety, as well as indices of basal cortisol secretion, mediate the relationship between Type D personality and self-reported physical symptoms in this group...
February 5, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Katharina M Hillerer, Barbara Woodside, Emily Parkinson, Hong Long, Silvanna Verlezza, Claire-Dominique Walker
In early lactation (EL), stressor salience modulates neuroendocrine stress responses, but it is unclear whether this persists throughout lactation and which neural structures are implicated. We hypothesized that this process is specific to EL and that the infralimbic (IL) medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) might provide a critical link between assessment of threat and activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in EL. We measured neuroendocrine responses and neuronal Fos induction to a salient (predator odor) or non-salient (tail pinch) psychogenic stressor in EL and late lactation (LL) females...
February 4, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Dina Tell, Herbert L Mathews, Robert L Burr, Linda Witek Janusek
Childhood adversity has long-lasting neuro-biological effects that can manifest as exaggerated stress responsivity to environmental challenge. These manifestations include a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis as well as increased levels of inflammatory mediators in response to stress. In this investigation, vagal parasympathetic activity was assessed for its capacity to moderate the relationship between childhood adversity and stress responsivity (cortisol and inflammation) during an acute laboratory challenge (Trier Social Stress Test-TSST)...
February 1, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Ross W May, Gregory S Seibert, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez, Frank D Fincham
Emerging research documents the relationship between school burnout and some indicators of increased cardiovascular risk. Indicators of cardiovascular functioning assessed via ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV) have not been thoroughly explored in this research domain. Therefore, the current study examined relationships between school burnout and indicators of cardiac functioning via 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiogram monitoring in a sample of young adult female undergraduates (N = 88)...
January 30, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Matias M Pulopulos, Malgorzata W Kozusznik
Previous studies have suggested that meaning in life may buffer the negative effects of stress. This study is the first to investigate the moderating role of meaning in life in the relationship between the perception of stress and diurnal cortisol in two independent samples of healthy adults. In study 1 (n = 172, men = 82, women = 90, age range = 21-55 years, mean age = 37.58 years), the results of moderated regression analyses revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between overall perceived stress in the past month and both diurnal cortisol levels (area-under-the-curve with respect to the ground; AUCg) and the diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) only in individuals with low levels of meaning in life conceptualized as the degree to which one engages in activities that are personally valued and important...
January 26, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Stacey N Doan, Gerrit DeYoung, Thomas E Fuller-Rowell, Cindy Liu, Jerrold Meyer
In the current study, we present data investigating the relationships among stress, sleep disturbance, self-control, and levels of cortisol (CORT) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in fingernail clippings. Currently, hair CORT is the only routinely used noninvasive, validated, biomarker of chronic exposure to stress-related hormones. Nail clippings represent an important potential alternative sample matrix for assessing chronic hormone exposure, as it offers a different timeline of hormone incorporation than scalp hair, and may be obtainable from populations in which hair either is lacking or is unavailable for cultural reasons...
January 26, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Pennie Eddy, Eleanor H Wertheim, Matthew W Hale, Bradley J Wright
We assessed the relationship between physiological and psychological measures of workplace stress as measured by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model, with a seldom studied sample of owner-operator dairy farmers. Dairy farmers (N = 74) self-reported ERI, over-commitment (OC), dedication, and health then provided awakening saliva samples that were used to calculate the salivary alpha amylase awakening response (sAA-AR), cortisol awakening response (CAR), and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) level. ERI, OC, and dedication levels were not related with sIgA or the CAR, but more over-committed farmers had a less pronounced sAA-AR...
January 25, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Ankit Sood, Karina Chaudhari, Vidita A Vaidya
Stress enhances the risk for psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Stress responses vary across sex and may underlie the heightened vulnerability to psychopathology in females. Here, we examined the influence of acute immobilization stress (AIS) and a two-day short-term forced swim stress (FS) on neural activation in multiple cortical and subcortical brain regions, implicated as targets of stress and in the regulation of neuroendocrine stress responses, in male and female rats using Fos as a neural activity marker...
January 10, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Diána Balázsfi, Anna Fodor, Bibiána Török, Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, József Haller, Dóra Zelena
Glutamatergic neurons, characterized by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluT1-3) provide the main excitation in the brain. Their disturbances have been linked to various brain disorders, which could be also modeled by the contextual fear test in rodents. We aimed to characterize the participation of VGluT3 in the development of contextual fear through its contribution to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA) regulation using knockout (KO) mice. Contextual fear conditioning was induced by foot shock and mice were examined 1 and 7 d later in the same environment comparing wild type with KO...
January 8, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Prabarna Ganguly, Vanessa Thompson, Kelsea Gildawie, Heather C Brenhouse
Microglia are resident immune cells of the brain that can regulate neural communication and excitability. Any environmental influence on microglial activity has the potential to alter subsequent neural physiology and behavior. Within the prefrontal cortex, several types of stressors have been shown to increase microglial expression of activation markers such as ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba-1), which suggests altered microglial activity. Recent reports in rodents suggest that exposure to forms of early-life stress such as maternal separation can alter microglial responsivity to subsequent challenges...
January 8, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Kevin M Manz, Wendy A Levine, Joshua C Seckler, Anthony N Iskander, Christian G Reich
Psychosocial stress is linked to the etiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including Major Depressive Disorder and Post-Traumatic-Stress-Disorder. Adolescence is a critical neurobehavioral developmental period wherein the maturing nervous system is sensitive to stress-related psychosocial events. The effects of social defeat stress, an animal model of psychosocial stress, on adolescent neurobehavioral phenomena are not well explored. Using the standard Resident-Intruder-Paradigm (RIP), adolescent Long-Evans (LE, residents, n = 100) and Sprague-Dawley (SD, intruders, n = 100) rats interacted for five days to invoke chronic social stress...
January 8, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Lora Capobianco, Anthony P Morrison, Adrian Wells
Negative metacognitive beliefs are central determinants of distress in the metacognitive model of psychological vulnerability to stress. The current study tested this assertion in 75 undergraduate students assigned to either experimental (metacognitive belief manipulation) or control (no metacognitive belief manipulation) condition. All participants underwent a fake EEG, where they were told that the EEG would detect negative thoughts. The experimental subjects were informed that if they had a negative thought they may be exposed to a contingent burst of loud noise, while the control condition was told that they may be exposed to a burst of loud noise at random...
December 19, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Meghan E Quinn, Kathryn E Grant, Emma K Adam
When exposed to stressful life events, a significant number of adolescents will experience depressive symptoms. One model of depression suggests that individuals with a negative cognitive style are most vulnerable to depression following life stress. Alternatively, altered activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may explain vulnerability to depression following life stress. Each of these models plausibly explains the emergence of depressive symptoms during adolescence and have been investigated largely independently...
December 19, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Megan Johnson, Michael J Vitacco, Elizabeth A Shirtcliff
The stress response system is highly plastic, and hormone rhythms may "adaptively calibrate" in response to treatment. This investigation assessed whether stress and sex hormone diurnal rhythms changed over the course of behavioral treatment, and whether callous-unemotional (CU) traits and history of early adversity affected treatment results on diurnal hormone functioning in a sample of 28 incarcerated adolescent males. It was hypothesized that the treatment would have beneficial effects, such that healthier diurnal rhythms would emerge post-treatment...
December 18, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Samuel S Urlacher, Melissa A Liebert, Martina Konečná
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents an important and evolutionarily ancient biological pathway linking physical and psychological stressors with human health. Despite considerable research exploring the physiological stress response among developed populations, few studies have examined HPA activity in non-industrialized contexts, restricting understanding of variation in human stress reactivity across global socio-ecological diversity. The present study addresses this shortcoming by investigating diurnal cortisol rhythms among Garisakang forager-horticulturalists of remote, lowland Papua New Guinea...
December 13, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
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