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Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress

Ricardo Benini, Leandro A Oliveira, Lucas Gomes-de-Souza, Carlos C Crestani
Habituation of cardiovascular responses upon repeated exposure to stress is controversial. Hence, we hypothesized that habituation of cardiovascular stress responses is influenced by length, frequency, and number of stress sessions in male Wistar rats. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded via femoral artery catheterization and the tail cutaneous temperature was evaluated using a thermal imager. We observed a faster return of heart rate to baseline values during the post-stress period of the 10th daily session in rats subjected to either 60 (n = 8) or 120 min (n = 7), but not 30 min (n = 7), of restraint...
January 11, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Jose Martinez Serrano, Jonathan B Banks, Thomas J Fagan, Jaime L Tartar
We tested the extent to which the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism is associated with stress response and pain in both men and women. The participants were assessed on measures of perceived pain and state/trait anxiety in association with their COMT allele status. We also measured cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels since previous research suggests an association between the COMT Val159Met polymorphism, cortisol secretion, and sAA activity. We found significant differences between methionine (Met) allele carriers and valine (Val) homozygotes following a stress manipulation in sAA levels...
January 10, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
M H Bublitz, G Bourjeily, C Bilodeau, L R Stroud
Breastfeeding is associated with positive maternal and infant outcomes. It is recommended that women exclusively breastfeed for the first 6 months postpartum; however, these recommendations are not met in the majority of women. Psychological distress in pregnancy is associated with lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in the postpartum period. The mechanisms linking maternal distress to breastfeeding are not understood. In this study we examined maternal circadian cortisol as a mechanism linking distress in pregnancy to breastfeeding...
January 10, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Michael R Jarcho, Neal McNeal, William Colburn, Marigny C Normann, W Tang Watanasriyakul, Angela J Grippo
Physical exercise and chronic social stress are both known to impact general health and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, albeit typically in opposing directions. Therefore, the question we investigated in this study was how these two factors - physical exercise and chronic social isolation - would interact when presented simultaneously in a female rodent model. Adult female prairie voles were separated into four experimental groups: (1) isolated without wheel access, (2) isolated with wheel access, (3) paired without wheel access, and (4) paired with wheel access...
January 10, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Robbie Schepers, Esther H Keulers, C Rob Markus
Ample experimental and associative studies have shown that carrying two short (S) alleles of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) contributes to an increased vulnerability for stress and related affective disorders. Recent findings indicate that this relationship might become even more profound when also possessing a negative ruminative (stress-related) thinking style. However, previous studies on the relationship among 5-HTTLPR, stress, and stress-responsiveness almost exclusively measured salivary cortisol concentrations during exposure to a single acute (laboratory) stressor...
January 10, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Carina Teixeira Ribeiro, Waldemar Silva Costa, Francisco José Barcellos Sampaio, Marco Aurélio Pereira Sampaio, Diogo Benchimol de Souza
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic stress from the prepubertal to the adult stages or during adulthood on penile morphology in rats. The animals were immobilized in a cylinder for 2 h daily for a total of six weeks to simulate stress. Ten rats were exposed to stress stimulus beginning from the prepubertal age, while nine rats were exposed to stress stimulus only during adulthood. Animals were killed at 24 h after the last stress session for short-term evaluation (SP-S and SA-S), while other age-matched rats were sacrificed at 6 weeks after the last stress session for long-term evaluation (SP-L and SA-L)...
January 2, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Olivia R Orta, Shelley S Tworoger, Kathryn L Terry, Brent A Coull, Bizu Gelaye, Clemens Kirschbaum, Sixto E Sanchez, Michelle A Williams
Stress is an important and modifiable determinant of health, and its association with hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) during pregnancy remains unclear. We selected a random sample of 97 participants from a cohort of pregnant participants attending prenatal clinics in Lima, Peru. Each provided a hair sample at enrollment (mean gestational age = 13.1 weeks) and again at full-term delivery. Hair samples were segmented to reflect HCC in preconception and each trimester. At enrollment, measures of stress included: difficulty accessing basic goods, educational attainment, exposure to violence, fair or poor general health, perceived stress, and symptoms of depression, general anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder...
December 26, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Feres José Mocayar Marón, León Ferder, Fernando Daniel Saraví, Walter Manucha
Although a large number of available treatments and strategies, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases continues to grow worldwide. Emerging evidence supports the notion of counteracting stress as a critical component of a comprehensive therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular disease. Indeed, an unhealthy lifestyle is a burden to biological variables such as plasma glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure control. Recent findings identify allostatic load as a new paradigm for an integrated understanding of the importance of psychosocial stress and its impact on the development and maintenance of cardiovascular disease...
December 14, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Ting Li-Tempel, Tobias Suer, Tobias Tempel, Mauro F Larra, Ulrike Winnikes, Hartmut Schächinger, Jobst Meyer, Andrea B Schote
The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide mediating stress responses. CRH exerts effects via the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis as well as immediate effects on the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Genetic variants of the CRH promoter were previously found to be associated with altered CRH promoter activity and physiological reactions. Functional characterization of three CRH promoter haplotypes have been performed in vitro using a reporter gene assay under different stimulation conditions...
November 27, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Michela Balconi, Giulia Fronda, Davide Crivelli
Repeated exposure to stressors, even if mild, may alter the efficiency of optimal stress responses and hinder emotion regulation skills. Mindfulness meditation, by strengthening self-regulation and awareness, may optimize the efficiency of physiological, cognitive, and behavioral reactions to stressful events but typically requires notable commitment to practice, which often leads to disengagement. Recent research suggested that such practices may be made more accessible and that the potential for self-enhancement and stress management of meditation might be improved by supporting mental training with wearable neurofeedback devices able to inform the practicer on ongoing modulation of bodily and brain activity...
November 24, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Nicole L Yohn, Michael J Caruso, Julie A Blendy
Chronic administration of nicotine or exposure to stress can produce long-lasting behavioral and physiological changes in humans and animals alike. Further, the impact of nicotine and stress exposure can be inherited by offspring to produce persistent changes in physiology and behavior. To determine if nicotine and stress interact across generations to influence offspring behavior we exposed F0 male mice to nicotine and F1 male and female mice to chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence. We then measured locomotor sensitization to repeated nicotine injections in the subsequent F2 and F3 generations...
November 20, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
E Ullmann, J Licinio, S W Perry, L O White, A M Klein, A Barthel, K Petrowski, T Stalder, B Oratovski, K von Klitzing, S R Bornstein, C Kirschbaum
The pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is incompletely understood. We hypothesize that disruptions in mother-child relations may be a key contributor to development of PTSD. A normal and healthy separation-individuation process requires adaptations of self- and interactive contingency in both the mother and her child, especially in early childhood development. Anxious mothers are prone to overprotection, which may hinder the individuation process in their children. We examined long-term stress hormones and other stress markers in subjects three generations removed from the Holocaust, to assess the long-term consequences of inherited behavioral and physiological responses to prior stress and trauma...
November 13, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Julie Berg Schmidt, Christel Johanneson Bertolt, Anders Sjödin, Frederik Ackermann, Anne Vibeke Schmedes, Henriette Lynge Thomsen, Anne Marie Juncher, Mads F Hjorth
Lay summary: Human and animal studies have shown that chronic stress interfers with both homeostatic and hedonic appetite control. Here, we investigated the effect of chronic stress on food preferences and eating behavior in real life settings. In random order, fifty healthy students participated in two test periods of 4-5 days; a stressful period (one week prior to an examination) and a nonstressful period (four weeks after an examination). Food preferences were assessed by counting money spent on highly rewarding foods bought with gift certificates, and changes in eating behavior was further assessed by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire...
November 2, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Márcio Silveira Corrêa, Daiane Borba de Lima, Bruno Lima Giacobbo, Kelem Vedovelli, Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon, Elke Bromberg
Familial caregivers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients experience an emotional and physical burden which characterizes a chronic stress condition. The resulting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction favors an imbalance of neurotoxic/neuroprotective factors and causes cognitive impairments, increasing the caregivers' risk for cognitive decline and compromising their ability to provide adequate care of the patient. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the reversibility of the cognitive impairments of familial caregivers of AD patients during their caregiving-related chronic stress condition...
November 1, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Christian Schinke, Swen Hesse, Michael Rullmann, Georg-Alexander Becker, Julia Luthardt, Franziska Zientek, Marianne Patt, Muriel Stoppe, Elisa Schmidt, Klara Meyer, Philipp M Meyer, Johannes Orthgieß, Matthias Blüher, Jürgen Kratzsch, Yu-Shin Ding, Florian Then Bergh, Osama Sabri
The central noradrenaline (NA) stress-response network co-mediates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) release. Dysregulation of these systems contributes to stress-related diseases such as human obesity, but their interrelation remains unclear. The study was aimed to test for the first time in vivo whether central noradrenergic activity quantitatively indexed by the availability of the presynaptic NA transporter (NAT) is associated with HPA axis responsiveness as measured with the combined dexamethasone suppression/corticotropin releasing hormone stimulation (dex/CRH) test and copeptin as a surrogate marker of the serum AVP tone in highly obese, otherwise, healthy individuals compared to age- and sex-matched non-obese, healthy controls...
October 29, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
V M Ignatiuk, M S Izvolskaya, V S Sharova, S N Voronova, L A Zakharova
Stress signals during fetal or early postnatal periods may disorganize reproductive axis development at different levels. This study was aimed to test the hypothesis that prenatal immunological stress induced by bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has impact on structure and function of the reproductive system in female offspring. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 5) and a LPS group (n = 12). Rats were injected with LPS 50 μg/kg body or 0.9% saline intraperitoneally on the 12th day of pregnancy...
October 29, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
André Esser, Thomas Kraus, Andreas Tautz, Helmut Minten, Jessica Lang
The allostatic load index (ALI) assesses the physiological adaption to chronic stress by cumulative changes in the circulation, respiration, inflammation, metabolic and anthropometric systems. The ALI thus can function as a risk marker for secondary prevention in occupational medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of creating a predictive marker by using data from an executive checkup program of an international company and to examine its relationship to work-related surrogate health parameters...
October 23, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Robin Hermann, Bianca Biallas, Hans-Georg Predel, Katja Petrowski
As a time-efficient training system, high intensity interval training (HIIT) is well known for several beneficial effects. However, the literature on the stress-generating effects of HIIT shows a research deficit. A standardized comparable stressor and different kinds of stress-parameters are needed for quantifying the results. The present study examined the hormonal, autonomic, and psychological stress outcomes of HIIT compared to a standardized psychosocial stressor and tested the cross-stressor-adaptation (CSA) hypothesis which implies a stress-buffering effect at a good fitness level...
October 21, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Xingxing Mo, Xiao Wang, Qinmin Ge, Fan Bian
Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms of sepsis related organ dysfunction including stress hyperglycemia. Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) could regulate glucose metabolism through its deacetylase activity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of SIRT1/forkhead box protein 1 (FoxO1) pathway on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced INS-1 cells dysfunction from aspects of oxidative stress and apoptosis. After being treated with 1 mg/L LPS together with or without SIRT1 activator resveratrol (RSV) or SIRT1 inhibitor EX527, cell viability, ROS generation, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide, insulin secretion, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in INS-1 cells were measured by specific assays...
October 20, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Monireh-Sadat Mousavi, Gholamhossein Riazi, Alireza Imani, Sogol Meknatkhah, Nahid Fakhraei, Shahriar Pooyan, Nahid Tofigh
Multiple adult health problems are associated with adolescent stress. As the brain discriminates physical and psychological stressors by activation of different neural networks, we hypothesized that behavioral and physiological performance would be modulated differently based on the nature of the stressors. Thus, we studied the comparative effects of adolescent repeated physical and psychological stresses on adult cognitive performance, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) and heart rate in female rats. The aim was to differentiate disparate potency of chronic psychological and physical stresses leading to long-term behavioral and physiological alterations...
October 20, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
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