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Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress

Jenny Hadrévi, Ingibjörg H Jonsdottir, Per-Anders Jansson, Jan W Eriksson, Anna Sjörs
Exhaustion disorder (ED) is a stress-related disorder that often implies a great burden on the individual patient as well as on society. Previous studies have shown that ED is associated with metabolic deviations, such as lowered fasting glucose. Several mechanisms have been discussed as a plausible explanation of the lack of energy described by these patients. Metabolic processes and reduced ability to mobilize energy have been suggested as important factors. This study investigated metabolomics in 20 patients diagnosed with ED and compared them with 21 healthy controls...
August 7, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Brita Roy, Carley Riley, Rajita Sinha
Chronic stress is a risk factor for incident cardiovascular (CV) disease. Emotion regulation is the ability to modulate one's state or behavior in response to a given situation or stressor, and may mitigate the effect of chronic stress on CV disease risk. Data from a cohort of 754 community-dwelling young to middle-aged adults who were assessed between 2007 and 2012 on stress, emotion regulation, and CV risk measures were used to test the hypothesis that emotion regulation mitigates the effect of chronic stress on CV risk...
August 7, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Ugo Cappucci, Giulia Torromino, Assunta Maria Casale, Jeremy Camon, Fabrizio Capitano, Maria Berloco, Andrea Mele, Sergio Pimpinelli, Arianna Rinaldi, Lucia Piacentini
Transposable elements (TEs) are conserved mobile genetic elements that are highly abundant in most eukaryotic genomes. Although the exact function of TEs is still largely unknown, it is increasingly clear that they are significantly modulated in response to stress in a wide range of organisms, either directly or indirectly through regulation of epigenetic silencing. We investigated the effect of repeated restraint stress (2 h a day, for 5 d) on transcription levels of LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon in the brain of inbred BALB/c, DBA/2, C57BL/6N, and outbred CD1 mice...
July 11, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Alina Kistenmacher, Jakob Goetsch, Dorothee Ullmann, Ewelina K Wardzinski, Uwe H Melchert, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Kerstin M Oltmanns
Psychosocial stress may lead to increased food consumption and overweight. In turn, obesity is related to reduced brain energy content. We hypothesized that psychosocial stress influencing food intake may alter the neuroenergetic status in the human brain. We tested 14 healthy normal weight men in a randomized crossover design. A modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was carried out to induce psychosocial stress vs. control in a neuroimaging setting. Cerebral energy content, i.e. high energy phosphates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr), was measured by 31 phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
July 3, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Yung-Nien Yang, Yia-Ping Liu, Mong-Ting Hsieh, Yu-Chieh Lin, Che-Se Tung
Prolonged paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and cold stress (CS) are known to cause sympathoexcitation and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. The present study examined the effect of PSD with CS on hemodynamic perturbations by investigating blood pressure and heart rate variability (BPV and HRV) in conscious rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n = 10, each): normal sleep (NS), PSD of 72 h, and recovery sleep of 7 days after PSD. When compared with NS, PSD increased systolic blood pressure in all three conditions: before CS (PreCS), CS, and after CS (PostCS)...
June 25, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
M Nazmul Huda, Shaikh M Ahmad, Md Jahangir Alam, Afsana Khanam, Md Nure Alam Afsar, Yukiko Wagatsuma, Rubhana Raqib, Charles B Stephensen, Kevin D Laugero
Stress can impair T cell-mediated immunity. To determine if infants with high stress responses had deficits in T-cell mediated immunity, we examined the association of pain-induced cortisol responsiveness with thymic function and vaccine responses in infants. This study was performed among 306 (male = 153 and female = 153) participants of a randomized, controlled trial examining the effect of neonatal vitamin A supplementation on immune function in Bangladesh (NCT01583972). Salivary cortisol was measured before and 20 min after a needle stick (vaccination) at 6 weeks of age...
June 22, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Brooke N Dulka, Richa Koul-Tiwari, J Alex Grizzell, Marquinta L Harvey, Subimal Datta, Matthew A Cooper
Stress is a well-known risk factor for psychopathology and rodent models of social defeat have strong face, etiological, construct and predictive validity for these conditions. Syrian hamsters are highly aggressive and territorial, but after an acute social defeat experience they become submissive and no longer defend their home territory, even from a smaller, non-aggressive intruder. This defeat-induced change in social behavior is called conditioned defeat (CD). We have shown that dominant hamsters show increased neural activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) following social defeat stress and exhibit a reduced CD response at social interaction testing compared to subordinates...
June 22, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Adrián Alacreu-Crespo, Raquel Costa, Diana Abad-Tortosa, Alicia Salvador, Miguel Ángel Serrano
Competition elicits different psychological and cardiovascular responses depending on a person's skills. Decision-making has been considered a distal factor that influences competition, but there are no studies analyzing this relationship. Our objective was to analyze whether decision-making affects the response to competition. Specifically, we aimed to test whether good performers on a decision-making test, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), showed an adaptive cardiovascular response to competition. In all, 116 participants (44 women) performed the IGT and were classified into Good or Poor decision-makers...
June 22, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Damek Homiack, Emma O'Cinneide, Sema Hajmurad, Gary P Dohanich, Laura A Schrader
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by the development of paradoxical memory disturbances including intrusive memories and amnesia for specific details of the traumatic experience. Despite evidence that women are at higher risk to develop PTSD, most animal research has focused on the processes by which male rodents develop adaptive fear memory. As such, the mechanisms contributing to sex differences in the development of PTSD-like memory disturbances are poorly understood. In this investigation, we exposed adult male and female Wistar rats to the synthetic alarm odor 2,4,5-trimethylthiazole (TMT) to assess development of generalized fear behavior and rapid modulation of glutamate uptake and signaling cascades associated with hippocampus-dependent long-term memory...
July 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Hanna Malmberg Gavelin, Therese Eskilsson, Carl-Johan Boraxbekk, Maria Josefsson, Anna Stigsdotter Neely, Lisbeth Slunga Järvholm
Stress-related exhaustion has been associated with selective and enduring cognitive impairments. However, little is known about how to address cognitive deficits in stress rehabilitation and how this influences stress recovery over time. The aim of this open-label, parallel randomized controlled trial ( NCT03073772) was to investigate the long-term effects of 12 weeks cognitive or aerobic training on cognitive function, psychological health, and work ability for patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED)...
July 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Antônio Ribeiro-Oliveira, Junia R O L Schweizer, Pedro H S Amaral, Mariana F Bizzi, Warley Cezar da Silveira, Daniel T A Espirito-Santo, Giancarlo Zille, Beatriz S Soares, Herbert A Schmid, Kevin C J Yuen
Pasireotide is a new-generation somatostatin analog that acts through binding to multiple somatostatin receptor subtypes. Studies have shown that pasireotide induces hyperglycemia, reduces glucocorticoid secretion, alters neurotransmission, and potentially affects stress responses typically manifested as hyperglycemia and increased corticosterone secretion. This study specifically aimed to evaluate whether pasireotide treatment modifies glucose and costicosterone secretion in response to acute restraint stress...
July 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Leslie E Roos, Kathryn G Beauchamp, Ryan Giuliano, Maureen Zalewski, Hyoun K Kim, Philip A Fisher
Although prior research has characterized stress system reactivity (i.e. hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, HPAA; autonomic nervous system, ANS) in children, it has yet to examine the extent to which biological reactivity predicts concurrent goal-directed behavior. Here, we employed a stressor paradigm that allowed concurrent assessment of both stress system reactivity and performance on a speeded-response task to investigate the links between biological reactivity and cognitive function under stress. We further investigated gender as a moderator given previous research suggesting that the ANS may be particularly predictive of behavior in males due to gender differences in socialization...
July 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Olivia R Orta, Shelley S Tworoger, Kathryn L Terry, Brent A Coull, Bizu Gelaye, Clemens Kirschbaum, Sixto E Sanchez, Michelle A Williams
Distal hair segments collected at delivery may allow for the assessment of maternal cortisol secretion in early pregnancy, an important time window for fetal development. Therefore, an investigation of the validity of distal hair cortisol concentrations is warranted. We examined the concordance between proximal and distal hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), both representing the first trimester of pregnancy. The study population was comprised of a random sample of 97 women participating in the Pregnancy Outcomes Maternal and Infant Study, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Lima, Peru...
July 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Rafael Cabbia, Amanda Consoli, Deborah Suchecki
Maternal deprivation (MD) disinhibits the adrenal glands, rendering them responsive to various stressors, including saline injection, and this increased corticosterone (CORT) response can last for as long as 2 h. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that association of MD on day 11 with a saline injection would alter emotional behavior, CORT response, and brain monoamine levels, in male and female adult rats. Rats were submitted to the novelty suppressed feeding (NSF), the sucrose negative contrast test (SNCT), social investigation test (SIT), and the elevated plus maze (EPM)...
July 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Ji-Hye Lee, Sunwhi Kimm, Jung-Soo Han, June-Seek Choi
Being chased by a predator or a dominant conspecific can induce significant stress. However, only a limited number of laboratory studies have employed chasing by itself as a stressor. In this study, we developed a novel stress paradigm in which rats were chased by a fast-moving object in an inescapable maze. In Experiment 1, defensive behaviors and stress hormone changes induced by chasing stress were measured. During the chasing stress, the chasing-stress group (n = 9) froze and emitted 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), but the no-chasing control group (n = 10) did not...
July 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Emily C Cook, Orianna Duncan, Mary Ellen Fernandez, Bryan Mercier, Jason Windrow, Laura R Stroud
Few laboratory paradigms exist that expose adolescents to conflict that might commonly be experienced in parent-adolescent relationships. Given the continued importance of parent-adolescent relationships on adolescent development, as well as the changing expectations in these relationships, we examined the effect of a novel parent-adolescent conflict paradigm on physiological and affective response in a sample of 52 adolescents. The parent-adolescent conflict stressor (PACS) involved adolescent participants (50% girls; M = 14...
July 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Katja Wingenfeld, Lucia Dettenborn, Clemens Kirschbaum, Wei Gao, Christian Otte, Stefan Roepke
Endocannabinoids are involved in depressive and anxious symptoms and might play a role in stress-associated psychiatric disorders. While alterations in the endogenous cannabinoid system have been repeatedly found in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), this system has been mostly neglected in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, there is first evidence for elevated serum levels of the endocannabinoids arachidonylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) in BPD patients compared to healthy controls and PTSD patients...
July 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Andrea M Quinn, Allison R Williams, Teresa I Sivilli, Charles L Raison, Thaddeus W W Pace
Circulating concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, an inflammatory biomarker widely assessed in humans to study the inflammatory response to acute psychological stress, have for decades been quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, biobehavioral researchers are increasingly using cytokine multiplex assays instead of ELISA to measure IL-6 and other cytokines. Despite this trend, multiplex assays have not been directly compared to ELISA for their ability to detect subtle stress-induced changes of IL-6...
July 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Martina Zandara, Carolina Villada, Vanesa Hidalgo, Alicia Salvador
The feeling of stress is increasing in today's societies, particularly in young adults subjected to social evaluative situations in highly competitive academic and work contexts. Threat appraisal is a primary and fundamental reaction when people face a stressful situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dispositional optimism as an antecedent and displacement behavior as a consequence of threat appraisal of a social-evaluative situation of stress. A second objective was to verify the moderating role of physiological responses to stress (heart rate and cortisol reactivity) in the relationship between threat appraisal and displacement behavior...
July 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Chrisanthi Marakaki, Panagiota Pervanidou, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George Mastorakos, Ze'ev Hochberg, George Chrousos, Anastasios Papadimitriou
Concerns over anxiety and depressive symptoms in children with premature adrenarche (PA) have been recently raised. However, to date, most relevant studies are on a small number of girls. In this cross-sectional study, 82 pre-pubertal children (66 girls and 16 boys) diagnosed with PA, were compared to 63 control children regarding their psychological characteristics and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as assessed by salivary cortisol measurement. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by child self-report (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Depression self-rating scale for Children (DSRS)) and parent-report (Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL)) tests validated for the Greek population...
June 19, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
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