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Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress

Cristiane A Favoretto, Giovana C Macedo, Isabel M H Quadros
In rodents, chronic social defeat stress promotes deficits in social interest and social interaction. We further explored these anti-social effects by comparing the consequences of two different defeat stress protocols (episodic vs. continuous stress) in a social investigation test. We expected that continuous, but not episodic, stress would induce social deficits in this model. Furthermore, we tested whether a potentially anxiolytic dose of ethanol reverses social deficits induced by defeat stress. Male Swiss mice were exposed to a 10-day social defeat protocol, using daily confrontations with an aggressive resident mouse...
January 9, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Sterre S H Simons, Antonius H N Cillessen, Carolina de Weerth
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with the cortisol stress response in children. Since alterations in cortisol stress responses have been associated with mental and physical health, this study investigated whether the cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with cortisol stress responses in 6-year-old children...
December 27, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Jereme G Spiers, Hsiao-Jou Cortina Chen, Frederik J Steyn, Nickolas A Lavidis, Trent M Woodruff, John D Lee
In the laboratory setting, typical endocrine and targeted behavioral tests are limited in their ability to provide a direct assessment of stress in animals housed in undisturbed conditions. We hypothesized that an automated phenotyping system would allow the detection of subtle stress-related behavioral changes well beyond the time-frames examined using conventional methods. In the present study, we have utilized the TSE PhenoMaster system to continuously record basal behaviors and physiological parameters including activity, body weight, food intake, and oxygen consumption in undisturbed and stressed C57Bl/6J male mice (n = 12/group), with a pharmacological intervention using the conventional anxiolytic, diazepam (5 mg kg(-1) i...
December 27, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
María J García-Rubio, Laura Espín, Vanesa Hidalgo, Alicia Salvador, Jesús Gómez-Amor
The study of autonomic nervous system changes associated with generalized social phobia (GSP) disorder has increased in recent years, showing contradictory results. The present study aimed to evaluate how young people with GSP reacted before, during, and after exposure to the Trier Stress Social Test (TSST), focusing on their autonomic changes (heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA)) compared to a control group (non-GSP). Some psychological variables were also considered. Sex was specifically studied as a possible modulator of autonomic fluctuations and psychological state...
December 21, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Liang Wang, Pengfei Luo, Fang Zhang, Yuelu Zhang, Xingtong Wang, Fei Chang, Yuechan Zhang, Hongtai Tang, Zhaofan Xia
Stress-induced gastric ulcer is an important life-threatening condition, while the molecular basis of its development is incompletely understood. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune pattern recognition receptor, can induce pro-inflammatory transcription, aggravating a stress ulcer. The present study found that TLR4 played a protective role in a mouse model of water immersion (23 °C) restraint stress. Wild-type (WT) and TLR4(-/-) male mice were respectively divided into five groups (5 per group), and exposed to the stressor for 0, 0...
December 6, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Paulina Valuskova, Vladimir Farar, Katerina Janisova, Katarina Ondicova, Boris Mravec, Richard Kvetnansky, Jaromir Myslivecek
Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) variant AChER expression increases with acute stress, and this persists for an extended period, although the timing, strain and laterality differences, have not been explored previously. Acute stress transiently increases acetylcholine release, which in turn may increase activity of cholinesterases. Also the AChE gene contains a glucocorticoid response element (GRE), and stress-inducible AChE transcription and activity changes are linked to increased glucocorticoid levels. Corticotropin-releasing hormone knockout (CRH-KO) mice have basal glucocorticoid levels similar to wild type (WT) mice, but much lower levels during stress...
December 6, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Ross W May, Gregory S Seibert, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez, Michael C Fitzgerald, Frank D Fincham
The psychological, behavioral and psychosocial implications of self-control are well established, but relatively little is known about its implications for physical health. This study examined the association between self-control and two important indicators of cardiovascular risk: morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) and maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max). Undergraduate students (N = 78) completed a measure of dispositional self-control (Brief Self-Control Scale), participated in a 24-h ambulatory assessment of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), and completed the YMCA Cycle Ergometer Submaximal Test...
November 30, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Evan E Hart, Alexandra Stolyarova, Michael A Conoscenti, Thomas R Minor, Alicia Izquierdo
Physical effort is a common cost of acquiring rewards, and decreased effort is a feature of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Stress affects performance on several tests of cognition and decision-making in both humans and nonhumans. Only a few recent reports show impairing effects of stress in operant tasks involving effort and cognitive flexibility. Brain regions affected by stress such as the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala are also implicated in mediating effortful choices. Here we assessed effort-based decision-making after an acute stress procedure known to induce persistent impairment in shuttle escape and elevated plasma corticosterone...
November 8, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Dominik Langgartner, Sandra Foertsch, Andrea M Füchsl, Stefan O Reber
While animal housing conditions are highly controlled and standardized between different laboratories, there are still many subtle differences that unavoidably influence the host organisms and, consequently, inter-laboratory reproducibility. Here, we investigated the physiological and immunological consequences between two light-dark cycle (LDC) lengths (14h/10h versus 12h/12h LDC) and two commonly used forms of drinking water (acidified drinking water (AW) versus normal tap water (NW)) in single-housed (SH) mice...
October 27, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Catherine E Myers, Milen L Radell, Christine Shind, Yasheca Ebanks-Williams, Kevin D Beck, Mark W Gilbertson
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur in the wake of exposure to a traumatic event. Currently, PTSD symptoms are assessed mainly through self-report in the form of questionnaire or clinical interview. Self-report has inherent limitations, particularly in psychiatric populations who may have limited awareness of deficit, reduced attention span, or poor vocabulary and/or literacy skills. Diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy would be aided by behavioral measures. A viable alternative may be virtual environments, in which the participant guides an on-screen "avatar" through a series of onscreen events meant to simulate real-world situations...
November 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Kristian T Jones, Richard C Shelton, Jun Wan, Li Li
Individuals with insulin resistance (IR) are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Psychological stress may contribute to develop CVD in IR, although mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that individuals with IR have enhanced emotional and physiological responses to acute psychological stress, leading to increased CVD risk. Sixty participants were enrolled into the study, and classified into IR group (n = 31) and insulin sensitive group (n = 29) according to the Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, which was calculated based on an oral glucose tolerance test...
November 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Chrystal Vergara-Lopez, Stephenie Chaudoir, Margaret Bublitz, Maggie O'Reilly Treter, Laura Stroud
We examined the association between two dimensions of maternal parenting style (care and overprotection) and cortisol response to an acute laboratory-induced stressor in healthy youth. Forty-three participants completed the Parental Bonding Instrument and an adapted version of the Trier Social Stress Test-Child (TSST-C). Nine cortisol samples were collected to investigate heterogeneity in different phases of youth's stress response. Multiphase growth-curve modeling was utilized to create latent factors corresponding to individual differences in cortisol during baseline, reactivity, and recovery to the TSST-C...
November 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Li Dai, Xue-Chen Liu, Sen Ye, Hua-Wei Li, Dian-Fu Chen, Xiao-Jian Yu, Xue-Ting Huang, Li Zhang, Fan Yang, Jin-Shu Yang, Wei-Jun Yang
The most widespread type of RNA editing, conversion of adenosine to inosine (A→I), is catalyzed by two members of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family, ADAR1 and ADAR2. These enzymes edit transcripts for neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels during adaption to changes in the physical environment. In the primitive crustacean Artemia, when maternal adults are exposed to unfavorable conditions, they release diapause embryos to withstand harsh environments. The aim of the current study was therefore to elucidate the role of ADAR of Artemia diapause embryos in resistance to stress...
October 4, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Mariusz Sikora, Piotr Konopelski, Kinga Pham, Aleksandra Wyczalkowska-Tomasik, Marcin Ufnal
Non-invasive hemodynamic measurements in rats require placing animals in restrainers. To minimize restraint stress-induced artifacts several habituation protocols have been proposed, however, the results are inconclusive. Here, we evaluated if a 4-week habituation is superior to a shorter habituation, or no habituation. This is the first study comparing different habituation protocols with the use of 4-week continuous telemetry measurements. We did the experiments on male, 16-week old, Sprague Dawley rats. Continuous recordings of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate (HR) were made before and during habituation protocols...
October 4, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Antonella Pollano, María I Zalosnik, Patricia E Durando, Marta M Suárez
Early maternal separation (MS) may produce lasting effects in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) that can change its response to chronic stress in adulthood. Chronic stress affects DH morphology and function, but tianeptine (an anti-depressant) can reverse the stress-induced morphological impairments. Morphologic alterations of hippocampus can affect contextual memory. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of tianeptine in MS and chronically stressed rats, on: 1) volume of the DH and its areas using stereology, and 2) hippocampal dependent memory using a fear conditioning test...
September 8, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Heidemarie Laurent, Chrystal Vergara-Lopez, Laura R Stroud
Efforts to define hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis profiles conferring risk for psychopathology have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps in part due to limited assessment of the stress response. In particular, research has typically focused on HPA responses to performance tasks, while neglecting the interpersonal stressors that become salient during adolescence. In this study we investigated links between psychosocial adjustment - youth internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as competence - and HPA responses to both performance and interpersonal stressors in a normative sample of children and adolescents...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Meghan E Pierce, Laurel M Pritchard
Female veterans are a growing yet understudied population. Currently, 14.6% of all troops deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq are female. Military service is associated with an increased risk for trauma exposure and subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is frequently associated with PTSD. Few studies have examined females diagnosed with PTSD and only one study, to our knowledge, has examined HPA-axis dysregulation in female veterans...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Lubica Horvathova, Alexandra Padova, Andrej Tillinger, Jana Osacka, Jozef Bizik, Boris Mravec
Accumulated evidence indicates that sympathetic nerves may potentiate tumor growth, including melanoma. To elucidate possible mechanisms for this effect, we performed chemical sympathectomy by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (100 mg/kg of body weight); in nine adult male C57BL/6J mice; nine control mice received i.p. vehicle (VEH). Seven days later, all mice were injected subcutaneously with 3 × 10(3) B16-F10 melanoma cells. Mice were euthanized 20 d after injection of melanoma cells, for measurement of tumor weight and expression of genes related to sympathetic signaling, apoptosis, hypoxia and angiogenesis in tumor tissue...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Lindsay Till Hoyt, Katherine B Ehrlich, Heining Cham, Emma K Adam
Despite the increasing popularity of incorporating salivary cortisol measurement into health and social science research, relatively little empirical work has been conducted on the number of saliva samples across the day required to capture key features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm, such as the diurnal cortisol slope, the area under the curve (AUC), and the cortisol awakening response (CAR). The primary purpose of this study is to compare slope, AUC, and CAR measures obtained from an intensive sampling protocol with estimates from less intensive protocols, to identify sampling protocols with minimal participant burden that still provide reasonably accurate assessment of each of these measures...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Yvette Z Szabo, Tamara L Newton, James J Miller, Keith B Lyle, Rafael Fernandez-Botran
The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress-reactivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in saliva and to determine how salivary IL-10 levels change in relation to those of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, following stress. Healthy young adults were randomly assigned to retrieve a negative emotional memory (n = 46) or complete a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 45). Saliva samples were taken 10 min before (baseline) and 50 min after (post-stressor) onset of a 10-min stressor, and were assayed using a high sensitivity multiplex assay for cytokines...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
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