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Journal of Attention Disorders

Michael J Silverstein, Stephen V Faraone, Terry L Leon, Joseph Biederman, Thomas J Spencer, Lenard A Adler
OBJECTIVES: To identify the relationship between the core Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) ADHD symptoms and executive function deficits (EFDs), to evaluate ADHD characteristics of those with executive dysfunction (ED), and to examine the predictive utility of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) in identifying those with adult ADHD and ED. METHOD: Two samples (referred and primary care practice) were pooled together for present analysis...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Matilda A Frick, Gunilla Bohlin, Maria Hedqvist, Karin C Brocki
OBJECTIVE: With a wish to identify early markers of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, we examined effects of temperament and cognitive regulation, during the first 3 years of life, on later inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior. METHOD: Temperament and cognitive regulation were assessed at 12, 18, 24, and 36 months in 66 typically developing children. Teachers rated inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity at 6 years. RESULTS: Temperamental activity at all studied time points was predictive of later hyperactive/impulsive behavior, thus appearing as a stable marker thereof...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Vanessa K Thoma, Yoanna Schulz-Zhecheva, Christoph Oser, Christian Fleischhaker, Monica Biscaldi, Christoph Klein
OBJECTIVE: Relationships between sleep, screen-based media, and ADHD symptomatology were investigated using a case- and community-based approach. METHOD: N = 357 healthy and N = 61 children with ADHD (12.72 ± 2.83 years) completed a sleep and media questionnaire. To measure ADHD symptomatology, parents filled out the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD symptoms and Normal behavior (SWAN) scale. Two samples were formed: a matched ( N = 61 patients and N = 61 controls) and a community sample ( N = 357 healthy participants and N = 20 patients)...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Han Jiang, Stuart J Johnstone, Li Sun, Da-Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This preliminary study investigated effectiveness of neurocognitive training on academic engagement (AET) for children with ADHD. The training approach targeted working memory, inhibitory control, and attention/relaxation (via brain electrical activity). METHOD: A reversal design with a 2-week follow-up was used to assess the effectiveness of the treatment on two children with diagnosed ADHD in two learning settings. Direct observation was used to collect academic-related behavior...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
MinKyoung Song, Nathan F Dieckmann, Joel T Nigg
OBJECTIVE: Among U.S. children, ADHD epidemiological estimates (3%-5%) vary significantly from case identification rates (over 11%), leading to confusion about true incidence and prevalence. We investigated the extent to which this discrepancy could be resolved by definitional issues through reexamining the most cited U.S. survey of case identification, the National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). METHOD: Using NSCH 2007/2008 and 2011/2012, we stratified identification of ADHD by current status, severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and ADHD medication usage...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Arthur D P Mak, Alicia K W Chan, Phyllis K L Chan, C P Tang, Kelly Lai, Sheila Wong, Patrick Leung, S F Hung, Linda C W Lam, Sing Lee
OBJECTIVE: We examined adulthood diagnostic, functioning, and social outcomes of childhood ADHD in a Hong Kong Chinese clinical sample. METHOD: We identified from the central registry 499 Chinese adults clinically diagnosed with ADHD aged 6 to 12 in 2002-2005 in four Hong Kong child psychiatric centers. Assessments included ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale (ACDS), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID), and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS)...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Haixi Lin, Qingxia Lin, Hailong Li, Meihao Wang, Hong Chen, Yan Liang, Xuan Bu, Weiqian Wang, Yanhong Yi, Yongzhong Zhao, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yupeng Xie, Songmei Du, Chuang Yang, Xiaoqi Huang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore alterations of seed-based functional connectivity (FC) in dorsal attention network (DAN), ventral attention network (VAN), and default mode network (DMN) in ADHD children. METHOD: A voxel-based comparison of FC maps between 46 drug-naïve children with ADHD and 31 healthy controls (HCs) and correlation analysis between connectivity features and behavior were performed. RESULTS: Compared with the HCs, children with ADHD were characterized by hyperconnectivity between DAN and regions of DMN and by hyperconnectivity between DMN and a set of regions involved in somatosensory, visual, and auditory cortices...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Hoshiar Sangawi, John Adams, Nadja Reissland
OBJECTIVE: Parental monitoring is a factor which affects verbal and nonverbal inhibition components of children's executive functions.,. METHOD: 112 sixth-grade Kurdish children (mean age: 11 years 5 months) participated in the study. Children were matched on level of hyperactivity. Parents completed the Parental Monitoring Assessment (PMA) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Children completed theStop-Signal task, Modified Opposite Worlds and a challenging star puzzle in order to assess executive function components...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Anna Ridderinkhof, Esther I de Bruin, Sanne van den Driesschen, Susan M Bögels
OBJECTIVE: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypical attention. Mindfulness-based programs (MBPs), with self-regulation of attention as a basic component, could benefit these children. METHOD: We investigated how 49 children with ASD differed from 51 typically developing (TD) children in their attention systems; and whether their attention systems were improved by an MBP for children and their parents (MYmind), using a cognitive measure of attention, the Attention Network Test...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Alain Joseph, Charlotte E Kosmas, Chloe Patel, Helen Doll, Philip Asherson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adult ADHD. METHOD: U.K. residents aged 18 to 55 years with ADHD and no major mental health comorbidities completed an online survey of disorder history, the EuroQoL 5-Dimensions 5-Level (EQ-5D-5L), and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health (WPAI:GH). ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) score was assessed by telephone. RESULTS: In total, 233 participants completed the study (mean age 32...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Julia Ryan, Maria Rogers
Event segmentation is the automatic cognitive process of chunking ongoing information into meaningful events. Event segmentation theory (EST) proposes that event segmentation is a grouping process fundamental to normal, everyday perceptual processing, taking a central role in attention and action control. The neurocognitive deficits observed among individuals with ADHD overlap those involved in event segmentation, but to date no research has examined event segmentation in the context of ADHD. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to document the event segmentation deficits of individuals with ADHD...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Benjamin G Shapero, Brandon E Gibb, Abigail Archibald, Timothy E Wilens, Maurizio Fava, Dina R Hirshfeld-Becker
OBJECTIVE: Youth diagnosed with ADHD are at heightened risk of depression. However, many do not develop depression. Individuals with specific cognitive biases are more likely to develop depression yet it remains untested whether these vulnerability-stress models apply to depression risk in youth with ADHD. METHOD: We examined whether interpretation and attention biases moderated the relation between stressful life events and depressive symptoms in a sample of adolescents ( Mage = 14...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Daryl Efron, Michell Wijaya, Philip Hazell, Emma Sciberras
OBJECTIVES: To investigate (a) whether children with ADHD experience higher levels of overt and relational peer victimization (PV) than children without ADHD and (b) child, family, and school predictors of PV in children with ADHD. METHOD: 173 children with ADHD and 199 non-ADHD controls were recruited through 43 Melbourne schools at mean age 7.3 years. Parent- and teacher-reported PV (Social Experience Questionnaire) data were collected at mean age 8.9 years. Potential child, family, and school predictors of PV were measured at baseline...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Sébastien Weibel, Margaret Weiss, Marie Gachet, Kelly Guichard, Stéphanie Bioulac, Pierre Philip, Isabelle Jaussent, Yves Dauvilliers, Régis Lopez
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the psychometric properties of the French version of the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Self Report (WFIRS-S) in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. METHOD: Patients ( N = 363) were diagnosed with ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) criteria. Psychometric properties of the French version of the WFIRS-S were tested including construct validity with a confirmatory factor analysis, internal structural validity with Cronbach's alpha coefficient, external validity by correlations with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the EuroQol five-dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Dara E Babinski, Julia D McQuade
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates borderline personality features (BPF) as a mediator of the association between ADHD and ODD symptoms and aggression in girls. METHOD: Parents of 118 girls ( Mage = 11.40 years old) with and without ADHD completed ratings of ADHD and ODD severity, and parents and youth provided ratings of physical and relational aggression. RESULTS: ADHD, ODD, and their subfactors were significantly correlated with BPF, and these variables were associated with aggression measures...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Aja Louise Murray, Tom Booth, Bonnie Auyeung, Manuel Eisner, Denis Ribeaud, Ingrid Obsuth
OBJECTIVE: Substantial individual variation exists in the age of onset and course of ADHD symptoms over development. We evaluated whether, within this variation, meaningful developmental subtypes can be defined. METHOD: Using growth mixture modeling in a community-based sample ( N = 1,571), we analyzed ADHD symptom trajectories based on measures taken at ages 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, and 15 years. We evaluated whether those showing developmental trajectories characterized by later onsets versus early onsets differed in terms of mental health and behavioral outcomes in late adolescence (age 17 years)...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
H Edmund Pigott, Rex Cannon, Mark Trullinger
BACKGROUND: Sham-controlled neurofeedback (NFB) trials consistently find no separation on ADHD outcome measures leading many to conclude that NFB's beneficial effects are due to placebo. METHOD: We deconstruct the NFB training methodology and findings of six sham-controlled trials that assessed for evidence of learning. RESULTS: All six studies found no evidence NFB subjects learned to self-modulate the targeted electroencephalogram (EEG)...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Morgan M Dorr, Kevin J Armstrong
OBJECTIVE: To better understand current issues with adult ADHD assessment contributing to adult ADHD being under recognized and undertreated. METHOD: This study examined the relationship between symptoms, impairment, and executive functioning (EF) in a college sample. RESULTS: Among individuals screening negative for ADHD, those higher in EF experienced significantly less impairment than those lower in EF. Executive functioning was shown to have a negative relationship with impairment while ADHD symptomology was shown to have a positive relationship with impairment...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Inmaculada Insa, José A Alda, Marta Chamorro, Marta Espadas, Anna Huguet
OBJECTIVE: ADHD has a complex and negative influence on the family system. The aim of this study was to analyze the perception of emotional distress in a group of parents of children with ADHD. METHOD: A sample was recruited from the public health system ADHD Unit at Sant Joan de Déu Hospital (Barcelona). The parents of 60 children with newly diagnosed ADHD and the parents of 60 healthy children were included. RESULTS: Higher levels of distress in families with children with ADHD were seen...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Gloria T Han, Yi-Lung Chen, Fang-Ju Tsai, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the reciprocal and temporal relations between ADHD symptoms and emotional problems in school-age children. METHOD: This 1-year longitudinal study with a four-wave design included 1,253 children and adolescents (254 third graders, 281 fifth graders, and 718 eighth graders; 50.9% boys). ADHD symptoms and emotional problems were measured using parent report of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version IV Scale and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
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