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Journal of Attention Disorders

Michael J Silverstein, Stephen V Faraone, Samuel Alperin, Terry L Leon, Joseph Biederman, Thomas J Spencer, Lenard A Adler
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to validate the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded versions, including executive function deficits (EFDs) and emotional dyscontrol (EC) items, and to present ASRS and AISRS pilot normative data. METHOD: Two patient samples (referred and primary care physician [PCP] controls) were pooled together for these analyses. RESULTS: Final analysis included 297 respondents, 171 with adult ADHD...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Ana T Rondon, Dane C Hilton, Matthew A Jarrett, Thomas H Ollendick
OBJECTIVE: We compared clinic-referred youth with ADHD + sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT; n = 34), ADHD Only ( n = 108), and SCT Only ( n = 22) on demographics, co-occurring symptomatology, comorbid diagnoses, and social functioning. METHOD: In total, 164 youth (age = 6-17 years, M = 9.97) and their parent(s) presented to an outpatient clinic for a psychoeducational assessment. Between-group analyses and regressions were used to examine study variables. RESULTS: SCT groups were older and exhibited more parent-reported internalizing problems, externalizing problems, sleep problems, and social withdrawal on the Child Behavior Checklist...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Kelly Y C Lai, Joyce L C Ma, Lily L L Xia
OBJECTIVE: Medication combined with psychosocial intervention is the recommended treatment for ADHD. What is not clear is which of the parents participate in psychosocial interventions, and whether the impacts are different for fathers and mothers. This is important because of the different roles fathers and mothers have in shaping their child's development. This article examines the impact of multifamily therapy on a sample of fathers and mothers from Hong Kong whose children suffer from ADHD...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Symon M Kariuki, Charles R J C Newton, Amina Abubakar, Mary A Bitta, Rachael Odhiambo, Jacqueline Phillips Owen
OBJECTIVE: We determined the reliability of The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) for screening and diagnosing ADHD in children. METHOD: K-SADS-PL was administered to 2,074 children in the community. Psychometric properties, factorial structure, and clinical validity of K-SADS-PL in screening or diagnosis of ADHD were examined. RESULTS: Internal consistency was excellent for items in the screening interview (Macdonald's Omega [ω] = 0...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Paloma Varela Casal, Flavia Lorena Esposito, Imanol Morata Martínez, Alba Capdevila, Maria Solé Puig, Núria de la Osa, Lourdes Ezpeleta, Alexandre Perera I Lluna, Stephen V Faraone, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Hans Supèr, Jose Cañete
OBJECTIVE: ADHD youth show poor oculomotor control. Recent research shows that attention-related eye vergence is weak in ADHD children. METHOD: To validate vergence as a marker to classify ADHD, we assessed the modulation in the angle of vergence of children ( n = 43) previously diagnosed with ADHD while performing an attention task and compared the results with age-matched clinical controls ( n = 19) and healthy peers ( n = 30). RESULTS: We observed strong vergence responses in healthy participants and weak vergence in the clinical controls...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Judy P M van Stralen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of guanfacine extended-release (GXR) versus placebo as adjunct therapy to usual care stimulant therapy in improving executive function in children aged 6 to 12 years diagnosed with ADHD. METHOD: In this single center, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial, subjects continued to take their psychostimulant and were randomly assigned at baseline to receive active treatment or placebo first. Efficacy measures included Behavioural Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-P), ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS IV), and Clinical Global Impressions of Severity of Illness (CGI-S) and Improvement (CGI-I) scales...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Mathias Luderer, Christian Sick, Nurcihan Kaplan-Wickel, Iris Reinhard, Agnes Richter, Falk Kiefer, Tillmann Weber
OBJECTIVE: ADHD is common in patients with alcohol dependence, but prevalence results are inconsistent. We investigated ADHD prevalence in a complex design to avoid over- or underdiagnosing. METHOD: Patients with alcohol dependence starting long-term residential treatment were included. A structured interview (Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults [DIVA]) was conducted on all patients. DIVA results indicating childhood or adulthood ADHD were assessed in successive diagnostic interviews by two expert clinicians...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Arthur D Anastopoulos, Kristen A King, Laura H Besecker, Sarah R O'Rourke, Allison C Bray, Andrew J Supple
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the extent to which college students with ADHD continued to benefit from a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program beyond the active phase of treatment. METHOD: In successive cohorts over a 4-year period, a total of 88 college students with well-defined ADHD received CBT in an open clinical trial format that included active treatment and maintenance phases delivered across two consecutive semesters. RESULTS: Immediately following active treatment, participants displayed statistically significant reductions in ADHD symptoms, improvements in executive functioning, and declines in anxiety and depression symptoms...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Joseph Ben-Sheetrit, Hanan Tasker, Lee Avnat, Pavel Golubchik, Abraham Weizman, Iris Manor
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate attentional impairment in different age groups with ADHD. METHOD: In all, 58 children, 73 adolescents, and 104 adults with ADHD were evaluated using the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). Subjects with comorbidities or psychotropic treatment were not included. RESULTS: Considering Response Time Variability (RTV), adults were 10.6 and 4.0 times more likely to be severely impaired (standard score < 40) than children and adolescents, respectively...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Lu Liu, Wai Chen, Li Sun, Jia Cheng, Yi Su, Daniel Rudaizky, Hai-Mei Li, Li Yang, Qiu-Jin Qian, Yu-Feng Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the concurrent validity of emotional lability (EL) in children with ADHD. METHOD: A total of 2,015 children with ADHD and 745 typically developed controls (TDCs) were assessed and compared on EL. RESULTS: ADHD participants expressed higher EL scores than TDCs, not influenced by gender or IQ. Higher levels of EL symptoms were found in children with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and with ADHD-combined subtype...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Sheina A Godovich, Samantha Adelsberg, Amy Krain Roy
OBJECTIVE: Children with ADHD frequently exhibit temper outbursts (TO). One related factor may be parental responses, such as harsh discipline and accommodation. This study tests the hypotheses that these responses will be associated with greater TO, and parental characteristics of higher anger and lower sense of competence, in children with ADHD. METHOD: Participants included 79 5- to 9-year-old children with ADHD (77.22% boys). Regressions were used to determine the association between parental psychological factors and responses to TO while covarying for TO frequency, severity, and duration...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Margaret Grace, Theresa L Kapke, Al Castro, Alyson C Gerdes
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the incremental clinical utility of parent and teacher reports of ADHD symptomatology and functional impairment in Latino youth, as well as parent and teacher agreement with the final clinical judgment on a diagnostic structured interview. METHOD: Participants included 70 Latino youth (47 males, 23 females; M age = 8.13 years, SD = 2.51 years) and their parents and teachers; 60 participants were diagnosed with ADHD. Correlations, percent agreement, kappas, and regressions were utilized...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Ana Machado, Diana Rafaela, Tânia Silva, Tânia Veigas, Joaquim Cerejeira
OBJECTIVE: Longitudinal studies have shown a strong association between ADHD and criminal behavior. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of adult ADHD in a high-security facility and to investigate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and psychopathic traits in criminal offenders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants were recruited between October 2015 and January 2016 among the inmates from a high-security all-male correctional facility in Portugal...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Glen R Elliott, Christine Blasey, William Rekshan, A John Rush, Donna M Palmer, Simon Clarke, Michael Kohn, Craig Kaplan, Evian Gordon
OBJECTIVE: To explore the utility of cognitive measures for predicting response of children and adolescents to methylphenidate (MPH). METHOD: Participants from the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment-in ADHD (iSPOT-A) completed a cognitive test battery prior to receiving 6 weeks of MPH. The responder criterion was a 25% reduction in ADHD-Rating Scale-IV scores. Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) classified non-responders from responders with maximal sensitivity and specificity...
December 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Kenneth K C Man, Patrick Ip, Yingfen Hsia, Esther W Chan, Celine S L Chui, May P S Lam, Wilfred H S Wong, C B Chow, Ada Yung, Ian C K Wong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of ADHD medication prescribing of school-aged children in Hong Kong (HK) from 2001 to 2013 and to compare with other countries. METHOD: Using the Hong Kong Hospital Authority Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System, we investigated the epidemiology and prevalence of ADHD medication prescribing. RESULTS: The prevalence of children on ADHD medication increased 14 times throughout the study period-0...
December 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Jun Maruta, Lisa A Spielman, Irene D Tseretopoulos, Adrienne Hezghia, Jamshid Ghajar
OBJECTIVE: The nature of ADHD, especially in adulthood, is not well-understood. Therefore, we explored subcomponents of attention in adult ADHD. METHOD: Twenty-three adults with ADHD were tested on neurocognitive and visual tracking performance both while on their regular prescription stimulant medication and while abstaining from the medication for 1 day. Pairwise comparisons to 46 two-for-one matched normal controls were made to detect medication-resistant effects of ADHD, and within-participant comparisons were made to detect medication-sensitive effects in patients...
December 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Adelaide S Robb, Robert L Findling, Ann C Childress, Sally A Berry, Heidi W Belden, Sharon B Wigal
OBJECTIVE: To test whether an optimal dose of Quillivant XR (methylphenidate extended-release oral suspension [MEROS]) would significantly reduce symptoms of ADHD in children. METHOD: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, efficacy, safety, and tolerability study of MEROS in 45 children aged 6 to 12 years (open-label dose-optimization phase, followed by double-blind cross-over period). RESULTS: MEROS was significantly more efficacious than placebo during double-blind cross-over laboratory classroom days (Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham Rating Scale and Permanent Product Measure of Performance)...
December 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Lutfi Jaber, Shmuel Rigler, Avinoam Shuper, Gary Diamond
OBJECTIVE: To examine dispensing patterns of methylphenidate (MPH) to determine how socioeconomic status (SES), ethnocultural affiliation, and gender affect the medical treatment of ADHD. METHOD: We reviewed MPH prescription records for year 2011 of children aged 6 to 18, from regional pharmacies serving homogeneous neighborhoods. RESULTS: MPH prescriptions showed an increase in prevalence from 4.2% to 7.5% in the years 2007 to 2011, respectively...
December 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Özgür Öner, Esra Şafak Yilmaz, Hasan Karadağ, Mert Vural, Elif Hilal Vural, Akif Akbulat, Hakkı Gürsöz, Hakan Türkçapar, Saim Kerman
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the change of ADHD medication prescriptions in Turkey between 2009 and 2013. METHOD: Consumption data of ADHD medications, immediate release (IR) methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), OROS MPH (Concerta), and atomoxetine (Strattera) were obtained from IMS Health database for the November 2008 to October 2013 period. Defined daily dose (DDD) of each drug was calculated according to WHO definitions and time-series analysis was conducted. RESULTS: There was a significant seasonal effect for prescription of all drugs...
December 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Richard Weisler, Lawrence Ginsberg, Bryan Dirks, Patrick Deas, Ben Adeyi, Lenard A Adler
OBJECTIVE: To examine the level of agreement between self- and observer-reported ratings of ADHD symptoms and executive function (EF) behaviors in adults with moderate to severe ADHD and EF deficits. METHOD: During a 10-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effect of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on EF was assessed by self-report and informant report (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version), and ADHD symptoms were assessed by clinician- and informant-rated scales (ADHD Rating Scale IV with adult prompts and Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Observer Report: Short Version, respectively)...
December 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
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