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Journal of Attention Disorders

Paulo A Graziano, Alexis M Garcia, Taylor D Landis
OBJECTIVE: To examine how fidget spinners affect children with ADHD's gross motor activity and attentional functioning in class, both during the initial and final phase of an intensive evidence-based behavioral treatment. METHOD: Using an A-B-A-B design, 60 children ( Mage = 4.86 years, 83% Hispanic) diagnosed with ADHD participated in the study. Following a baseline period, four random children from each classroom were given fidget spinners across three separate days ( n = 48)...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Eunice N Simões, Ana L Novais Carvalho, Sergio L Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Continuous performance tests (CPTs) usually utilize visual stimuli. A previous investigation showed that inattention is partially independent of modality, but response inhibition is modality-specific. Here we aimed to compare performance on visual and auditory CPTs in ADHD and in healthy controls. METHOD: The sample consisted of 160 elementary and high school students (43 ADHD, 117 controls). For each sensory modality, five variables were extracted: commission errors (CEs) and omission errors (OEs), reaction time (RT), variability of reaction time (VRT), and coefficient of variability (CofV = VRT / RT)...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Peter S Jensen, Thomas Weisner, Stephen P Hinshaw
Despite enormous social-psychological and economic consequences of substance abuse in youth and young adults, too little is known about effective interventions among substance users, both with and without ADHD. This special issue reports on four linked investigations that employed a novel research strategy when the Multimodal Treatment Children with ADHD Study (MTA) participants were between ages 21.7 and 27.3 years old (14-16 years after initial assessments). Using combination of in-depth qualitative narrative interviews and quantitative analyses ("mixed methods") of 183 participants from four to six original MTA sites, investigators sought to obtain a more complete understanding of factors contributing to youths' substance use (SU) initiation, maintenance, and desistence, (both among youth with ADHD and control participants)...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Mary V Solanto
OBJECTIVE: Three recent prospective longitudinal studies of population cohorts reported nontrivial rates of "adult-onset" ADHD. Given that this result is at odds with the neurodevelopmental conceptualization of ADHD, as well as with general clinical experience, we obtained report of onset of symptoms in a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with ADHD. METHOD: One hundred four adults diagnosed with ADHD completed retrospective ratings of DSM-IV/DSM-5 ADHD symptoms between the ages of 5 and 12 years...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
M L Cervantes-Henríquez, J E Acosta-López, M L Martínez-Banfi, J I Vélez, E Mejía-Segura, S G Lozano-Gutiérrez, M Sánchez-Rojas, M A Zurbarán, E E Zurek, M Arcos-Burgos, D A Pineda, P J Puentes-Rozo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to contrast the genetics of neuropsychological tasks in individuals from nuclear families clustering ADHD in a Caribbean community. METHOD: We recruited and clinically characterized 408 individuals using an extensive battery of neuropsychological tasks. The genetic variance underpinning these tasks was estimated by heritability. A predictive framework for ADHD diagnosis was derived using these tasks. RESULTS: We found that individuals with ADHD differed from controls in tasks of mental control, visuospatial ability, visuoverbal memory, phonological and verbal fluency, verbal and semantic fluency, cognitive flexibility, and cognitive ability...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Huei-Fan Hu, Chia-Nan Yen, Yu-Yu Wu, Ray C Hsiao, Cheng-Fang Yen, Chung-Ping Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To examine the levels of agreement between the reports of 452 children and their mothers on children's experiences of bullying involvement at school and investigate the factors influencing the levels of agreement in children with ADHD. METHOD: The levels of agreement between children's and mothers' reports were examined. The influence of age, sex, ADHD symptoms, and psychiatric comorbidities on the levels of agreement was also examined. RESULTS: The results indicated low agreement on the experiences of bullying involvement in child-mother ADHD dyads...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Stéphanie Bioulac, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Jenna Maire, Manuel P Bouvard, Albert A Rizzo, Patricia Sagaspe, Pierre Philip
OBJECTIVE: Virtual environments have been used to assess children with ADHD but have never been tested as therapeutic tools. We tested a new virtual classroom cognitive remediation program to improve symptoms in children with ADHD. METHOD: In this randomized clinical trial, 51 children with ADHD (7-11 years) were assigned to a virtual cognitive remediation group, a methylphenidate group, or a psychotherapy group. All children were evaluated before and after therapy with an ADHD Rating Scale, a Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and a virtual classroom task...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Pierre Fumeaux, Catherine Mercier, Sylvain Roche, Jean Iwaz, Philippe Stéphan, Olivier Revol
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine measurement invariance and discriminant validity of the French Lausanne version (FLV) of the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised, Short Form (CPRS-R:S) and assess its convergent validity against the ADHD Symptoms Rating Scale (ADHD-SRS) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). METHOD: A confirmatory factor analysis and Tobit models were used in 108 ADHD children (aged 6-17) vs. 794 controls (aged 9-15) and score correlations were examined between FLV and ADHD-SRS then CBCL...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Benjamin J Lovett, Alexander H Jordan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether administration of a common ADHD screener followed by generic feedback would affect college students' subsequent symptom reports and cognitive performance. METHOD: Participants were 157 college students randomly assigned to an experimental group-which completed the World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale screener and received standard generic feedback-or a control group. All participants then completed a battery of cognitive tasks and a long-form symptom rating scale...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Justin E Karr, Michelle Y Kibby, Audreyana C Jagger-Rickels, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the sensitivity/specificity of a global sum score (GSS) from the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, Executive Function screener (BASC-2-EF) at classifying children with/without ADHD and/or reading disability (RD). METHOD: The BASC-2 Teacher/Parent Rating Scales (TRS/PRS) were completed for children (8-12 years old; 43.1% female) with no diagnosis ( n = 53), RD ( n = 34), ADHD ( n = 85), co-morbid RD/ADHD ( n = 36), and other diagnoses ( n = 15)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Agnese Capodieci, Giulia Crisci, Irene Cristina Mammarella
OBJECTIVE: Positive illusory bias (PIB) has been amply studied in children with ADHD, but its function is still limited understanding. METHOD: In a sample of 21 children with symptoms of ADHD, this study investigated whether they were more likely to be rejected by peers and examined PIB, and its influence on self-concept and loneliness, comparing the children with symptoms of ADHD with children who had weak social skills, but no ADHD. The children's and teachers' perception of social difficulties were compared, and self-concept and loneliness were analyzed in the two groups, which were also compared with typically developing (TD) children...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Lucy Barnard-Brak, Brook Roberts, Evelyn Valenzuela
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological interventions combined with behavioral treatment have been associated with better outcomes for children with ADHD. Yet, as children age into adolescence and gain autonomy, they may choose not to adhere to taking a prescribed medication. The purpose of the current study was to examine school outcomes among adolescents with ADHD who take medication breaks versus resisting medication with respect to grades and school behaviors. METHOD: We statistically controlled for a variety of variables such as the child's age, sex, the presence of side effects, and parent's relationship with child...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Naama Gershy, Sarah A O Gray
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the role of parental emotion regulation (ER) and parental mentalization as possible contributors to hostile and coercive parenting in families of children with ADHD. METHOD: Seventy-four Israeli families (64 mothers and 48 fathers) seeking parent training for child ADHD completed measures during the intake session. Measures included parental ER; parental mentalization; hostile, coercive, and submissive parenting; and child symptoms...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Zoe R Smith, Rosanna P Breaux, Cathrin D Green, Joshua M Langberg
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated which Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) factors (i.e., Slow, Sleepy, Daydreamer) are most strongly associated with homework motivation, and whether homework motivation mediates the path between SCT and academic impairment. METHOD: Participants were 285 middle school students (boys 209) in Grades 6 to 8 (ages 10-15 years) who were comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD. RESULTS: Parent- and self-report of SCT Slow behaviors predicted homework motivation above and beyond symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, depression, and intelligence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Christina A Martin, Harriet Hiscock, Nicole Rinehart, Helen S Heussler, Christian Hyde, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Jane McGillivray, David W Austin, Alexa Chalmers, Emma Sciberras
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether self-reported sleep hygiene practices are associated with self- and parent-reported behavioral sleep problems in adolescents with ADHD. METHOD: Participants included 79 adolescents with ADHD (13-17 years) and their parents. Adolescents were asked to report on their sleep hygiene (Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale) and sleep (Adolescent Sleep Wake Scale). Parents also reported on their adolescent's sleep (Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Mary Alexis Iaccarino, Lisa Liang Philpotts, Ross Zafonte, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) often presents with cognitive complaints including difficulty with attention and concentration. As these symptoms resemble those of ADHD, stimulants may be a potential treatment for mTBI. This review evaluates the literature on the use of stimulants for the treatment of mTBI. METHOD: A systematic evaluation of the literature using six databases: Ovidmedline, Pubmed, psychINFO, CINAH, Embase, and Cochrane. Broad search terms were used and studies were included that evaluate the use of stimulant and stimulant-like medications in the mTBI population...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Kayla N Anderson, Annelise C Dutton, Cheryl S Broussard, Sherry L Farr, Jennifer N Lind, Susanna N Visser, Elizabeth C Ailes, Stuart K Shapira, Jennita Reefhuis, Sarah C Tinker
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of, and maternal characteristics associated with, ADHD medication use before and during pregnancy, and associations between early pregnancy ADHD medication use and risk for 12 selected birth defects. METHOD: We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1998-2011), a U.S. population-based case-control study examining risk factors for major structural birth defects. RESULTS: There was an increase in ADHD medication use from 1998-1999 (0...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Marie M A Nankoo, Romina Palermo, Jason Alan Bell, Carmela M Pestell
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rate of ADHD-related traits among young adults in an Australian university, and to examine whether higher endorsement of ADHD-related symptoms is associated with self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, distress, and autistic-like traits. METHOD: In total, 1,002 students aged 17 to 25 years completed the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS), the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS), and the Autism Quotient (AQ). RESULTS: About 17...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Alan McLuckie, Ashley L Landers, Melissa Rowbotham, Jeff Landine, Michael Schwartz, David Ng
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between parenting stress and parent- and teacher-reported executive function difficulties (EFDs) for childhood ADHD. METHOD: A secondary analysis using linear regression was conducted on parent- and teacher-completed Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function and Parenting Stress Indexes for 5- to 12-year-olds ( n = 243) with ADHD. RESULTS: The linear combination of teacher- and parent-reported EFDs accounted for 49% of the variance in child-related parenting stress...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Defeng Xu, Lu Liu, Haimei Li, Li Sun, Li Yang, Qiujin Qian, Yufeng Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of the adrenergic receptor alpha-2A gene ( ADRA2A) in the genetic etiology of ADHD comorbid with tic disorders (ADHD+TD). METHOD: Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ADRA2A were genotyped and analyzed in 936 normal controls and 1,815 ADHD probands, including 1,249 trios. Approximately 16% of the ADHD probands also had a diagnosis of TD. RESULTS: No significant association was found between ADRA2A and ADHD in general...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
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