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Journal of Attention Disorders

Francesco Oliva, Chiara Mangiapane, Gabriele Nibbio, Alberto Portigliatti Pomeri, Giuseppe Maina
OBJECTIVE: To assess prevalence of personality traits and disorders according to Millon's evolution-based model and to identify the most representative personality profiles among adult ADHD outpatients. METHOD: Personality traits and disorders were evaluated using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) and an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in a consecutive sample of adult ADHD outpatients ( N = 70) diagnosed by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-version 1...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
G Salunkhe, K Weissbrodt, B Feige, C W N Saville, A Berger, N M Dundon, S Bender, N Smyrnis, A Beauducel, M Biscaldi, C Klein
OBJECTIVE: Recent discussions of aetiological overlap between ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) require comparative studying of these disorders. METHOD: We examined performance of ASD patients with (ASD+) and without (ASD-) comorbid ADHD, ADHD patients, and controls for selected putative endophenotypes of ADHD: Intrasubject Variability (ISV) of reaction times, working memory (WM), inhibition, and temporal processing. RESULTS: We found that patients with ADHD or ASD+, but not ASD-, had elevated ISV across the entire task battery and temporal processing deficits, and that none of the groups were impaired in WM or inhibition...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Laura Gisbert, Vanesa Richarte, Montserrat Corrales, Pol Ibáñez, Rosa Bosch, Mariano Bellina, Christian Fadeuilhe, Miquel Casas, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which neuropsychological performance parameters implicated in ADHD might mediate the relationship between emotional lability (EL) and this disorder. METHOD: Eight hundred twelve adult patients with ADHD were examined. EL was assessed using the EL subscale of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). To assess cognitive and executive functions, a battery of neuropsychological tests was performed in 262 patients with ADHD and high EL symptomatology and 550 patients with ADHD and low EL symptomatology...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Aikatarini Trantou, Hanne K Carlsen, Christina Anderson, Steinn Steingrimsson
OBJECTIVE: Determine sickness absence recommendation (SAR) prevalence for treatment-seeking patients with ADHD depending on comorbidity. METHOD: Population-based patient chart review of ADHD outpatients aged 19 to 29 years. The outcome, SAR, included both available financial benefit forms; activity compensation and sickness benefit. Latent class analyses (LCA) of demography and psychiatric comorbidities were performed both with and without SAR as an outcome variable...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Masha R Jones, Benjamin Katz, Martin Buschkuehl, Susanne M Jaeggi, Priti Shah
OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of n-back training for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was tested in a randomized controlled trial. METHOD: 41 children aged 7 to 14 years with ADHD were trained on an n-back task, and their performance was compared with that of an active control group ( n = 39) who were trained on a general knowledge and vocabulary task. RESULTS: The experimental group demonstrated transfer of training to a nontrained n-back task as well as to a measure of inhibitory control...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Brian T Wymbs
OBJECTIVE: Adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have more conflictual relations with their romantic partners than adults without ADHD. This study investigated whether adults with ADHD are differentially susceptible to conflict when self-control resources are depleted. METHOD: Heterosexual adult couples (20 including at least one adult with ADHD; 12 including no adults with ADHD) were randomly assigned to have resources temporarily depleted or not...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Cherry Youn, Jocelyn I Meza, Stephen P Hinshaw
OBJECTIVE: Examine the moderating effects of response inhibition on the longitudinal association between social preference/relational aggression measured in childhood, and intimate partner violence (IPV) measured in young adulthood, among women with ( n = 140) and without ( n = 88) histories of childhood ADHD. METHOD: During childhood, social preference was measured through confidential peer sociometric nominations, yielding negative and positive peer regard; relational aggression was assessed via staff behavioral observations; and response inhibition was assessed using commission errors from the continuous performance task...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Carlos Ramos-Galarza, Claudia Pérez-Salas
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to analyze the role of monitoring in the causal relationship between inhibitory control and symptoms of combined ADHD. METHOD: It has been conducted a quantitative investigation of two phases. RESULTS: In the first study, a moderation model was analyzed ( N = 144 adolescents with combined ADHD), where monitoring was considered as a moderating variable in the causal relationship between the inhibitory control and the symptomatology of ADHD F(3, 140) = 28...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Ivo Marx, Thomas Hacker, Xue Yu, Samuele Cortese, Edmund Sonuga-Barke
OBJECTIVE: Impulsive choices can lead to suboptimal decision making, a tendency which is especially marked in individuals with ADHD. We compared two different paradigms assessing impulsive choice: the simple choice paradigm (SCP) and the temporal discounting paradigm (TDP). METHOD: Random effects meta-analyses on 37 group comparisons (22 SCP; 15 TDP) consisting of 3.763 participants (53% ADHD). RESULTS: Small-to-medium effect sizes emerged for both paradigms, confirming that participants with ADHD choose small immediate over large delayed rewards more frequently than controls...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Se Jin Park, Hyesue Jang, Yeeun Lee, Chul Eung Kim, Subin Park
OBJECTIVE: To compare health behaviors, physical health outcomes, and health care utilization between children with and without ADHD. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, we obtained data for children with and without ADHD from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. To investigate the association between ADHD and health outcomes, we estimated the adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) in these groups. RESULTS: Among 10,838 children aged 7 to 18 years with and without ADHD, those with ADHD had significantly higher APRs for overall health problems, physical illness, and injuries than those without ADHD...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Joseph Biederman, Maura Fitzgerald, Thomas J Spencer, Lenard A Adler, Jessica Abrams, Itai Biederman, Stephen V Faraone
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the informativeness of self-reports of ADHD symptoms in adults with ADHD in the clinical setting. METHOD: Subjects were clinically referred adults aged 19 years to 67 years of age of both sexes ( N = 54). All subjects were on stable doses of stimulant and were considered responders to treatment. ADHD symptoms were assessed using the ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) and the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Spearman's rank correlations were used to assess the correlations between clinician-assessed ADHD and patients' self-reports...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Johanna Inhyang Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Inkyung Shin, Bung-Nyun Kim
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the interaction effect between the methylation of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and phthalate exposure in ADHD on continuous performance test (CPT) variables. METHOD: Urine concentrations of mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) were tested. The methylation status was analyzed for CpG sites of DRD4. Multivariable linear regression models were applied to investigate the interaction effects of methylation and phthalate levels...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Lisa A Jacobson, E Mark Mahone
OBJECTIVE: Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) is a distinct behavioral phenotype characterized by such symptoms as being slow to complete tasks, appearing drowsy or sleepy, and lacking initiative. Subcomponents of SCT appear differentially associated with inattention symptoms and child outcomes. Much of the work in this area has examined associations between SCT symptoms and ratings of behavior; few studies have examined associations with child performance. METHOD: We examined associations between SCT and timed reading and math skills in 247 referred youth ( M age = 11...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Régis Lopez, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Laura Camodeca, Marie Gachet, Isabelle Jaussent, Yves Dauvilliers
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity in adults with ADHD and central hypersomnia. METHOD: Drug-free adult patients with ADHD ( n = 100) or hypersomnia ( n = 100) were evaluated using a structured clinical interview and self-report questionnaires on ADHD symptoms and EDS. RESULTS: In all, 61% of patients with hypersomnia had clinically significant ADHD symptoms with 25% having an ADHD diagnosis (with both childhood and adulthood ADHD symptoms) and 36% ADHD-like symptoms, without history of childhood ADHD...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Amy LeRoy, Claudia Jacova, Caedy Young
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychological performance patterns associated with adult ADHD subtypes are unknown. The aim of the current systematic review was to identify and synthesize available literature regarding neuropsychological performance associated with adult ADHD subtypes. METHOD: Searches were completed using the databases PsycINFO and PubMed for studies published before March 2017 addressing adult ADHD subtypes and neuropsychological performance. Data characterizing the neuropsychological tests utilized in each study were obtained and sorted into eight domains...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Marie Geurten, Corinne Catale, Philippe Gay, Sandrine Deplus, Joël Billieux
OBJECTIVE: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a wide range of problematic behaviors and psychological disorders in children. METHOD: In this study, we adapted the short French adult version of the UPPS-P (urgency-premeditation-perseverance-sensation seeking-positive urgency) Impulsive Behaviors Scale for use with children (short UPPS-P-C) and tested its psychometric properties. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses conducted on a sample of 425 children (aged 8-14 years) supported the five-factor structure of the scale...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Miriam Peskin, Ann Rotem, Pavel Golubchik, Abraham Weizman, Iris Manor
OBJECTIVE: This chart review study characterized demographic and clinical indicators of the need for hospitalization in preschoolers with ADHD. METHOD: Medical records of preschoolers with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) ADHD during 2009-2012 were systematically reviewed. The cohort included 111 children (aged 5.13 ± 0.55 years, 77.47% boys). The demographic and clinical variables of hospitalized at a day-care unit ( n = 30) and nonhospitalized ( n = 81) preschoolers were compared...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Charlotte Reimelt, Nicole Wolff, Heike Hölling, Sabine Mogwitz, Stefan Ehrlich, Julia Martini, Veit Roessner
OBJECTIVE: The associations of birth order, number of siblings, and ADHD was examined. METHOD: The analysis based on representative, epidemiological data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) study ( N = 13,488). RESULTS: An increased risk for ADHD in firstborn versus youngest born children (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.09, 1.58]) and also versus children with no sibling (OR = 1...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Giorgia Michelini, Celeste H M Cheung, Viryanaga Kitsune, Daniel Brandeis, Tobias Banaschewski, Gráinne McLoughlin, Philip Asherson, Frühling Rijsdijk, Jonna Kuntsi
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies in children with ADHD identified two partially separable familial factors underlying cognitive dysfunction, but evidence in adolescents and adults is lacking. Here, we investigate the etiological structure of cognitive-neurophysiological impairments in ADHD in adolescents and young adults. METHOD: Factor analyses and multivariate familial models were run in 356 participants from ADHD and control sibling pairs aged 11 to 27 years on data on IQ, digit span forward (DSF) and backward (DSB), and cognitive-performance and event-related potential (ERP) measures from three cognitive tasks...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Robert T Thibault, Samuel Veissière, Jay A Olson, Amir Raz
OBJECTIVE: We propose that clinicians can use suggestion to help treat conditions such as ADHD. METHODS: We use EEG neurofeedback as a case study, alongside evidence from a recent pilot experiment utilizing a sham MRI scanner to highlight the therapeutic potential of suggestion-based treatments. RESULTS: The medical literature demonstrates that many practitioners already prescribe treatments that hardly outperform placebo comparators. Moreover, the sham MRI experiment showed that, even with full disclosure of the procedure, suggestion alone can reduce the symptomatology of ADHD...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
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