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Journal of Attention Disorders

H Edmund Pigott, Rex Cannon, Mark Trullinger
BACKGROUND: Sham-controlled neurofeedback (NFB) trials consistently find no separation on ADHD outcome measures leading many to conclude that NFB's beneficial effects are due to placebo. METHOD: We deconstruct the NFB training methodology and findings of six sham-controlled trials that assessed for evidence of learning. RESULTS: All six studies found no evidence NFB subjects learned to self-modulate the targeted electroencephalogram (EEG)...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Morgan M Dorr, Kevin J Armstrong
OBJECTIVE: To better understand current issues with adult ADHD assessment contributing to adult ADHD being under recognized and undertreated. METHOD: This study examined the relationship between symptoms, impairment, and executive functioning (EF) in a college sample. RESULTS: Among individuals screening negative for ADHD, those higher in EF experienced significantly less impairment than those lower in EF. Executive functioning was shown to have a negative relationship with impairment while ADHD symptomology was shown to have a positive relationship with impairment...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Inmaculada Insa, José A Alda, Marta Chamorro, Marta Espadas, Anna Huguet
OBJECTIVE: ADHD has a complex and negative influence on the family system. The aim of this study was to analyze the perception of emotional distress in a group of parents of children with ADHD. METHOD: A sample was recruited from the public health system ADHD Unit at Sant Joan de Déu Hospital (Barcelona). The parents of 60 children with newly diagnosed ADHD and the parents of 60 healthy children were included. RESULTS: Higher levels of distress in families with children with ADHD were seen...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Gloria T Han, Yi-Lung Chen, Fang-Ju Tsai, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the reciprocal and temporal relations between ADHD symptoms and emotional problems in school-age children. METHOD: This 1-year longitudinal study with a four-wave design included 1,253 children and adolescents (254 third graders, 281 fifth graders, and 718 eighth graders; 50.9% boys). ADHD symptoms and emotional problems were measured using parent report of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version IV Scale and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Dorien Jansen, Katja Petry, Steven W Evans, Ilse Noens, Dieter Baeyens
OBJECTIVE: Recently, research indicated that extended examination duration was perceived as effective by students with ADHD. However, the objective effectiveness of this accommodation has not been researched extensively. This study addresses this gap in literature. METHOD: A total of 30 students with ADHD and 30 matched typically developing controls (TDC) participated in a simulation of a real-life examination. They filled in three parallel versions of a paper-and-pencil test in three time conditions: 1 hr (+0%), 1 hr 20 min (+33%), and 1 hr 30 min (+50%)...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Shereen Elmaghrabi, Maria Julia Nahmias, Nicoletta Adamo, Adriana Di Martino, Krishna Somandepalli, Varun Patel, Andrea McLaughlin, Virginia De Sanctis, Francisco X Castellanos
OBJECTIVE: Elevated response time intrasubject variability (RT-ISV) characterizes ADHD. Deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR), defined by summating Child Behavior Checklist Anxious/Depressed, Aggressive, and Attention subscale scores, has been associated with worse outcome in ADHD. To determine if DESR is differentially associated with elevated RT-ISV, we examined RT-ISV in children with ADHD with and without DESR and in typically developing children (TDC). METHOD: We contrasted RT-ISV during a 6-min Eriksen Flanker Task in 31 children with ADHD without DESR, 34 with ADHD with DESR, and 65 TDC...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Viktoria Johansson, Eva Norén Selinus, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Sebastian Lundström, Natalie Durbeej, Henrik Anckarsäter, Paul Lichtenstein, Clara Hellner
OBJECTIVE: The Quantified Behavioral Test (QbTest) is a computerized diagnostic test for ADHD, used in clinical psychiatric care, but its validity may be questioned. We analyzed the QbTest's diagnostic validity and its relation to cognitive ability and psychosocial factors in an adolescent population with a high occurrence of neurodevelopmental disorders. METHOD: In total, 340 participants aged 15 years, completed the QbTest, along with questionnaires, clinical and intelligence quotient (IQ) assessments...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Jessica R Lunsford-Avery, Scott H Kollins, John T Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms uniquely contribute to psychiatric and functional outcomes in child samples; however, the psychometric properties of SCT measures among adult outpatients are unknown. METHOD: Adults ( n = 124) presenting for an ADHD evaluation provided self- and collateral report of SCT symptoms. RESULTS: The SCT scale had good internal consistency and yielded three factors across raters: Slow/Daydreamy, Sleepy/Sluggish, and Low Initiation/Persistence...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Ariadna Albajara Sáenz, Thomas Villemonteix, Hichem Slama, Simon Baijot, Alison Mary, Danielle Balériaux, Thierry Metens, Martin Kavec, Philippe Peigneux, Isabelle Massat
OBJECTIVE: Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), to investigate microstructural white matter differences between ADHD and typically developing children (TDC), and their association with inhibition and working memory performance usually impaired in ADHD. METHOD: Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were estimated in 36 noncomorbid children with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of combined type ADHD and 20 TDC...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
S Van der Oord, B E Boyer, Lotte Van Dyck, K J Mackay, H De Meyer, D Baeyens
OBJECTIVE: The effectiveness of a short (six session) individual cognitive behavioral planning intervention for college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was tested. METHOD: In three student counseling services in Flanders, individuals with ADHD ( N = 58) were randomized to the intervention or waitlist condition. Pre- and posttreatment assessments were conducted, and within the intervention group, a 4-month follow-up was conducted. Primary outcomes were ADHD symptoms and study skills; secondary outcomes were comorbid symptoms and planning skills on a neuropsychological task...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Zhou Zhou, Keith A Betts, Iryna Bocharova, David Kinrich, William M Spalding
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate annual concomitant psychotropic medication use among stimulant-treated children/adolescents with ADHD. METHOD: Children/adolescents with ≥1 primary ADHD diagnosis who had received ≥30 days of stimulant medication were identified from insurance claims for each calendar year (2011-2014). Use of 15 psychotropic medications concomitantly with stimulants was evaluated and their prevalence in each year was calculated overall and by medication category for children (6-12 years) and adolescents (13-17 years)...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Shiri Ben-Naim, Noam Gill, Roni Laslo-Roth, Michal Einav
Parents of children with ADHD often experience low marital satisfaction, since the child's increased susceptibility to maladjustment can affect family dynamics as a whole. OBJECTIVES: To explore this association by examining parental stress and parental self-efficacy as two possible mediators. METHOD: Totally, 182 Israeli parents of children in the first to ninth grades (63 parents of children with ADHD and 119 without) completed parental self-efficacy, marital satisfaction, and parental stress questionnaires...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Orrie Dan, Iris Haimov, Kfir Asraf, Kesem Nachum, Ami Cohen
OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to investigate whether young adults with ADHD have more difficulty recognizing emotional facial expressions compared with young adults without ADHD, and whether such a difference worsens following sleep deprivation. METHOD: Thirty-one young men ( M = 25.6) with ( n = 15) or without ( n = 16) a diagnosis of ADHD were included in this study. The participants were instructed to sleep 7 hr or more each night for one week, and their sleep quality was monitored via actigraph...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
G Salunkhe, K Weissbrodt, B Feige, C W N Saville, A Berger, N M Dundon, S Bender, N Smyrnis, A Beauducel, M Biscaldi, C Klein
OBJECTIVE: Recent discussions of aetiological overlap between ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) require comparative studying of these disorders. METHOD: We examined performance of ASD patients with (ASD+) and without (ASD-) comorbid ADHD, ADHD patients, and controls for selected putative endophenotypes of ADHD: Intrasubject Variability (ISV) of reaction times, working memory (WM), inhibition, and temporal processing. RESULTS: We found that patients with ADHD or ASD+, but not ASD-, had elevated ISV across the entire task battery and temporal processing deficits, and that none of the groups were impaired in WM or inhibition...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Anissa Mouti, Rachel Dryer, Michael Kohn
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the ability of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) to differentiate between autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD, and typically developing (TD) children. METHOD: Children ( Mage = 11.27 years, SDage = 3.28) identified with ASD Severity Levels "1" and/or "2" ( n = 28), ADHD ( n = 44), dual diagnoses of ADHD and ASD ( n = 29), and TD ( n = 61) were assessed using the SCQ. RESULTS: The SCQ differentiated between ASD and non-ASD groups...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Himani Mahesh Joshi, Mubashir Angolkar
BACKGROUND: ADHD is one of the most common childhood-onset psychiatric disorders. Even though there is no global consensus on ADHD prevalence, the estimated prevalence of ADHD worldwide ranges between 5.29% and 7.1%. In the Indian scenario, the prevalence of ADHD falls in range of 2% to 17%. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of ADHD in primary school children of Belagavi, India. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was done among 156 children aged between 6 to 11 years (Grade 1 to 5)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Joseph Ben-Sheetrit, Miriam Peskin, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Yaron Daniely, Liat Shbiro, Ann Rotem, Abraham Weizman, Iris Manor
OBJECTIVE: Several ADHD pharmacological trials reported high placebo response (PR) rates. This study aims to characterize the PR in adult ADHD. METHOD: A retrospective cohort analysis of the placebo arm (140 adults with ADHD, 18-55 yrs, M:F 46.4%-53.6%) of a 6-week randomized, multicenter, double-blind metadoxine study, using Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), was conducted. RESULTS: Pre-post changes in placebo-treated adults were significant for both the CAARS and ASRS, F(2...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Francesco Oliva, Chiara Mangiapane, Gabriele Nibbio, Alberto Portigliatti Pomeri, Giuseppe Maina
OBJECTIVE: To assess prevalence of personality traits and disorders according to Millon's evolution-based model and to identify the most representative personality profiles among adult ADHD outpatients. METHOD: Personality traits and disorders were evaluated using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) and an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in a consecutive sample of adult ADHD outpatients ( N = 70) diagnosed by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-version 1...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Laura Gisbert, Vanesa Richarte, Montserrat Corrales, Pol Ibáñez, Rosa Bosch, Mariano Bellina, Christian Fadeuilhe, Miquel Casas, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which neuropsychological performance parameters implicated in ADHD might mediate the relationship between emotional lability (EL) and this disorder. METHOD: Eight hundred twelve adult patients with ADHD were examined. EL was assessed using the EL subscale of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). To assess cognitive and executive functions, a battery of neuropsychological tests was performed in 262 patients with ADHD and high EL symptomatology and 550 patients with ADHD and low EL symptomatology...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Aikatarini Trantou, Hanne K Carlsen, Christina Anderson, Steinn Steingrimsson
OBJECTIVE: Determine sickness absence recommendation (SAR) prevalence for treatment-seeking patients with ADHD depending on comorbidity. METHOD: Population-based patient chart review of ADHD outpatients aged 19 to 29 years. The outcome, SAR, included both available financial benefit forms; activity compensation and sickness benefit. Latent class analyses (LCA) of demography and psychiatric comorbidities were performed both with and without SAR as an outcome variable...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
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