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Journal of Attention Disorders

Virginia de Oliveira Rosa, Carlos Renato Moreira-Maia, Flávia Wagner, André Simioni, Caroline de Fraga Bassotto, Guilherme R Moritz, Marcelo Schmitz, Luis Augusto Paim Rohde
OBJECTIVE: Computerized cognitive training (CCT) as add-on treatment to stimulants for ADHD core symptoms is scarcely investigated. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of CCT in a randomized controlled clinical trial for ADHD in children and adolescents treated with stimulants. METHOD: Fifty-three participants aged 6 to 13 years receiving stimulant treatment and presenting ADHD residual symptoms were randomized either to a CCT ( n = 29) or to a controlled nonactive condition ( n = 24) for four sessions/week during 12 weeks...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Liqiong Guo, Melissa Danielson, Lindsay Cogan, Leah Hines, Brian Armour
OBJECTIVE: To identify children with ADHD enrolled in New York State (NYS) Medicaid and characterize ADHD-associated costs by treatment category. METHOD: In 2013, 1.4 million children aged 2 to 17 years were enrolled in NYS Medicaid. Medicaid claims and encounters were used to identify children with ADHD, classify them by type of treatment received, and estimate associated costs. RESULTS: The ADHD cohort comprised 5.4% of all Medicaid-enrolled children, with 35...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Elyse M Parke, Megan L Becker, Stacey J Graves, Abigail R Baily, Michelle G Paul, Andrew J Freeman, Daniel N Allen
OBJECTIVE: Despite evidence of social skill deficits in children with ADHD, there is no consensus regarding a social cognitive profile and whether these skills predict behavior. Therefore, a comprehensive battery was used to investigate the relationship between social cognition and behavioral functioning. METHOD: Children ages 7 to 13 with ADHD ( n = 25) and controls ( n = 25) completed tests assessing social cognitive domains (affect recognition and theory of mind [ToM])...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Daniele Coutinho, Antonio Carlos Farias, Erico Pereira Gomes Felden, Mara L Cordeiro
OBJECTIVE: Examine the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) responses of parents and teachers for children with ADHD comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD), with an emphasis on determining how well the respondent groups' responses correlate, and how well the results obtained perform as predictors of clinical diagnosis. METHOD: The SDQ was completed by parents and teachers of ( n = 215 participants, 7-12 years old) in ADHD, MDD, ADHD + MDD, and healthy control groups...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Felipe Almeida Picon, João Ricardo Sato, Maurício Anés, Leonardo Modesti Vedolin, Alessandro André Mazzola, Bruna Bressan Valentini, Renata Basso Cupertino, Rafael Gomes Karam, Marcelo Moraes Victor, Vitor Breda, Katiane Silva, Neivo da Silva, Claiton Henrique Dotto Bau, Eugenio Horacio Grevet, Luis Augusto Paim Rohde
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the hypothesis that methylphenidate immediate release (MPH-IR) treatment would improve Default Mode Network (DMN) within-connectivity. METHOD: Resting-state functional connectivity of the main nodes of DMN was evaluated in a highly homogeneous sample of 18 drug-naive male adult participants with ADHD. RESULTS: Comparing resting-state functional connectivity functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) scans before and after MPH treatment focusing exclusively on within-DMN connectivity, we evidenced the strengthening of functional connectivity between two nodes of the DMN: posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and left lateral parietal cortex (LLP)...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Russell A Barkley, Mariellen Fischer
OBJECTIVE: We examined if ADHD Combined Type or Presentation (ADHD-C) reduced estimated life expectancy (ELE) at young adulthood and if the persistence of ADHD to adulthood further adversely affected ELE. METHOD: A young adult follow-up of 131 hyperactive and 71 control cases was used to derive 14 variables that were entered into a life expectancy calculator to generate ELE scores. Both ratings of executive function (EF) in everyday life and tests of EF and IQ were measured along with comorbid psychopathologies...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
George J DuPaul, Andrea Chronis-Tuscano, Melissa L Danielson, Susanna N Visser
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to describe the extent to which students with ADHD received school-based intervention services and identify demographic, diagnostic, and impairment-related variables that are associated with service receipt in a large, nationally drawn sample. METHOD: Parent-reported data were obtained for 2,495 children with ADHD aged 4 to 17 years from the National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome (NS-DATA)...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Oliver Scholle, Jörg M Fegert, Bianca Kollhorst, Eyyub E Öztürk, Oliver Riedel, Michael Kölch
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify characteristics predicting the use of medication and/or psychotherapy after a first ADHD diagnosis. METHOD: This cohort study was based on German claims data including 12,250 treatment-naïve children aged 5 to 12 years with an incident ADHD diagnosis in 2010. Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between children's characteristics at first diagnosis and the chosen treatment within the following 5 years...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Hongliang Zou, Jian Yang
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigate the brain lateralization in ADHD patients. Furthermore, we also explore the difference between male and female patients, and the difference among distinct ADHD subtypes, that is, ADHD-inattentive (ADHD-IA) and ADHD-combined (ADHD-C). METHOD: We employed the standard deviation to quantify the variability of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal and measure the lateralization index (LI). RESULTS: ADHD patients showed significantly increased rightward lateralization in the inferior frontal gyrus (opercular), precuneus, and paracentral lobule, and decreased rightward lateralization in the insula...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Tiago Figueiredo, Dídia Fortes, Pilar Erthal, Tiago Bortolini, Daniel Segenreich, Leandro Malloy-Diniz, Paulo Mattos
Impulsivity has a strong genetic component and is considered an endophenotype in many psychiatric disorders. Impulsivity in adult ADHD has become a focus of interest more recently because of its suggested prominence in this age. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to access self-reported impulsivity levels in biological parents of ADHD offspring, according to their status: non-ADHD (controls), remitted, nonremitted. METHOD: Impulsivity levels of 155 parents of ADHD children were compared according to their status using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11)...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Tycho J Dekkers, Joost A Agelink van Rentergem, Hilde M Huizenga, Hamutal Raber, Rachel Shoham, Arne Popma, Yehuda Pollak
OBJECTIVE: ADHD is related to decision-making deficits in real-life (e.g., substance abuse) and on experimental tasks (increased preference for risky options). In most tasks, risk and expected value are confounded (risky options have lowest expected value), making it impossible to disentangle risky from suboptimal (i.e., not choosing highest expected value) decision-making. We differentiated between risky and suboptimal decision-making in ADHD in two studies. METHOD AND RESULTS: First, on a multilevel meta-regression analysis ( k = 48, n_ADHD = 1,144, n_Control = 1,108), ADHD and controls differed if the risky option was suboptimal (ADHD choosing more risky/suboptimal), whereas groups performed similar if the risky option was not suboptimal...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Viola Angela Izzo, Maria Anna Donati, Caterina Primi
OBJECTIVE: Symptoms of ADHD need to be present in at least two different settings to suggest a diagnosis, so multi-informant assessment approaches are usually adopted. The Conners' Rating Scales offer three versions, completed by parents (Conners 3-P), teachers (Conners 3-T), and youth (Conners 3-SR). Nonetheless, there is a lack of studies examining the psychometric properties of the Parent and Teacher versions and the relation between each version of the Conners 3 scales. METHOD: The present work examined the psychometric properties of the Parent and Teacher scales in terms of the structural validity and reliability of their Content scales in an Italian sample...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Stephen V Faraone, Michael J Silverstein, Kevin Antshel, Joseph Biederman, David W Goodman, Oren Mason, Andrew A Nierenberg, Anthony Rostain, Mark A Stein, Lenard A Adler
OBJECTIVE: Quality measures (QMs; also known as Quality Indicators) quantify health care processes, outcomes, patient perceptions, and organizational structure and/or systems that are relevant to the provision of high-quality health care. We describe the first phase of a project that has as its ultimate goal the creation and validation of QMs for tracking the screening, diagnosis, treatment, and clinical follow-up of adults with ADHD. This will fill an important gap in the field of Adult ADHD because QMs for adult ADHD do not exist...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Manfred Döpfner, Hannah Liebermann-Jordanidis, Claudia Kinnen, Nora Hallberg, Laura Mokros, Nicole Benien, Anna Mütsch, Stephanie Schürmann, Tanja Wolff Metternich-Kaizman, Christopher Hautmann, Christina Dose
OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term effectiveness of guided self-help for parents of children with ADHD under routine care conditions. METHOD: 6- to 12-year-old children diagnosed with ADHD were enrolled in an observational study on a 1-year telephone-assisted parent-administered behavioral intervention. N = 136 families who completed the intervention participated in a follow-up assessment. Pre-, post-, and follow-up data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA with planned contrasts...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
K Anne Zhang, Kristian E Markon
OBJECTIVE: The nature and form of demographics-related differences in ADHD self-reported symptoms across adulthood is currently poorly understood. This study explored the psychometrics of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener (ASRS-6), including its age- and gender-related measurement invariance. METHOD: Structural equation models were used to analyze adult data-aged 16 to 95 years-from the 2007 British Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. RESULTS: The three-factor model (disorganization, inattention, hyperactivity) outperformed one- and two-factor models...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Anat Zaidman-Zait, Iris Shilo
OBJECTIVE: The study examined how the interplay between maternal ADHD symptoms and maternal inhibitory control and child ADHD is related to parenting behaviors. METHOD: The sample included 141 mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children, 61 children with ADHD and 80 without. Parenting was measured using self-reports (i.e., overreactive and lax parenting) and observation (i.e., negative and supportive parenting). Maternal inhibitory control was measured using a neurocognitive task...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Alexandra Basile, Maggie E Toplak, Brendan F Andrade
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated confidence accuracy associations for emotion recognition (ER) in children with ADHD and typically developing children (TD). METHOD: Thirty-nine children with ADHD and 42 TD ( M = 9 years, 11 months, SD = 14.92 months, 26 females) completed an ER task. Intelligence and executive function task performance were also measured. RESULTS: The ADHD group was more confident on ER compared with TD, but no group differences were found on their overall accuracy...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Maria M Reyes, Terry D Schneekloth, Mario J Hitschfeld, Victor M Karpyak
OBJECTIVE: To assess for intrasex and intersex differences in psychiatric comorbidity according to ADHD status in treatment-seeking adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). METHOD: This study was a secondary analysis of data utilizing descriptive statistics from 472 treatment-seeking alcoholics who completed the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM). RESULTS: The prevalence of ADHD in males and females was 6...
November 4, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Robert T Thibault, Samuel Veissière, Jay A Olson, Amir Raz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Naser Al-Balushi, Mohammed Al-Alawi, Muna Al Shekaili, Manal Al-Balushi, Hassan Mirza, Salim Al-Huseini, Sathiya Murthi Panchatcharam, Nasser Al-Sibani, Angie Cucchi, Samir Al-Adawi
OBJECTIVE: the study assessed the prevalence of burden of care among caregivers of children with ADHD in Oman. A related aim is to explore the predictors of the burden of care, subtypes of ADHD, and socio-demographic factors. METHOD: Arabic version of the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) was administered to 117 caregivers of drug-naive children with ADHD. Sociodemographic background and clinical data were gathered from medical records and from the attending caregivers themselves...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
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