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Journal of Attention Disorders

Sharon B Wigal, Tim Wigal, Ann Childress, Graeme A E Donnelly, Joseph L Reiz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the onset and duration of efficacy of multilayer-release methylphenidate (PRC-063) over 16 hr compared with placebo in adults with ADHD using the simulated adult workplace environment. METHOD: After dose-optimization with PRC-063, participants entered a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover phase. Primary outcome measure was the Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP) total score measured pre-dose and from 1 to 16 hr post-dose...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Brian C Kok, David E Reed, Robert E Wickham, Lisa M Brown
OBJECTIVE: Although the prevalence of adult ADHD has been well established in the general population, few studies have examined the prevalence of ADHD symptoms in the military. METHOD: The present study used data from 21,449 active duty soldiers, whose responses were collected as part of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). Positive ADHD screens were identified using two alternative scoring methods of the Adult Self-Report ADHD Scale Screener...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Maria Grazia Melegari, Elena Vittori, Luca Mallia, Alessandra Devoto, Fabio Lucidi, Raffaele Ferri, Oliviero Bruni
OBJECTIVE: To assess the features of sleep in preschoolers with ADHD by means of questionnaire and actigraphy. METHOD: Twenty-five ADHD and 21 age-matched typically developing (TD) preschool children underwent the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for ages 1½ to 5 and Pre-School-Age Psychiatric Assessment interview. Sleep was assessed by means of a modified Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children and wrist actigraphy for at least 5 days. RESULTS: Children with ADHD, compared with TD, showed higher scores in CBCL Withdrawal (58...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Johanne Telnes Instanes, Kari Klungsøyr, Anne Halmøy, Ole Bernt Fasmer, Jan Haavik
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review, synthesize, and appraise available evidence, connecting adult ADHD (aADHD) with somatic disease. METHOD: Embase, Psychinfo, and Medline databases were searched for studies published from 1994 to 2015 addressing aADHD and somatic comorbidity. Somatic conditions were classified according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes. Levels of evidence were graded as inconclusive, tentative, or well documented. RESULTS: Most of the 126 studies included in the qualitative synthesis were small and of modest quality...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Julia E Morgan, Steve S Lee, Sandra K Loo
OBJECTIVE: We tested mediation of birth weight and ADHD symptoms by multiple biologically plausible neurocognitive functions and evaluated familiality of observed indirect effects. METHOD: 647 youth from 284 multiplex families with ADHD completed the Arithmetic, Digit Span, Vocabulary, and Block Design subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). Multiple mediation tested WISC subtests as mediators of birth weight and multi-informant ADHD symptoms...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Sanem Mersin Kilic, Ayse Dondu, Cagdas Oyku Memis, Filiz Ozdemiroglu, Levent Sevincok
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical implications of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and ADHD comorbidity in adults. METHOD: The OCD patients who had and had no diagnosis of adulthood ADHD were compared in terms of several demographic and clinical variables. RESULTS: The mean number of obsessions and compulsions; hoarding, symmetry, and miscellaneous obsessions; ordering/arranging and hoarding compulsions; total, attentional, and motor subscale scores of Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS)-11 were more frequent among the patients with OCD-ADHD...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Whitney L M Wood, Heather E Potts, Lawrence J Lewandowski, Benjamin J Lovett
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether college students who reported higher levels of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms were actually more "sluggish" in their performance while completing speeded cognitive and academic measures. METHOD: College students (N = 253) completed self-reports of SCT and their reading and test-taking abilities as well as tests of processing speed, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. RESULTS: Across all variables, SCT symptoms were most significantly associated with self-reported difficulty on timed reading tasks...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Fahri Çelebi, Ahmet Koyuncu, Erhan Ertekin, Behiye Alyanak, Raşit Tükel
OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to investigate the impact of childhood ADHD comorbidity on the clinical features of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD: Ninety-five adult outpatients with a diagnosis of OCD were assessed by using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version, ADHD module, and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Patients with or without childhood ADHD were compared in terms of the sociodemographic and clinical features, psychiatric comorbidities, and rating scales...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Joanne L Park, Charlotte Johnston
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown that parent attributions for child behavior have important implications on the parent-child relationship. The current study investigates whether mothers' level of ADHD symptoms is associated with their child-responsibility attributions for positive and negative child behavior. METHOD: Seventy-nine mothers of 6- to 11-year-old boys participated in this online study. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their attributions, their ADHD symptoms, and their child's behavior...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Hojka G Kumperscak, Ziva K Rebec, Sanja Sobocan, Valerija T Fras, Jernej Dolinsek
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in children and adolescents with ADHD. METHOD: In all, 102 participants between 4 and 18 years of age diagnosed with ADHD participated in the study (M = 12.8 years; 84 boys and 18 girls). CD was diagnosed according to the adapted guidelines of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPHGAN). RESULTS: Among 102 tested children and teenagers with ADHD, we did not find anyone with suspected CD, so further diagnostic procedures for CD were not indicated...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Jeri Hahn-Markowitz, Itai Berger, Iris Manor, Adina Maeir
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of a Cognitive-Functional (Cog-Fun) intervention for children with ADHD. METHOD: Random allocation of 107 children to study or control groups preceded 10 parent-child weekly Cog-Fun sessions emphasizing executive strategy training in games and daily activities. Controls received treatment after crossover. Study participants were followed up 3 months post-treatment. Outcomes included parent/teacher ratings of executive functions, ADHD symptoms, and parent ratings of quality of life...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Deborah Clayton, Jessica Leigh Green, Nicole Rinehart, Emma Sciberras
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom severity and academic outcomes and classroom functioning in a community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. METHOD: Participants included children with ADHD (n =179) and a non-ADHD group (n =212). ASD symptom severity, academic and learning skills, and classroom functioning were assessed via teacher report using the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS; ASD and Academic Competence subscales) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; all subscales)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Nike Franke, Louise J Keown, Matthew R Sanders
OBJECTIVE: This randomized control trial evaluated the efficacy of an online self-help program in a sample of parents of preschoolers with ADHD symptoms. METHOD: Parents were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 27) or the delayed intervention group (n = 26). Child behavior measures were completed by mothers, fathers, and teachers, and parenting measures were completed by mothers. RESULTS: Intent-to-treat analyses indicated significant post-intervention improvements in mother-rated child hyperactivity/inattention, restlessness/impulsivity, defiance/aggression, social functioning, and teacher-rated prosocial behavior, as well as significant improvements in maternal over-reactivity, verbosity, laxness, positive parenting, parenting satisfaction, self-efficacy, stress, and depression...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
T S Jaisoorya, K V Beena, M Beena, K Ellangovan, Sanju George, K Thennarasu, Shoba Srinath
OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and correlates of self-reported ADHD symptoms among school-going adolescents from Kerala, India. METHOD: Seven thousand five hundred sixty students from Classes 8, 10, and 12, aged 12 to 19 years, across 73 schools selected by cluster random sampling, were invited to participate, but only 7,150 successfully completed the questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments. RESULTS: Three hundred five (4...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Swantje Matthies, Chiharu Sadohara-Bannwarth, Sebastian Lehnhart, Jan Schulte-Maeter, Alexandra Philipsen
OBJECTIVE: We assessed factors influencing quality of life (QoL) in adults with ADHD. METHOD: QoL, traumatic childhood experiences, and depression were assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), respectively, in 60 adult ADHD outpatients and 60 age- and gender-matched controls. RESULTS: Emotional neglect or abuse had occurred significantly more often during childhood in adults with ADHD...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Aja Louise Murray, Ingrid Obsuth, Jan Zirk-Sadowski, Denis Ribeaud, Manuel Eisner
OBJECTIVE: Past research has provided some preliminary evidence that ADHD and reactive aggression have overlapping neurocognitive bases. Based on this, we tested the hypothesis that ADHD symptoms are closely coupled in developmental terms with reactive aggression, more so than with proactive aggression with which it has been postulated to be only indirectly linked. METHOD: We used latent growth curve analysis to estimate the developmental relations between ADHD symptoms and subtypes of aggressive behavior in a normative sample of 1,571 youth (761 female, 810 male) measured from ages 7 to 15...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Sevim Berrin Inci, Melis Ipci, Ulkü Akyol Ardıç, Eyüp Sabri Ercan
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the frequency of comorbid disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD in Turkey and to evaluate the distribution of comorbidities according to the subtypes of ADHD and sociodemographic features. METHOD: The sample consisted of 1,000 children, 6 to 18 years of age, including 242 females and 758 males, from Ege University who were diagnosed with ADHD. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rate of psychiatric comorbidity in the study was 56...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Agnese Capodieci, Thomas Rivetti, Cesare Cornoldi
OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis behind this study was that trained teachers using cooperative learning procedures with children in their classroom (aged from 6 to 10 years) can influence the social skills of children with ADHD symptoms and their acceptance by their peers. METHOD: The study involved 30 children with ADHD symptoms attending 12 different classes, where cooperative learning was adopted in some, and standard practices in others. ADHD children's symptoms, social skills, and cooperative behavior were assessed by means of a teacher's questionnaire, and the social preferences of the children in their class were collected...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Lindsay A Borden, Jessica Hankinson, Carisa Perry-Parrish, Elizabeth K Reynolds, Matthew W Specht, Rick Ostrander
OBJECTIVE: This study examined differences between children with ADHD and comorbid depression (n = 26), ADHD only (n = 111), and a community control group (n = 130) on measures of family and maternal characteristics. METHOD: The present study utilized a large, community sample. Diagnoses required positive endorsements from multiple sources. ANOVAs and chi-square tests were conducted to determine group differences. RESULTS: Compared with children with ADHD alone and community controls, mothers of depressed ADHD children reported decreased family cohesion, limited participation in social/recreational activities, increased maternal depressive symptoms, difficulty coping with parenting roles, and higher rates of bipolar and anxiety disorders...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Zoe Young, Nima Moghaddam, Anna Tickle
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for adult ADHD and to establish the effectiveness of CBT in reducing ADHD symptoms. METHOD: A systematic review of nine RCTs and two subsequent meta-analyses of eight of the studies were conducted. RESULTS: Just nine studies were identified, of generally good quality but with some limitations. Four trials (total N = 160) compared CBT with waiting list controls, and three trials (total N = 191) compared CBT with appropriate active control groups...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
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