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Journal of Attention Disorders

Kirsten D Leaberry, Paul J Rosen, Nicholas D Fogleman, Danielle M Walerius, Kelly E Slaughter
OBJECTIVE: A subset of children with ADHD experience more frequent, sudden, and intense shifts toward negative emotions. The current study utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to provide a valid assessment of the impact of comorbid internalizing and externalizing disorders on negative emotional lability (EL) among children with ADHD. METHOD: Parents of 58, 8- to 12-year-old children with ADHD were administered a diagnostic interview to assess for ADHD and for the presence of comorbid disorders...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Trevor D Pinho, Patricia H Manz, George J DuPaul, Arthur D Anastopoulos, Lisa L Weyandt
OBJECTIVE: The current study examines (a) whether ADHD among college students is associated with differences in perceptions of quality of life (QoL); (b) the moderating roles of comorbidity, drug use, psychopharmacological treatment, and psychosocial treatment; and (c) the total impact of these variables on QoL. METHOD: Participants were college students with and without ADHD ( N = 372) in a longitudinal study. RESULTS: College students with ADHD were more likely to assert negative global QoL evaluations relative to non-ADHD peers...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Nathan Miller, Frances Prevatt
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to reexamine the latent structure of ADHD and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) due to issues with construct validity. Two proposed changes to the construct include viewing hyperactivity and sluggishness (hypoactivity) as a single continuum of activity level, and viewing inattention as a separate dimension from activity level. METHOD: Data were collected from 1,398 adults using Amazon's MTurk. A new scale measuring activity level was developed, and scores of Inattention were regressed onto scores of Activity Level using curvilinear regression...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Javier Quintero, Isabel Morales, Rosa Vera, Pilar Zuluaga, Alberto Fernández
OBJECTIVE: In this multicenter, cross-sectional study, we aimed to investigate the quality of life (QoL) and the neuropsychological and clinical characteristics of adults with ADHD with different developmental pathways. METHOD: Our study sample included 25 control (healthy) participants, 31 patients with newly diagnosed ADHD without comorbidities (ADHD-C-D), 31 with newly diagnosed ADHD with comorbidities (ADHD+C-D), and 29 with previously diagnosed ADHD with comorbidities (ADHD+C+D)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Kristi R Griffiths, Barbora G Jurigova, John E Leikauf, Donna Palmer, Simon D Clarke, Tracey W Tsang, Erdahl T Teber, Michael R Kohn, Leanne M Williams
OBJECTIVE: Atomoxetine has several characteristics that make it an attractive alternative to stimulants for treating ADHD, but there are currently no tests identifying individuals for whom the medication should be a first-line option. METHOD: Within the ADHD Controlled Trial Investigation Of a Non-stimulant (ACTION) study, we examined neuro-cortical activity in 52 youth with ADHD. Baseline event-related potentials (ERP) were compared between those who subsequently responded to 6 weeks of atomoxetine versus those who did not...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Marie Louise Rimestad, Mia Skytte O'Toole, Esben Hougaard
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore mediators of change in parent training (PT) for 3- to 8-year-old children with ADHD difficulties. METHOD: Parents of 64 children received PT with Incredible Years® and assessed child ADHD symptoms and conduct problems and their parenting strategies, parental self-efficacy, and therapeutic alliance before, during, and after PT. Product-of-coefficients mediation analyses in multilevel models were applied, and causal relations between mediators and outcome were investigated in time-lagged analyses...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Michael C Meinzer, Kaitlyn A LeMoine, Andrea L Howard, Annamarie Stehli, L Eugene Arnold, Lily Hechtman, Stephen P Hinshaw, Brooke S G Molina, Desiree W Murray, Margaret H Sibley, James M Swanson, Leanne Tamm, Andrea Chronis-Tuscano
OBJECTIVE: ADHD is associated with risky sexual behavior and early pregnancy, but few studies have examined mechanisms of risk linking childhood ADHD to early pregnancy. The present study utilized data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD to examine potential mechanisms that may account for the association between childhood ADHD and becoming pregnant or causing a pregnancy by age 18. METHOD: Participants were 579 children with ADHD and 289 comparison peers followed over 16 years...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Vahid Nejati, Mohammad Ali Salehinejad, Michael A Nitsche, Asal Najian, Amir-Homayoun Javadi
OBJECTIVE: This study examined effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) on major executive functions (EFs), including response inhibition, executive control, working memory (WM), and cognitive flexibility/task switching in ADHD. METHOD: ADHD children received (a) left anodal/right cathodal DLPFC tDCS and (b) sham stimulation in Experiment 1 and (a) left anodal DLPFC/right cathodal OFC tDCS, (b) left cathodal DLPFC/right anodal OFC tDCS, and (c) sham stimulation in Experiment 2...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Shirag K Shemmassian, Steve S Lee
OBJECTIVE: There is replicated evidence that individual ADHD symptoms differentially predict ADHD diagnostic status, and that non- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-based symptom algorithms are superior to DSM criteria for ruling in or ruling out ADHD. However, these findings have been limited to case-control samples, despite the need to replicate them in independent and more representative samples and to increase their generalizability. METHOD: We analyzed the base rates and psychometric properties of ADHD symptoms in the population-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; http://www...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Lauren M Haack, Eva A Araujo
OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop and provide preliminary validation for a questionnaire evaluating functioning related to ADHD (i.e., the FX-II) with a particularly underserved group (i.e., Mexican youth). METHOD: 191 Mexican raters completed the FX-II alongside measures of ADHD symptoms, impairment, cultural values, and demographics: 127 raters were caregivers of treatment-naïve youth (i.e., community sample); 32 raters were caregivers and 32 raters were teachers of youth participating in a school-based program for attention/behavior concerns (i...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Michal Al-Yagon, Dovrat Forte, Lital Avrahami
OBJECTIVE: Theoretical models suggest multiple underlying pathways for ADHD and multiple risk factors' co-occurrence as impairing this population's affective, interpersonal, and behavioral adjustment. After comparing groups' executive functioning (EF) difficulties and attachment security with each parent, this study primarily aimed to examine four risk factors (ADHD, child-father attachment, child-mother attachment, EF) as possibly explaining children's socioemotional/behavioral measures (externalizing/internalizing behavior, social skills, negative mood regulation)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Ronna Fried, Jessica Abrams, Anna Hall, Leah Feinberg, Amanda Pope, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Working Memory (WM) is a domain of executive functioning often impaired in individuals with ADHD. Although assumed to cause difficulties across functioning, the scope of impairments from WM deficits in ADHD has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine outcomes associated with WM deficits in ADHD. METHOD: We conducted a search of the scientific literature on WM deficits, and Freedom From Distractibility (FFD), in ADHD using PubMed and PsycInfo databases...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Yu-Ju Lin, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the visually dependent neuropsychological functioning among adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) ADHD who recalled symptom onset by and after age 7 and non-ADHD controls. METHOD: We divided the participants, aged 17 to 40 years, into three groups-(a) ADHD, onset <7 years (early-onset, n = 142); (b) ADHD, onset between 7 and <12 years (late-onset, n = 41); (c) non-ADHD controls ( n = 148)-and compared their neuropsychological functioning, measured by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Fang Huang, Yi-Lang Tang, Mengjie Zhao, Yanfei Wang, Meirong Pan, Yufeng Wang, Qiujin Qian
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective for adult ADHD, and booster sessions may improve long-term outcome. This study was designed to investigate the effects of group CBT and its booster sessions for Chinese adult patients with ADHD. METHOD: There were CBT only group ( n = 43), CBT +booster group ( n = 43), and control group with patients on the waiting list ( n = 22). The primary outcome was the score of the ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Secondary outcomes included emotion, executive function (EF), impulsivity, self-esteem, and life quality at 12th and 24th week...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Amélie Dentz, Marie-Claude Guay, Véronique Parent, Lucia Romo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Cogmed training on working memory in adults with ADHD, including the generalization of effects to nonverbal reasoning, executive function in daily life, and ADHD symptoms. METHOD: Adults of ages 18 to 63 with ADHD were randomly assigned to an experimental group that received the working memory training or to a placebo group that received a low-intensity comparison version of the training. RESULTS: participants in the experimental group showed greater improvement in verbal and visuospatial working memory capacity...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Lotte Janssen, Alicia M de Vries, Sevket Hepark, Anne E M Speckens
OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a promising psychosocial intervention for adult ADHD. The feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted MBCT program is explored, together with the possible process of change. METHOD: Mixed-method study with 31 ADHD patients participating in an adapted MBCT program. Self-report questionnaires on ADHD symptoms, executive functioning, mindfulness skills, self-compassion, patient functioning, and health status were administered before and after MBCT...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Alexandria Saulsberry, Melishia Bansa, Daniela DeFrino, Constance M Dallas
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to use a strengths-based approach to determine African American parents' skills and strategies for management of children with ADHD. METHOD: Four focus groups were conducted to identify African American parent beliefs about appropriate ADHD management. Sixteen parents participated and reported having a total of 21 children diagnosed with ADHD. RESULTS: Participants discussed several parenting challenges but advocated for the child by working closely with the child's school and physician...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Nathalie Boot, Barbara Nevicka, Matthijs Baas
OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to provide explanations for the inconsistent findings regarding creativity in ADHD. METHOD: In Study 1, we assessed real-world creative achievements and intrinsic motivation during idea generation in adults with ADHD and compared these with controls. In Study 2, we manipulated competition during idea generation to investigate effects on idea originality in adults with ADHD versus controls, and assessed creativity in specific domains...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Jeffrey S Danforth, Leonard A Doerfler, Daniel F Connor
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to examine whether anxiety modifies the risk for, or severity of, conduct problems in children with ADHD. METHOD: Assessment included both categorical and dimensional measures of ADHD, anxiety, and conduct problems. Analyses compared conduct problems between children with ADHD features alone versus children with co-occurring ADHD and anxiety features. RESULTS: When assessed by dimensional rating scales, results showed that compared with children with ADHD alone, those children with ADHD co-occurring with anxiety are at risk for more intense conduct problems...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
David R Coghill, Alain Joseph, Vanja Sikirica, Mark Kosinski, Caleb Bliss, Michael Huss
OBJECTIVE: To assess relationships between treatment-associated changes in measures of ADHD symptoms, functional impairments, and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with ADHD. METHOD: Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated post hoc for changes from baseline to endpoint in outcomes of one randomized, placebo- and active-controlled trial of lisdexamfetamine (osmotic-release methylphenidate reference) and one of guanfacine extended-release (atomoxetine reference)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
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