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Nephrology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781238/improving-haemodialysis-fistula-maturation-following-early-ultrasound-vascular-mapping-the-venous-preservation-scan
#1
Ru Yu Tan, Michelle Manning, Jacqueline Spurway, Thulasi Jegatheesan, Michelle Bertram, Lisa Phipps, Jan Swinnen
AIM: Formation of autogenous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complicated by a high primary failure rate due to pre-existing vascular damage. We hypothesized that Venous Preservation Scan (VPS) - early (months to years before AVF creation) vascular mapping followed by vasculature preservation is effective in protecting the patient's best "for fistula" vasculature. This study was performed to evaluate the impact of VPS on AVF outcomes...
May 20, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761588/infection-is-the-chief-cause-of-mortality-and-non-death-censored-graft-loss-in-the-first-year-after-renal-transplantation-in-a-resource-limited-population-a-single-center-study
#2
Vikraman G, Sanjay Kumar Agarwal, Sandeep Agarwal, Sandeep Mahajan, Dipankar Bhowmik, Soumita Bagchi
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the impact of infections after renal transplantation (RTX) in low and middle income countries. This single center study aimed to delineate the profile and impact of infections requiring hospitalisation (IRH) occurring in the first year after RTX in India. METHOD: Patients who underwent RTX between July 2012 and June 2015 were followed up for 12 months after transplantation. RESULTS: 60.2% of the 387 patients studied had atleast one IRH and total 492 infections were diagnosed...
May 14, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737591/expression-profile-of-markers-of-oxidative-stress-injury-and-apoptosis-in-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-induced-nephrotoxicity
#3
Radhika Sharma, Priya Battu, Mandakini Singla, Neha Goyal, Vijay L Sharma
AIM: Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin (RIF) and Pyrazinamide (PZA) are part of first-line anti-tuberculosis therapy used against infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However these drugs are known to be potentially harmful as these are associated with numerous side effects and when taken together their harmful outcomes are elevated in a synergistic manner. Identification of possible mechanism underlying RIF+INH+PZA induced nephrotoxicity may be advantageous in developing strategies to prevent their toxic implications...
May 8, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736929/determinants-of-regret-in-elderly-dialysis-patients
#4
Edlyn Gui Fang Tan, Irene Teo, Eric A Finkelstein, Choong Meng Chan
BACKGROUND: In Singapore, most elderly end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients choose dialysis over palliative management. However, dialysis may not be the optimal treatment option given only moderate survival benefits and high costs and treatment burden compared to non-dialysis management. Elderly patients may therefore come to regret this decision. This study investigated (1) extent of patients' decision regret after starting dialysis, and (2) potentially modifiable predictors of regret: satisfaction with chronic kidney disease education, decisional conflict, and decision-making involvement...
May 7, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722110/biochemical-comparison-of-8-hour-haemodialysis-and-4-hour-haemodiafiltration-and-two-dialysis-membranes-in-a-randomised-cross-over-trial
#5
Shi Z Choo, Kevan R Polkinghorne, Peter G Kerr
AIM: Extended-hours haemodialysis has long been regarded as the optimal form of dialysis for solute clearance. With emerging benefits of haemodiafiltration, we wanted to compare these two head-to-head. METHODS: In this randomised cross-over trial, we recruited existing nocturnal haemodialysis patients, who had not been hospitalised in the prior three months. After a baseline 8-hour haemodialysis session, subjects were randomised to either 2 weeks of 8-hour haemodialysis or 4-hour haemodiafiltration with cross-over to the alternative treatment after a 2-week washout period...
May 2, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717528/the-prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-chronic-kidney-disease-in-primary-health-care-in-the-southern-region-of-new-zealand
#6
Hywel Lloyd, Grace Li, Andrew Tomlin, Murray W Tilyard, Robert Walker, John Schollum
BACKGROUND: While the prevalence of end stage kidney disease in New Zealand (NZ) is well defined, the prevalence of CKD in NZ is unknown. AIM: To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for CKD in the southern region of New Zealand METHODS: A retrospective electronic health record cohort study using data from the Southern Primary Care register covering 94% of the population. Patients, 20 years or older were identified and linked to laboratory results for serum creatinine and urinary albumin excretion...
May 2, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717547/kinetic-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-as-a-predictor-of-successful-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-discontinuation
#7
Teruhiko Yoshida, Ryo Matsuura, Yohei Komaru, Yoshihisa Miyamoto, Kohei Yoshimoto, Yoshifumi Hamasaki, Eisei Noiri, Naoto Morimura, Masaomi Nangaku, Kent Doi
AIM: No standardised criteria for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) discontinuation have been established so far. Kinetic estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is a newly developed estimation method based on dynamic changes of serum creatinine expected to reflect the true GFR. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive role of kinetic eGFR for CRRT discontinuation. METHODS: A retrospective single-centre cohort study was conducted. Acute kidney injury (AKI) patients who received CRRT between May 2015 and April 2016 were enrolled...
May 1, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717526/nephronophthisis-a-review-of-genotype-phenotype-correlation
#8
REVIEW
Fenglan Luo, Yuhong Tao
Nephronophthisis is an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease and one of the most common genetic disorders causing end-stage renal disease in children. Nephronophthisis is a genetically heterogenous disorder with more than 25 identified genes. In 10%-20% of cases, there are additional features of a ciliopathy syndrome, such as retinal defects, liver fibrosis, skeletal abnormalities, and brain developmental disorders. This review provides an update of the recent advances in the clinical features and related gene mutations of nephronophthisis, and novel approaches for therapy in nephronophthisis patients may be needed...
May 1, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717517/lncrna-hotair-promotes-renal-interstitial-fibrosis-by-regulating-notch1-pathway-via-the-modulation-of-mir-124
#9
Hao Zhou, Lin Gao, Zuo-Hua Yu, Shi-Jun Hong, Zhi-Wei Zhang, Zhen-Zhen Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To understand the mechanism of long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) HOTAIR on renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) by regulating Notch1 pathway via the modulation of miR-124. METHODS: Unilateral ureteral occlusion (UUO) was used to construct the RIF rat model. And HK-2 cells induced by TGF-β1 were used for the in vitro experiment, which were divided into five groups: Vehicle, TGF-β1, si-HOTAIR + TGF-β1, miR-124 inhibitor + TGF-β1, and si-HOTAIR+miR-124 inhibitor + TGF-β1 groups...
May 1, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693303/sofa-coagulation-score-and-changes-in-platelet-counts-in-severe-acute-kidney-injury-analysis-from-the-randomised-evaluation-of-normal-versus-augmented-level-renal-study
#10
Jin Lin, Martin Gallagher, Rinaldo Bellomo, Meili Duan, Konlawi Trongtrakul, Amanda Ying Wang
AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of baseline SOFA coagulation score (SOFA-CS) and change in platelet counts in patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis from the Randomised Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level of RRT (RENAL) study. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 90 days after randomisation. The association between baseline SOFA-CS, changes in platelet counts, process of care, and clinical outcomes were analysed using multivariate Cox model adjusted for baseline variables...
April 24, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665203/tolvaptan-alleviates-excessive-fluid-retention-of-nephrotic-diabetic-renal-failure-unresponsive-to-furosemide
#11
Tesshu Takada, Tsuguto Masaki, Ayako Hoshiyama, Takuya Toki, Yuji Kamata, Masayoshi Shichiri
Patients with diabetic nephropathy develop nephrotic syndrome, and may show limited response to conventional therapy. They often require earlier initiation of renal replacement therapy because they become refractory to diuretics, and experience excessive fluid retention. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of tolvaptan, an oral arginine vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist, in a case series of 14 severe diabetic renal failure patients who were severely refractory to maximal doses of furosemide and had excessive fluid retention despite preserved cardiac function and residual renal function...
April 17, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663590/use-of-deferasirox-exjade-for-iron-overload-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#12
Erwin Yii, James Cg Doery, Zane Kaplan, Peter G Kerr
BACKGROUND: A 54 year old male with β-Thalassemia major developed ESRD and was managed with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Although not able to be transfused due to high titre red cell antibodies he did require management of iron overload. Deferasirox (Exjade) was administered orally. There was concern that excretion of iron via the peritoneal dialysate may raise the risk of iron-dependent infections (Yersinia and Rhizopus). METHODS: Whilst receiving Exjade 1000mg /day, a total collection of 12...
April 16, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660205/thyroid-hormones-and-diabetic-nephropathy-an-essential-relationship-to-recognize
#13
Qianqian Han, Junlin Zhang, Yiting Wang, Hanyu Li, Rui Zhang, Ruikun Guo, Li Li, Geer Teng, Jiali Wang, Tingli Wang, Fang Liu
AIMS: Although abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism is common in patients with 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic nephropathy (DN), the relationship between thyroid hormones and DN is unclear and being ignored during the clinical practice. This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormones and clinicopathologic changes in biopsy-proven DN patients. METHODS: We collected clinical and pathological data for 146 biopsy-proven DN patients...
April 16, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660203/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-active-disease-and-latent-infection-in-a-renal-transplant-cohort
#14
Nastaran Rafiei, Jackie Williams, William R Mulley, James M Trauer, Grant A Jenkin, Benjamin A Rogers
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious opportunistic infection in renal transplant recipients associated with high mortality. Screening and treatment of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) offers an opportunity to prevent subsequent active disease. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of all adult patients who underwent renal transplantation at our centre from 2005 to 2014 to assess current screening practices, the risks for and burden of active TB...
April 16, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633488/nephrologists-perspectives-on-cancer-screening-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-an-interview-study
#15
Laura James, Germaine Wong, Jonathan Craig, Kirsten Howard, Martin Howell, Allison Tong
AIM: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of cancer compared with the general population. Despite this, there is considerable variability in cancer screening practices among nephrologists which may reflect uncertainties about the benefits and harms of screening, the additional costs, and competing priorities among the complex issues that patients are confronted with. We aimed to describe nephrologists' perspectives and approaches to cancer screening in CKD...
April 6, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633482/identification-of-novel-mutations-and-risk-assessment-of-han-chinese-patients-with-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#16
Mingchao Zhang, Shuaimei Liu, Xinyi Xia, Yingxia Cui, Xiaojun Li
AIM: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary renal disease in humans and is caused by mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 gene. ADPKD is heterogeneous with regard to locus and allele heterogeneity and phenotypic variability. METHODS: Using targeted capture associated with next generation sequencing, we performed a mutational analysis of Han Chinese patients with ADPKD from 62 unrelated families. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling of their different clinical characteristics and mutation classes was performed...
April 6, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633425/membranous-nephropathy-with-light-chain-restricted-deposits
#17
R Ramachandran, N Inamdar, J Bharati, A K Yadav, A Kumar, G Prakash, R Nada, M Rathi, H S Kohli, K L Gupta, V Jha
The literature on Membranous nephropathy (MN) with monoclonal deposits on immunofluorescence (IF) and their outcome is very scarce. We report our experience of managing five patients with this clinical entity. Mean age of the patients was 33.2±6.55 years. The mean proteinuria, serum albumin and serum creatinine was 5.73±2.17 g/day, 2.86±0.51 g/dL and 1.34±1.19 mg/dL, respectively. None of the patients had a lymphoproliferative disorder. Only one patient had an elevated free light chain ratio. Four (80%) patients were M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) negative (tissue and serum), and 1 (20%) was PLA2R related...
April 6, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607577/clinical-course-of-dengue-fever-and-its-impact-on-renal-function-in-renal-transplant-recipients-and-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
E T Arun Thomas, Jacob George, Devi Sruthi, N S Vineetha, Noble Gracious
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease endemic in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. There is only limited data in the literature about dengue fever in renal transplant recipients and patients with chronic kidney disease. This study compares the clinical course of dengue fever and its impact on renal function in renal transplant recipients, patients with chronic kidney disease and patients with normal base line renal function. METHODS: An observational study was conducted from 1st May to 31st July 2017, at a tertiary care centre of South India...
April 1, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607573/lithium-and-nephrotoxicity-unravelling-the-complex-pathophysiological-threads-of-the-lightest-metal
#19
REVIEW
J Davis, M Desmond, M Berk
While lithium remains the most efficacious treatment for bipolar disorder, it can cause significant nephrotoxicity. The molecular mechanisms behind both this process and the development of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus still remain to be fully elucidated but appear to involve alterations in glycogen synthase kinase 3 signalling, G2 cell cycle progression arrest, alterations in inositol and prostaglandin signalling pathways, and dysregulated trafficking and transcription of aquaporin 2 water channels. The end result of this is a tubulointerstitial nephropathy with microcyst formation and relative glomerular sparing, both visible on pathology specimens and increasingly noted on non-invasive imaging...
April 1, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577511/association-between-interleukin-8-receptor-gene-cxcr1-and-cxcr2-polymorphisms-and-urinary-tract-infection-evidence-from-4097-subjects
#20
Shi-Sheng Han, Yan Lu, Min Chen, Yan-Qiu Xu, Yi Wang
The aim of this study was to determine whether a correlation exists between interleukin-8 receptor polymorphisms and urinary tract infection (UTI) susceptibility. We systematically searched electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Web of Science up to November 5, 2017 to select appropriate studies that focused on C-X-C chemokine receptor type 1 and/or 2 (CXCR1, CXCR2) polymorphisms with susceptibility to UTI. Eight case-control studies including 2085 patients with UTI and 2012 controls were enrolled in this study...
March 25, 2018: Nephrology
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