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Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805109/glucose-regulation-and-face-recognition-deficits-in-older-adults-the-role-of-attention
#1
Nicola Jones, Leigh M Riby, Michael A Smith
The present study investigated the perceptual, attentional, and memory processes underlying face recognition deficits observed in older adults with impaired glucoregulation. Participants were categorized as good glucoregulators or poor glucoregulators on the basis of an oral glucose tolerance test. Using event-related potential (ERP) methodology, 23 participants (62-88 years) performed a 2-stimulus oddball task. Participants were asked to rate and memorize 10 "target" faces, which were then presented amongst 120 unfamiliar foils...
August 13, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774223/age-related-differences-in-affective-and-cognitive-empathy-self-report-and-performance-based-evidence
#2
Binghai Sun, Zhenbing Luo, Wenwen Zhang, Weijian Li, Xinyu Li
The correlation between age and empathy is not clear, with prior findings yielding mixed and inconsistent results. Here, we distinguished between two aspects of empathy and respectively investigated the effects of age on the affective and cognitive facets of empathy using a self-report measure (interpersonal reactivity index, IRI) and performance-based tasks (viewing films). The results showed that older adults manifested age-related deficits in both trait and state cognitive empathy, with the latter being positively associated with memory...
August 4, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756745/misrecollection-prevents-older-adults-from-benefitting-from-semantic-relatedness-of-the-memoranda-in-associative-memory
#3
Emma Delhaye, Roni Tibon, Nurit Gronau, Daniel A Levy, Christine Bastin
Memory for episodic associations declines in aging, ostensibly due to decreased recollection abilities. Accordingly, associative unitization - the encoding of associated items as one integrated entity - may potentially attenuate age-related associative deficits by enabling familiarity-based retrieval, which is relatively preserved in aging. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up unitization by manipulating semantic relatedness between memoranda. Twenty-four young and 24 older adults studied pairs of object pictures that were either semantically related or unrelated...
July 31, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753072/beliefs-about-age-related-changes-in-physical-functioning-across-the-adult-life-span-and-their-relationship-with-physical-activity-levels-of-older-adults
#4
Tara T Lineweaver, Jennifer Kugler, Alessandra Rabellino, Yannick Stephan
Physical activity declines across the adult life span despite the well-established links between physical activity and health-related, psychological, cognitive, and social benefits. We contrasted the beliefs young and older adults hold about how aging affects both physical abilities and physical activity and determined whether older adults' beliefs about physical aging relate to their engagement in physical activity. Using visual rating scales, 56 young and 49 community-dwelling older adults indicated the extent to which a typical woman or typical man aged 20-90 possesses six different physical abilities and engages in three different types of physical activity...
July 28, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728468/the-roles-of-chronological-age-and-time-perspective-in-memory-positivity
#5
Irene P Kan, Shaina L Garrison, Anna B Drummey, Brian E Emmert, Leeland L Rogers
The observation that older adults show enhanced cognition for emotionally positive information has been labeled the positivity effect (Reed, Chan, & Mikels, 2014). According to the Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST, Carstensen, 1991), a prominent lifespan development theory, cognition is strongly influenced by motivational goals, and these goals are impacted by subjective time perspective. Although the positivity effect is most commonly observed in older adults, as age usually co-varies with time perspective, the SST posits that time perspective, not age, is the key explanatory factor of positivity...
July 21, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715933/neuropsychological-tools-to-predict-conversion-from-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia-the-tredem-registry
#6
Maurizio Gallucci, Maria Elena Di Battista, Giuseppe Battistella, Chiara Falcone, Patrizia Silvia Bisiacchi, Enrico Di Giorgi
Most of the studies about conversion from Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia have focused on amnestic MCI (aMCI) which is considered a preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the present study was to identify neuropsychological tools that would best predict conversion from aMCI to dementia. Fifty-five aMCI subjects on the Treviso Dementia Registry were investigated. They underwent a neuropsychological evaluation during their first assessment and again at follow-up. Cox proportional-hazard regression models were created to measure the association between the dependent variable (dementia diagnosis or MCI status maintenance) and the neuropsychological test scores at baseline...
July 18, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705033/differences-in-performance-in-camcog-r-domains-between-old-and-oldest-old-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
B Canneti, A J Mosqueira, T Carreras, A B Gago-Veiga, C Onsurbe, M Ruiz, J Vivancos
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the neuropsychological performance in a ≥90-year-old population with Alzheimer disease (AD) in comparison with younger elderly patients. We retrospectively studied all patients with AD attended in a specialized clinic between 1999 and 2011. Age, sex, educational level, and sensory loss data were collected. Neuropsychological evaluation included Mini-Mental State Examination and Global Deterioration Scale. We used the eight Cambridge Cognitive Assessment (CAMCOG-R) domains to evaluate and compare the neuropsychological performance in the younger than 90 years old (<90) and older than 90 years old (≥90) groups...
July 13, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701077/older-adults-encode-more-not-less-evidence-for-age-related-attentional-broadening
#8
Jennifer C Weeks, Lynn Hasher
Previous work has shown that older adults attend to and implicitly remember more distracting information than young adults; however, it is unknown whether they show a corresponding decrease in implicit memory for targets in the presence of distracters. Using implicit memory tests, we asked whether older adults show a tradeoff in memory between targets and distracters. Here, young and older adults performed a selective attention task in which they were instructed to attend to target pictures and ignore superimposed distracter words...
July 13, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701070/development-of-a-cognitive-function-test-using-virtual-reality-technology-examination-in-healthy-participants
#9
Hiromi Sakai, Akinori Nagano, Keiko Seki, Sayaka Okahashi, Maki Kojima, Zhiwei Luo
We developed a virtual reality test to assess the cognitive function of Japanese people in near-daily-life environment, namely, a virtual shopping test (VST). In this test, participants were asked to execute shopping tasks using touch panel operations in a "virtual shopping mall." We examined differences in VST performances among healthy participants of different ages and correlations between VST and screening tests, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Everyday Memory Checklist (EMC). We included 285 healthy participants between 20 and 86 years of age in seven age groups...
July 13, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585452/how-scenes-containing-visual-errors-affect-speech-fluency-in-young-and-older-adults
#10
Lori E James, Brittany N Chambers, Chelsea L Placzek
We compared young and older adults' speech during an error detection task, with some pictures containing visual errors and anomalies and other pictures error-free. We analyzed three disfluency types: mid-phrase speech fillers (e.g., It's a little, um, girl), repetitions (e.g., He's trying to catch the- the birds), and repairs (e.g., She- you can see her legs). Older adults produced more mid-phrase fillers than young adults only when describing pictures containing errors. These often reflect word retrieval problems and represent clear disruptions to fluency, so this interaction indicates that the need to form and maintain representations of novel information can specifically compromise older adults' speech fluency...
June 6, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603733/differential-relationships-of-somatic-and-cognitive-anxiety-with-measures-of-processing-speed-in-older-adults
#11
Chelsea B Schoen, Roee Holtzer
Research suggests a reciprocal relationship between late-life anxiety and cognition, particularly attention and executive functions. Whereas evidence supports a conceptual distinction between cognitive and somatic dimensions of anxiety, their differential relationship with cognitive outcomes has not been examined, particularly on tests of attention/executive functions that rely on processing speed. Study goals were threefold: (a) to describe levels of overall, cognitive, and somatic anxiety in a sample of older adults without dementia, (b) to determine if overall anxiety is associated with performance on select measures of attention/executive functions that rely on processing speed, and (c) to determine if a differential relationship exists between cognitive and somatic anxiety and cognitive performance...
September 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506139/effects-of-aging-and-depression-on-mnemonic-discrimination-ability
#12
D A Camfield, R Fontana, K A Wesnes, J Mills, R J Croft
Ageing and depression have been found to be associated with poorer performance in mnemonic discrimination. In the current study, a two-response format mnemonic similarity test, Cognitive Drug Research MST, was used to compare these effects. Seventy-six participants were tested; with 52 participants in the young group, aged 18-35 years, and 24 participants in the elderly group, aged 55 years or older. Twenty-two young participants and 10 elderly participants met DSM-IV criteria for MDD or dysthymia. Age-related deficits were found for lure identification and speed of response...
May 16, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506108/age-differences-in-self-set-goal-effects-for-memory
#13
Robin Lea West, Carla M Strickland-Hughes, Kimberly A Smith
Research has shown that goal setting leads to gains in memory performance and memory self-efficacy across adulthood when goals are set by experimenters and accompanied by positive feedback. However, self-set memory goals have had less consistent impact. This research extended past studies on aging and memory goals to examine the impact of self-set goals using anchors to guide goal selection. Two trials of name, text, and list recall were administered to younger and older adults, comparing goal and no-goal groups...
May 16, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492092/use-of-descriptive-and-experiential-information-in-decision-making-by-young-and-older-adults
#14
Thomas M Hess, Erica L O'Brien, Claire M Growney, Julia G Hafer
Age differences involving decision by description versus decision by experience were examined using the same general task structure to facilitate comparisons across decision types. Experiment 1 compared younger (19-43 years) and older (65-85 years) adults in four different experimental conditions involving a choice between a low-risk, low-return bet versus a high-risk, high-return bet. Experiment 2 compared young (18-27 years) to older (60-87 years) adults using similar experimental conditions, but with decisions involving a risky versus a certain option...
May 11, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428038/grit-in-adolescence-is-protective-of-late-life-cognition-non-cognitive-factors-and-cognitive-reserve
#15
Emma Rhodes, Kathryn N Devlin, Laurence Steinberg, Tania Giovannetti
Various psychological assets have been shown to protect against late-life cognitive impairment by promoting cognitive reserve. While factors such as educational attainment and IQ are well-established contributors to cognitive reserve, noncognitive factors, such as grit, have not been studied in this regard. We examined the contribution of adolescent grit, indexed by high school class rank controlling for IQ, to late-life cognition and its decline among approximately 4000 participants in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a random sample of high school graduates followed from 1957 to 2011...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414184/age-related-cognitive-decline-as-a-function-of-daytime-testing
#16
Andrei Alexandru Puiu
The current study investigates the effects of age, cognitive load, optimal time-of-day testing, and irrelevant background noise suppression on mental processing. One hundred and seventy-eight young (M = 22.97 years) and 114 old adults (M = 56.38 years) were assessed for implicit learning and speed of information processing under irrelevant sound interference early during daytime (7AM-2.30PM) or in the afternoons (3PM-midnight). No direct effect of irrelevant speech effect was found on implicit learning...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405057/the-effects-of-aging-on-the-working-memory-processes-of-multimodal-information
#17
Elena Solesio-Jofre, José María López-Frutos, Nathan Cashdollar, Sara Aurtenetxe, Ignacio de Ramón, Fernando Maestú
Normal aging is associated with deficits in working memory processes. However, the majority of research has focused on storage or inhibitory processes using unimodal paradigms, without addressing their relationships using different sensory modalities. Hence, we pursued two objectives. First, was to examine the effects of aging on storage and inhibitory processes. Second, was to evaluate aging effects on multisensory integration of visual and auditory stimuli. To this end, young and older participants performed a multimodal task for visual and auditory pairs of stimuli with increasing memory load at encoding and interference during retention...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362220/working-memory-in-healthy-aging-and-in-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-of-interference-effects
#18
Elisa Di Rosa, Doris Pischedda, Paolo Cherubini, Daniela Mapelli, Stefano Tamburin, Michele Burigo
Focusing on relevant information while suppressing the irrelevant one are critical abilities for different cognitive processes. However, their functioning has been scarcely investigated in the working memory (WM) domain, in both healthy and pathological conditions. The present research aimed to study these abilities in aging and Parkinson's disease (PD), testing three groups of healthy participants (young, older and elderly) and one of PD patients, employing a new experimental paradigm. Results showed that the transient storing of irrelevant information in WM causes substantial interference effects, which were remarkable in elderly individuals on both response latency and accuracy...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338260/how-age-affects-memory-task-performance-in-clinically-normal-hearing-persons
#19
Charlotte Vercammen, Tine Goossens, Jan Wouters, Astrid van Wieringen
The main objective of this study is to investigate memory task performance in different age groups, irrespective of hearing status. Data are collected on a short-term memory task (WAIS-III Digit Span forward) and two working memory tasks (WAIS-III Digit Span backward and the Reading Span Test). The tasks are administered to young (20-30 years, n = 56), middle-aged (50-60 years, n = 47), and older participants (70-80 years, n = 16) with normal hearing thresholds. All participants have passed a cognitive screening task (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA))...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302740/effects-of-body-mass-index-and-education-on-verbal-and-nonverbal-memory
#20
Liselotte De Wit, Joshua W Kirton, Deirdre M O'Shea, Sarah M Szymkowicz, Molly E McLaren, Vonetta M Dotson
We previously reported that higher education protects against executive dysfunction related to higher body mass index (BMI) in younger, but not older, adults. We now extend the previous analyses to verbal and nonverbal memory. Fifty-nine healthy, dementia-free community-dwelling adults ranging in age from 18 to 81 years completed the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised (BVMT-R). Self-reported years of education served as a proxy for cognitive reserve...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
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