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Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506139/effects-of-aging-and-depression-on-mnemonic-discrimination-ability
#1
D A Camfield, R Fontana, K A Wesnes, J Mills, R J Croft
Ageing and depression have been found to be associated with poorer performance in mnemonic discrimination. In the current study, a two-response format mnemonic similarity test, Cognitive Drug Research MST, was used to compare these effects. Seventy-six participants were tested; with 52 participants in the young group, aged 18-35 years, and 24 participants in the elderly group, aged 55 years or older. Twenty-two young participants and 10 elderly participants met DSM-IV criteria for MDD or dysthymia. Age-related deficits were found for lure identification and speed of response...
May 16, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506108/age-differences-in-self-set-goal-effects-for-memory
#2
Robin Lea West, Carla M Strickland-Hughes, Kimberly A Smith
Research has shown that goal setting leads to gains in memory performance and memory self-efficacy across adulthood when goals are set by experimenters and accompanied by positive feedback. However, self-set memory goals have had less consistent impact. This research extended past studies on aging and memory goals to examine the impact of self-set goals using anchors to guide goal selection. Two trials of name, text, and list recall were administered to younger and older adults, comparing goal and no-goal groups...
May 16, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492092/use-of-descriptive-and-experiential-information-in-decision-making-by-young-and-older-adults
#3
Thomas M Hess, Erica L O'Brien, Claire M Growney, Julia G Hafer
Age differences involving decision by description versus decision by experience were examined using the same general task structure to facilitate comparisons across decision types. Experiment 1 compared younger (19-43 years) and older (65-85 years) adults in four different experimental conditions involving a choice between a low-risk, low-return bet versus a high-risk, high-return bet. Experiment 2 compared young (18-27 years) to older (60-87 years) adults using similar experimental conditions, but with decisions involving a risky versus a certain option...
May 11, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441903/age-criterion-flexibility-and-item-recognition
#4
Lione J North, Darlene Olfman, Daniel R Caldera, Emily Munoz, Leah L Light
We examined young and older adults' ability to flexibly adapt response criterion on a recognition test when the probability that a test item had been studied was cued by test color. One word color signaled that the probability of the test item being old was 70% and a second color signaled that the probability of the test item being new was 70%. Young and older adults demonstrated similar levels of criterion shifting in response to color cues. Moreover, although both young and older adults were slowed when test-item color incorrectly predicted test-item status, the extent of slowing did not differ across age group...
April 26, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436757/bilingualism-and-age-are-continuous-variables-that-influence-executive-function
#5
Sara Incera, Conor T McLennan
We analyzed the effects of bilingualism and age on executive function. We examined these variables along a continuum, as opposed to dichotomizing them. We investigated the impact that bilingualism and age have on two measures of executive control (Stroop and Flanker). The mouse-tracking paradigm allowed us to examine the continuous dynamics of the responses as participants completed each trial. First, we found that the Stroop effect was reduced with younger age and higher levels of bilingualism; however, no Bilingualism by Age interaction emerged...
April 24, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427300/object-decision-test-borb-normative-data-for-the-adult-quebec-population-and-performance-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-the-semantic-variant-of-primary-progressive-aphasia
#6
Alexandre St-Hilaire, Marie-Claude Blackburn, Maximiliano A Wilson, Robert Jr Laforce, Carol Hudon, Joël Macoir
Object decision (OD) test is one subtest of the Birmingham Object Recognition Battery (BORB). It is useful for differential diagnosis among several neurodegenerative diseases. However, normative data provided with this battery count on very few subjects and do not control for the effect of age, which limits interpretability. The purpose of Study 1 was to provide normative data for the OD test of the BORB (version A-hard). The objectives of Study 2 were to establish the diagnostic validity of this task and predictive validity of the normative data in the case of the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
April 21, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425311/later-adults-cultural-life-scripts-of-middle-and-later-adulthood
#7
Azriel Grysman, Sarah Dimakis
The cultural life script (CLS) refers to expected prototypical life events, often including life transitions overwhelmingly occurring at ages 11-30. This study outlined CLS events at ages after the majority of these events typically occur. Participants, age 38-76, nominated events they expected a person of their age to experience in the future. Participants rated each event's valence, importance, prevalence, and expected age of occurrence. Events were coded into three categories: the normative CLS for events listed by previous CLS studies, offspring's CLS for experiencing CLS events of offspring, and later adulthood CLS for other events nominated by at least 4% of participants...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361562/age-related-similarities-and-differences-in-monitoring-spatial-cognition
#8
Robert Ariel, Scott D Moffat
Spatial cognitive performance is impaired in later adulthood but it is unclear whether the metacognitive processes involved in monitoring spatial cognitive performance are also compromised. Inaccurate monitoring could affect whether people choose to engage in tasks that require spatial thinking and also the strategies they use in spatial domains such as navigation. The current experiment examined potential age differences in monitoring spatial cognitive performance in a variety of spatial domains including visual-spatial working memory, spatial orientation, spatial visualization, navigation, and place learning...
March 31, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332920/terminal-decline-of-episodic-memory-and-perceptual-speed-in-a-biracial-population
#9
Robert S Wilson, Kumar B Rajan, Lisa L Barnes, Willemijn Jansen, Priscilla Amofa, Jennifer Weuve, Denis A Evans
We compared trajectories of terminal cognitive decline in older Black (n = 3372) and White (n = 1756) persons from a defined population who completed tests of episodic memory and perceptual speed at 3-year intervals for up to 18 years. During a mean of 9.9 years of observation, 1608 Black persons and 902 White persons died. Preterminal decline of episodic memory did not differ by race. Terminal episodic memory decline began earlier in Black persons (mean of 4.3 years before death) than in White persons (mean = 3...
March 23, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282994/the-effect-of-cognitive-testing-and-feedback-on-older-adults-subjective-age
#10
Lisa Geraci, Ross De Forrest, Matthew Hughes, Gabriel Saenz, Robert Tirso
Subjective age, or how old a person feels, is an important measure of self-perception that is associated with consequential cognitive and health outcomes. Recent research suggests that subjective age is affected by certain situations, including cognitive testing contexts. The current study examined whether cognitive testing and positive performance feedback affect subjective age and subsequent cognitive performance. Older adults took a series of neuropsychological and cognitive tests and subjective age was measured at various time points...
March 10, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270013/age-related-differences-on-a-new-test-of-temporal-order-memory-for-everyday-events
#11
P Michelle Seewald, Shannon Y De Jesus, Lisa V Graves, Charles C Moreno, Sarah N Mattson, Paul E Gilbert
We developed a new test to examine incidental temporal order memory for a self-generated sequence of tasks one might complete in everyday life. Young and older adults were given 10 cards, each listing a task one might accomplish in a typical day. Participants were asked to self-generate a "to do" list by placing the 10 cards in a sequence representing the order in which they would accomplish the tasks, but were not informed of a subsequent memory test. We assessed immediate free recall, delayed free recall, and delayed cued recall for the order of the tasks in the sequence...
March 7, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270012/sensitive-performance-based-assessment-of-everyday-action-in-older-and-younger-adults
#12
Sarah Seligman Rycroft, Tania Giovannetti, Ross Divers, Jacob Hulswit
Everyday function is compromised by mild cognitive changes in aging. These changes predict risk for future decline and dementia but remain poorly characterized, largely due to a scarcity of sensitive, objective measures.Twenty-seven younger adults and 25 non-demented older adults completed the Naturalistic Action Test (NAT), a performance-based measure of everyday action involving simple and complex tasks. Performance was coded for overt errors and subtle inefficiencies. Participants also completed self-report functional measures and cognitive tests...
March 7, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264637/effects-of-aging-on-action-intentional-programming
#13
Ali R Shoraka, Dana M Otzel, Eduardo M Zilli, Glen R Finney, Leilani Doty, Adam D Falchook, Kenneth M Heilman
BACKGROUND: Action-intentional programs control "when" we initiate, inhibit, continue, and stop motor actions. The purpose of this study was to learn if there are changes in the action-intentional system with healthy aging, and if these changes are asymmetrical (right versus left upper limb) or related to impaired interhemispheric communication. METHODS: We administered tests of action-intention to 41 middle-aged and older adults (61.9 ± 12.3 years). RESULTS: Regression analyses revealed that older age predicted a decrement in performance for tests of crossed motor response inhibition as well as slower motor initiation with the left hand...
March 6, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428038/grit-in-adolescence-is-protective-of-late-life-cognition-non-cognitive-factors-and-cognitive-reserve
#14
Emma Rhodes, Kathryn N Devlin, Laurence Steinberg, Tania Giovannetti
Various psychological assets have been shown to protect against late-life cognitive impairment by promoting cognitive reserve. While factors such as educational attainment and IQ are well-established contributors to cognitive reserve, noncognitive factors, such as grit, have not been studied in this regard. We examined the contribution of adolescent grit, indexed by high school class rank controlling for IQ, to late-life cognition and its decline among approximately 4000 participants in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a random sample of high school graduates followed from 1957 to 2011...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414184/age-related-cognitive-decline-as-a-function-of-daytime-testing
#15
Andrei Alexandru Puiu
The current study investigates the effects of age, cognitive load, optimal time-of-day testing, and irrelevant background noise suppression on mental processing. One hundred and seventy-eight young (M = 22.97 years) and 114 old adults (M = 56.38 years) were assessed for implicit learning and speed of information processing under irrelevant sound interference early during daytime (7AM-2.30PM) or in the afternoons (3PM-midnight). No direct effect of irrelevant speech effect was found on implicit learning...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405057/the-effects-of-aging-on-the-working-memory-processes-of-multimodal-information
#16
Elena Solesio-Jofre, José María López-Frutos, Nathan Cashdollar, Sara Aurtenetxe, Ignacio de Ramón, Fernando Maestú
Normal aging is associated with deficits in working memory processes. However, the majority of research has focused on storage or inhibitory processes using unimodal paradigms, without addressing their relationships using different sensory modalities. Hence, we pursued two objectives. First, was to examine the effects of aging on storage and inhibitory processes. Second, was to evaluate aging effects on multisensory integration of visual and auditory stimuli. To this end, young and older participants performed a multimodal task for visual and auditory pairs of stimuli with increasing memory load at encoding and interference during retention...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362220/working-memory-in-healthy-aging-and-in-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-of-interference-effects
#17
Elisa Di Rosa, Doris Pischedda, Paolo Cherubini, Daniela Mapelli, Stefano Tamburin, Michele Burigo
Focusing on relevant information while suppressing the irrelevant one are critical abilities for different cognitive processes. However, their functioning has been scarcely investigated in the working memory (WM) domain, in both healthy and pathological conditions. The present research aimed to study these abilities in aging and Parkinson's disease (PD), testing three groups of healthy participants (young, older and elderly) and one of PD patients, employing a new experimental paradigm. Results showed that the transient storing of irrelevant information in WM causes substantial interference effects, which were remarkable in elderly individuals on both response latency and accuracy...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338260/how-age-affects-memory-task-performance-in-clinically-normal-hearing-persons
#18
Charlotte Vercammen, Tine Goossens, Jan Wouters, Astrid van Wieringen
The main objective of this study is to investigate memory task performance in different age groups, irrespective of hearing status. Data are collected on a short-term memory task (WAIS-III Digit Span forward) and two working memory tasks (WAIS-III Digit Span backward and the Reading Span Test). The tasks are administered to young (20-30 years, n = 56), middle-aged (50-60 years, n = 47), and older participants (70-80 years, n = 16) with normal hearing thresholds. All participants have passed a cognitive screening task (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA))...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302740/effects-of-body-mass-index-and-education-on-verbal-and-nonverbal-memory
#19
Liselotte De Wit, Joshua W Kirton, Deirdre M O'Shea, Sarah M Szymkowicz, Molly E McLaren, Vonetta M Dotson
We previously reported that higher education protects against executive dysfunction related to higher body mass index (BMI) in younger, but not older, adults. We now extend the previous analyses to verbal and nonverbal memory. Fifty-nine healthy, dementia-free community-dwelling adults ranging in age from 18 to 81 years completed the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised (BVMT-R). Self-reported years of education served as a proxy for cognitive reserve...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263667/sex-and-post-menopause-hormone-therapy-effects-on-hippocampal-volume-and-verbal-memory
#20
B Blair Braden, Kara B Dassel, Heather A Bimonte-Nelson, Holly P O'Rourke, Donald J Connor, Sallie Moorhous, Marwan N Sabbagh, Richard J Caselli, Leslie C Baxter
Many studies suggest sex differences in memory and hippocampal size, and that hormone therapy (HT) may positively affect these measures in women; however, the parameters of HT use that most likely confer benefits are debated. We evaluated the impact of sex and postmenopausal HT use on verbal learning and memory and hippocampal size in 94 cognitively intact women and 49 men. Using analysis of covariance that controlled for age and education, women had better total word learning and delayed verbal memory performance than men...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
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