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Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30372660/exercise-type-relates-to-inhibitory-and-error-processing-functions-in-older-adults
#1
Dan Li, Chung-Ju Huang, Sin-Chi Liu, Kung-Hung Chang, Tsung-Min Hung
This study investigated the association between exercise type and inhibition of prepotent responses and error detection. Totally, 75 adults (M = 68.88 years) were classified into one of three exercise groups: those who were regular participants in open- or closed-skill forms of exercise, and those who exercised only irregularly. The participants completed a Stroop and task-switching tasks with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded. The results revealed that regular exercisers displayed faster reaction times (RTs) in the Stroop task compared with irregular exercisers...
October 29, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370825/the-virtual-kitchen-challenge-preliminary-data-from-a-novel-virtual-reality-test-of-mild-difficulties-in-everyday-functioning
#2
Tania Giovannetti, Takehiko Yamaguchi, Emily Roll, Tetsuya Harada, Sarah Seligman Rycroft, Ross Divers, Jacob Hulswit, Chiu C Tan, Anastasia Matchanova, Lillian Ham, Katherine Hackett, Rachel Mis
BACKGROUND: Efficient, objective measures of mild functional difficulties are lacking. Preliminary data from a novel, non-immersive virtual reality, performance-based task (Virtual Kitchen Challenge; VKC) were obtained to address this gap. METHODS: 14 older and 21 younger adults completed cognitive tests and two everyday tasks (breakfast, lunch) in the VKC with virtual objects and a touch-screen and in the Real Kitchen with real objects (order counterbalanced). Automated performance measures were obtained from the VKC program and human coders scored VKC and Real Kitchen videos for errors...
October 28, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355055/age-related-changes-in-processing-speed-modulate-context-use-during-idiomatic-ambiguity-resolution
#3
Christopher M Grindrod, Adina L Raizen
The goal of the current study was to investigate whether age-related changes in processing speed, as indexed by verbal fluency, modulate context use in the resolution of ambiguous idioms (e.g., tie the knot). Younger and older adults completed a cross-modal priming experiment where they decided whether visual word targets were related in meaning to idiomatically or literally biased auditory sentence primes. Older adults with high verbal fluency, similar to younger adults, showed context-dependent facilitation in both biasing sentence contexts...
October 24, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322318/novel-associative-processing-and-aging-effect-on-creative-production
#4
Susan A Leon, Lori J P Altmann, Lise Abrams, Leslie J Gonzalez Rothi, Kenneth M Heilman
Creative production has been reported to decline with age. This study investigated age-related differences in creative verbal production. Participants were 30 younger and 30 older adults. Study testing included language and cognitive assessments and the experimental task wherein participants created short stories incorporating words that are not commonly related, semantically or associatively. The resulting stories were rated by independent blinded judges for originality, cohesion, appropriateness, and organization...
October 16, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293520/lexical-prediction-in-the-aging-brain-the-effects-of-predictiveness-and-congruency-on-the-n400-erp-component
#5
Spyridoula Cheimariou, Thomas A Farmer, Jean K Gordon
Although the N400 ERP component has been extensively studied in younger adults, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In older adults, N400 ERP studies have shown less efficient use of context compared to younger adults. Here, we asked whether the mechanisms underlying the N400 effect are the same in terms of predictiveness and congruency in younger and older adults. We used a simple picture-word matching task in which we crossed predictiveness and congruency. Our results indicate a three-way interaction between predictiveness, congruency, and age, in that, younger adults showed an N400 effect only in strongly constrained conditions; whereas, older adults showed an effect in both strongly- and weakly constrained conditions...
October 6, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30282517/age-related-changes-in-word-retrieval-vary-by-self-reported-anxiety-but-not-depression-symptoms
#6
Meredith A Shafto, Lori E James, Lise Abrams, Cam- Can
Tip-of-the-tongue states (TOTs) are known to increase in frequency across adulthood, but there is wide variability in older adults' TOT rates, suggesting that individual difference factors contribute to TOT incidence. We investigated the role of affect by examining the relationship between self-reported anxiety and depression symptoms and the frequency of TOTs during a laboratory task. Participants were young, middle-aged and older adults in a population-based sample of adults aged 18-87. Increased anxiety was associated with fewer TOTs for the middle-aged group but more TOTs for the older adult group...
October 4, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30278810/an-investigation-into-the-impact-of-acute-stress-on-encoding-in-older-adults
#7
Amy M Smith, Katinka Dijkstra, Leamarie T Gordon, L Michael Romero, Ayanna K Thomas
Acute psychological stress commonly occurs in young and older adults' lives. Though several studies have examined the influence of stress on how young adults learn new information, the present study is the first to directly examine these effects in older adults. Fifty older adults (M age = 71.9) were subjected to either stress induction or a control task before learning two types of information: a short video and a series of pictures. Twenty-four hours later, they were exposed to misleading information about the video and then completed memory tests for the video and pictures...
October 3, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223708/working-memory-predicts-subsequent-episodic-memory-decline-during-healthy-cognitive-aging-evidence-from-a-cross-lagged-panel-design
#8
Molly Memel, Cindy B Woolverton, Kyle Bourassa, Elizabeth L Glisky
Aging adults experience declines in working memory and episodic memory, however, it is unclear how these declines operate over time. Decreased working memory may be associated with early changes in episodic memory, by reducing older adults' ability to meaningfully integrate new information into pre-existing schemas and recall information without the assistance of cues. Given the increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease, and concerns based on subjective memory changes, it is important to understand how these processes interact over time...
September 18, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223706/neural-activity-reveals-effects-of-aging-on-inhibitory-processes-during-word-retrieval
#9
Ranjini Mohan, Christine Weber
Word retrieval difficulties are one of the most frustrating problems for older adults. Poorer access to phonological representation of the target word has been postulated as the underlying deficit, supported by findings of improved word retrieval after phonological priming. To better understand aging effects in the underlying neurophysiology associated with word retrieval, this study examined electrophysiological correlates of phonological priming and word retrieval in adults. Young, middle-aged, and older adults viewed pictures that were preceded by pseudo-word primes that either shared initial phonemes with or were unrelated to the picture's name...
September 18, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221586/the-impact-of-cognitive-interventions-on-cognitive-symptoms-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#10
Marianne Couture, Ariane Giguère-Rancourt, Martine Simard
This systematic review addressed efficacy of cognitive stimulation (CS), cognitive training (CT), and cognitive rehabilitation (CR) to improve cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease (PD) with (PD-MCI) and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-H). Five databases were searched. Twelve CT, four CS, and a combination of CT with CR were found. PD-H benefited from CT or CS compared to active or passive controls in 42.1% of cognitive tests, and in 33.3% of psychological and functional measures. PD-MCI alone, compared with controls, only improved in 6...
September 17, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221584/multi-target-visual-search-organisation-across-the-lifespan-cancellation-task-performance-in-a-large-and-demographically-stratified-sample-of-healthy-adults
#11
Jeroen S Benjamins, Edwin S Dalmaijer, Antonia F Ten Brink, Tanja C W Nijboer, Stefan Van der Stigchel
Accurate tests of cognition are vital in (neuro)psychology. Cancellation tasks are popular tests of attention and executive function, in which participants find and 'cancel' targets among distractors. Despite extensive use in neurological patients, it remains unclear whether demographic variables (that vary among patients) affect cancellation performance. Here, we describe performance in 523 healthy participants of a web-based cancellation task. Age, sex, and level of education did not affect cancellation performance in this sample...
September 17, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221578/does-cognitive-flexibility-training-enhance-subjective-mental-functioning-in-healthy-older-adults
#12
Jessika I V Buitenweg, Renate M Van De Ven, K Richard Ridderinkhof, Jaap M J Murre
Declining cognitive abilities in older adults can contribute to significant changes in socioemotional health and substantially reduce their perception of well-being. Whereas much attention has been dedicated to creating cognitive training programs to improve cognitive health in old age, there is little emphasis on the consequences of such interventions for subjective mental functioning. We created a randomized controlled trial in which we evaluated the effects of an adaptive computerized cognitive flexibility training...
September 17, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160598/sleep-disruption-explains-age-related-prospective-memory-deficits-implications-for-cognitive-aging-and-intervention
#13
Lara Fine, Michael Weinborn, Amanda Ng, Shayne Loft, Yanqi Ryan Li, Erica Hodgson, Denise Parker, Stephanie Rainey Smith, Hamid R Sohrabi, Belinda Brown, Ralph Martins, Romola S Bucks
The high prevalence of sleep disruption among older adults may have implications for cognitive aging, particularly for higher-order aspects of cognition. One domain where sleep disruption may contribute to age-related deficits is prospective memory-the ability to remember to perform deferred actions at the appropriate time in the future. Community-dwelling older adults (55-93 years, N = 133) undertook assessment of sleep using actigraphy and participated in a laboratory-based prospective memory task. After controlling for education, sleep disruption (longer awakenings) was associated with poorer prospective memory...
August 30, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30141369/the-influence-of-episodic-memory-decline-on-value-based-choice
#14
Fedor Levin, Susann Fiedler, Bernd Weber
Recent studies suggest the involvement of episodic memory in value-based decisions as a source of information about subjective values of choice options. We therefore tested the link between age-related memory decline and inconsistencies in value-based decisions in 30 cognitively healthy older adults. Within the pre-registered experiment, the inconsistencies were measured in two ways: i) the consistency between stated preferences and revealed choices; ii) the amount of intransitivities in choice triplets, revealed in a forced paired choice task including all possible pairings of 20 food products...
August 24, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083260/are-there-age-differences-in-attention-to-emotional-images-following-a-sad-mood-induction-evidence-from-a-free-viewing-eye-tracking-paradigm
#15
Calandra Speirs, Zorry Belchev, Amanda Fernandez, Stephanie Korol, Christopher Sears
Two experiments examined age differences in the effect of a sad mood induction (MI) on attention to emotional images. Younger and older adults viewed sets of four images while their eye gaze was tracked throughout an 8-s presentation. Images were viewed before and after a sad MI to assess the effect of a sad mood on attention to positive and negative scenes. Younger and older adults exhibited positively biased attention after the sad MI, significantly increasing their attention to positive images, with no evidence of an age difference in either experiment...
November 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990857/the-role-of-regional-heterogeneity-in-age-related-differences-in-functional-hemispheric-asymmetry-an-fmri-study
#16
Jiamin Gladys Heng, Chiao-Yi Wu, Josephine Astrid Archer, Makoto Miyakoshi, Toshiharu Nakai, Shen-Hsing Annabel Chen
Neuroimaging literature has documented age-related hemispheric asymmetry reduction in frontal regions during task performances. As most studies employed working memory paradigms, it is therefore less clear if this pattern of neural reorganization is constrained by working memory processes or it would also emerge in other cognitive domains which are predominantly lateralized. Using blocked functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study used a homophone judgment task and a line judgment task to investigate age-related differences in functional hemispheric asymmetry in language and visuospatial processing respectively...
November 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954577/corrigendum
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922094/remembering-but-not-knowing-disturbs-the-relational-bindings-newly-established-in-short-term-working-memory-an-age-group-comparison
#18
Arnaud Boujut, David Clarys
The aim of this study was to highlight that episodic memory and working memory compete for the same resource, which would be diminished in aging. Using the remember/know paradigm, we compared the interference related to the retrieval of words on the parallel processing of preestablished relational bindings (Shifting condition) or newly established relational bindings (Updating condition). Within each age-group, participants had comparable performances in remembering across recognition conditions. However, the results showed that only updating activity was impaired after a remember response was given in the younger group...
November 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922067/conceptual-elaboration-versus-direct-lexical-access-in-wais-similarities-differential-effects-of-white-matter-lesions-and-gray-matter-volumes
#19
Sven-Erik Fernaeus, Åke Hellström
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) subscale Similarities have been classified as a test of either verbal comprehension or of inductive reasoning. The reason may be that items divide into two categories. We tested the hypothesis of heterogeneity of items in WAIS-Similarities. Consecutive patients at a memory clinic and healthy controls participated in the study. White-matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and normalized temporal lobe volumes were measured based on Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI), and tests of verbal memory and attention were used in addition to WAIS-Similarities to collect behavioural data...
November 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914150/a-computerized-test-for-the-assessment-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-subtypes-in-sentence-processing
#20
Sofia Segkouli, Ioannis Paliokas, Dimitrios Tzovaras, Ioulietta Lazarou, Charalampos Karagiannidis, Filippos Vlachos, Magda Tsolaki
This study examines thesentence processing ability of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes. In addition to standard MCI neuropsychological tests, an experimental approach was applied to assess language. 133 people (93 MCI/40 controls) participated in novel computerized sentence processing tasks. Results presented statistically significant differences between MCI/controls andMCI subtypes (ANOVA):(a) duration F(2,92) = 19.259,p < .001) in sentence construction; (b) correct answers (F(2, 89) = 8.560,p < ...
November 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
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