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Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332920/terminal-decline-of-episodic-memory-and-perceptual-speed-in-a-biracial-population
#1
Robert S Wilson, Kumar B Rajan, Lisa L Barnes, Willemijn Jansen, Priscilla Amofa, Jennifer Weuve, Denis A Evans
We compared trajectories of terminal cognitive decline in older Black (n = 3372) and White (n = 1756) persons from a defined population who completed tests of episodic memory and perceptual speed at 3-year intervals for up to 18 years. During a mean of 9.9 years of observation, 1608 Black persons and 902 White persons died. Preterminal decline of episodic memory did not differ by race. Terminal episodic memory decline began earlier in Black persons (mean of 4.3 years before death) than in White persons (mean = 3...
March 23, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282994/the-effect-of-cognitive-testing-and-feedback-on-older-adults-subjective-age
#2
Lisa Geraci, Ross De Forrest, Matthew Hughes, Gabriel Saenz, Robert Tirso
Subjective age, or how old a person feels, is an important measure of self-perception that is associated with consequential cognitive and health outcomes. Recent research suggests that subjective age is affected by certain situations, including cognitive testing contexts. The current study examined whether cognitive testing and positive performance feedback affect subjective age and subsequent cognitive performance. Older adults took a series of neuropsychological and cognitive tests and subjective age was measured at various time points...
March 10, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270013/age-related-differences-on-a-new-test-of-temporal-order-memory-for-everyday-events
#3
P Michelle Seewald, Shannon Y De Jesus, Lisa V Graves, Charles C Moreno, Sarah N Mattson, Paul E Gilbert
We developed a new test to examine incidental temporal order memory for a self-generated sequence of tasks one might complete in everyday life. Young and older adults were given 10 cards, each listing a task one might accomplish in a typical day. Participants were asked to self-generate a "to do" list by placing the 10 cards in a sequence representing the order in which they would accomplish the tasks, but were not informed of a subsequent memory test. We assessed immediate free recall, delayed free recall, and delayed cued recall for the order of the tasks in the sequence...
March 7, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270012/sensitive-performance-based-assessment-of-everyday-action-in-older-and-younger-adults
#4
Sarah Seligman Rycroft, Tania Giovannetti, Ross Divers, Jacob Hulswit
Everyday function is compromised by mild cognitive changes in aging. These changes predict risk for future decline and dementia but remain poorly characterized, largely due to a scarcity of sensitive, objective measures.Twenty-seven younger adults and 25 non-demented older adults completed the Naturalistic Action Test (NAT), a performance-based measure of everyday action involving simple and complex tasks. Performance was coded for overt errors and subtle inefficiencies. Participants also completed self-report functional measures and cognitive tests...
March 7, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264637/effects-of-aging-on-action-intentional-programming
#5
Ali R Shoraka, Dana M Otzel, Eduardo M Zilli, Glen R Finney, Leilani Doty, Adam D Falchook, Kenneth M Heilman
BACKGROUND: Action-intentional programs control "when" we initiate, inhibit, continue, and stop motor actions. The purpose of this study was to learn if there are changes in the action-intentional system with healthy aging, and if these changes are asymmetrical (right versus left upper limb) or related to impaired interhemispheric communication. METHODS: We administered tests of action-intention to 41 middle-aged and older adults (61.9 ± 12.3 years). RESULTS: Regression analyses revealed that older age predicted a decrement in performance for tests of crossed motor response inhibition as well as slower motor initiation with the left hand...
March 6, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165865/the-oral-and-written-side-of-word-production-in-young-and-older-adults-generation-of-lexical-neighbors
#6
Christelle Robert, Stéphanie Mathey
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aging on both spoken and written word production by using analogous tasks. To do so, a phonological neighbor generation task (Experiment 1) and an orthographic neighbor generation task (Experiment 2) were designed. In both tasks, young and older participants were given a word and had to generate as many words as they could think of by changing one phoneme in the target word (Experiment 1) or one letter in the target word (Experiment 2). The data of the two experiments were consistent, showing that the older adults generated fewer lexical neighbors and made more errors than the young adults...
February 6, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093035/cognitive-emotion-regulation-in-adulthood-and-old-age-positive-gaze-preferences-across-two-strategies
#7
Eric S Allard, Elizabeth A Kensinger
While positive emotional functioning may be enhanced across adulthood and old age, research is mixed as to the types of regulatory strategies that are more or less beneficial for facilitating well-being. The goal of the present study was to examine how specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies assumed to rely on varying levels of effortful processing (selective attention vs. reappraisal) would impact regulatory behaviors (via eye gaze deployment) and resultant affective outcomes. Participants viewed a series of positive, negative, and neutral film clips while their eyes were tracked across three conditions: passive viewing, selective attention, and reappraisal...
January 16, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068866/cognitive-abnormalities-and-cerebral-perfusion-defects-in-a-community-dwelling-cohort-of-elderly-men-with-mmse-within-the-normal-range
#8
Lena André-Petersson, Ola Thorsson, Arkadiusz Siennicki-Lantz
OBJECTIVES: Mini Mental State Examination's (MMSE's) sensitivity in its upper level is questioned, hence we investigated cognitive abnormalities and defects in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in elderly with MMSE scores ≥24. METHODS: One hundred and four men at age 81 with MMSE scores ≥24 (mean 28.4 ± 1.7), no dementia or stroke, were examined with neuropsychological test battery, and their rCBF was estimated using (99mTc)-HMPAO SPECT. RESULTS: MMSE was very sparsely correlated with rCBF...
January 9, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044474/self-reference-and-emotional-memory-effects-in-older-adults-at-increased-genetic-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Matthew D Grilli, Cindy B Woolverton, Meli'sa Crawford, Elizabeth L Glisky
The present study investigated whether cognitively healthy older adults who are carriers of the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E, the most prevalent genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, benefit from self-referential processing and emotional processing to the same degree as noncarriers of this gene. Participants encoded emotional and nonemotional narratives using a baseline-orienting task, semantic elaboration, or imagination-based self-referential processing and then completed a recognition memory test...
January 3, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263546/association-of-financial-and-health-literacy-with-cognitive-health-in-old-age
#10
Robert S Wilson, Lei Yu, Bryan D James, David A Bennett, Patricia A Boyle
We tested the hypothesis that higher financial and health literacy is associated with better cognitive health in 755 older persons who completed a literacy measure (M = 67.9, SD = 14.5) and then had annual clinical evaluations for a mean of 3.4 years. In proportional hazards models, higher literacy was associated with decreased risk of developing incident Alzheimer's disease (n = 68) and results were similar for financial and health literacy subscales and after adjustment for potential confounders. In mixed-effects models, higher literacy was related to higher baseline level of cognition and reduced cognitive decline in multiple domains...
March 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220818/metacognition-and-proofreading-the-roles-of-aging-motivation-and-interest
#11
Mary B Hargis, Carole L Yue, Tyson Kerr, Kenji Ikeda, Kou Murayama, Alan D Castel
The current study examined younger and older adults' error detection accuracy, prediction calibration, and postdiction calibration on a proofreading task, to determine if age-related differences would be present in this type of common error detection task. Participants were given text passages, and were first asked to predict the percentage of errors they would detect in the passage. They then read the passage and circled errors (which varied in complexity and locality), and made postdictions regarding their performance, before repeating this with another passage and answering a comprehension test of both passages...
March 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141970/possible-selves-in-patients-with-right-versus-left-onset-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Erica Harris, Patrick McNamara, Raymon Durso
Possible selves can be used to self-regulate and guide behavior towards what is desired to be achieved or avoided in life. Previous work suggests laterality effects exist within the brain regarding approach and avoidance systems to achieve self-regulation. A modified version of the possible selves task was administered to 45 patients with PD (22 right-onset and 23 left-onset) and 25 community dwelling control subjects (CS). Only 11.1% of patients exhibited balance among their hoped-for and feared possible selves versus 28% of CS...
March 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27123674/neuromodulation-as-a-cognitive-enhancement-strategy-in-healthy-older-adults-promises-and-pitfalls
#13
Ana R S Martins, Felipe Fregni, Marcel Simis, Jorge Almeida
Increases in life expectancy have been followed by an upsurge of age-associated cognitive decline. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have risen as promising approaches to prevent or delay such cognitive decline. However, consensus has not yet been reached about their efficacy in improving cognitive functioning in healthy older adults. Here we review the effects of TMS and tDCS on cognitive abilities in healthy older adults. Despite considerable variability in the targeted cognitive domains, design features and outcomes, the results generally show an enhancement or uniform benefit across studies...
March 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27123545/decision-making-quality-of-younger-and-older-adults-in-familiar-and-unfamiliar-domains
#14
Ernest N Wayde, Sheila R Black, Ansley Gilpin
Age-related differences in purchasing decisions were examined as a function of age and familiarity. On each trial, participants received purchasing options which varied in quality but ultimately cost the same amount of money. On half the trials, participants made decisions about items familiar to younger adults and on the other half of the trials, participants made decisions about products familiar to older adults. The participants' task was to choose the option that provided the best value for the money. We were particularly interested in participants' performance when inferencing was required to select the optimal option from the two choices...
March 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27116194/bistable-perception-in-normal-aging-perceptual-reversibility-and-its-relation-to-cognition
#15
Mirella Díaz-Santos, Samantha Mauro, Bo Cao, Arash Yazdanbakhsh, Sandy Neargarder, Alice Cronin-Golomb
The effects of age on the ability to resolve perceptual ambiguity are unknown, though it depends on frontoparietal attentional networks known to change with age. We presented the bistable Necker cube to 24 middle-aged and OAs (older adults; 56-78 years) and 20 YAs (younger adults; 18-24 years) under passive-viewing and volitional control conditions: Hold one cube percept and Switch between cube percepts. During passive viewing, OAs had longer dominance durations (time spent on each percept) than YAs. In the Hold condition, OAs were less able than YAs to increase dominance durations...
March 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019138/age-differences-in-perceptions-of-memory-strategy-effectiveness-for-recent-and-remote-memory
#16
Tara T Lineweaver, Michelle Horhota, Jessica Crumley, Catherine T Geanon, Jacqueline J Juett
We examined whether young and older adults hold different beliefs about the effectiveness of memory strategies for specific types of memory tasks and whether memory strategies are perceived to be differentially effective for young, middle-aged, and older targets. Participants rated the effectiveness of five memory strategies for 10 memory tasks at three target ages (20, 50, and 80 years old). Older adults did not strongly differentiate strategy effectiveness, viewing most strategies as similarly effective across memory tasks...
December 26, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019125/auditory-speed-tasks-as-potential-candidates-for-the-study-of-cognitive-ageing
#17
Ian T Zajac, Ted Nettelbeck
Speed of information processing is an important cognitive ability. It facilitates the efficient operation of higher order cognitive functions, such as reasoning, and is implicated in various models of cognitive decline. The present study considers the potential benefits of expanding the measurement of processing speed to include the auditory modality. It examines the reliability and factorial structure of a variety of auditory and visual speed tasks in a sample of N = 138 older adults aged between 51 and 82 years...
December 26, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002991/intraindividual-reaction-time-variability-predicts-prospective-memory-failures-in-older-adults
#18
B I Haynes, M Kliegel, D Zimprich, D Bunce
This study investigated the relationship between intraindividual variability (IIV) in reaction time and prospective memory errors in older adults using data from the Zurich Longitudinal Study of Cognitive Aging (n = 336 individuals aged 66-81 years). The results indicated that increased IIV measured from independent tasks was associated with a greater proportion of prospective memory errors. These significant findings were not influenced by age and did not vary according to prospective memory cue type. Variability is thought to reflect fluctuations in attentional and executive control and these attentional processes may also impact on prospective memory through failure to detect the target cue...
December 22, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938313/age-related-differences-in-effectiveness-of-item-restudy-choices-the-role-of-value
#19
Ping Li, Yuchi Zhang, Weijian Li, Xinyu Li
We examined the effect of value on effectiveness of restudy choices in younger and older adults by using an honor or dishonor procedure. In the honor condition, participants restudied the half of the items that they selected for restudy. In the dishonor condition, participants restudied the half of the items that they did not select for restudy. The results showed that younger adults restudied more low-value (1-point) items that they had rated as least-well learned, while older adults restudied more high-value (5-point) items...
December 12, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937808/complainer-profile-identification-cpi-properties-of-a-new-questionnaire-on-subjective-cognitive-complaints
#20
Alexander F Lubitz, Michael Eid, Michael Niedeggen
Subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) and their role as a possible indicator for subsequent dementia became of growing interest in recent research. In contrast to studies that focused primarily on memory complaints, we aimed to (a) evaluate a questionnaire to register SCC in multiple cognitive domains (Complainer Profile Identification, CPI), (b) assess the association between SCC and psychosocial variables, and (c) assess whether complainer types can be differentiated. Confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate construct validity was computed based on a sample of 734 healthy participants (mean [M] = 43...
December 12, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
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