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Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160598/sleep-disruption-explains-age-related-prospective-memory-deficits-implications-for-cognitive-aging-and-intervention
#1
Lara Fine, Michael Weinborn, Amanda Ng, Shayne Loft, Yanqi Ryan Li, Erica Hodgson, Denise Parker, Stephanie Rainey Smith, Hamid R Sohrabi, Belinda Brown, Ralph Martins, Romola S Bucks
The high prevalence of sleep disruption among older adults may have implications for cognitive aging, particularly for higher-order aspects of cognition. One domain where sleep disruption may contribute to age-related deficits is prospective memory-the ability to remember to perform deferred actions at the appropriate time in the future. Community-dwelling older adults (55-93 years, N = 133) undertook assessment of sleep using actigraphy and participated in a laboratory-based prospective memory task. After controlling for education, sleep disruption (longer awakenings) was associated with poorer prospective memory...
August 30, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30141369/the-influence-of-episodic-memory-decline-on-value-based-choice
#2
Fedor Levin, Susann Fiedler, Bernd Weber
Recent studies suggest the involvement of episodic memory in value-based decisions as a source of information about subjective values of choice options. We therefore tested the link between age-related memory decline and inconsistencies in value-based decisions in 30 cognitively healthy older adults. Within the pre-registered experiment, the inconsistencies were measured in two ways: i) the consistency between stated preferences and revealed choices; ii) the amount of intransitivities in choice triplets, revealed in a forced paired choice task including all possible pairings of 20 food products...
August 24, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080435/memory-awareness-disruptions-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-comparison-of-multiple-awareness-types-for-verbal-and-visuospatial-material
#3
Anthony J Ryals, Jonathan T O'Neil, M-Marsel Mesulam, Sandra Weintraub, Joel L Voss
Successful memory is normally accompanied by explicit awareness of retrieval and confidence in the accuracy of the retrieval product. Prior findings suggest that these features of metamemory can be dissociated from retrieval accuracy in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). However, the literature on this question contains variable and conflicting results, likely because of differences in experimental conditions. We sought to systematically evaluate memory awareness disruptions in aMCI using multiple measures and stimulus formats within the same individuals...
August 6, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058941/specific-effects-of-the-trier-social-stress-test-on-speech-fluency-in-young-and-older-adults
#4
Marissa J Metz, Lori E James
The notion that speech becomes less fluent during stressful speaking conditions has received little empirical test, and no research has tested this relationship in older adult participants. We analyzed speeches produced during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or during a less stressful placebo (pTSST) version of the task. We measured young and older adults' speech fillers (e.g., um), unfilled pauses (at least 1 s in duration), and other disfluencies (e.g., repetitions, repairs). Neither young nor older adult participants rated themselves as having greater stress in the TSST than pTSST condition, but behavioral effects were obtained...
July 30, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053789/framingham-vascular-age-is-associated-with-worse-cognitive-performance-in-the-middle-aged-and-elderly
#5
Abdul Badran, Matthew J Hollocks, Rebecca L Brookes, Robin G Morris, Hugh S Markus
"Normal" age-related cognitive decline has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Framingham Vascular Age is age-normed cardiovascular risk which may help communicate risk to patients and identify those at relatively higher risk. We aim to assess the association between Framingham Vascular Age and cognition. 346 "healthy" participants (57±10 years) without neuropsychiatric disorders or clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease were studied. Cognition was evaluated using the Brief Memory and Executive Test and Framingham Vascular Age was calculated...
July 27, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041573/investigating-tom-in-aging-with-the-masc-from-accuracy-to-error-type
#6
Serena Lecce, Irene Ceccato, Elena Cavallini
Growing evidence indicates that Theory of Mind (ToM) declines in normal aging. However, the majority of this research has used classic and static verbal tasks that present scenarios, which are very different from real life. The present study was designed to fill this gap by administering the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) to young and older participants. It allows one to analyze not only the accuracy, but also the typology of error in mental states attribution distinguishing between iper-ToM (over-mentalization), ipo-ToM (insufficient mentalization), and no-ToM (lack of mentalization)...
July 24, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29993318/examining-hpa-axis-functioning-as-a-mediator-of-the-relationship-between-depression-and-cognition-across-the-adult-lifespan
#7
Aimee James Karstens, Inez Korzun, Erich T Avery, Michelle T Kassel, Rachel Keelan, Helen Kales, Heather Abercrombie, Tory Eisenlohr-Moul, Scott A Langenecker, Sara Weisenbach
Altered HPA-axis functioning is a hypothesized mechanism for worsened cognition in depression. The current study examines the indirect effects of depression on processing speed, executive functioning, and memory as a function of the HPA-axis. 38 individuals with a depression diagnosis and 50 healthy controls (HCs) aged 18-86 underwent neuropsychological testing and at-home diurnal salivary cortisol collection. Depression was assessed via structured clinical interviews and rating scales. Cognitive composite scores were derived from factor analysis...
July 11, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985737/slow-gait-as-a-motor-marker-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-the-relationships-between-functional-mobility-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Anna Rajtar-Zembaty, Andrzej Sałakowski, Jakub Rajtar-Zembaty, Anna Starowicz-Filip, Anna Skalska
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between functional mobility and mild cognitive impairment in older adults. A total of 800 older adults were recruited (653 controls and 147 subjects with MCI [88 subjects with aMCI and 59 subjects with naMCI]). Motor performance was measured with the Timed Up and Go test (TUG). The demographic factors associated with MCI were: age (OR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01-1.09) and the level of education (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.68-0.79). An independent clinical factor associated with MCI was the TUG (OR = 1...
July 9, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118405/editorial
#9
Audrey Duarte, Marc Haut, Natasha Rajah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857679/refining-cvlt-ii-recognition-discriminability-indices-to-enhance-the-characterization-of-recognition-memory-changes-in-healthy-aging
#10
Lisa V Graves, Emily J Van Etten, Heather M Holden, Lisa Delano-Wood, Mark W Bondi, Jody Corey-Bloom, Dean C Delis, Paul E Gilbert
The present study examined age-related differences on the four false-positive (FP) error subtypes found on the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition yes/no recognition memory trial and the influence of these subtypes on source and novel recognition discriminability (SoRD and NRD, respectively) index calculations. Healthy older (n = 55) adults generally made more FP errors than healthy young adults (n = 57). Accordingly, older adults performed worse than young adults on all SoRD and NRD indices. However, the manner in which FP error subtypes were incorporated into SoRD and NRD index calculations impacted the magnitudes of observed differences between and within the two age groups on SoRD and NRD indices...
September 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853339/tdq-60-a-color-picture-naming-test-for-adults-and-elderly-people-validation-and-normalization-data
#11
Joël Macoir, Catherine Beaudoin, Josée Bluteau, Olivier Potvin, Maximiliano A Wilson
Word-finding difficulties are usually assessed with picture-naming tests. In this article, we present the TDQ-60, a new test designed to assess acquired lexical access deficits, taking into account semantics and psycholinguistic variables. The article includes three studies. Study 1 describes the development phase of the TDQ-60.  In study 2, healthy control participants and individuals with a diagnosis of the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia were assessed to establish the convergent and discriminant validity of the TDQ-60...
September 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825510/face-name-memory-training-in-subjective-memory-decline-how-does-office-based-training-translate-to-everyday-situations
#12
Kerryn Elizabeth Pike, Ben Ong, Linda Clare, Glynda J Kinsella
This study aimed to examine whether people with subjective memory decline (SMD) benefit from face-name memory training (single session) as much as older adult controls in an office-based setting. Approximately 2 months later, groups were reassessed for translation to a naturalistic setting. In the office setting, there was a significant interaction between stimulus type (cued name; uncued name) and training condition (spaced retrieval, semantic association, no training), but no group differences nor interactions...
September 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825508/improving-specific-autobiographical-memory-in-older-adults-impacts-on-mood-social-problem-solving-and-functional-limitations
#13
Fiona Leahy, Nathan Ridout, Faizah Mushtaq, Carol Holland
Older adults have difficulty recalling specific autobiographical events. This over-general memory style is a vulnerability factor for depression. Two groups receiving interventions that have previously been successful at reducing over-general memory in depressed populations were compared to a control group. Participants were healthy older adults aged ≥70 years: memory specificity training (MEST; n = 22), life review (n = 22), and control group (n = 22). There were significant improvements in autobiographical memory specificity in the MEST and life review groups at post-training, relative to the control group, suggesting that over-general memory can be reduced in older adults...
September 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805109/glucose-regulation-and-face-recognition-deficits-in-older-adults-the-role-of-attention
#14
Nicola Jones, Leigh M Riby, Michael A Smith
The present study investigated the perceptual, attentional, and memory processes underlying face recognition deficits observed in older adults with impaired glucoregulation. Participants were categorized as good glucoregulators or poor glucoregulators on the basis of an oral glucose tolerance test. Using event-related potential (ERP) methodology, 23 participants (62-88 years) performed a 2-stimulus oddball task. Participants were asked to rate and memorize 10 "target" faces, which were then presented amongst 120 unfamiliar foils...
September 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774223/age-related-differences-in-affective-and-cognitive-empathy-self-report-and-performance-based-evidence
#15
Binghai Sun, Zhenbing Luo, Wenwen Zhang, Weijian Li, Xinyu Li
The correlation between age and empathy is not clear, with prior findings yielding mixed and inconsistent results. Here, we distinguished between two aspects of empathy and respectively investigated the effects of age on the affective and cognitive facets of empathy using a self-report measure (interpersonal reactivity index, IRI) and performance-based tasks (viewing films). The results showed that older adults manifested age-related deficits in both trait and state cognitive empathy, with the latter being positively associated with memory...
September 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756745/misrecollection-prevents-older-adults-from-benefitting-from-semantic-relatedness-of-the-memoranda-in-associative-memory
#16
Emma Delhaye, Roni Tibon, Nurit Gronau, Daniel A Levy, Christine Bastin
Memory for episodic associations declines in aging, ostensibly due to decreased recollection abilities. Accordingly, associative unitization - the encoding of associated items as one integrated entity - may potentially attenuate age-related associative deficits by enabling familiarity-based retrieval, which is relatively preserved in aging. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up unitization by manipulating semantic relatedness between memoranda. Twenty-four young and 24 older adults studied pairs of object pictures that were either semantically related or unrelated...
September 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770738/aging-and-guided-visual-search-the-role-of-visual-working-memory
#17
Sowon Hahn, Daniel R Buttaccio
In the present study, we examined age-related differences in utilizing learned associations to guide visual search. Participants viewed an object cue that was associated with 1 or 2 target colors, followed by a search array. Older adults showed slower RTs, larger visual search slopes, and reduced cue-target association knowledge than did younger adults. We also found increased search RTs and higher error rates when the cue was associated with 2 colors instead of 1. However, visual search slopes did not vary with the number of associated colors...
July 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753072/beliefs-about-age-related-changes-in-physical-functioning-across-the-adult-life-span-and-their-relationship-with-physical-activity-levels-of-older-adults
#18
Tara T Lineweaver, Jennifer Kugler, Alessandra Rabellino, Yannick Stephan
Physical activity declines across the adult life span despite the well-established links between physical activity and health-related, psychological, cognitive, and social benefits. We contrasted the beliefs young and older adults hold about how aging affects both physical abilities and physical activity and determined whether older adults' beliefs about physical aging relate to their engagement in physical activity. Using visual rating scales, 56 young and 49 community-dwelling older adults indicated the extent to which a typical woman or typical man aged 20-90 possesses six different physical abilities and engages in three different types of physical activity...
July 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728468/the-roles-of-chronological-age-and-time-perspective-in-memory-positivity
#19
Irene P Kan, Shaina L Garrison, Anna B Drummey, Brian E Emmert, Leeland L Rogers
The observation that older adults show enhanced cognition for emotionally positive information has been labeled the positivity effect (Reed, Chan, & Mikels, 2014). According to the Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST, Carstensen, 1991), a prominent lifespan development theory, cognition is strongly influenced by motivational goals, and these goals are impacted by subjective time perspective. Although the positivity effect is most commonly observed in older adults, as age usually co-varies with time perspective, the SST posits that time perspective, not age, is the key explanatory factor of positivity...
July 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715933/neuropsychological-tools-to-predict-conversion-from-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia-the-tredem-registry
#20
Maurizio Gallucci, Maria Elena Di Battista, Giuseppe Battistella, Chiara Falcone, Patrizia Silvia Bisiacchi, Enrico Di Giorgi
Most of the studies about conversion from Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia have focused on amnestic MCI (aMCI) which is considered a preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the present study was to identify neuropsychological tools that would best predict conversion from aMCI to dementia. Fifty-five aMCI subjects on the Treviso Dementia Registry were investigated. They underwent a neuropsychological evaluation during their first assessment and again at follow-up. Cox proportional-hazard regression models were created to measure the association between the dependent variable (dementia diagnosis or MCI status maintenance) and the neuropsychological test scores at baseline...
July 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
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