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Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29993318/examining-hpa-axis-functioning-as-a-mediator-of-the-relationship-between-depression-and-cognition-across-the-adult-lifespan
#1
Aimee James Karstens, Inez Korzun, Erich T Avery, Michelle T Kassel, Rachel Keelan, Helen Kales, Heather Abercrombie, Tory Eisenlohr-Moul, Scott A Langenecker, Sara Weisenbach
Altered HPA-axis functioning is a hypothesized mechanism for worsened cognition in depression. The current study examines the indirect effects of depression on processing speed, executive functioning, and memory as a function of the HPA-axis. 38 individuals with a depression diagnosis and 50 healthy controls (HCs) aged 18-86 underwent neuropsychological testing and at-home diurnal salivary cortisol collection. Depression was assessed via structured clinical interviews and rating scales. Cognitive composite scores were derived from factor analysis...
July 11, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985737/slow-gait-as-a-motor-marker-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-the-relationships-between-functional-mobility-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Anna Rajtar-Zembaty, Andrzej Sałakowski, Jakub Rajtar-Zembaty, Anna Starowicz-Filip, Anna Skalska
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between functional mobility and mild cognitive impairment in older adults. A total of 800 older adults were recruited (653 controls and 147 subjects with MCI [88 subjects with aMCI and 59 subjects with naMCI]). Motor performance was measured with the Timed Up and Go test (TUG). The demographic factors associated with MCI were: age (OR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01-1.09) and the level of education (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.68-0.79). An independent clinical factor associated with MCI was the TUG (OR = 1...
July 9, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781396/age-related-differences-in-idea-generation-and-selection-for-propositional-language
#3
Daniel L Madden, Martin V Sale, Gail A Robinson
Conceptual preparation mechanisms such as novel idea generation and selection from amongst competing alternatives are critical for language production and may contribute to age-related language deficits. This study investigated whether older adults show diminished idea generation and selection abilities, compared to younger adults. Twenty younger (18-35 years) and 20 older (60-80 years) adults completed two novel experimental tasks, an idea generation task and a selection task. Older participants were slower than younger participants overall on both tasks...
May 21, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779433/age-differences-in-the-neural-response-to-negative-feedback
#4
Holly J Bowen, Cheryl L Grady, Julia Spaniol
Affective processing is one domain that remains relatively intact in healthy aging. Investigations into the neural responses associated with reward anticipation have revealed that older and younger adults recruit the same midbrain reward regions, but other evidence suggests this recruitment may differ depending on the valence (gain, loss) of the incentive cue. The goal of the current study was to examine functional covariance during gain and loss feedback in younger and healthy older adults. A group of 15 older adults (mean age = 68...
May 21, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768086/visual-associations-to-retrieve-episodic-memory-across-healthy-elderly-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Sascha R A Meyer, Jos F M De Jonghe, Ben Schmand, Rudolf W H M Ponds
Episodic memory tests need to determine the degree to which patients with moderate to severe memory deficits can still benefit from retrieval support. Especially in the case of Alzheimer's disease (AD), this may support health care to be more closely aligned with patients' memory capacities. We investigated whether the different measures of episodic memory of the Visual Association Test-Extended (VAT-E) can provide a more detailed and informative assessment on memory disturbances across a broad range of cognitive decline, from normal to severe impairment as seen in AD, by examining differences in floor effects...
May 16, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770738/aging-and-guided-visual-search-the-role-of-visual-working-memory
#6
Sowon Hahn, Daniel R Buttaccio
In the present study, we examined age-related differences in utilizing learned associations to guide visual search. Participants viewed an object cue that was associated with 1 or 2 target colors, followed by a search array. Older adults showed slower RTs, larger visual search slopes, and reduced cue-target association knowledge than did younger adults. We also found increased search RTs and higher error rates when the cue was associated with 2 colors instead of 1. However, visual search slopes did not vary with the number of associated colors...
July 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753072/beliefs-about-age-related-changes-in-physical-functioning-across-the-adult-life-span-and-their-relationship-with-physical-activity-levels-of-older-adults
#7
Tara T Lineweaver, Jennifer Kugler, Alessandra Rabellino, Yannick Stephan
Physical activity declines across the adult life span despite the well-established links between physical activity and health-related, psychological, cognitive, and social benefits. We contrasted the beliefs young and older adults hold about how aging affects both physical abilities and physical activity and determined whether older adults' beliefs about physical aging relate to their engagement in physical activity. Using visual rating scales, 56 young and 49 community-dwelling older adults indicated the extent to which a typical woman or typical man aged 20-90 possesses six different physical abilities and engages in three different types of physical activity...
July 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728468/the-roles-of-chronological-age-and-time-perspective-in-memory-positivity
#8
Irene P Kan, Shaina L Garrison, Anna B Drummey, Brian E Emmert, Leeland L Rogers
The observation that older adults show enhanced cognition for emotionally positive information has been labeled the positivity effect (Reed, Chan, & Mikels, 2014). According to the Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST, Carstensen, 1991), a prominent lifespan development theory, cognition is strongly influenced by motivational goals, and these goals are impacted by subjective time perspective. Although the positivity effect is most commonly observed in older adults, as age usually co-varies with time perspective, the SST posits that time perspective, not age, is the key explanatory factor of positivity...
July 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715933/neuropsychological-tools-to-predict-conversion-from-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia-the-tredem-registry
#9
Maurizio Gallucci, Maria Elena Di Battista, Giuseppe Battistella, Chiara Falcone, Patrizia Silvia Bisiacchi, Enrico Di Giorgi
Most of the studies about conversion from Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia have focused on amnestic MCI (aMCI) which is considered a preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the present study was to identify neuropsychological tools that would best predict conversion from aMCI to dementia. Fifty-five aMCI subjects on the Treviso Dementia Registry were investigated. They underwent a neuropsychological evaluation during their first assessment and again at follow-up. Cox proportional-hazard regression models were created to measure the association between the dependent variable (dementia diagnosis or MCI status maintenance) and the neuropsychological test scores at baseline...
July 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705033/differences-in-performance-in-camcog-r-domains-between-old-and-oldest-old-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
B Canneti, A J Mosqueira, T Carreras, A B Gago-Veiga, C Onsurbe, M Ruiz, J Vivancos
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the neuropsychological performance in a ≥90-year-old population with Alzheimer disease (AD) in comparison with younger elderly patients. We retrospectively studied all patients with AD attended in a specialized clinic between 1999 and 2011. Age, sex, educational level, and sensory loss data were collected. Neuropsychological evaluation included Mini-Mental State Examination and Global Deterioration Scale. We used the eight Cambridge Cognitive Assessment (CAMCOG-R) domains to evaluate and compare the neuropsychological performance in the younger than 90 years old (<90) and older than 90 years old (≥90) groups...
July 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701077/older-adults-encode-more-not-less-evidence-for-age-related-attentional-broadening
#11
Jennifer C Weeks, Lynn Hasher
Previous work has shown that older adults attend to and implicitly remember more distracting information than young adults; however, it is unknown whether they show a corresponding decrease in implicit memory for targets in the presence of distracters. Using implicit memory tests, we asked whether older adults show a tradeoff in memory between targets and distracters. Here, young and older adults performed a selective attention task in which they were instructed to attend to target pictures and ignore superimposed distracter words...
July 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701070/development-of-a-cognitive-function-test-using-virtual-reality-technology-examination-in-healthy-participants
#12
Hiromi Sakai, Akinori Nagano, Keiko Seki, Sayaka Okahashi, Maki Kojima, Zhiwei Luo
We developed a virtual reality test to assess the cognitive function of Japanese people in near-daily-life environment, namely, a virtual shopping test (VST). In this test, participants were asked to execute shopping tasks using touch panel operations in a "virtual shopping mall." We examined differences in VST performances among healthy participants of different ages and correlations between VST and screening tests, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Everyday Memory Checklist (EMC)...
July 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585452/how-scenes-containing-visual-errors-affect-speech-fluency-in-young-and-older-adults
#13
Lori E James, Brittany N Chambers, Chelsea L Placzek
We compared young and older adults' speech during an error detection task, with some pictures containing visual errors and anomalies and other pictures error-free. We analyzed three disfluency types: mid-phrase speech fillers (e.g., It's a little, um, girl), repetitions (e.g., He's trying to catch the- the birds), and repairs (e.g., She- you can see her legs). Older adults produced more mid-phrase fillers than young adults only when describing pictures containing errors. These often reflect word retrieval problems and represent clear disruptions to fluency, so this interaction indicates that the need to form and maintain representations of novel information can specifically compromise older adults' speech fluency...
July 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506108/age-differences-in-self-set-goal-effects-for-memory
#14
Robin Lea West, Carla M Strickland-Hughes, Kimberly A Smith
Research has shown that goal setting leads to gains in memory performance and memory self-efficacy across adulthood when goals are set by experimenters and accompanied by positive feedback. However, self-set memory goals have had less consistent impact. This research extended past studies on aging and memory goals to examine the impact of self-set goals using anchors to guide goal selection. Two trials of name, text, and list recall were administered to younger and older adults, comparing goal and no-goal groups...
July 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492092/use-of-descriptive-and-experiential-information-in-decision-making-by-young-and-older-adults
#15
Thomas M Hess, Erica L O'Brien, Claire M Growney, Julia G Hafer
Age differences involving decision by description versus decision by experience were examined using the same general task structure to facilitate comparisons across decision types. Experiment 1 compared younger (19-43 years) and older (65-85 years) adults in four different experimental conditions involving a choice between a low-risk, low-return bet versus a high-risk, high-return bet. Experiment 2 compared young (18-27 years) to older (60-87 years) adults using similar experimental conditions, but with decisions involving a risky versus a certain option...
July 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506139/effects-of-aging-and-depression-on-mnemonic-discrimination-ability
#16
D A Camfield, R Fontana, K A Wesnes, J Mills, R J Croft
Aging and depression have been found to be associated with poorer performance in mnemonic discrimination. In the current study, a two-response format mnemonic similarity test, Cognitive Drug Research MST, was used to compare these effects. Seventy-six participants were tested; with 52 participants in the young group, aged 18-35 years, and 24 participants in the elderly group, aged 55 years or older. Twenty-two young participants and 10 elderly participants met DSM-IV criteria for MDD or dysthymia. Age-related deficits were found for lure identification and speed of response...
May 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441903/age-criterion-flexibility-and-item-recognition
#17
Lione J North, Darlene Olfman, Daniel R Caldera, Emily Munoz, Leah L Light
We examined young and older adults' ability to flexibly adapt response criterion on a recognition test when the probability that a test item had been studied was cued by test color. One word color signaled that the probability of the test item being old was 70% and a second color signaled that the probability of the test item being new was 70%. Young and older adults demonstrated similar levels of criterion shifting in response to color cues. Moreover, although both young and older adults were slowed when test-item color incorrectly predicted test-item status, the extent of slowing did not differ across age group...
May 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436757/bilingualism-and-age-are-continuous-variables-that-influence-executive-function
#18
Sara Incera, Conor T McLennan
We analyzed the effects of bilingualism and age on executive function. We examined these variables along a continuum, as opposed to dichotomizing them. We investigated the impact that bilingualism and age have on two measures of executive control (Stroop and Flanker). The mouse-tracking paradigm allowed us to examine the continuous dynamics of the responses as participants completed each trial. First, we found that the Stroop effect was reduced with younger age and higher levels of bilingualism; however, no Bilingualism by Age interaction emerged...
May 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427300/object-decision-test-borb-normative-data-for-the-adult-quebec-population-and-performance-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-the-semantic-variant-of-primary-progressive-aphasia
#19
Alexandre St-Hilaire, Marie-Claude Blackburn, Maximiliano A Wilson, Robert Laforce, Carol Hudon, Joël Macoir
Object decision (OD) test is one subtest of the Birmingham Object Recognition Battery (BORB). It is useful for differential diagnosis among several neurodegenerative diseases. However, normative data provided with this battery count on very few subjects and do not control for the effect of age, which limits interpretability. The purpose of Study 1 was to provide normative data for the OD test of the BORB (version A-hard). The objectives of Study 2 were to establish the diagnostic validity of this task and predictive validity of the normative data in the case of the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
May 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425311/later-adults-cultural-life-scripts-of-middle-and-later-adulthood
#20
Azriel Grysman, Sarah Dimakis
The cultural life script (CLS) refers to expected prototypical life events, often including life transitions overwhelmingly occurring at ages 11-30. This study outlined CLS events at ages after the majority of these events typically occur. Participants, age 38-76, nominated events they expected a person of their age to experience in the future. Participants rated each event's valence, importance, prevalence, and expected age of occurrence. Events were coded into three categories: the normative CLS for events listed by previous CLS studies, offspring's CLS for experiencing CLS events of offspring, and later adulthood CLS for other events nominated by at least 4% of participants...
May 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
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