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Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068866/cognitive-abnormalities-and-cerebral-perfusion-defects-in-a-community-dwelling-cohort-of-elderly-men-with-mmse-within-the-normal-range
#1
Lena André-Petersson, Ola Thorsson, Arkadiusz Siennicki-Lantz
OBJECTIVES: Mini Mental State Examination's (MMSE's) sensitivity in its upper level is questioned, hence we investigated cognitive abnormalities and defects in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in elderly with MMSE scores ≥24. METHODS: One hundred and four men at age 81 with MMSE scores ≥24 (mean 28.4 ± 1.7), no dementia or stroke, were examined with neuropsychological test battery, and their rCBF was estimated using (99mTc)-HMPAO SPECT. RESULTS: MMSE was very sparsely correlated with rCBF...
January 9, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044474/self-reference-and-emotional-memory-effects-in-older-adults-at-increased-genetic-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Matthew D Grilli, Cindy B Woolverton, Meli'sa Crawford, Elizabeth L Glisky
The present study investigated whether cognitively healthy older adults who are carriers of the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E, the most prevalent genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, benefit from self-referential processing and emotional processing to the same degree as noncarriers of this gene. Participants encoded emotional and nonemotional narratives using a baseline-orienting task, semantic elaboration, or imagination-based self-referential processing and then completed a recognition memory test...
January 3, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019138/age-differences-in-perceptions-of-memory-strategy-effectiveness-for-recent-and-remote-memory
#3
Tara T Lineweaver, Michelle Horhota, Jessica Crumley, Catherine T Geanon, Jacqueline J Juett
We examined whether young and older adults hold different beliefs about the effectiveness of memory strategies for specific types of memory tasks and whether memory strategies are perceived to be differentially effective for young, middle-aged, and older targets. Participants rated the effectiveness of five memory strategies for 10 memory tasks at three target ages (20, 50, and 80 years old). Older adults did not strongly differentiate strategy effectiveness, viewing most strategies as similarly effective across memory tasks...
December 26, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019125/auditory-speed-tasks-as-potential-candidates-for-the-study-of-cognitive-ageing
#4
Ian T Zajac, Ted Nettelbeck
Speed of information processing is an important cognitive ability. It facilitates the efficient operation of higher order cognitive functions, such as reasoning, and is implicated in various models of cognitive decline. The present study considers the potential benefits of expanding the measurement of processing speed to include the auditory modality. It examines the reliability and factorial structure of a variety of auditory and visual speed tasks in a sample of N = 138 older adults aged between 51 and 82 years...
December 26, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002991/intraindividual-reaction-time-variability-predicts-prospective-memory-failures-in-older-adults
#5
B I Haynes, M Kliegel, D Zimprich, D Bunce
This study investigated the relationship between intraindividual variability (IIV) in reaction time and prospective memory errors in older adults using data from the Zurich Longitudinal Study of Cognitive Aging (n = 336 individuals aged 66-81 years). The results indicated that increased IIV measured from independent tasks was associated with a greater proportion of prospective memory errors. These significant findings were not influenced by age and did not vary according to prospective memory cue type. Variability is thought to reflect fluctuations in attentional and executive control and these attentional processes may also impact on prospective memory through failure to detect the target cue...
December 22, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938313/age-related-differences-in-effectiveness-of-item-restudy-choices-the-role-of-value
#6
Ping Li, Yuchi Zhang, Weijian Li, Xinyu Li
We examined the effect of value on effectiveness of restudy choices in younger and older adults by using an honor or dishonor procedure. In the honor condition, participants restudied the half of the items that they selected for restudy. In the dishonor condition, participants restudied the half of the items that they did not select for restudy. The results showed that younger adults restudied more low-value (1-point) items that they had rated as least-well learned, while older adults restudied more high-value (5-point) items...
December 12, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937808/complainer-profile-identification-cpi-properties-of-a-new-questionnaire-on-subjective-cognitive-complaints
#7
Alexander F Lubitz, Michael Eid, Michael Niedeggen
Subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) and their role as a possible indicator for subsequent dementia became of growing interest in recent research. In contrast to studies that focused primarily on memory complaints, we aimed to (a) evaluate a questionnaire to register SCC in multiple cognitive domains (Complainer Profile Identification, CPI), (b) assess the association between SCC and psychosocial variables, and (c) assess whether complainer types can be differentiated. Confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate construct validity was computed based on a sample of 734 healthy participants (mean [M] = 43...
December 12, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937138/computerized-cognitive-training-during-physical-inactivity-improves-executive-functioning-in-older-adults
#8
Uros Marusic, Bruno Giordani, Scott D Moffat, Mojca Petrič, Petra Dolenc, Rado Pišot, Voyko Kavcic
The hippocampus is closely tied to spatial navigation, a central component in cognitive functioning, and critically involved in age-associated cognitive decline and dementia. This study evaluated a novel, cognitive computerized spatial navigation training (CSNT) program targeting the hippocampus, with expectation of mitigating possible cognitive decline with bed rest (BR). During a 14-day BR study with 16 healthy, older men (mean age = 60 ± 3, range = 55-65 years), half received CSNT for 12 days in 50-min sessions and half were controls (watching documentaries)...
December 12, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934542/the-impact-of-aging-on-associative-memory-for-preexisting-unitized-associations
#9
Emma Delhaye, Christine Bastin
Aging is accompanied by a decline in associative memory that can, however, be attenuated when associations are unitized at encoding, that is, when they form an integrated entity. Unitization is thought to promote familiarity-based recognition memory, which is preserved in aging. We examined whether preexperimentally unitized associations (compound words (CWs)) do indeed reduce age differences in memory, and whether preexperimental unitization promotes familiarity. In Experiment 1, we assessed the memory of 20 young and 20 older participants for compound versus unrelated word pairs using a yes/no recognition test with Remember/Know/Guess judgments...
December 9, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934540/correlation-between-functional-mobility-and-cognitive-performance-in-older-adults-with-cognitive-impairment
#10
Sheila de Melo Borges, Márcia Radanovic, Orestes Vicente Forlenza
Association between cognitive impairment and gait performance occurs in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly under "divided attention" conditions, leading to a greater risk of falls. We studied 36 controls, 42 MCI, and 26 mild AD patients, using the Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG) under four conditions: TUG single - TUG1; TUG cognitive - TUG2; TUG manual -TUG3; TUG cognitive and manual - TUG4. Cognition was assessed using the MMSE, SKT, Exit25, and TMT (A and B). We found significant correlations between cognitive scores and TUG2 [r values (MMSE: -0...
December 9, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883290/behavioral-evidence-for-a-differential-modulation-of-semantic-processing-and-lexical-production-by-aging-a-full-linear-mixed-effects-modeling-approach
#11
Naïla Boudiaf, Rafael Laboissière, Émilie Cousin, Nathalie Fournet, Alexandre Krainik, Monica Baciu
The effect of normal aging on lexical production and semantic processing was evaluated in 72 healthy participants. Four tasks were used, picture naming (PN), picture categorization (PC), numerical judgment (NJ), and color judgment (CJ). The dependence of reaction time (RT) and correct responses with age was accounted by mixed-effects models. Participants underwent neuropsychological testing for verbal, executive, and memory functions. The RTs increase significantly with age for all tasks. After parceling out the non-specific cognitive decline, as reflected by the NJ task, the RT for the PN task decreases with age...
November 24, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869540/the-brief-cognitive-impairment-scale-bcis-preliminary-investigation-of-a-severe-stage-dementia-test-emphasizing-cognitive-processing-and-interpersonal-tolerance
#12
William E Mansbach, Ryan A Mace
We describe the development and validation of The Brief Cognitive Impairment Scale (BCIS), a cognitive screening instrument designed for persons with severe-stage dementia. Psychometric analyses were performed on neuropsychological data from long-term care residents (N = 247) who completed a brief battery of tests, including the BCIS. A principle component analysis yielded three factors that provide insight into how persons with severe dementia cognitively process information and may tolerate specific aspects of social stimulation, such as during personal care...
November 21, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849132/a-benefit-of-context-reinstatement-to-recognition-memory-in-aging-the-role-of-familiarity-processes
#13
Emma V Ward, Elizabeth A Maylor, Marie Poirier, Malgorzata Korko, Jens C M Ruud
Reinstatement of encoding context facilitates memory for targets in young and older individuals (e.g., a word studied on a particular background scene is more likely to be remembered later if it is presented on the same rather than a different scene or no scene), yet older adults are typically inferior at recalling and recognizing target-context pairings. This study examined the mechanisms of the context effect in normal aging. Age differences in word recognition by context condition (original, switched, none, new), and the ability to explicitly remember target-context pairings were investigated using word-scene pairs (Experiment 1) and word-word pairs (Experiment 2)...
November 16, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841734/executive-functions-and-linguistic-performance-in-scd-older-adults-and-healthy-controls
#14
Ramón López-Higes, José M Prados, Susana Rubio, Pedro Montejo, David Del Río
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease. Given the interest to characterize it, the present study explores (1) if there are differences in lexical retrieval (LexR) and sentence comprehension (SComp) between SCD and matched controls, and (2) the predictive value of demographic variables and executive functions in relation to LexR and SComp in each group. A sample of 135 participants voluntarily took part in this study (66 with SCD). They all completed the Trail Making, the Stroop, the Boston Naming, and the ECCO-Senior tests, as well as verbal fluency tasks (VF)...
November 14, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819532/agreement-processing-and-attraction-errors-in-aging-evidence-from-subject-verb-agreement-in-german
#15
Jana Reifegerste, Franziska Hauer, Claudia Felser
Effects of aging on lexical processing are well attested, but the picture is less clear for grammatical processing. Where age differences emerge, these are usually ascribed to working-memory (WM) decline. Previous studies on the influence of WM on agreement computation have yielded inconclusive results, and work on aging and subject-verb agreement processing is lacking. In two experiments (Experiment 1: timed grammaticality judgment, Experiment 2: self-paced reading + WM test), we investigated older (OA) and younger (YA) adults' susceptibility to agreement attraction errors...
November 7, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819520/purpose-in-life-and-cognitive-functioning-in-adulthood
#16
Nathan A Lewis, Nicholas A Turiano, Brennan R Payne, Patrick L Hill
With an increasingly aging population, more work is needed to identify factors which may promote the maintenance of normal cognitive functioning. The current study tested the concurrent association between sense of purpose in life and the cognitive variables of episodic memory, executive functioning, and composite cognitive functioning in adults (N = 3489, Mage = 56.3 years, SD = 12.27, Range = 32-84 years) from the Midlife in the United States study (MIDUS). Correlational analyses suggested that purpose in life was associated with higher scores for memory, executive functioning, and overall cognition...
November 7, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805865/the-spacing-effect-in-older-and-younger-adults-does-context-matter
#17
Katherine E Bercovitz, Matthew C Bell, Patricia M Simone, Melody Wiseheart
Age-related memory change has been a topic of much investigation in recent years, including spacing benefits and reliance on contextual cues. We manipulated the spacing schedule and the context of learning and observed the effects on long-term recall ability in healthy older and younger adults. After learning Swahili-English word pairs, half practiced immediately (massed) and half practiced 24 h later (spaced) either in the same room or a different room (context) from the initial session. A final recall test 10 days after the practice session occurred in the same room as the first session...
November 2, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782780/automatization-of-personal-and-impersonal-discourse-with-narrative-re-telling-as-a-function-of-age
#18
Lauren L Saling, Natasha Laroo, Michael M Saling
When older adults retell an impersonal story, the resulting narratives are typically characterized by more prolixity and less coherence than those produced by younger adults. We aimed to determine whether this pattern is also observed when retelling a personal narrative. Younger and older participants told a personal story three consecutive times. With retelling, no evidence of increased coherence or fluency or reduction in hesitancy was observed for either age group. The nature of autobiographical narrative construction explains why such stories are not subject to automatization...
October 26, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775485/computerized-tabletop-games-as-a-form-of-a-video-game-training-for-old-old
#19
Marina Cujzek, Andrea Vranic
This research aimed at investigating the utility of a computerized version of a cognitively stimulating activity as a video game intervention for elderly. The study focused on the effect of a 6-week extensive practice intervention on aspects of cognitive functioning (vigilance, working memory (WM), inhibition, reasoning) of old-old participants (N = 29), randomly assigned to trained or active control group. The difference between groups was in the content of the extended video game practice - cognitively complex card game for trained and computerized version of a simple dice-game of chance for control participants...
October 24, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049878/the-effectiveness-of-unitization-in-mitigating-age-related-relational-learning-impairments-depends-on-existing-cognitive-status
#20
Maria C D'Angelo, Victoria M Smith, Arber Kacollja, Felicia Zhang, Malcolm A Binns, Morgan D Barense, Jennifer D Ryan
Binding relations among items in the transverse patterning (TP) task is dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus and its extended network. Older adults have impaired TP learning, corresponding to age-related reductions in hippocampal volumes. Unitization is a training strategy that can mitigate TP impairments in amnesia by reducing reliance on hippocampal-dependent relational binding and increasing reliance on fused representations. Here we examined whether healthy older adults and those showing early signs of cognitive decline would also benefit from unitization...
November 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
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