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Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768086/visual-associations-to-retrieve-episodic-memory-across-healthy-elderly-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Sascha R A Meyer, Jos F M De Jonghe, Ben Schmand, Rudolf W H M Ponds
Episodic memory tests need to determine the degree to which patients with moderate to severe memory deficits can still benefit from retrieval support. Especially in the case of Alzheimer's disease (AD), this may support health care to be more closely aligned with patients' memory capacities. We investigated whether the different measures of episodic memory of the Visual Association Test-Extended (VAT-E) can provide a more detailed and informative assessment on memory disturbances across a broad range of cognitive decline, from normal to severe impairment as seen in AD, by examining differences in floor effects...
May 16, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671692/metacognition-for-strategy-selection-during-arithmetic-problem-solving-in-young-and-older-adults
#2
Marie Geurten, Patrick Lemaire
We examined participants' strategy choices and metacognitive judgments during arithmetic problem-solving. Metacognitive judgments were collected either prospectively or retrospectively. We tested whether metacognitive judgments are related to strategy choices on the current problems and on the immediately following problems, and age-related differences in relations between metacognition and strategy choices. Data showed that both young and older adults were able to make accurate retrospective, but not prospective, judgments...
April 19, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580157/spontaneous-response-to-and-expressive-regulation-of-mirth-elicited-by-humorous-cartoons-in-younger-and-older-adults
#3
Sandrine Vieillard, Charlotte Pinabiaux
Many studies have examined the effect of aging on the ability to regulate negative emotions but less is known about the way the elderly people control their positive affects. Thirty-eight younger and 38 older adults were compared on their affective, expressive, physiological, and behavioral spontaneous responses to and in expressive regulation of mirth elicited by humorous cartoons. Compared to younger adults, older adults were equally amused and aroused but showed lower expressivity in their spontaneous reaction...
March 26, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557261/a-comparison-of-visual-working-memory-and-episodic-memory-performance-in-younger-and-older-adults
#4
Selma Lugtmeijer, Edward H F de Haan, Roy P C Kessels
Working memory and episodic memory decline with age.  However, as they are typically studied separately, it is largely unknown whether age-associated differences are similar. A task design was developed in which visual working memory and episodic memory performances were measured using the same stimuli, with both tasks involving context binding. A 2-back working memory task was followed by a surprise subsequent recognition memory task that assessed incidental encoding of object locations of the 2-back task...
March 20, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516767/the-cognitive-functioning-of-older-adult-instrumental-musicians-and-non-musicians
#5
Jessica V Strong, Benjamin T Mast
This study examined similarities and differences in the cognitive profiles of older adult instrumental musicians and non-musicians. We compared neuropsychological test scores among older adult non-musicians, low-activity musicians (<10 years of lessons), and high-activity musicians (≥10 years of lessons), controlling for self-reported physical and social activity, years of education, and overall health. Significant differences among groups were found on tasks of visual spatial ability, naming, and executive functioning...
March 8, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471716/age-related-differences-in-emotion-matching-are-limited-to-low-intensity-expressions
#6
Andrew Mienaltowski, Elizabeth A Lemerise, Kaitlyn Greer, Lindsey Burke
Multi-label tasks confound age differences in perceptual and cognitive processes. We examined age differences in emotion perception with a technique that did not require verbal labels. Participants matched the emotion expressed by a target to two comparison stimuli, one neutral and one emotional. Angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, and sad facial expressions of varying intensity were used. Although older adults took longer to respond than younger adults, younger adults only outmatched older adults for the lowest intensity disgust and fear expressions...
February 22, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770738/aging-and-guided-visual-search-the-role-of-visual-working-memory
#7
Sowon Hahn, Daniel R Buttaccio
In the present study, we examined age-related differences in utilizing learned associations to guide visual search. Participants viewed an object cue that was associated with 1 or 2 target colors, followed by a search array. Older adults showed slower RTs, larger visual search slopes, and reduced cue-target association knowledge than did younger adults. We also found increased search RTs and higher error rates when the cue was associated with 2 colors instead of 1. However, visual search slopes did not vary with the number of associated colors...
July 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632038/spatial-navigation-deficits-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-with-neuropsychiatric-comorbidity
#8
Roxanne C Keynejad, Hana Marková, Kamila Šiffelová, Naveen Kumar, Kamil Vlček, Jan Laczó, Ellen M Migo, Jakub Hort, Michael D Kopelman
AIMS: To find out whether neuropsychiatric comorbidity (comMCI) influences spatial navigation performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS: We recruited aMCI patients with (n = 21) and without (n = 21) neuropsychiatric comorbidity or alcohol abuse, matched for global cognitive impairment and cognitively healthy elderly participants (HE, n = 22). They completed the Mini-Mental State Examination and a virtual Hidden Goal Task in egocentric, allocentric, and delayed recall subtests...
March 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632037/construct-and-concurrent-validity-of-the-cambridge-neuropsychological-automated-tests-in-portuguese-older-adults-without-neuropsychiatric-diagnoses-and-with-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#9
Marta Matos Gonçalves, Maria Salomé Pinho, Mário R Simões
We aimed to analyze the construct and concurrent validity of the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP), Paired Associates Learning (PAL), Reaction Time (RTI), and Spatial Working Memory (SWM) tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB®). Inclusion criteria were checked in a first session. The CANTAB and additional pencil-and-paper tests were administered within 1 week. The participants (aged 69-96 years) were 137 Portuguese adults without neuropsychiatric diagnoses and 37 adults with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease dementia...
March 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270012/sensitive-performance-based-assessment-of-everyday-action-in-older-and-younger-adults
#10
Sarah Seligman Rycroft, Tania Giovannetti, Ross Divers, Jacob Hulswit
Everyday function is compromised by mild cognitive changes in aging. These changes predict risk for future decline and dementia but remain poorly characterized, largely due to a scarcity of sensitive, objective measures.Twenty-seven younger adults and 25 non-demented older adults completed the Naturalistic Action Test (NAT), a performance-based measure of everyday action involving simple and complex tasks. Performance was coded for overt errors and subtle inefficiencies. Participants also completed self-report functional measures and cognitive tests...
March 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264637/effects-of-aging-on-action-intentional-programming
#11
Ali R Shoraka, Dana M Otzel, Eduardo M Zilli, Glen R Finney, Leilani Doty, Adam D Falchook, Kenneth M Heilman
BACKGROUND: Action-intentional programs control "when" we initiate, inhibit, continue, and stop motor actions. The purpose of this study was to learn if there are changes in the action-intentional system with healthy aging, and if these changes are asymmetrical (right versus left upper limb) or related to impaired interhemispheric communication. METHODS: We administered tests of action-intention to 41 middle-aged and older adults (61.9 ± 12.3 years)...
March 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165865/the-oral-and-written-side-of-word-production-in-young-and-older-adults-generation-of-lexical-neighbors
#12
Christelle Robert, Stéphanie Mathey
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aging on both spoken and written word production by using analogous tasks. To do so, a phonological neighbor generation task (Experiment 1) and an orthographic neighbor generation task (Experiment 2) were designed. In both tasks, young and older participants were given a word and had to generate as many words as they could think of by changing one phoneme in the target word (Experiment 1) or one letter in the target word (Experiment 2). The data of the two experiments were consistent, showing that the older adults generated fewer lexical neighbors and made more errors than the young adults...
March 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093035/cognitive-emotion-regulation-in-adulthood-and-old-age-positive-gaze-preferences-across-two-strategies
#13
Eric S Allard, Elizabeth A Kensinger
While positive emotional functioning may be enhanced across adulthood and old age, research is mixed as to the types of regulatory strategies that are more or less beneficial for facilitating well-being. The goal of the present study was to examine how specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies assumed to rely on varying levels of effortful processing (selective attention vs. reappraisal) would impact regulatory behaviors (via eye gaze deployment) and resultant affective outcomes. Participants viewed a series of positive, negative, and neutral film clips while their eyes were tracked across three conditions: passive viewing, selective attention, and reappraisal...
March 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068866/cognitive-abnormalities-and-cerebral-perfusion-defects-in-a-community-dwelling-cohort-of-elderly-men-with-mmse-within-the-normal-range
#14
Lena André-Petersson, Ola Thorsson, Arkadiusz Siennicki-Lantz
OBJECTIVES: Mini Mental State Examination's (MMSE's) sensitivity in its upper level is questioned, hence we investigated cognitive abnormalities and defects in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in elderly with MMSE scores ≥24. METHODS: One hundred and four men at age 81 with MMSE scores ≥24 (mean 28.4 ± 1.7), no dementia or stroke, were examined with neuropsychological test battery, and their rCBF was estimated using 99mTc -HMPAO SPECT. RESULTS: MMSE was very sparsely correlated with rCBF...
March 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044474/self-reference-and-emotional-memory-effects-in-older-adults-at-increased-genetic-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Matthew D Grilli, Cindy B Woolverton, Meli'sa Crawford, Elizabeth L Glisky
The present study investigated whether cognitively healthy older adults who are carriers of the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E, the most prevalent genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, benefit from self-referential processing and emotional processing to the same degree as noncarriers of this gene. Participants encoded emotional and nonemotional narratives using a baseline-orienting task, semantic elaboration, or imagination-based self-referential processing and then completed a recognition memory test...
March 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019138/age-differences-in-perceptions-of-memory-strategy-effectiveness-for-recent-and-remote-memory
#16
Tara T Lineweaver, Michelle Horhota, Jessica Crumley, Catherine T Geanon, Jacqueline J Juett
We examined whether young and older adults hold different beliefs about the effectiveness of memory strategies for specific types of memory tasks and whether memory strategies are perceived to be differentially effective for young, middle-aged, and older targets. Participants rated the effectiveness of five memory strategies for 10 memory tasks at three target ages (20, 50, and 80 years old). Older adults did not strongly differentiate strategy effectiveness, viewing most strategies as similarly effective across memory tasks...
March 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019125/auditory-speed-tasks-as-potential-candidates-for-the-study-of-cognitive-ageing
#17
Ian T Zajac, Ted Nettelbeck
Speed of information processing is an important cognitive ability. It facilitates the efficient operation of higher order cognitive functions, such as reasoning, and is implicated in various models of cognitive decline. The present study considers the potential benefits of expanding the measurement of processing speed to include the auditory modality. It examines the reliability and factorial structure of a variety of auditory and visual speed tasks in a sample of N = 138 older adults aged between 51 and 82 years...
March 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448875/screening-for-cognitive-impairment-in-an-australian-aged-care-assessment-team-as-part-of-comprehensive-geriatric-assessment
#18
Roger Clarnette, Ming Goh, Sneha Bharadwaj, Jillian Ryan, Suzanne Ellis, Anton Svendrovski, D William Molloy, Rónán O'Caoimh
Accurate detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is important to stratify and address risk. Yet, few short cognitive screening instruments are validated for this. . In Australia, all clients referred to an Aged Care Assessment Team (ACAT) receive comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) including the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE). We compared the accuracy of the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen to the SMMSE in 283 participants: 195 with dementia, 47 with MCI, and 41 with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in an Australian community-based ACAT...
February 15, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447561/effects-of-induced-sad-mood-on-facial-emotion-perception-in-young-and-older-adults
#19
Louisa Lawrie, Margaret C Jackson, Louise H Phillips
Older adults perceive less intense negative emotion in facial expressions compared to younger counterparts. Prior research has also demonstrated that mood alters facial emotion perception. Nevertheless, there is little evidence which evaluates the interactive effects of age and mood on emotion perception. This study investigated the effects of sad mood on younger and older adults' perception of emotional and neutral faces. Participants rated the intensity of stimuli while listening to sad music and in silence...
February 15, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405831/do-attentional-capacities-and-processing-speed-mediate-the-effect-of-age-on-executive-functioning
#20
Jessica Gilsoul, Jessica Simon, Michaël Hogge, Fabienne Collette
The executive processes are well known to decline with age, and similar data also exists for attentional capacities and processing speed. Therefore, we investigated whether these two last nonexecutive variables would mediate the effect of age on executive functions (inhibition, shifting, updating, and dual-task coordination). We administered a large battery of executive, attentional and processing speed tasks to 104 young and 71 older people, and we performed mediation analyses with variables showing a significant age effect...
February 6, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
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