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Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883290/behavioral-evidence-for-a-differential-modulation-of-semantic-processing-and-lexical-production-by-aging-a-full-linear-mixed-effects-modeling-approach
#1
Naïla Boudiaf, Rafael Laboissière, Émilie Cousin, Nathalie Fournet, Alexandre Krainik, Monica Baciu
The effect of normal aging on lexical production and semantic processing was evaluated in 72 healthy participants. Four tasks were used, picture naming (PN), picture categorization (PC), numerical judgment (NJ), and color judgment (CJ). The dependence of reaction time (RT) and correct responses with age was accounted by mixed-effects models. Participants underwent neuropsychological testing for verbal, executive, and memory functions. The RTs increase significantly with age for all tasks. After parceling out the non-specific cognitive decline, as reflected by the NJ task, the RT for the PN task decreases with age...
November 24, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869540/the-brief-cognitive-impairment-scale-bcis-preliminary-investigation-of-a-severe-stage-dementia-test-emphasizing-cognitive-processing-and-interpersonal-tolerance
#2
William E Mansbach, Ryan A Mace
We describe the development and validation of The Brief Cognitive Impairment Scale (BCIS), a cognitive screening instrument designed for persons with severe-stage dementia. Psychometric analyses were performed on neuropsychological data from long-term care residents (N = 247) who completed a brief battery of tests, including the BCIS. A principle component analysis yielded three factors that provide insight into how persons with severe dementia cognitively process information and may tolerate specific aspects of social stimulation, such as during personal care...
November 21, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849132/a-benefit-of-context-reinstatement-to-recognition-memory-in-aging-the-role-of-familiarity-processes
#3
Emma V Ward, Elizabeth A Maylor, Marie Poirier, Malgorzata Korko, Jens C M Ruud
Reinstatement of encoding context facilitates memory for targets in young and older individuals (e.g., a word studied on a particular background scene is more likely to be remembered later if it is presented on the same rather than a different scene or no scene), yet older adults are typically inferior at recalling and recognizing target-context pairings. This study examined the mechanisms of the context effect in normal aging. Age differences in word recognition by context condition (original, switched, none, new), and the ability to explicitly remember target-context pairings were investigated using word-scene pairs (Experiment 1) and word-word pairs (Experiment 2)...
November 16, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841734/executive-functions-and-linguistic-performance-in-scd-older-adults-and-healthy-controls
#4
Ramón López-Higes, José M Prados, Susana Rubio, Pedro Montejo, David Del Río
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease. Given the interest to characterize it, the present study explores (1) if there are differences in lexical retrieval (LexR) and sentence comprehension (SComp) between SCD and matched controls, and (2) the predictive value of demographic variables and executive functions in relation to LexR and SComp in each group. A sample of 135 participants voluntarily took part in this study (66 with SCD). They all completed the Trail Making, the Stroop, the Boston Naming, and the ECCO-Senior tests, as well as verbal fluency tasks (VF)...
November 14, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819532/agreement-processing-and-attraction-errors-in-aging-evidence-from-subject-verb-agreement-in-german
#5
Jana Reifegerste, Franziska Hauer, Claudia Felser
Effects of aging on lexical processing are well attested, but the picture is less clear for grammatical processing. Where age differences emerge, these are usually ascribed to working-memory (WM) decline. Previous studies on the influence of WM on agreement computation have yielded inconclusive results, and work on aging and subject-verb agreement processing is lacking. In two experiments (Experiment 1: timed grammaticality judgment, Experiment 2: self-paced reading + WM test), we investigated older (OA) and younger (YA) adults' susceptibility to agreement attraction errors...
November 7, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819520/purpose-in-life-and-cognitive-functioning-in-adulthood
#6
Nathan A Lewis, Nicholas A Turiano, Brennan R Payne, Patrick L Hill
With an increasingly aging population, more work is needed to identify factors which may promote the maintenance of normal cognitive functioning. The current study tested the concurrent association between sense of purpose in life and the cognitive variables of episodic memory, executive functioning, and composite cognitive functioning in adults (N = 3489, Mage = 56.3 years, SD = 12.27, Range = 32-84 years) from the Midlife in the United States study (MIDUS). Correlational analyses suggested that purpose in life was associated with higher scores for memory, executive functioning, and overall cognition...
November 7, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805865/the-spacing-effect-in-older-and-younger-adults-does-context-matter
#7
Katherine E Bercovitz, Matthew C Bell, Patricia M Simone, Melody Wiseheart
Age-related memory change has been a topic of much investigation in recent years, including spacing benefits and reliance on contextual cues. We manipulated the spacing schedule and the context of learning and observed the effects on long-term recall ability in healthy older and younger adults. After learning Swahili-English word pairs, half practiced immediately (massed) and half practiced 24 h later (spaced) either in the same room or a different room (context) from the initial session. A final recall test 10 days after the practice session occurred in the same room as the first session...
November 2, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782780/automatization-of-personal-and-impersonal-discourse-with-narrative-re-telling-as-a-function-of-age
#8
Lauren L Saling, Natasha Laroo, Michael M Saling
When older adults retell an impersonal story, the resulting narratives are typically characterized by more prolixity and less coherence than those produced by younger adults. We aimed to determine whether this pattern is also observed when retelling a personal narrative. Younger and older participants told a personal story three consecutive times. With retelling, no evidence of increased coherence or fluency or reduction in hesitancy was observed for either age group. The nature of autobiographical narrative construction explains why such stories are not subject to automatization...
October 26, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775485/computerized-tabletop-games-as-a-form-of-a-video-game-training-for-old-old
#9
Marina Cujzek, Andrea Vranic
This research aimed at investigating the utility of a computerized version of a cognitively stimulating activity as a video game intervention for elderly. The study focused on the effect of a 6-week extensive practice intervention on aspects of cognitive functioning (vigilance, working memory (WM), inhibition, reasoning) of old-old participants (N = 29), randomly assigned to trained or active control group. The difference between groups was in the content of the extended video game practice - cognitively complex card game for trained and computerized version of a simple dice-game of chance for control participants...
October 24, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754777/the-relationship-between-face-recognition-ability-and-socioemotional-functioning-throughout-adulthood
#10
Maria Teresa Turano, Maria Pia Viggiano
The relationship between face recognition ability and socioemotional functioning has been widely explored. However, how aging modulates this association regarding both objective performance and subjective-perception is still neglected. Participants, aged between 18 and 81 years, performed a face memory test and completed subjective face recognition and socioemotional questionnaires. General and social anxiety, and neuroticism traits account for the individual variation in face recognition abilities during adulthood...
October 18, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726480/saccadic-eye-movements-what-do-they-tell-us-about-aging-cognition
#11
Nicolas Noiret, Blanche Vigneron, Marine Diogo, Pierre Vandel, Éric Laurent
Although the relationship between age-related cognitive decline and saccadic eye movement (SEM) deficits has been outlined, specific cognitive alterations underlying age-related changes in saccadic performance remain unclear. This study attempted to better understand the nature of aging effects on SEMs. We compared SEMs in younger and older adults in prosaccade (PS) and antisaccade (AS) tasks under gap, step, and overlap conditions. We also examined relationships between these performances and several neuropsychological scores...
October 11, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686115/time-of-day-affects-prospective-memory-differently-in-younger-and-older-adults
#12
Nicolas Rothen, Beat Meier
The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of circadian arousal on prospective memory performance as a function of age. We tested a younger (18-34 years) and an older group (56-95 years) of participants on- and off-peak with regard to their circadian arousal patterns in a computer-based laboratory experiment. For the prospective memory task, participants had to press a particular key whenever specific target words appeared in an ongoing concreteness-judgment task. The results showed that prospective memory performance was better on- than off-peak in younger but not older participants...
September 30, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676220/the-effects-of-emotion-on-younger-and-older-adults-monitoring-of-learning
#13
Sarah K Tauber, John Dunlosky, Heather L Urry, Philipp C Opitz
Age-related differences in memory monitoring appear when people learn emotional words. Namely, younger adults' judgments of learning (JOLs) are higher for positive than neutral words, whereas older adults' JOLs do not discriminate between positive versus neutral words. In two experiments, we evaluated whether this age-related difference extends to learning positive versus neutral pictures. We also evaluated the contribution of two dimensions of emotion that may impact younger and older adults' JOLs: valence and arousal...
September 27, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049878/the-effectiveness-of-unitization-in-mitigating-age-related-relational-learning-impairments-depends-on-existing-cognitive-status
#14
Maria C D'Angelo, Victoria M Smith, Arber Kacollja, Felicia Zhang, Malcolm A Binns, Morgan D Barense, Jennifer D Ryan
Binding relations among items in the transverse patterning (TP) task is dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus and its extended network. Older adults have impaired TP learning, corresponding to age-related reductions in hippocampal volumes. Unitization is a training strategy that can mitigate TP impairments in amnesia by reducing reliance on hippocampal-dependent relational binding and increasing reliance on fused representations. Here we examined whether healthy older adults and those showing early signs of cognitive decline would also benefit from unitization...
November 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045461/age-differences-in-suggestibility-to-contradictions-of-demonstrated-knowledge-the-influence-of-prior-knowledge
#15
Sharda Umanath
People maintain intact general knowledge into very old age and use it to support remembering. Interestingly, when older and younger adults encounter errors that contradict general knowledge, older adults suffer fewer memorial consequences: Older adults use fewer recently-encountered errors as answers for later knowledge questions. Why do older adults show this reduced suggestibility, and what role does their intact knowledge play? In three experiments, I examined suggestibility following exposure to errors in fictional stories that contradict general knowledge...
November 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27002287/the-effects-of-hiv-disease-and-older-age-on-laboratory-based-naturalistic-and-self-perceived-symptoms-of-prospective-memory-does-retrieval-cue-type-and-delay-interval-matter
#16
G Avci, S Loft, D P Sheppard, S P Woods
There is a rising prevalence of older HIV+ adults who are at risk of deficits in higher order neurocognitive functions and associated problems in everyday functioning. The current study applied multiprocess theory to examine the effects of HIV and aging on measures of laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory (PM). Participants included 125 Younger (48 with HIV, age = 32 ± 4.6 years) and 189 Older (112 with HIV, age = 56 ± 4.9 years) adults. Controlling for global neurocognitive functioning, mood, and other demographics, older age and HIV had independent effects on long-delay time-based PM in the laboratory, whereas on a naturalistic PM task older HIV- adults performed better than older HIV+ adults and younger persons...
November 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26999624/a-study-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-veterans-role-of-hypertension-and-other-confounding-factors
#17
Jie Bai, Peng Wei, Ning Zhao, Ying Xiao, Chunhui Yang, Jun Zhong, Yong Cai, Yongchao Li, Qin Zhu, Xian Cao, Li Sun, Bing Wang, Keqin Teng, Shifeng Ling, Hailai Ni, Minghui Xie, Jiping Tan, Luning Wang, Xiao-Mao Sun, Wenjun Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension has shown to be an important risk factor for the decline in cognitive function. Aim of our study is to investigate the presence of cognitive impairment of the elders with hypertension and other confounding factors. METHODS: This study was conducted on 400 veterans who were matched one-to-one with the confounding factors for assessing the presence of mild cognitive impairment using both MMSE and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The 13 related factors of patient data were studied...
November 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982878/repetition-blindness-and-homophone-blindness-in-young-and-older-adults
#18
Caitlin J Tyrrell, Lori E James, Paula M Noble
We tested age effects on repetition blindness (RB), defined as the reduced probability of reporting a target word following presentation of the same word in a rapidly presented list. We also tested age effects on homophone blindness (HB), in which the first word is a homophone of the target word rather than a repeated word. Thirty young and 28 older adults viewed rapidly presented lists of words containing repeated, homophone, or unrepeated word pairs and reported all of the words immediately after each list...
November 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982654/the-protective-role-of-long-term-meditation-on-the-decline-of-the-executive-component-of-attention-in-aging-a-preliminary-cross-sectional-study
#19
Marco Sperduti, Dominique Makowski, Pascale Piolino
Life expectancy is constantly increasing. However, a longer life not always corresponds to a healthier life. Indeed, even normal aging is associated with a decline in different cognitive functions. It has been proposed that a central mechanism that could contribute to this widespread cognitive decline is an ineffective inhibitory attentional control. Meditation, to the other hand, has been associated, in young adults, to enhancement of several attentional processes. Nevertheless, attention is not a unitary construct...
November 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26963869/aging-related-gains-and-losses-associated-with-word-production-in-connected-speech
#20
Paul A Dennis, Thomas M Hess
Older adults have been observed to use more nonnormative, or atypical, words than younger adults in connected speech. We examined whether aging-related losses in word-finding abilities or gains in language expertise underlie these age differences. Sixty younger and 60 older adults described two neutral photographs. These descriptions were processed into word types, and textual analysis was used to identify interrupted speech (e.g., pauses), reflecting word-finding difficulty. Word types were assessed for normativeness, with nonnormative word types defined as those used by six (5%) or fewer participants to describe a particular picture...
November 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
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