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Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165865/the-oral-and-written-side-of-word-production-in-young-and-older-adults-generation-of-lexical-neighbors
#1
Christelle Robert, Stéphanie Mathey
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aging on both spoken and written word production by using analogous tasks. To do so, a phonological neighbor generation task (Experiment 1) and an orthographic neighbor generation task (Experiment 2) were designed. In both tasks, young and older participants were given a word and had to generate as many words as they could think of by changing one phoneme in the target word (Experiment 1) or one letter in the target word (Experiment 2). The data of the two experiments were consistent, showing that the older adults generated fewer lexical neighbors and made more errors than the young adults...
February 6, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093035/cognitive-emotion-regulation-in-adulthood-and-old-age-positive-gaze-preferences-across-two-strategies
#2
Eric S Allard, Elizabeth A Kensinger
While positive emotional functioning may be enhanced across adulthood and old age, research is mixed as to the types of regulatory strategies that are more or less beneficial for facilitating well-being. The goal of the present study was to examine how specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies assumed to rely on varying levels of effortful processing (selective attention vs. reappraisal) would impact regulatory behaviors (via eye gaze deployment) and resultant affective outcomes. Participants viewed a series of positive, negative, and neutral film clips while their eyes were tracked across three conditions: passive viewing, selective attention, and reappraisal...
January 16, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068866/cognitive-abnormalities-and-cerebral-perfusion-defects-in-a-community-dwelling-cohort-of-elderly-men-with-mmse-within-the-normal-range
#3
Lena André-Petersson, Ola Thorsson, Arkadiusz Siennicki-Lantz
OBJECTIVES: Mini Mental State Examination's (MMSE's) sensitivity in its upper level is questioned, hence we investigated cognitive abnormalities and defects in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in elderly with MMSE scores ≥24. METHODS: One hundred and four men at age 81 with MMSE scores ≥24 (mean 28.4 ± 1.7), no dementia or stroke, were examined with neuropsychological test battery, and their rCBF was estimated using (99mTc)-HMPAO SPECT. RESULTS: MMSE was very sparsely correlated with rCBF...
January 9, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044474/self-reference-and-emotional-memory-effects-in-older-adults-at-increased-genetic-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Matthew D Grilli, Cindy B Woolverton, Meli'sa Crawford, Elizabeth L Glisky
The present study investigated whether cognitively healthy older adults who are carriers of the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E, the most prevalent genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, benefit from self-referential processing and emotional processing to the same degree as noncarriers of this gene. Participants encoded emotional and nonemotional narratives using a baseline-orienting task, semantic elaboration, or imagination-based self-referential processing and then completed a recognition memory test...
January 3, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019138/age-differences-in-perceptions-of-memory-strategy-effectiveness-for-recent-and-remote-memory
#5
Tara T Lineweaver, Michelle Horhota, Jessica Crumley, Catherine T Geanon, Jacqueline J Juett
We examined whether young and older adults hold different beliefs about the effectiveness of memory strategies for specific types of memory tasks and whether memory strategies are perceived to be differentially effective for young, middle-aged, and older targets. Participants rated the effectiveness of five memory strategies for 10 memory tasks at three target ages (20, 50, and 80 years old). Older adults did not strongly differentiate strategy effectiveness, viewing most strategies as similarly effective across memory tasks...
December 26, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019125/auditory-speed-tasks-as-potential-candidates-for-the-study-of-cognitive-ageing
#6
Ian T Zajac, Ted Nettelbeck
Speed of information processing is an important cognitive ability. It facilitates the efficient operation of higher order cognitive functions, such as reasoning, and is implicated in various models of cognitive decline. The present study considers the potential benefits of expanding the measurement of processing speed to include the auditory modality. It examines the reliability and factorial structure of a variety of auditory and visual speed tasks in a sample of N = 138 older adults aged between 51 and 82 years...
December 26, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002991/intraindividual-reaction-time-variability-predicts-prospective-memory-failures-in-older-adults
#7
B I Haynes, M Kliegel, D Zimprich, D Bunce
This study investigated the relationship between intraindividual variability (IIV) in reaction time and prospective memory errors in older adults using data from the Zurich Longitudinal Study of Cognitive Aging (n = 336 individuals aged 66-81 years). The results indicated that increased IIV measured from independent tasks was associated with a greater proportion of prospective memory errors. These significant findings were not influenced by age and did not vary according to prospective memory cue type. Variability is thought to reflect fluctuations in attentional and executive control and these attentional processes may also impact on prospective memory through failure to detect the target cue...
December 22, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938313/age-related-differences-in-effectiveness-of-item-restudy-choices-the-role-of-value
#8
Ping Li, Yuchi Zhang, Weijian Li, Xinyu Li
We examined the effect of value on effectiveness of restudy choices in younger and older adults by using an honor or dishonor procedure. In the honor condition, participants restudied the half of the items that they selected for restudy. In the dishonor condition, participants restudied the half of the items that they did not select for restudy. The results showed that younger adults restudied more low-value (1-point) items that they had rated as least-well learned, while older adults restudied more high-value (5-point) items...
December 12, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937808/complainer-profile-identification-cpi-properties-of-a-new-questionnaire-on-subjective-cognitive-complaints
#9
Alexander F Lubitz, Michael Eid, Michael Niedeggen
Subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) and their role as a possible indicator for subsequent dementia became of growing interest in recent research. In contrast to studies that focused primarily on memory complaints, we aimed to (a) evaluate a questionnaire to register SCC in multiple cognitive domains (Complainer Profile Identification, CPI), (b) assess the association between SCC and psychosocial variables, and (c) assess whether complainer types can be differentiated. Confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate construct validity was computed based on a sample of 734 healthy participants (mean [M] = 43...
December 12, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937138/computerized-cognitive-training-during-physical-inactivity-improves-executive-functioning-in-older-adults
#10
Uros Marusic, Bruno Giordani, Scott D Moffat, Mojca Petrič, Petra Dolenc, Rado Pišot, Voyko Kavcic
The hippocampus is closely tied to spatial navigation, a central component in cognitive functioning, and critically involved in age-associated cognitive decline and dementia. This study evaluated a novel, cognitive computerized spatial navigation training (CSNT) program targeting the hippocampus, with expectation of mitigating possible cognitive decline with bed rest (BR). During a 14-day BR study with 16 healthy, older men (mean age = 60 ± 3, range = 55-65 years), half received CSNT for 12 days in 50-min sessions and half were controls (watching documentaries)...
December 12, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934542/the-impact-of-aging-on-associative-memory-for-preexisting-unitized-associations
#11
Emma Delhaye, Christine Bastin
Aging is accompanied by a decline in associative memory that can, however, be attenuated when associations are unitized at encoding, that is, when they form an integrated entity. Unitization is thought to promote familiarity-based recognition memory, which is preserved in aging. We examined whether preexperimentally unitized associations (compound words (CWs)) do indeed reduce age differences in memory, and whether preexperimental unitization promotes familiarity. In Experiment 1, we assessed the memory of 20 young and 20 older participants for compound versus unrelated word pairs using a yes/no recognition test with Remember/Know/Guess judgments...
December 9, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934540/correlation-between-functional-mobility-and-cognitive-performance-in-older-adults-with-cognitive-impairment
#12
Sheila de Melo Borges, Márcia Radanovic, Orestes Vicente Forlenza
Association between cognitive impairment and gait performance occurs in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly under "divided attention" conditions, leading to a greater risk of falls. We studied 36 controls, 42 MCI, and 26 mild AD patients, using the Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG) under four conditions: TUG single - TUG1; TUG cognitive - TUG2; TUG manual -TUG3; TUG cognitive and manual - TUG4. Cognition was assessed using the MMSE, SKT, Exit25, and TMT (A and B). We found significant correlations between cognitive scores and TUG2 [r values (MMSE: -0...
December 9, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883290/behavioral-evidence-for-a-differential-modulation-of-semantic-processing-and-lexical-production-by-aging-a-full-linear-mixed-effects-modeling-approach
#13
Naïla Boudiaf, Rafael Laboissière, Émilie Cousin, Nathalie Fournet, Alexandre Krainik, Monica Baciu
The effect of normal aging on lexical production and semantic processing was evaluated in 72 healthy participants. Four tasks were used, picture naming (PN), picture categorization (PC), numerical judgment (NJ), and color judgment (CJ). The dependence of reaction time (RT) and correct responses with age was accounted by mixed-effects models. Participants underwent neuropsychological testing for verbal, executive, and memory functions. The RTs increase significantly with age for all tasks. After parceling out the non-specific cognitive decline, as reflected by the NJ task, the RT for the PN task decreases with age...
November 24, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263546/association-of-financial-and-health-literacy-with-cognitive-health-in-old-age
#14
Robert S Wilson, Lei Yu, Bryan D James, David A Bennett, Patricia A Boyle
We tested the hypothesis that higher financial and health literacy is associated with better cognitive health in 755 older persons who completed a literacy measure (M = 67.9, SD = 14.5) and then had annual clinical evaluations for a mean of 3.4 years. In proportional hazards models, higher literacy was associated with decreased risk of developing incident Alzheimer's disease (n = 68) and results were similar for financial and health literacy subscales and after adjustment for potential confounders. In mixed-effects models, higher literacy was related to higher baseline level of cognition and reduced cognitive decline in multiple domains...
March 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220818/metacognition-and-proofreading-the-roles-of-aging-motivation-and-interest
#15
Mary B Hargis, Carole L Yue, Tyson Kerr, Kenji Ikeda, Kou Murayama, Alan D Castel
The current study examined younger and older adults' error detection accuracy, prediction calibration, and postdiction calibration on a proofreading task, to determine if age-related differences would be present in this type of common error detection task. Participants were given text passages, and were first asked to predict the percentage of errors they would detect in the passage. They then read the passage and circled errors (which varied in complexity and locality), and made postdictions regarding their performance, before repeating this with another passage and answering a comprehension test of both passages...
March 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141970/possible-selves-in-patients-with-right-versus-left-onset-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Erica Harris, Patrick McNamara, Raymon Durso
Possible selves can be used to self-regulate and guide behavior towards what is desired to be achieved or avoided in life. Previous work suggests laterality effects exist within the brain regarding approach and avoidance systems to achieve self-regulation. A modified version of the possible selves task was administered to 45 patients with PD (22 right-onset and 23 left-onset) and 25 community dwelling control subjects (CS). Only 11.1% of patients exhibited balance among their hoped-for and feared possible selves versus 28% of CS...
March 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27123674/neuromodulation-as-a-cognitive-enhancement-strategy-in-healthy-older-adults-promises-and-pitfalls
#17
Ana R S Martins, Felipe Fregni, Marcel Simis, Jorge Almeida
Increases in life expectancy have been followed by an upsurge of age-associated cognitive decline. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have risen as promising approaches to prevent or delay such cognitive decline. However, consensus has not yet been reached about their efficacy in improving cognitive functioning in healthy older adults. Here we review the effects of TMS and tDCS on cognitive abilities in healthy older adults. Despite considerable variability in the targeted cognitive domains, design features and outcomes, the results generally show an enhancement or uniform benefit across studies...
March 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27123545/decision-making-quality-of-younger-and-older-adults-in-familiar-and-unfamiliar-domains
#18
Ernest N Wayde, Sheila R Black, Ansley Gilpin
Age-related differences in purchasing decisions were examined as a function of age and familiarity. On each trial, participants received purchasing options which varied in quality but ultimately cost the same amount of money. On half the trials, participants made decisions about items familiar to younger adults and on the other half of the trials, participants made decisions about products familiar to older adults. The participants' task was to choose the option that provided the best value for the money. We were particularly interested in participants' performance when inferencing was required to select the optimal option from the two choices...
March 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27116194/bistable-perception-in-normal-aging-perceptual-reversibility-and-its-relation-to-cognition
#19
Mirella Díaz-Santos, Samantha Mauro, Bo Cao, Arash Yazdanbakhsh, Sandy Neargarder, Alice Cronin-Golomb
The effects of age on the ability to resolve perceptual ambiguity are unknown, though it depends on frontoparietal attentional networks known to change with age. We presented the bistable Necker cube to 24 middle-aged and OAs (older adults; 56-78 years) and 20 YAs (younger adults; 18-24 years) under passive-viewing and volitional control conditions: Hold one cube percept and Switch between cube percepts. During passive viewing, OAs had longer dominance durations (time spent on each percept) than YAs. In the Hold condition, OAs were less able than YAs to increase dominance durations...
March 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869540/the-brief-cognitive-impairment-scale-bcis-preliminary-investigation-of-a-severe-stage-dementia-test-emphasizing-cognitive-processing-and-interpersonal-tolerance
#20
William E Mansbach, Ryan A Mace
We describe the development and validation of The Brief Cognitive Impairment Scale (BCIS), a cognitive screening instrument designed for persons with severe-stage dementia. Psychometric analyses were performed on neuropsychological data from long-term care residents (N = 247) who completed a brief battery of tests, including the BCIS. A principle component analysis yielded three factors that provide insight into how persons with severe dementia cognitively process information and may tolerate specific aspects of social stimulation, such as during personal care...
November 21, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
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