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Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715933/neuropsychological-tools-to-predict-conversion-from-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia-the-tredem-registry
#1
Maurizio Gallucci, Maria Elena Di Battista, Giuseppe Battistella, Chiara Falcone, Patrizia Silvia Bisiacchi, Enrico Di Giorgi
Most of the studies about conversion from Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia have focused on amnestic MCI (aMCI) which is considered a preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the present study was to identify neuropsychological tools that would best predict conversion from aMCI to dementia. Fifty-five aMCI subjects on the Treviso Dementia Registry were investigated. They underwent a neuropsychological evaluation during their first assessment and again at follow-up. Cox proportional-hazard regression models were created to measure the association between the dependent variable (dementia diagnosis or MCI status maintenance) and the neuropsychological test scores at baseline...
July 18, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705033/differences-in-performance-in-camcog-r-domains-between-old-and-oldest-old-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
B Canneti, A J Mosqueira, T Carreras, A B Gago-Veiga, C Onsurbe, M Ruiz, J Vivancos
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the neuropsychological performance in a ≥90-year-old population with Alzheimer disease (AD) in comparison with younger elderly patients. We retrospectively studied all patients with AD attended in a specialized clinic between 1999 and 2011. Age, sex, educational level, and sensory loss data were collected. Neuropsychological evaluation included Mini-Mental State Examination and Global Deterioration Scale. We used the eight Cambridge Cognitive Assessment (CAMCOG-R) domains to evaluate and compare the neuropsychological performance in the younger than 90 years old (<90) and older than 90 years old (≥90) groups...
July 13, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701077/older-adults-encode-more-not-less-evidence-for-age-related-attentional-broadening
#3
Jennifer C Weeks, Lynn Hasher
Previous work has shown that older adults attend to and implicitly remember more distracting information than young adults; however, it is unknown whether they show a corresponding decrease in implicit memory for targets in the presence of distracters. Using implicit memory tests, we asked whether older adults show a tradeoff in memory between targets and distracters. Here, young and older adults performed a selective attention task in which they were instructed to attend to target pictures and ignore superimposed distracter words...
July 13, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701070/development-of-a-cognitive-function-test-using-virtual-reality-technology-examination-in-healthy-participants
#4
Hiromi Sakai, Akinori Nagano, Keiko Seki, Sayaka Okahashi, Maki Kojima, Zhiwei Luo
We developed a virtual reality test to assess the cognitive function of Japanese people in near-daily-life environment, namely, a virtual shopping test (VST). In this test, participants were asked to execute shopping tasks using touch panel operations in a "virtual shopping mall." We examined differences in VST performances among healthy participants of different ages and correlations between VST and screening tests, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Everyday Memory Checklist (EMC). We included 285 healthy participants between 20 and 86 years of age in seven age groups...
July 13, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585452/how-scenes-containing-visual-errors-affect-speech-fluency-in-young-and-older-adults
#5
Lori E James, Brittany N Chambers, Chelsea L Placzek
We compared young and older adults' speech during an error detection task, with some pictures containing visual errors and anomalies and other pictures error-free. We analyzed three disfluency types: mid-phrase speech fillers (e.g., It's a little, um, girl), repetitions (e.g., He's trying to catch the- the birds), and repairs (e.g., She- you can see her legs). Older adults produced more mid-phrase fillers than young adults only when describing pictures containing errors. These often reflect word retrieval problems and represent clear disruptions to fluency, so this interaction indicates that the need to form and maintain representations of novel information can specifically compromise older adults' speech fluency...
June 6, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506139/effects-of-aging-and-depression-on-mnemonic-discrimination-ability
#6
D A Camfield, R Fontana, K A Wesnes, J Mills, R J Croft
Ageing and depression have been found to be associated with poorer performance in mnemonic discrimination. In the current study, a two-response format mnemonic similarity test, Cognitive Drug Research MST, was used to compare these effects. Seventy-six participants were tested; with 52 participants in the young group, aged 18-35 years, and 24 participants in the elderly group, aged 55 years or older. Twenty-two young participants and 10 elderly participants met DSM-IV criteria for MDD or dysthymia. Age-related deficits were found for lure identification and speed of response...
May 16, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506108/age-differences-in-self-set-goal-effects-for-memory
#7
Robin Lea West, Carla M Strickland-Hughes, Kimberly A Smith
Research has shown that goal setting leads to gains in memory performance and memory self-efficacy across adulthood when goals are set by experimenters and accompanied by positive feedback. However, self-set memory goals have had less consistent impact. This research extended past studies on aging and memory goals to examine the impact of self-set goals using anchors to guide goal selection. Two trials of name, text, and list recall were administered to younger and older adults, comparing goal and no-goal groups...
May 16, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492092/use-of-descriptive-and-experiential-information-in-decision-making-by-young-and-older-adults
#8
Thomas M Hess, Erica L O'Brien, Claire M Growney, Julia G Hafer
Age differences involving decision by description versus decision by experience were examined using the same general task structure to facilitate comparisons across decision types. Experiment 1 compared younger (19-43 years) and older (65-85 years) adults in four different experimental conditions involving a choice between a low-risk, low-return bet versus a high-risk, high-return bet. Experiment 2 compared young (18-27 years) to older (60-87 years) adults using similar experimental conditions, but with decisions involving a risky versus a certain option...
May 11, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441903/age-criterion-flexibility-and-item-recognition
#9
Lione J North, Darlene Olfman, Daniel R Caldera, Emily Munoz, Leah L Light
We examined young and older adults' ability to flexibly adapt response criterion on a recognition test when the probability that a test item had been studied was cued by test color. One word color signaled that the probability of the test item being old was 70% and a second color signaled that the probability of the test item being new was 70%. Young and older adults demonstrated similar levels of criterion shifting in response to color cues. Moreover, although both young and older adults were slowed when test-item color incorrectly predicted test-item status, the extent of slowing did not differ across age group...
April 26, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436757/bilingualism-and-age-are-continuous-variables-that-influence-executive-function
#10
Sara Incera, Conor T McLennan
We analyzed the effects of bilingualism and age on executive function. We examined these variables along a continuum, as opposed to dichotomizing them. We investigated the impact that bilingualism and age have on two measures of executive control (Stroop and Flanker). The mouse-tracking paradigm allowed us to examine the continuous dynamics of the responses as participants completed each trial. First, we found that the Stroop effect was reduced with younger age and higher levels of bilingualism; however, no Bilingualism by Age interaction emerged...
April 24, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428038/grit-in-adolescence-is-protective-of-late-life-cognition-non-cognitive-factors-and-cognitive-reserve
#11
Emma Rhodes, Kathryn N Devlin, Laurence Steinberg, Tania Giovannetti
Various psychological assets have been shown to protect against late-life cognitive impairment by promoting cognitive reserve. While factors such as educational attainment and IQ are well-established contributors to cognitive reserve, noncognitive factors, such as grit, have not been studied in this regard. We examined the contribution of adolescent grit, indexed by high school class rank controlling for IQ, to late-life cognition and its decline among approximately 4000 participants in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a random sample of high school graduates followed from 1957 to 2011...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414184/age-related-cognitive-decline-as-a-function-of-daytime-testing
#12
Andrei Alexandru Puiu
The current study investigates the effects of age, cognitive load, optimal time-of-day testing, and irrelevant background noise suppression on mental processing. One hundred and seventy-eight young (M = 22.97 years) and 114 old adults (M = 56.38 years) were assessed for implicit learning and speed of information processing under irrelevant sound interference early during daytime (7AM-2.30PM) or in the afternoons (3PM-midnight). No direct effect of irrelevant speech effect was found on implicit learning...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405057/the-effects-of-aging-on-the-working-memory-processes-of-multimodal-information
#13
Elena Solesio-Jofre, José María López-Frutos, Nathan Cashdollar, Sara Aurtenetxe, Ignacio de Ramón, Fernando Maestú
Normal aging is associated with deficits in working memory processes. However, the majority of research has focused on storage or inhibitory processes using unimodal paradigms, without addressing their relationships using different sensory modalities. Hence, we pursued two objectives. First, was to examine the effects of aging on storage and inhibitory processes. Second, was to evaluate aging effects on multisensory integration of visual and auditory stimuli. To this end, young and older participants performed a multimodal task for visual and auditory pairs of stimuli with increasing memory load at encoding and interference during retention...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362220/working-memory-in-healthy-aging-and-in-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-of-interference-effects
#14
Elisa Di Rosa, Doris Pischedda, Paolo Cherubini, Daniela Mapelli, Stefano Tamburin, Michele Burigo
Focusing on relevant information while suppressing the irrelevant one are critical abilities for different cognitive processes. However, their functioning has been scarcely investigated in the working memory (WM) domain, in both healthy and pathological conditions. The present research aimed to study these abilities in aging and Parkinson's disease (PD), testing three groups of healthy participants (young, older and elderly) and one of PD patients, employing a new experimental paradigm. Results showed that the transient storing of irrelevant information in WM causes substantial interference effects, which were remarkable in elderly individuals on both response latency and accuracy...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338260/how-age-affects-memory-task-performance-in-clinically-normal-hearing-persons
#15
Charlotte Vercammen, Tine Goossens, Jan Wouters, Astrid van Wieringen
The main objective of this study is to investigate memory task performance in different age groups, irrespective of hearing status. Data are collected on a short-term memory task (WAIS-III Digit Span forward) and two working memory tasks (WAIS-III Digit Span backward and the Reading Span Test). The tasks are administered to young (20-30 years, n = 56), middle-aged (50-60 years, n = 47), and older participants (70-80 years, n = 16) with normal hearing thresholds. All participants have passed a cognitive screening task (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA))...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302740/effects-of-body-mass-index-and-education-on-verbal-and-nonverbal-memory
#16
Liselotte De Wit, Joshua W Kirton, Deirdre M O'Shea, Sarah M Szymkowicz, Molly E McLaren, Vonetta M Dotson
We previously reported that higher education protects against executive dysfunction related to higher body mass index (BMI) in younger, but not older, adults. We now extend the previous analyses to verbal and nonverbal memory. Fifty-nine healthy, dementia-free community-dwelling adults ranging in age from 18 to 81 years completed the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised (BVMT-R). Self-reported years of education served as a proxy for cognitive reserve...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263667/sex-and-post-menopause-hormone-therapy-effects-on-hippocampal-volume-and-verbal-memory
#17
B Blair Braden, Kara B Dassel, Heather A Bimonte-Nelson, Holly P O'Rourke, Donald J Connor, Sallie Moorhous, Marwan N Sabbagh, Richard J Caselli, Leslie C Baxter
Many studies suggest sex differences in memory and hippocampal size, and that hormone therapy (HT) may positively affect these measures in women; however, the parameters of HT use that most likely confer benefits are debated. We evaluated the impact of sex and postmenopausal HT use on verbal learning and memory and hippocampal size in 94 cognitively intact women and 49 men. Using analysis of covariance that controlled for age and education, women had better total word learning and delayed verbal memory performance than men...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234924/similarity-among-tasks-is-the-key-to-show-generalization-of-cognitive-training-effects-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-case-study
#18
Marco Cavallo, Chiara Angilletta
Cognitive training can allow patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to reinforce individual cognitive abilities. In the present case study, we investigated the generalizability of trained cognitive skills to novel tasks, and their stability over time. One AD patient underwent a structured cognitive training using the GEO (Geographical Exercise for cognitive Optimization) task, whereas eight AD patients underwent a control cognitive intervention. Participants' performances on the GEO task, on a similar untrained cognitive task, and on a different untrained cognitive task were recorded before and after the intervention, and at the follow-up...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427300/object-decision-test-borb-normative-data-for-the-adult-quebec-population-and-performance-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-the-semantic-variant-of-primary-progressive-aphasia
#19
Alexandre St-Hilaire, Marie-Claude Blackburn, Maximiliano A Wilson, Robert Jr Laforce, Carol Hudon, Joël Macoir
Object decision (OD) test is one subtest of the Birmingham Object Recognition Battery (BORB). It is useful for differential diagnosis among several neurodegenerative diseases. However, normative data provided with this battery count on very few subjects and do not control for the effect of age, which limits interpretability. The purpose of Study 1 was to provide normative data for the OD test of the BORB (version A-hard). The objectives of Study 2 were to establish the diagnostic validity of this task and predictive validity of the normative data in the case of the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
April 21, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425311/later-adults-cultural-life-scripts-of-middle-and-later-adulthood
#20
Azriel Grysman, Sarah Dimakis
The cultural life script (CLS) refers to expected prototypical life events, often including life transitions overwhelmingly occurring at ages 11-30. This study outlined CLS events at ages after the majority of these events typically occur. Participants, age 38-76, nominated events they expected a person of their age to experience in the future. Participants rated each event's valence, importance, prevalence, and expected age of occurrence. Events were coded into three categories: the normative CLS for events listed by previous CLS studies, offspring's CLS for experiencing CLS events of offspring, and later adulthood CLS for other events nominated by at least 4% of participants...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
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