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Development Genes and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353439/transgenesis-by-microparticle-bombardment-for-live-imaging-of-fluorescent-proteins-in-pristionchus-pacificus-germline-and-early-embryos
#1
Satoshi Namai, Asako Sugimoto
Pristionchus pacificus is a free-living nematode used as a model organism for evolutionary developmental and ecological biology. Although a transgenic technique to form complex arrays by microinjection has been established in P. pacificus, transgene expression from the array in the germline and early embryos tends to be silenced. Here, we established a method to integrate transgenes into the genome of P. pacificus using microparticle bombardment with hygromycin B selection. Additionally, we isolated a mutant exhibiting significantly lower autofluorescence in the germline and early embryos, facilitating visualization of transgene-derived fluorescent proteins for live imaging...
January 20, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297095/amphioxus-sycp1-a-case-of-retrogene-replacement-and-co-option-of-regulatory-elements-adjacent-to-the-parahox-cluster
#2
Myles G Garstang, David E K Ferrier
Retrogenes are formed when an mRNA is reverse-transcribed and reinserted into the genome in a location unrelated to the original locus. If this retrocopy inserts into a transcriptionally favourable locus and is able to carry out its original function, it can, in rare cases, lead to retrogene replacement. This involves the original, often multi-exonic, parental copy being lost whilst the newer single-exon retrogene copy 'replaces' the role of the ancestral parent gene. One example of this is amphioxus SYCP1, a gene that encodes a protein used in synaptonemal complex formation during meiosis and which offers the opportunity to examine how a retrogene evolves after the retrogene replacement event...
January 2, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29264645/two-drosophilids-exhibit-distinct-egf-pathway-patterns-in-oogenesis
#3
Kenley N O'Hanlon, Rachel A Dam, Sophie L Archambeault, Celeste A Berg
Deciphering the evolution of morphological structures is a remaining challenge in the field of developmental biology. The respiratory structures of insect eggshells, called the dorsal appendages, provide an outstanding system for exploring these processes since considerable information is known about their patterning and morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster and dorsal appendage number and morphology vary widely across Drosophilid species. We investigated the patterning differences that might facilitate morphogenetic differences between D...
December 20, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249002/notch-mediated-lateral-inhibition-is-an-evolutionarily-conserved-mechanism-patterning-the-ectoderm-in-echinoids
#4
Eric M Erkenbrack
Notch signaling is a crucial cog in early development of euechinoid sea urchins, specifying both non-skeletogenic mesodermal lineages and serotonergic neurons in the apical neuroectoderm. Here, the spatial distributions and function of delta, gcm, and hesc, three genes critical to these processes in euechinoids, are examined in the distantly related cidaroid sea urchin Eucidaris tribuloides. Spatial distribution and experimental perturbation of delta and hesc suggest that the function of Notch signaling in ectodermal patterning in early development of E...
December 16, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188382/expression-patterns-of-duplicated-snail-genes-in-the-leech-helobdella
#5
Jin-Se Kim, Hee-Jin Kwak, Brenda Irene Medina Jiménez, Soon Cheol Park, Ping Xiao, David A Weisblat, Sung-Jin Cho
snail gene family members are zinc-finger transcription factors with key roles in morphogenesis. Involvement of snail family genes in mesoderm formation has been observed in insects and mammals. The snail genes are also involved in cell motility, neural differentiation, cell fate, survival decision, and left-right identity. The functions of snail genes have been studied primarily among ecdysozoans and deuterostomes, with relatively little work carried out in lophotrochozoans. In this study, we isolated two snail homologs (Hau-snail1 and Hau-snail2) from the leech Helobdella austinensis...
November 29, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170831/mutation-independently-affects-reproductive-traits-and-dauer-larvae-development-in-mutation-accumulation-lines-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Arthur J Hills, James W M Green, Simon C Harvey
Developmental decisions are important in organismal fitness. For the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is naturally found in the ephemeral food patches formed by rotting plant material, correctly committing to dauer or non-dauer larval development is key to genotype survival. To investigate the link between reproductive traits, which will determine how populations grow, and dauer larvae formation, we have analysed these traits in mutation accumulation lines of C. elegans. We find that reproductive traits of individual worms-the total number of progeny and the timing of progeny production-are highly correlated with the population size observed in growing populations...
November 23, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116381/expression-and-function-of-the-zinc-finger-transcription-factor-sp6-9-in-the-spider-parasteatoda-tepidariorum
#7
Tatiana Königsmann, Natascha Turetzek, Matthias Pechmann, Nikola-Michael Prpic
Zinc finger transcription factors of the Sp6-9 group are evolutionarily conserved in all metazoans and have important functions in, e.g., limb formation and heart development. The function of Sp6-9-related genes has been studied in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, but data from chelicerates (spiders and allies) was lacking so far. We have isolated the ortholog of Sp6-9 from the common house spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum and the cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides. We show that the Sp6-9 gene in these spider species is expressed in the developing appendages thus suggesting a conserved role in limb formation...
November 7, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188381/the-effect-of-wolbachia-on-diapause-fecundity-and-clock-gene-expression-in-trichogramma-brassicae-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae
#8
Somayeh Rahimi-Kaldeh, Ahmad Ashouri, Alireza Bandani, Kenji Tomioka
The short day lengths of late summer in moderate regions are used to induce diapause in various insects. Many studies have shown the maternal effect of photoperiod on diapause induction of Trichogramma wasps, but there is no study to show the relationship between photoperiodic regimes and clock genes in these useful biological control agents. Here, we investigated the role of photoperiods on diapause, fecundity, and clock gene expression (clk, cyc, cry2, per, and timeout) in asexual and sexual Trichogramma brassicae as a model insect to find any differences between two strains...
November 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894941/evolutionary-coincidence-of-adaptive-changes-in-exuperantia-and-the-emergence-of-bicoid-in-cyclorrhapha-diptera
#9
Janaina Lima de Oliveira, Iderval Silva Sobrinho-Junior, Samira Chahad-Ehlers, Reinaldo Alves de Brito
The great radiation in the infraorder Cyclorrhapha involved several morphological and molecular changes, including important changes in anterior egg development. During Drosophila oogenesis, exuperantia (exu) is critical for localizing bicoid (bcd) messenger RNA (mRNA) to the anterior region of the oocyte. Because it is phylogenetically older than bcd, which is exclusive to Cyclorrhapha, we hypothesize that exu has undergone adaptive changes to enable this new function. Although exu has been well studied in Drosophila, there is no functional or transcriptional information about it in any other Diptera...
September 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871438/the-structure-splicing-synteny-and-expression-of-lamprey-coe-genes-and-the-evolution-of-the-coe-gene-family-in-chordates
#10
Ricardo Lara-Ramírez, Guillaume Poncelet, Cédric Patthey, Sebastian M Shimeld
COE genes encode transcription factors that have been found in all metazoans examined to date. They possess a distinctive domain structure that includes a DNA-binding domain (DBD), an IPT/TIG domain and a helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain. An intriguing feature of the COE HLH domain is that in jawed vertebrates it is composed of three helices, compared to two in invertebrates. We report the isolation and expression of two COE genes from the brook lamprey Lampetra planeri and compare these to COE genes from the lampreys Lethenteron japonicum and Petromyzon marinus...
September 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861687/conservation-of-the-notch-antagonist-hairless-in-arthropods-functional-analysis-of-the-crustacean-daphnia-pulex-hairless-gene
#11
Ariella Zehender, Melanie Bayer, Milena Bauer, Bettina Zeis, Anette Preiss, Dieter Maier
The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved in all animal metazoa: upon Notch receptor activation, transcription of Notch target genes is turned on by an activator complex that centers on the transcription factor CSL. In the absence of signal, CSL assembles transcriptional repression complexes that display remarkable evolutionary diversity. The major antagonist of Notch signaling in insects named Hairless was originally identified in Drosophila melanogaster. It binds to the Drosophila CSL homologue Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] and recruits the two general co-repressors, Groucho and C-terminal binding protein...
September 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791475/regulation-and-function-of-odd-paired-in-tribolium-segmentation
#12
Chong Pyo Choe, Frank Stellabotte, Susan J Brown
The pair-rule gene odd-paired (opa) is required for the patterning of alternate segment boundaries in the early Drosophila embryo. Mutant phenotypes of opa display a typical pair-rule phenotype in which most of each odd-numbered denticle belt is eliminated. However, among the nine Drosophila pair-rule genes, opa is the only gene that is not expressed in stripes with double segmental periodicity; its transcript and protein are expressed in a broad domain within segmenting embryos. While expression patterns of orthologs of opa have been analyzed in several arthropod species, their regulation and function in segmentation were largely unknown...
September 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780641/the-flexible-stem-hypothesis-evidence-from-genetic-data
#13
REVIEW
Jean-Michel Gibert
Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a given genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to distinct environmental conditions, is widely observed in the wild. It is believed to facilitate evolution and, under the "flexible stem hypothesis", it is thought that an ancestral plastic species can be at the origin of sister lineages with divergent phenotypes fixed by genetic assimilation of alternative morphs. We review here the genetic mechanisms underlying such phenomenon. We show several examples in which the same gene shows transcriptional plasticity in response to environmental factors and divergence of expression within or between species...
September 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752326/modified-whole-mount-in-situ-hybridisation-and-immunohistochemistry-protocols-without-removal-of-the-vitelline-membrane-in-the-appendicularian-oikopleura-dioica
#14
Takeshi A Onuma, Masaki Matsuo, Hiroki Nishida
The appendicularian Oikopleura dioica is a planktonic chordate that retains a tadpole shape throughout its life. Its simple and transparent body, invariant cell lineages, fast development and available genome and transcriptome resources make it a promising model organism for research in developmental biology. However, large-scale analysis of gene expression in O. dioica is limited owing to the laborious and time-consuming process of manual removal of the vitelline membrane, because devitellinisation of pre-hatching embryos causes failure of normal development...
September 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752327/a-conserved-plan-for-wiring-up-the-fan-shaped-body-in-the-grasshopper-and-drosophila
#15
George Boyan, Yu Liu, Sat Kartar Khalsa, Volker Hartenstein
The central complex comprises an elaborate system of modular neuropils which mediate spatial orientation and sensory-motor integration in insects such as the grasshopper and Drosophila. The neuroarchitecture of the largest of these modules, the fan-shaped body, is characterized by its stereotypic set of decussating fiber bundles. These are generated during development by axons from four homologous protocerebral lineages which enter the commissural system and subsequently decussate at stereotypic locations across the brain midline...
July 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721464/unexpected-ubx-expression-in-the-maxilliped-of-the-mystacocarid-crustacean-derocheilocharis-remanei-evidence-for-a-different-way-of-making-a-maxilliped
#16
Martin Fritsch, Stefan Richter
In terms of morphology, crustacean maxillipeds are hybrid appendages. They arise in anterior thoracic segments and display characteristics of both locomotory (thoracic) and feeding (gnathal) appendages. Maxillipeds are functionally integrated with the anterior gnathal appendages. Hox gene expression patterns and immunolabeling with the FP6.87 antibody, which detects conserved epitopes of UBX and ABD-A proteins, reveal that maxillipeds are consistently associated with a shift in the expression of the homeotic gene Ubx...
July 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699036/spatiotemporal-expression-of-a-twist-homolog-in-the-leech-helobdella-austinensis
#17
Jin-Se Kim, Brenda Irene Medina Jiménez, Hee-Jin Kwak, Soon Cheol Park, Ping Xiao, David A Weisblat, Sung-Jin Cho
Genes of the twist family encode bHLH transcription factors known to be involved in the regulation and differentiation of early mesoderm. Here, we report our characterization of Hau-twist, a twist homolog from the leech Helobdella austinensis, a tractable lophotrochozoan representative. Hau-twist was expressed in segmental founder cells of the mesodermal lineage, in subsets of cells within the mesodermal lineage of the germinal plate, in circumferential muscle fibers of a provisional integument during segmentation and organogenesis stages and on the ventral side of the developing proboscis...
July 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624889/transcriptional-control-of-unequal-cleavage-in-early-tubifex-embryos
#18
Momoe Aoki, Takashi Shimizu
Early embryos of the clitellate annelid Tubifex (oligochaete) undergo a series of unequal spiral cell divisions before the descendants of the D quadrant micromeres (cells 2d and 4d) divide bilaterally. Here, we show that inhibition of zygotic transcription by microinjection of α-amanitin (transcription inhibitor) exclusively converts unequal cleavage in cell 2d(11) (granddaughter of 2d) into equal cleavage while other unequal cleavages and ensuing bilateral cleavages in cells 4d and 2d(111) (great-granddaughter of 2d) all proceed in a normal fashion in the presence of this inhibitor...
July 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550373/black-carp-vasa-identifies-embryonic-and-gonadal-germ-cells
#19
Ting Xue, Miao Yu, Qihua Pan, Yizhou Wang, Jian Fang, Lingyu Li, Yu Deng, Kai Chen, Qian Wang, Tiansheng Chen
Identification of molecular markers is an essential step in the study of germ cells. Vasa is an RNA helicase and a well-known germ cell marker that plays a crucial role in germ cell development. Here, we identified the Vasa homolog termed Mpvasa as the first germ cell marker in black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). First, a 2819-bp full-length Mpvasa complementary DNA (cDNA) was cloned by PCR using degenerated primers of conserved sequences and gene-specific primers. The Mpvasa cDNA sequence encodes a 637-amino acid protein that contains eight conserved characteristic motifs of the DEAD box protein family, and shares high identity to grass carp (81%) and zebrafish (74%) vasa homologs...
July 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477155/the-cuticular-nature-of-corneal-lenses-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Aaron L Stahl, Mark Charlton-Perkins, Elke K Buschbeck, Tiffany A Cook
The dioptric visual system relies on precisely focusing lenses that project light onto a neural retina. While the proteins that constitute the lenses of many vertebrates are relatively well characterized, less is known about the proteins that constitute invertebrate lenses, especially the lens facets in insect compound eyes. To address this question, we used mass spectrophotometry to define the major proteins that comprise the corneal lenses from the adult Drosophila melanogaster compound eye. This led to the identification of four cuticular proteins: two previously identified lens proteins, drosocrystallin and retinin, and two newly identified proteins, Cpr66D and Cpr72Ec...
July 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
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