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Development Genes and Evolution

Torsten Will, Henrike Schmidtberg, Marisa Skaljac, Andreas Vilcinskas
Heat shock protein 83 (HSP83) is homologous to the chaperone HSP90. It has pleiotropic functions in Drosophila melanogaster, including the control of longevity and fecundity, and facilitates morphological evolution by buffering cryptic deleterious mutations in wild populations. In the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, HSP83 expression is moderately induced by bacterial infection but upregulated more strongly in response to heat stress and fungal infection. Stress-inducible heat shock proteins are of considerable evolutionary and ecological importance because they are known to buffer environmental variation and to influence fitness under non-optimal conditions...
October 14, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Milana A Kulakova, Nadezhda I Bakalenko, Elena L Novikova
Hox genes are the key regulators of axial regionalization of bilaterian animals. However, their main function is fulfilled differently in the development of animals from different evolutionary branches. Early patterning of the developing embryos by Hox gene expression in the representatives of protostomes (arthropods, mollusks) starts in the ectodermal cells. On the contrary, the instructive role of the mesoderm in the axial patterning was demonstrated for vertebrates. This makes it difficult to understand if during the axial regionalization of ancestral bilaterians Hox genes first expressed in the developing mesoderm or the ectoderm...
October 3, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Natascha Turetzek, Nikola-Michael Prpic
Most recent studies of spider embryonic development have focused on representatives of the species-rich group of entelegyne spiders (over 80 % of all extant species). Embryogenesis in the smaller spider groups, however, is less well studied. Here, we describe the development of the germ band in the spider species Pholcus phalangioides, a representative of the haplogyne spiders that are phylogenetically the sister group of the entelegyne spiders. We show that the transition from radially symmetric embryonic anlage to the bilaterally symmetric germ band involves the accumulation of cells in the centre of the embryonic anlage (primary thickening)...
September 1, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Mehrnoush Dehghani, Paul Lasko
The DEAD-box RNA helicase Vasa (Vas, also known as DDX4) is required for germ cell development. In Drosophila, analysis of hypomorphic mutations has implicated maternally expressed Vas in germ cell formation and posterior embryonic patterning. vas-null females, which rarely complete oogenesis, exhibit defects in mitotic progression of germline stem cells, Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA)-mediated transposon silencing, and translation of Gurken (Grk), an EGFR ligand. The carboxy-terminal region of Vas orthologs throughout the animal kingdom consists of several acidic residues as well as an invariant tryptophan in the penultimate or ultimate position (Trp660 in Drosophila melanogaster)...
August 29, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Chun-Xue Liu, Xiao-Lan Peng, Chun-Chun Hu, Chun-Yang Li, Qiang Li, Xiu Xu
SHANK3 is a scaffolding protein that binds to various synaptic proteins at the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. SHANK3 is not only strongly implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but also plays a critical role in human Phelan-McDermid syndrome (22q13.3 deletion syndrome). Accumulated experimental evidence demonstrates that the zebrafish model system is useful for studying the functions of ASD-related gene during early development. However, many basic features of shank3 transcript expression in zebrafish remain poorly understood...
August 26, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
David A Gold, Nagayasu Nakanishi, Nicholai M Hensley, Volker Hartenstein, David K Jacobs
The moon jellyfish Aurelia exhibits a dramatic reorganization of tissue during its metamorphosis from planula larva to polyp. There are currently two competing hypotheses regarding the fate of embryonic germ layers during this metamorphosis. In one scenario, the original endoderm undergoes apoptosis and is replaced by a secondary endoderm derived from ectodermal cells. In the second scenario, both ectoderm and endoderm remain intact through development. In this study, we performed a pulse-chase experiment to trace the fate of larval ectodermal cells...
August 18, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Anton Karabinos
Calmodulin (CaM) is a major EF hand containing intracellular calcium receptor in animals and plants; however, eukaryotes also express a number of related CaM-like proteins. We have previously characterized an embryonic phenotype of the single Caenorhabditis elegans CaM gene cmd-1, reported no visible RNAi phenotype for the four related cal-1 to cal-4 genes and started tissue-specific expression analyses of these proteins. In the present study, we analyzed evolutionary aspects of the previously reported CAL-1 to CAL-4 proteins, along with the four new CAL-5 to CAL-8 sequences retrieved from the worm database...
September 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Wenjing Tao, Lina Sun, Jinlin Chen, Hongjuan Shi, Deshou Wang
Argonaute proteins are key components of the small RNA-induced silencing complex and have multiple roles in RNA-directed regulatory pathways. Argonaute genes can be divided into two subfamilies: the Ago (interacting with microRNA/small interfering RNA) and Piwi subfamilies (interacting with piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs)). In the present study, genome-wide analyses firstly yielded the identification of different members of Agos and Piwis in the tilapia, coelacanth, spotted gar, and elephant shark. The additional teleost Ago3b was generated following the fish-specific genome duplication event...
September 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Alexey G Desnitskiy
This paper represents an attempt to unify data from various lines of Volvox research: developmental biology, biogeography, and evolution. Several species (such as Volvox carteri and Volvox spermatosphaera) are characterized by rapid divisions of asexual reproductive cells, which may proceed in darkness. By contrast, several other species (such as Volvox aureus, Volvox globator, and Volvox tertius) exhibit slow and light/dependent divisions. The transition from the former pattern of asexual life cycle to the latter one has occurred in three lineages of the genus Volvox...
September 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Melanie Rothe, Fabio Monteiro, Petra Dietmann, Susanne J Kühl
The signal-induced proliferation-associated (SIPA) protein family belongs to the RapGAP protein superfamily. Previous studies mainly focused on the expression and function of SIPA genes in vertebrate neuronal tissue. Only limited data about the embryonic expression pattern of the genes are currently available. Our study provides the first expression analysis of sipa1, sipa1l1, sipa1l2, and sipa1l3 during early development of the vertebrate organism Xenopus laevis. In silico, analysis revealed that all genes are highly conserved across species...
September 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Michael L Jaramillo, Frank Guzman, Christian L B Paese, Rogerio Margis, Evelise M Nazari, Dib Ammar, Yara Maria Rauh Müller
The crustaceans are one of the largest, most diverse, and most successful groups of invertebrates. The diversity among the crustaceans is also reflected in embryonic development models. However, the molecular genetics that regulates embryonic development is not known in those crustaceans that have a short germ-band development with superficial cleavage, such as Macrobrachium olfersi. This species is a freshwater decapod and has great potential to become a model for developmental biology, as well as for evolutionary and environmental studies...
September 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Lisa E Kelly, Heithem M El-Hodiri
Nkx5 family members are homeobox transcription factors important for sensory organ development. Several members of the Nkx5 family are expressed in the eye, brain, developing ear, and lateral line. Members of this family have been previously identified in medaka, chick, and mouse. Here, we characterize two members of the Nkx5 family, Nkx5.3 and SOHo, in Xenopus laevis. We verify the identity of X. laevis Nkx5.3 and SOHo by phylogenetic comparison to chicken, medaka, and zebrafish orthologs. Both Nkx5.3 and SOHo are expressed in the developing eye, ear, lateral line system, and cranial neurons as determined by in situ hybridization...
July 9, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Fang Tong, Mingming Zhang, Xiaoling Guo, Hongshun Shi, Li Li, Wen Guan, Haihe Wang, Shulan Yang
SH3 domain-binding glutamic acid-rich (SH3BGR) gene family is composed of SH3BGR, SH3BGRL, SH3BGRL2, and SH3BGRL3 which encodes a cluster of small thioredoxin-like proteins and shares a Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. However, biological functions of SH3BGR family members are largely elusive. Given that zebrafish (Danio rerio) sh3bgrl, sh3bgrl2, sh3bgrl3, and sh3bgr are evolutionally identical to their corresponding human orthologues, we analyzed the spatiotemporal expression of SH3BGR family members in zebrafish embryonic development stages by in situ hybridization...
July 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Ana Lúcia A Segatto, Claudia E Thompson, Loreta B Freitas
Gene families have been shown to play important roles in plant evolution and are associated with diversification and speciation. Genes of WUSCHEL-related homeobox family of transcription factors have important functions in plant development and are correlated with the appearance of evolutionary novelties. There are several published studies related to this family, but little is known about the relationships among the main clades in the phylogeny and the molecular evolution of the family. In this study, we obtained a well-resolved Bayesian phylogenetic tree establishing the relationships among the main clades and determining the position of Selaginella moellendorffii WOX genes...
July 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Vijayanathan Mallika, Girija Aiswarya, Paily Thottathil Gincy, Appukuttan Remakanthan, Eppurathu Vasudevan Soniya
Zingiberaceae or 'ginger family' is the largest family in the order 'Zingiberales' with more than 1300 species in 52 genera, which are mostly distributed throughout Asia, tropical Africa and the native regions of America with their maximum diversity in Southeast Asia. Many of the members are important spice, medicinal or ornamental plants including ginger, turmeric, cardamom and kaempferia. These plants are distinguished for the highly valuable metabolic products, which are synthesised through phenylpropanoid pathway, where type III polyketide synthase is the key enzyme...
July 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Jiankai Wei, Richard Samuel Elliot Glaves, Melony J Sellars, Jianhai Xiang, Philip L Hertzler
In penaeid shrimp, mesoderm forms from two sources: naupliar mesoderm founder cells, which invaginate during gastrulation, and posterior mesodermal stem cells called mesoteloblasts, which undergo characteristic teloblastic divisions. The primordial mesoteloblast descends from the ventral mesendoblast, which arrests in cell division at the 32-cell stage and ingresses with its sister dorsal mesendoblast prior to naupliar mesoderm invagination. The naupliar mesoderm forms the muscles of the naupliar appendages (first and second antennae and mandibles), while the mesoteloblasts form the mesoderm, including the muscles, of subsequently formed posterior segments...
July 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Emilie Simon, Corinne Faucheux, Alain Zider, Nadine Thézé, Pierre Thiébaud
The members of the vestigial-like gene family have been identified as homologs of the Drosophila vestigial, which is essential to wing formation. All members of the family are characterized by the presence of the TONDU domain, a highly conserved sequence that mediates their interaction with the transcription factors of the TEAD family. Mammals possess four vestigial-like genes that can be subdivided into two classes, depending on the number of Tondu domains present. While vestigial proteins have been studied in great depth in Drosophila, we still have sketchy knowledge of the functions of vestigial-like proteins in vertebrates...
July 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Luisa F Pallares, Leslie M Turner, Diethard Tautz
Craniofacial shape differences between taxa have often been linked to environmental adaptation, e.g., new food sources, or have been studied in the context of domestication. Evidence for the genetic basis of such phenotypic differences to date suggests that between-species as well as between-population variation has an oligogenic basis, i.e., few loci of large effect explain most of the variation. In mice, it has been shown that within-population craniofacial variation has a highly polygenic basis, but there are no data regarding the genetic basis of between-species differences in natural populations...
June 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Anna Dowling, Carolyn Doroba, Jennifer A Maier, Lorna Cohen, John VandeBerg, Karen E Sears
A fundamental question in biology is "how is growth differentially regulated during development to produce organs of particular sizes?" We used a new model system for the study of differential organ growth, the limbs of the opossum (Monodelphis domestica), to investigate the cellular and molecular basis of differential organ growth in mammals. Opossum forelimbs grow much faster than hindlimbs, making opossum limbs an exceptional system with which to study differential growth. We first used the great differences in opossum forelimb and hindlimb growth to identify cellular processes and molecular signals that underlie differential limb growth...
June 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Mark C Belk, G Bruce Schaalje
Molecular genetic data suggest that June sucker (Chasmistes liorus) is only shallowly diverged from the co-occurring but phenotypically distinct Utah sucker (Catostomus ardens) in Utah Lake. Phenotypes representing both extreme morphologies (June sucker and Utah sucker) are observed in the small wild population, but relatively large numbers of intermediate phenotypes are also present. This relatively continuous variation between the two putative species could result from extensive hybridization (including reticulate evolutionary patterns) of genetically based phenotypes or incomplete divergence among lineages and extensive phenotypic plasticity with little genetic basis...
June 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
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