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Development Genes and Evolution

Sheng-Jia Lin, Ming-Chang Chiang, Hung-Yu Shih, Kun-Chun Chiang, Yi-Chuan Cheng
The forkhead box subclass O (FoxO) family of proteins is a group of highly evolutionary conserved transcription factors that regulate various cellular processes and embryonic development. Dysregulated expressions of FOXO genes have been identified in numerous tumors and genetic disorders. The expression of FOXO/Foxo, particularly FOXO4/Foxo4 and FOXO6/Foxo6, in the developing nervous system has not been fully characterized. Here, we identified zebrafish foxo4, foxo6a, and foxo6b homologs and demonstrated that all three genes were expressed in the developing nervous system...
February 2, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Rajiv K Tripathi, Ridhi Goel, Sweta Kumari, Anil Dahuja
SQUAMOSA Promoter-Binding Protein-Like (SPL) genes form a major family of plant-specific transcription factors and play an important role in plant growth and development. In this study, we report the identification of 41 SPL genes (GmSPLs) in the soybean genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these genes were divided into five groups (groups 1-5). Further, exon/intron structure and motif composition revealed that the GmSPL genes are conserved within their same group. The N-terminal zinc finger 1 (Zn1) of the SBP domain was a CCCH (Cys3His1) and the C terminus zinc finger 2 (Zn2) was a CCHC (Cys2HisCys) type...
January 29, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Suzanne M Peyer, Elizabeth A C Heath-Heckman, Margaret J McFall-Ngai
The protein Crumbs is a determinant of apical-basal cell polarity and plays a role in apoptosis of epithelial cells and their protection against photodamage. Using the squid-vibrio system, a model for development of symbiotic partnerships, we examined the modulation of the crumbs gene in host epithelial tissues during initiation and maintenance of the association. The extracellular luminous symbiont Vibrio fischeri colonizes the apical surfaces of polarized epithelia in deep crypts of the Euprymna scolopes light organ...
January 20, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Janet L Vaglia, Chet Fornari, Paula K Evans
During embryogenesis, the body axis elongates and specializes. In vertebrate groups such as salamanders and lizards, elongation of the posterior body axis (tail) continues throughout life. This phenomenon of post-embryonic tail elongation via addition of vertebrae has remained largely unexplored, and little is known about the underlying developmental mechanisms that promote vertebral addition. Our research investigated tail elongation across life stages in a non-model salamander species, Eurycea cirrigera (Plethodontidae)...
January 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Marco Fambrini, Mariangela Salvini, Claudio Pugliesi
The wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants develop a highly branched form with numerous small flowering heads. The origin of a no branched sunflower, producing a single large head, has been a key event in the domestication process of this species. The interaction between hormonal factors and several genes organizes the initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems (AMs). From sunflower, we have isolated two genes putatively involved in this process, LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LS)-LIKE (Ha-LSL) and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION (ROX)-LIKE (Ha-ROXL), encoding for a GRAS and a bHLH transcription factor (TF), respectively...
December 29, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Sujian Tan, Pin Huan, Baozhong Liu
Though several bilaterian animals use a conserved BMP2/4-Chordin antagonism to pattern the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis, the only lophotrochozoan species in which early DV patterning has been studied to date, the leech Helobdella robusta, appears to employ BMP5-8 and Gremlin. These findings call into question the conservation of a common DV patterning mechanism among bilaterian animals. To explore whether the unusual DV patterning mechanism in H. robusta is also used in other lophotrochozoan species, we investigated the expression of orthologous genes in the early embryo of a bivalve mollusk, Crassostrea gigas...
December 16, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Fret Cervantes-Diaz, Pedro Contreras, Sylvain Marcellini
The vertebrate endoskeleton results from the piecemeal assembly of bone and cartilage as well as additional types of calcified extracellular matrices produced by seemingly hybrid cell types of intermediate phenotypes between osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Hence, shedding light on the emergence and subsequent diversification of skeletal tissues represents a major challenge in vertebrate evolutionary developmental biology. A 150-year-old debate in the field was recently solved by lineage tracing experiments demonstrating that, during mouse endochondral bone development, a subset of chondrocytes evades apoptosis and transdifferentiates into osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous junction...
December 1, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Ashwin Lokapally, Sanjeeva Metikala, Thomas Hollemann
Neuron-glial-related cell adhesion molecule (NRCAM) is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule of the L1 immunoglobulin superfamily, which plays diverse roles during nervous system development including axon growth and guidance, synapse formation, and formation of the myelinated nerve. Perturbations in NRCAM function cause a wide variety of disorders, which can affect wiring and targeting of neurons, or cause psychiatric disorders as well as cancers through abnormal modulation of signaling events. In the present study, we characterize the Xenopus laevis homolog of nrcam...
January 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Kanae Nishii, Bing-Hong Huang, Chun-Neng Wang, Michael Möller
Typical dicots possess equal-sized cotyledons and leaf-bearing shoots topped with a shoot apical meristem (SAM), the source of lateral organs, and where KNOX1 homeobox genes act as key regulators. New World Gesneriaceae show typical cotyledons, whereas Old World Gesneriaceae show anisocotyly, the unequal post-germination growth of cotyledons, and include unifoliate (one-leaf) plants. One-leaf plants show an extremely reduced body plan: the adult above-ground photosynthetic tissue consisting of a single cotyledon, a macrocotyledon enlarged by the basal meristem (BM), but lacking a SAM...
January 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Anthony Percival-Smith
A major problem in developmental genetics is how HOX transcription factors, like Proboscipedia (PB) and Ultrabithorax (UBX), regulate distinct programs of gene expression to result in a proboscis versus a haltere, respectively, when the DNA-binding homeodomain (HD) of HOX transcription factors recognizes similar DNA-binding sequences. Indeed, the lack of DNA-binding specificity is a problem for all transcription factors (TFs), as the DNA-binding domains generally recognize small targets of five to six bases in length...
January 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
George Boyan, Erica Ehrhardt
The nervous system of the antenna of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria consists of two nerve tracts in which sensory cells project their axons to the brain. Each tract is pioneered early in embryogenesis by a pair of identified cells located apically in the antennal lumen. The pioneers are thought to originate in the epithelium of the antenna and then delaminate into the lumen where they commence axogenesis. However, unambiguous molecular identification of these cells in the epithelium, of an identifiable precursor, and of their mode of generation has been lacking...
January 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Torsten Will, Henrike Schmidtberg, Marisa Skaljac, Andreas Vilcinskas
Heat shock protein 83 (HSP83) is homologous to the chaperone HSP90. It has pleiotropic functions in Drosophila melanogaster, including the control of longevity and fecundity, and facilitates morphological evolution by buffering cryptic deleterious mutations in wild populations. In the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, HSP83 expression is moderately induced by bacterial infection but upregulated more strongly in response to heat stress and fungal infection. Stress-inducible heat shock proteins are of considerable evolutionary and ecological importance because they are known to buffer environmental variation and to influence fitness under non-optimal conditions...
January 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Milana A Kulakova, Nadezhda I Bakalenko, Elena L Novikova
Hox genes are the key regulators of axial regionalization of bilaterian animals. However, their main function is fulfilled differently in the development of animals from different evolutionary branches. Early patterning of the developing embryos by Hox gene expression in the representatives of protostomes (arthropods, mollusks) starts in the ectodermal cells. On the contrary, the instructive role of the mesoderm in the axial patterning was demonstrated for vertebrates. This makes it difficult to understand if during the axial regionalization of ancestral bilaterians Hox genes first expressed in the developing mesoderm or the ectoderm...
January 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Chun-Xue Liu, Xiao-Lan Peng, Chun-Chun Hu, Chun-Yang Li, Qiang Li, Xiu Xu
SHANK3 is a scaffolding protein that binds to various synaptic proteins at the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. SHANK3 is not only strongly implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but also plays a critical role in human Phelan-McDermid syndrome (22q13.3 deletion syndrome). Accumulated experimental evidence demonstrates that the zebrafish model system is useful for studying the functions of ASD-related gene during early development. However, many basic features of shank3 transcript expression in zebrafish remain poorly understood...
November 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Natascha Turetzek, Nikola-Michael Prpic
Most recent studies of spider embryonic development have focused on representatives of the species-rich group of entelegyne spiders (over 80 % of all extant species). Embryogenesis in the smaller spider groups, however, is less well studied. Here, we describe the development of the germ band in the spider species Pholcus phalangioides, a representative of the haplogyne spiders that are phylogenetically the sister group of the entelegyne spiders. We show that the transition from radially symmetric embryonic anlage to the bilaterally symmetric germ band involves the accumulation of cells in the centre of the embryonic anlage (primary thickening)...
September 1, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Anton Karabinos
Calmodulin (CaM) is a major EF hand containing intracellular calcium receptor in animals and plants; however, eukaryotes also express a number of related CaM-like proteins. We have previously characterized an embryonic phenotype of the single Caenorhabditis elegans CaM gene cmd-1, reported no visible RNAi phenotype for the four related cal-1 to cal-4 genes and started tissue-specific expression analyses of these proteins. In the present study, we analyzed evolutionary aspects of the previously reported CAL-1 to CAL-4 proteins, along with the four new CAL-5 to CAL-8 sequences retrieved from the worm database...
September 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Wenjing Tao, Lina Sun, Jinlin Chen, Hongjuan Shi, Deshou Wang
Argonaute proteins are key components of the small RNA-induced silencing complex and have multiple roles in RNA-directed regulatory pathways. Argonaute genes can be divided into two subfamilies: the Ago (interacting with microRNA/small interfering RNA) and Piwi subfamilies (interacting with piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs)). In the present study, genome-wide analyses firstly yielded the identification of different members of Agos and Piwis in the tilapia, coelacanth, spotted gar, and elephant shark. The additional teleost Ago3b was generated following the fish-specific genome duplication event...
September 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Alexey G Desnitskiy
This paper represents an attempt to unify data from various lines of Volvox research: developmental biology, biogeography, and evolution. Several species (such as Volvox carteri and Volvox spermatosphaera) are characterized by rapid divisions of asexual reproductive cells, which may proceed in darkness. By contrast, several other species (such as Volvox aureus, Volvox globator, and Volvox tertius) exhibit slow and light/dependent divisions. The transition from the former pattern of asexual life cycle to the latter one has occurred in three lineages of the genus Volvox...
September 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Melanie Rothe, Fabio Monteiro, Petra Dietmann, Susanne J Kühl
The signal-induced proliferation-associated (SIPA) protein family belongs to the RapGAP protein superfamily. Previous studies mainly focused on the expression and function of SIPA genes in vertebrate neuronal tissue. Only limited data about the embryonic expression pattern of the genes are currently available. Our study provides the first expression analysis of sipa1, sipa1l1, sipa1l2, and sipa1l3 during early development of the vertebrate organism Xenopus laevis. In silico, analysis revealed that all genes are highly conserved across species...
September 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Michael L Jaramillo, Frank Guzman, Christian L B Paese, Rogerio Margis, Evelise M Nazari, Dib Ammar, Yara Maria Rauh Müller
The crustaceans are one of the largest, most diverse, and most successful groups of invertebrates. The diversity among the crustaceans is also reflected in embryonic development models. However, the molecular genetics that regulates embryonic development is not known in those crustaceans that have a short germ-band development with superficial cleavage, such as Macrobrachium olfersi. This species is a freshwater decapod and has great potential to become a model for developmental biology, as well as for evolutionary and environmental studies...
September 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
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