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Development Genes and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30446824/early-development-of-the-feeding-larva-of-the-sea-urchin-heliocidaris-tuberculata-role-of-the-small-micromeres
#1
Valerie B Morris, Eleanor Kable, Demian Koop, Paula Cisternas, Maria Byrne
The two modes of development in sea urchins are direct development, in which the adult develops directly from the gastrula to the adult and does not feed, and indirect development, in which the adult develops indirectly through a feeding larva. In this account of the indirect, feeding larva of Heliocidaris tuberculata, the question raised is whether an evolutionary difference of unequal cell divisions contributes to the development of feeding structures in the indirect larva. In indirect development, the cell divisions at the fourth and fifth cell cycles of the zygote are unequal, with four small micromeres formed at the vegetal pole at the fifth cell division...
November 16, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30430240/expression-of-hyaluronan-synthases-upregulated-by-thyroid-hormone-is-involved-in-intestinal-stem-cell-development-during-xenopus-laevis-metamorphosis
#2
Kenta Fujimoto, Takashi Hasebe, Mitsuko Kajita, Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka
During amphibian intestinal remodeling, thyroid hormone (TH) induces adult stem cells, which newly generate the absorptive epithelium analogous to the mammalian one. We have previously shown that hyaluronan (HA) is newly synthesized and plays an essential role in the development of the stem cells via its major receptor CD44 in the Xenopus laevis intestine. We here focused on HA synthase (HAS) and examined how the expression of HAS family genes is regulated during natural and TH-induced metamorphosis. Our quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mRNA expression of HAS2 and HAS3, but not that of HAS1 and HAS-rs, a unique Xenopus HAS-related sequence, is upregulated concomitantly with the development of adult epithelial primordia consisting of the stem/progenitor cells during the metamorphic climax...
November 14, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374762/transcriptome-analysis-of-scyphozoan-jellyfish-rhopilema-esculentum-from-polyp-to-medusa-identifies-potential-genes-regulating-strobilation
#3
Jianlong Ge, Changlin Liu, Jie Tan, Li Bian, Siqing Chen
Strobilation is a unique asexual reproduction mode of scyphozoan jellyfish, through which benthic polyp develops into pelagic medusa. It is an orderly metamorphosis process triggered by environmental signals. However, the knowledges of molecular mechanisms under the drastic morphological and physiological changes are still limited. In this study, the transcriptomes from polyps to juvenile medusae at different stages were characterized by RNA-seq in scyphozoan jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum. Among 96,076 de novo assembled unigenes, 7090 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified during the developmental stages...
October 29, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242472/microsynteny-analysis-to-understand-evolution-and-impact-of-polyploidization-on-mir319-family-within-brassicaceae
#4
Gauri Joshi, Chetan Chauhan, Sandip Das
The availability of a large number of whole-genome sequences allows comparative genomic analysis to reveal and understand evolution of regulatory regions and elements. The role played by events such as whole-genome and segmental duplications followed by genome fractionation in shaping genomic landscape and in expansion of gene families is crucial toward developing insights into evolutionary trends and consequences such as sequence and functional diversification. Members of Brassicaceae are known to have experienced several rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) that have been termed as paleopolyploidy, mesopolyploidy, and neopolyploidy...
September 21, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178389/phylogenetic-analysis-and-expression-profiling-of-the-klotho-gene-family-in-the-short-lived-african-killifish-nothobranchius-furzeri
#5
Gordin Zupkovitz, Julijan Kabiljo, David Martin, Sylvia Laffer, Christian Schöfer, Oliver Pusch
Members of the Klotho gene family have been identified as modulators of the aging process. Deletion of αklotho in the mouse results in a syndrome resembling rapid human aging. Conversely, overexpression of αklotho extends mammalian lifespan. Here, we identify klotho orthologs in the vertebrate aging model Nothobranchius furzeri and provide a detailed spatio-temporal expression profile of both paralogs, α and βklotho, from embryogenesis until old age spanning the entire life cycle of the organism. Specifically, we observe low levels of expression of both paralogs during embryogenesis followed by a significant transcriptional induction as development proceeds...
September 3, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121809/penaeid-shrimp-brachyury-sequence-analysis-and-expression-during-gastrulation
#6
Philip L Hertzler, Jiankai Wei, Andrew P Droste, Jianbo Yuan, Jianhai Xiang
Gastrulation occurs by a variety of morphogenetic movements, often correlated with diverse expression of the T-box transcription factor Brachyury (Bra). Bra may be expressed in ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm, but its role in cell fate specification or regulation of gastrulation movements has not been studied in the development of crustaceans. Penaeid shrimp (Decapoda: Dendrobranchiata: Penaeidae) develop by complete cleavage and gastrulation by invagination to a free-swimming nauplius larva. Penaeid gastrulation diverges from other decapods and from insects, occurring early at a low cell number with the formation of a radial invagination...
September 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30043120/axin2-overexpression-promotes-the-early-epithelial-disintegration-and-fusion-of-facial-prominences-during-avian-lip-development
#7
Hye-Jin Tak, Zhengguo Piao, Hak-Jin Kim, Sang-Hwy Lee
The epithelial disintegration and the mesenchymal bridging are critical steps in the fusion of facial prominences during the upper lip development. These processes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and programmed cell death are mainly influenced by Wnt signals. Axis inhibition protein2 (Axin2), a major component of the Wnt pathway, has been reported to be involved in lip development and cleft pathogenesis. We wanted to study the involvement of Axin2 in the lip development, especially during the epithelial disintegration of facial prominences...
September 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008036/developmental-mechanisms-of-migratory-muscle-precursors-in-medaka-pectoral-fin-formation
#8
Saori Tani-Matsuhana, Rie Kusakabe, Kunio Inoue
Limb muscles are formed from migratory muscle precursor cells (MMPs) that delaminate from the ventral region of dermomyotomes and migrate into the limb bud. MMPs remain undifferentiated during migration, commencing differentiation into skeletal muscle after arrival in the limb. However, it is still unclear whether the developmental mechanisms of MMPs are conserved in teleost fishes. Here, we investigate the development of pectoral fin muscles in the teleost medaka Oryzias latipes. Expression of the MMP marker lbx1 is first observed in several somites prior to the appearance of fin buds...
July 14, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987414/early-segmentation-in-the-mite-archegozetes-longisetosus-reveals-conserved-and-derived-aspects-of-chelicerate-development
#9
Austen A Barnett, Richard H Thomas
The arthropod body plan is comprised of several repeating segments along the anteroposterior body axis. This high degree of conservation, however, obfuscates the wide degree of underlying developmental variation present across and within arthropod groups. In chelicerates, the arthropod clade containing mites, spiders, scorpions, and horseshoe crabs, development is the most similar at the stages following early germ band segmentation. Comparative studies of chelicerate segmentation prior to these events, however, remain scarce...
July 10, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855703/utr-specific-knockdown-of-distal-less-and-sp8-leads-to-new-phenotypic-variants-in-the-flour-beetle-tribolium
#10
Susanne Thümecke, Reinhard Schröder
RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown serves as an effective technique for the functional analysis of developmental genes that is well established in many organisms. In the beetle Tribolium castaneum, double-stranded RNA is applied by simple injection and distributes systemically within the tissue. Thus, systematic testing for RNAi specificity and efficiency is easily possible in this organism. Generally, the use of non-overlapping dsRNA fragments yielding qualitatively identical phenotypes is the method of choice to verify target-specific knockdown effects...
July 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802495/embryonic-expression-of-a-long-toll-loto-gene-in-the-onychophorans-euperipatoides-kanangrensis-and-cephalofovea-clandestina
#11
Ralf Janssen, Linushiya Lionel
Recent research has shown that Toll genes, and in particular a newly defined class of Toll genes, the so-called Long Toll Genes (Loto genes), are crucial factors in embryogenesis. In arthropods, they are involved in axis formation via a process called convergent extension (CE). A hallmark of Loto genes is their relatively (compared to other Toll genes) high number of leucine-rich repeat elements (LRRs) coupled with the fact that they are expressed in transverse stripes in all segments, or a subset of segments, patterns that are reminiscent of classical segmentation genes such as the pair-rule genes...
July 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728762/what-may-a-fussy-creature-reveal-about-body-cell-size-integration-under-stressful-conditions
#12
Aleksandra Walczyńska, Anna Maria Labecka, Mateusz Sobczyk
There is a growing amount of empirical evidence on the important role of cell size in body size adjustment in ambient or changing conditions. Though the adaptive significance of their correspondence is well understood and demonstrated, the proximate mechanisms are still in a phase of speculation. We made interesting observations on body/cell size adjustment under stressful conditions during an experiment designed for another purpose. We found that the strength of the body/cell size match is condition-dependent...
July 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666910/ontogeny-and-development-of-the-tritocerebral-commissure-giant-tcg-an-identified-neuron-in-the-brain-of-the-grasshopper-schistocerca-gregaria
#13
George Stephen Boyan, Leslie Williams, Tobias Müller, Jonathan P Bacon
The tritocerebral commissure giant (TCG) of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria is one of the best anatomically and physiologically described arthropod brain neurons. A member of the so-called Ventral Giant cluster of cells, it integrates sensory information from visual, antennal and hair receptors, and synapses with thoracic motor neurons in order to initiate and regulate flight behavior. Its ontogeny, however, remains unclear. In this study, we use bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cyclin labeling to reveal proliferative neuroblasts in the region of the embryonic brain where the ventral giant cluster is located...
July 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663064/asymmetric-pitx2-expression-in-medaka-epithalamus-is-regulated-by-nodal-signaling-through-an-intronic-enhancer
#14
Vladimir Soukup, Simona Mrstakova, Zbynek Kozmik
The epithalamic region of fishes shows prominent left-right asymmetries that are executed by nodal signaling upstream of the asymmetry-determining transcription factor pitx2. Previous reports have identified that nodal controls the left-sided pitx2 expression in the lateral plate mesoderm through an enhancer present in the last intron of this gene. However, whether similar regulation occurs also in the case of epithalamic asymmetry is currently unresolved. Here, we address some of the cis-regulatory information that control asymmetric pitx2 expression in epithalamus by presenting a Tg(pitx2:EGFP) 116-17 transgenic medaka model, which expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under control of an intronic enhancer...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651555/larval-neurogenesis-in-the-copepod-tigriopus-californicus-tetraconata-multicrustacea
#15
Hendrikje Hein, Gerhard Scholtz
Arthropod early neurogenesis shows distinct patterns that have been interpreted in an evolutionary framework. For instance, crustaceans and Hexapoda form the taxon Tetraconata and share the differentiation of specific neural precursors, the neuroblasts, a character which sets them apart from Chelicerata and Myriapoda. Neuroblasts are relatively large stem cells that generate ganglion mother cells by asymmetric divisions. Ganglion mother cells typically divide once to give rise to neurons and glia cells. In hexapods, neuroblasts segregate from the neuroectoderm before they begin their characteristic proliferative activity...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549427/analysis-of-hpf1-expression-and-function-in-early-embryonic-development-of-zebrafish
#16
Zhen Zhang, Hongwei Sun, Yu Chen, Tianqi Cao, Zhou Songyang, Junjiu Huang, Yan Huang
About 70% of zebrafish (Danio rerio) genes are orthologues of the human's, which are of great interests, but still largely unknown for their functions. Recently, a report on human histone PARylation factor 1 (HPF1/C4orf27) showed that it is involved in DNA damage response along with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). However, its function in living organism remains unclear. Given that zebrafish has showed its values in modeling human diseases and physiology, we characterized a zebrafish homolog of human HPF1 by sequence alignment...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511851/patterns-of-cell-death-in-the-embryonic-antenna-of-the-grasshopper-schistocerca-gregaria
#17
George Boyan, Philip Graf, Erica Ehrhardt
We have investigated the pattern of apoptosis in the antennal epithelium during embryonic development of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria. The molecular labels lachesin and annulin reveal that the antennal epithelium becomes subdivided into segment-like meristal annuli within which sensory cell clusters later differentiate. To determine whether apoptosis is involved in the development of such sensory cell clusters, we examined the expression pattern of the cell death labels acridine orange and TUNEL in the epithelium...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502185/expression-characteristics-and-functional-analysis-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-4-in-adductor-muscle-and-mantle-of-zhikong-scallop-chlamys-farreri
#18
Dandan Yang, Shaoshuai Liang, Qiankun Yang, Danwen Liu, Zhenkui Qin, Zhifeng Zhang
Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is an important transcription factor involving in formation and maintenance of muscles in mammals. However, no data are available on KLF4 function in shellfish muscles which play vital roles in the movement, stress response, and physiology in shellfish. In the present study, we revealed that the Klf4 mRNA of Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri was expressed in most tissues, which has high level in adductor muscle, mantle, kidney, and testis. Positive signals of the Klf4 mRNA and protein were visible in all skeletal muscle fibers of adductor muscle, and all the cells of C...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423654/the-evolution-of-relative-trait-size-and-shape-insights-from-the-genitalia-of-dung-beetles
#19
Harald F Parzer, P David Polly, Armin P Moczek
Insects show relatively little genital variation within species compared to extraordinary and often rapid diversification among species. It has been suggested that selection for reproductive isolation through differences in genital shape might explain this phenomenon. This hypothesis predicts that populations diverge faster in genital shape than in genital size. We tested this prediction in males from 10 dung beetle species with known phylogenetic relationships from the genus Onthophagus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), including four species for which we were able to sample multiple populations...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380035/the-ontogeny-of-limulus-polyphemus-xiphosura-s-str-euchelicerata-revised-looking-under-the-skin
#20
Carolin Haug, Marie A I N Rötzer
In recent years, methods for investigating the exo-morphology of zoological specimens have seen large improvements. Among new approaches, auto-fluorescence imaging offers possibilities to document specimens under high resolution without introducing additional artifacts as, for example, seen in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging. Additionally, while SEM imaging is restricted to the outer morphology of the current instar, auto-fluorescence imaging can be used to document changes of the outer morphology of the next instar underneath the cuticle of the current instar...
January 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
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