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Development Genes and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477155/the-cuticular-nature-of-corneal-lenses-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Aaron L Stahl, Mark Charlton-Perkins, Elke K Buschbeck, Tiffany A Cook
The dioptric visual system relies on precisely focusing lenses that project light onto a neural retina. While the proteins that constitute the lenses of many vertebrates are relatively well characterized, less is known about the proteins that constitute invertebrate lenses, especially the lens facets in insect compound eyes. To address this question, we used mass spectrophotometry to define the major proteins that comprise the corneal lenses from the adult Drosophila melanogaster compound eye. This led to the identification of four cuticular proteins: two previously identified lens proteins, drosocrystallin and retinin, and two newly identified proteins, Cpr66D and Cpr72Ec...
May 5, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474175/the-hmga-gene-family-in-chordates-evolutionary-perspectives-from-amphioxus
#2
Matteo Bozzo, Simone Macrì, Daniela Calzia, Riccardo Sgarra, Guidalberto Manfioletti, Paola Ramoino, Thurston Lacalli, Robert Vignali, Mario Pestarino, Simona Candiani
High mobility group A proteins of vertebrates, HMGA1 and 2, are chromatin architectural factors involved in development, cell differentiation, and neoplastic transformation. Here, we characterize an amphioxus HMGA gene ortholog and analyze its expression. As a basal chordate, amphioxus is well placed to provide insights into the evolution of the HMGA gene family, particularly in the transition from invertebrates to vertebrates. Our phylogenetic analysis supports the basal position of amphioxus, echinoderm, and hemichordate HMGA sequences to those of vertebrate HMGA1 and HMGA2...
May 4, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417205/an-eclosion-hormone-like-gene-participates-in-the-molting-process-of-palaemonid-shrimp-exopalaemon-carinicauda
#3
Lihong Zhou, Shihao Li, Zhiwei Wang, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang
Molting behavior is an important physiological process related to metamorphosis, growth, and reproduction in crustaceans. Previous studies indicated that the molting process was controlled by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and upstream hormones, peptides, and environmental factors, which regulate 20E function. Eclosion hormone (EH) in insect is a kind of neuropeptide that is regulated by 20E and triggers ecdysis behavior at the end of molting process. However, the function of eclosion hormone gene during the molting process in crustaceans is still largely unknown...
April 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280925/a-soxc-gene-related-to-larval-shell-development-and-co-expression-analysis-of-different-shell-formation-genes-in-early-larvae-of-oyster
#4
Gang Liu, Pin Huan, Baozhong Liu
Among the potential larval shell formation genes in mollusks, most are expressed in cells surrounding the shell field during the early phase of shell formation. The only exception (cgi-tyr1) is expressed in the whole larval mantle and thus represents a novel type of expression pattern. This study reports another gene with such an expression pattern. The gene encoded a SoxC homolog of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and was named cgi-soxc. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed that the gene was highly expressed in the whole larval mantle of early larvae...
March 9, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280924/pupal-development-and-pigmentation-process-of-a-polka-dotted-fruit-fly-drosophila-guttifera-insecta-diptera
#5
Yuichi Fukutomi, Keiji Matsumoto, Kiyokazu Agata, Noriko Funayama, Shigeyuki Koshikawa
Various organisms have color patterns on their body surfaces, and these color patterns are thought to contribute to physiological regulation, communication with conspecifics, and signaling with the environment. An adult fly of Drosophila guttifera (Insecta: Diptera: Drosophilidae) has melanin pigmentation patterns on its body and wings. Though D. guttifera has been used for research into color pattern formation, how its pupal development proceeds and when the pigmentation starts have not been well studied. In this study, we defined the pupal stages of D...
March 9, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220250/differing-roles-for-sur-2-med23-in-c-elegans-and-c-briggsae-vulval-development
#6
Karley K Mahalak, Abdulrahman M Jama, Steven J Billups, Adriana T Dawes, Helen M Chamberlin
Normal vulval development in the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is identical to that in the related Caenorhabditis elegans. However, several experiments suggest that there are differences between the two species with respect to the contribution of EGF/Ras signaling. To investigate these differences genetically, we have characterized a C. briggsae mutant strain that phenocopies the effect observed when C. briggsae animals are treated with U0126, an inhibitor of the EGF pathway component MEK. We identify that the gene affected in the mutant strain is Cbr-sur-2, which encodes a MED23 mediator complex protein that acts downstream of EGF signaling in C...
February 20, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214944/the-vascular-plants-open-system-of-growth
#7
REVIEW
Alice Basile, Marco Fambrini, Claudio Pugliesi
What is fascinating in plants (true also in sessile animals such as corals and hydroids) is definitely their open and indeterminate growth, as a result of meristematic activity. Plants as well as animals are characterized by a multicellular organization, with which they share a common set of genes inherited from a common eukaryotic ancestor; nevertheless, circa 1.5 billion years of evolutionary history made the two kingdoms very different in their own developmental biology. Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, arose during the Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), and up to date, they count around 235,000 species, representing the largest and most diverse group within the plant kingdom...
February 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154937/spatiotemporal-expression-of-foxo4-foxo6a-and-foxo6b-in-the-developing-brain-and-retina-are-transcriptionally-regulated-by-pi3k-signaling-in-zebrafish
#8
Sheng-Jia Lin, Ming-Chang Chiang, Hung-Yu Shih, Kun-Chun Chiang, Yi-Chuan Cheng
The forkhead box subclass O (FoxO) family of proteins is a group of highly evolutionary conserved transcription factors that regulate various cellular processes and embryonic development. Dysregulated expressions of FOXO genes have been identified in numerous tumors and genetic disorders. The expression of FOXO/Foxo, particularly FOXO4/Foxo4 and FOXO6/Foxo6, in the developing nervous system has not been fully characterized. Here, we identified zebrafish foxo4, foxo6a, and foxo6b homologs and demonstrated that all three genes were expressed in the developing nervous system...
February 2, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133699/genomic-organization-phylogenetic-comparison-and-expression-profiles-of-the-spl-family-genes-and-their-regulation-in-soybean
#9
Rajiv K Tripathi, Ridhi Goel, Sweta Kumari, Anil Dahuja
SQUAMOSA Promoter-Binding Protein-Like (SPL) genes form a major family of plant-specific transcription factors and play an important role in plant growth and development. In this study, we report the identification of 41 SPL genes (GmSPLs) in the soybean genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these genes were divided into five groups (groups 1-5). Further, exon/intron structure and motif composition revealed that the GmSPL genes are conserved within their same group. The N-terminal zinc finger 1 (Zn1) of the SBP domain was a CCCH (Cys3His1) and the C terminus zinc finger 2 (Zn2) was a CCHC (Cys2HisCys) type...
January 29, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105525/characterization-of-the-cell-polarity-gene-crumbs-during-the-early-development-and-maintenance-of-the-squid-vibrio-light-organ-symbiosis
#10
Suzanne M Peyer, Elizabeth A C Heath-Heckman, Margaret J McFall-Ngai
The protein Crumbs is a determinant of apical-basal cell polarity and plays a role in apoptosis of epithelial cells and their protection against photodamage. Using the squid-vibrio system, a model for development of symbiotic partnerships, we examined the modulation of the crumbs gene in host epithelial tissues during initiation and maintenance of the association. The extracellular luminous symbiont Vibrio fischeri colonizes the apical surfaces of polarized epithelia in deep crypts of the Euprymna scolopes light organ...
January 20, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101674/posterior-tail-development-in-the-salamander-eurycea-cirrigera-exploring-cellular-dynamics-across-life-stages
#11
Janet L Vaglia, Chet Fornari, Paula K Evans
During embryogenesis, the body axis elongates and specializes. In vertebrate groups such as salamanders and lizards, elongation of the posterior body axis (tail) continues throughout life. This phenomenon of post-embryonic tail elongation via addition of vertebrae has remained largely unexplored, and little is known about the underlying developmental mechanisms that promote vertebral addition. Our research investigated tail elongation across life stages in a non-model salamander species, Eurycea cirrigera (Plethodontidae)...
January 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942869/xenopus-laevis-neuronal-cell-adhesion-molecule-nrcam-plasticity-of-a-cam-in-the-developing-nervous-system
#12
Ashwin Lokapally, Sanjeeva Metikala, Thomas Hollemann
Neuron-glial-related cell adhesion molecule (NRCAM) is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule of the L1 immunoglobulin superfamily, which plays diverse roles during nervous system development including axon growth and guidance, synapse formation, and formation of the myelinated nerve. Perturbations in NRCAM function cause a wide variety of disorders, which can affect wiring and targeting of neurons, or cause psychiatric disorders as well as cancers through abnormal modulation of signaling events. In the present study, we characterize the Xenopus laevis homolog of nrcam...
January 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928690/from-shoot-to-leaf-step-wise-shifts-in-meristem-and-knox1-activity-correlate-with-the-evolution-of-a-unifoliate-body-plan-in-gesneriaceae
#13
Kanae Nishii, Bing-Hong Huang, Chun-Neng Wang, Michael Möller
Typical dicots possess equal-sized cotyledons and leaf-bearing shoots topped with a shoot apical meristem (SAM), the source of lateral organs, and where KNOX1 homeobox genes act as key regulators. New World Gesneriaceae show typical cotyledons, whereas Old World Gesneriaceae show anisocotyly, the unequal post-germination growth of cotyledons, and include unifoliate (one-leaf) plants. One-leaf plants show an extremely reduced body plan: the adult above-ground photosynthetic tissue consisting of a single cotyledon, a macrocotyledon enlarged by the basal meristem (BM), but lacking a SAM...
January 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848019/non-specificity-of-transcription-factor-function-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Anthony Percival-Smith
A major problem in developmental genetics is how HOX transcription factors, like Proboscipedia (PB) and Ultrabithorax (UBX), regulate distinct programs of gene expression to result in a proboscis versus a haltere, respectively, when the DNA-binding homeodomain (HD) of HOX transcription factors recognizes similar DNA-binding sequences. Indeed, the lack of DNA-binding specificity is a problem for all transcription factors (TFs), as the DNA-binding domains generally recognize small targets of five to six bases in length...
January 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833997/ontogeny-of-pioneer-neurons-in-the-antennal-nervous-system-of-the-grasshopper-schistocerca-gregaria
#15
George Boyan, Erica Ehrhardt
The nervous system of the antenna of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria consists of two nerve tracts in which sensory cells project their axons to the brain. Each tract is pioneered early in embryogenesis by a pair of identified cells located apically in the antennal lumen. The pioneers are thought to originate in the epithelium of the antenna and then delaminate into the lumen where they commence axogenesis. However, unambiguous molecular identification of these cells in the epithelium, of an identifiable precursor, and of their mode of generation has been lacking...
January 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743033/heat-shock-protein-83-plays-pleiotropic-roles-in-embryogenesis-longevity-and-fecundity-of-the-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#16
Torsten Will, Henrike Schmidtberg, Marisa Skaljac, Andreas Vilcinskas
Heat shock protein 83 (HSP83) is homologous to the chaperone HSP90. It has pleiotropic functions in Drosophila melanogaster, including the control of longevity and fecundity, and facilitates morphological evolution by buffering cryptic deleterious mutations in wild populations. In the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, HSP83 expression is moderately induced by bacterial infection but upregulated more strongly in response to heat stress and fungal infection. Stress-inducible heat shock proteins are of considerable evolutionary and ecological importance because they are known to buffer environmental variation and to influence fitness under non-optimal conditions...
January 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695997/early-mesodermal-expression-of-hox-genes-in-the-polychaete-alitta-virens-annelida-lophotrochozoa
#17
Milana A Kulakova, Nadezhda I Bakalenko, Elena L Novikova
Hox genes are the key regulators of axial regionalization of bilaterian animals. However, their main function is fulfilled differently in the development of animals from different evolutionary branches. Early patterning of the developing embryos by Hox gene expression in the representatives of protostomes (arthropods, mollusks) starts in the ectodermal cells. On the contrary, the instructive role of the mesoderm in the axial patterning was demonstrated for vertebrates. This makes it difficult to understand if during the axial regionalization of ancestral bilaterians Hox genes first expressed in the developing mesoderm or the ectoderm...
January 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035495/molecular-cloning-phylogenetic-analysis-and-expression-patterns-of-lateral-suppressor-like-and-regulator-of-axillary-meristem-formation-like-genes-in-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-l
#18
Marco Fambrini, Mariangela Salvini, Claudio Pugliesi
The wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants develop a highly branched form with numerous small flowering heads. The origin of a no branched sunflower, producing a single large head, has been a key event in the domestication process of this species. The interaction between hormonal factors and several genes organizes the initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems (AMs). From sunflower, we have isolated two genes putatively involved in this process, LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LS)-LIKE (Ha-LSL) and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION (ROX)-LIKE (Ha-ROXL), encoding for a GRAS and a bHLH transcription factor (TF), respectively...
December 29, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987051/expression-patterns-indicate-that-bmp2-4-and-chordin-not-bmp5-8-and-gremlin-mediate-dorsal-ventral-patterning-in-the-mollusk-crassostrea-gigas
#19
Sujian Tan, Pin Huan, Baozhong Liu
Though several bilaterian animals use a conserved BMP2/4-Chordin antagonism to pattern the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis, the only lophotrochozoan species in which early DV patterning has been studied to date, the leech Helobdella robusta, appears to employ BMP5-8 and Gremlin. These findings call into question the conservation of a common DV patterning mechanism among bilaterian animals. To explore whether the unusual DV patterning mechanism in H. robusta is also used in other lophotrochozoan species, we investigated the expression of orthologous genes in the early embryo of a bivalve mollusk, Crassostrea gigas...
December 16, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909803/evolutionary-origin-of-endochondral-ossification-the-transdifferentiation-hypothesis
#20
REVIEW
Fret Cervantes-Diaz, Pedro Contreras, Sylvain Marcellini
The vertebrate endoskeleton results from the piecemeal assembly of bone and cartilage as well as additional types of calcified extracellular matrices produced by seemingly hybrid cell types of intermediate phenotypes between osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Hence, shedding light on the emergence and subsequent diversification of skeletal tissues represents a major challenge in vertebrate evolutionary developmental biology. A 150-year-old debate in the field was recently solved by lineage tracing experiments demonstrating that, during mouse endochondral bone development, a subset of chondrocytes evades apoptosis and transdifferentiates into osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous junction...
December 1, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
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