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Development Genes and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242472/microsynteny-analysis-to-understand-evolution-and-impact-of-polyploidization-on-mir319-family-within-brassicaceae
#1
Gauri Joshi, Chetan Chauhan, Sandip Das
The availability of a large number of whole-genome sequences allows comparative genomic analysis to reveal and understand evolution of regulatory regions and elements. The role played by events such as whole-genome and segmental duplications followed by genome fractionation in shaping genomic landscape and in expansion of gene families is crucial toward developing insights into evolutionary trends and consequences such as sequence and functional diversification. Members of Brassicaceae are known to have experienced several rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) that have been termed as paleopolyploidy, mesopolyploidy, and neopolyploidy...
September 21, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178389/phylogenetic-analysis-and-expression-profiling-of-the-klotho-gene-family-in-the-short-lived-african-killifish-nothobranchius-furzeri
#2
Gordin Zupkovitz, Julijan Kabiljo, David Martin, Sylvia Laffer, Christian Schöfer, Oliver Pusch
Members of the Klotho gene family have been identified as modulators of the aging process. Deletion of αklotho in the mouse results in a syndrome resembling rapid human aging. Conversely, overexpression of αklotho extends mammalian lifespan. Here, we identify klotho orthologs in the vertebrate aging model Nothobranchius furzeri and provide a detailed spatio-temporal expression profile of both paralogs, α and βklotho, from embryogenesis until old age spanning the entire life cycle of the organism. Specifically, we observe low levels of expression of both paralogs during embryogenesis followed by a significant transcriptional induction as development proceeds...
September 3, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008036/developmental-mechanisms-of-migratory-muscle-precursors-in-medaka-pectoral-fin-formation
#3
Saori Tani-Matsuhana, Rie Kusakabe, Kunio Inoue
Limb muscles are formed from migratory muscle precursor cells (MMPs) that delaminate from the ventral region of dermomyotomes and migrate into the limb bud. MMPs remain undifferentiated during migration, commencing differentiation into skeletal muscle after arrival in the limb. However, it is still unclear whether the developmental mechanisms of MMPs are conserved in teleost fishes. Here, we investigate the development of pectoral fin muscles in the teleost medaka Oryzias latipes. Expression of the MMP marker lbx1 is first observed in several somites prior to the appearance of fin buds...
July 14, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987414/early-segmentation-in-the-mite-archegozetes-longisetosus-reveals-conserved-and-derived-aspects-of-chelicerate-development
#4
Austen A Barnett, Richard H Thomas
The arthropod body plan is comprised of several repeating segments along the anteroposterior body axis. This high degree of conservation, however, obfuscates the wide degree of underlying developmental variation present across and within arthropod groups. In chelicerates, the arthropod clade containing mites, spiders, scorpions, and horseshoe crabs, development is the most similar at the stages following early germ band segmentation. Comparative studies of chelicerate segmentation prior to these events, however, remain scarce...
July 10, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121809/penaeid-shrimp-brachyury-sequence-analysis-and-expression-during-gastrulation
#5
Philip L Hertzler, Jiankai Wei, Andrew P Droste, Jianbo Yuan, Jianhai Xiang
Gastrulation occurs by a variety of morphogenetic movements, often correlated with diverse expression of the T-box transcription factor Brachyury (Bra). Bra may be expressed in ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm, but its role in cell fate specification or regulation of gastrulation movements has not been studied in the development of crustaceans. Penaeid shrimp (Decapoda: Dendrobranchiata: Penaeidae) develop by complete cleavage and gastrulation by invagination to a free-swimming nauplius larva. Penaeid gastrulation diverges from other decapods and from insects, occurring early at a low cell number with the formation of a radial invagination...
September 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30043120/axin2-overexpression-promotes-the-early-epithelial-disintegration-and-fusion-of-facial-prominences-during-avian-lip-development
#6
Hye-Jin Tak, Zhengguo Piao, Hak-Jin Kim, Sang-Hwy Lee
The epithelial disintegration and the mesenchymal bridging are critical steps in the fusion of facial prominences during the upper lip development. These processes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and programmed cell death are mainly influenced by Wnt signals. Axis inhibition protein2 (Axin2), a major component of the Wnt pathway, has been reported to be involved in lip development and cleft pathogenesis. We wanted to study the involvement of Axin2 in the lip development, especially during the epithelial disintegration of facial prominences...
September 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855703/utr-specific-knockdown-of-distal-less-and-sp8-leads-to-new-phenotypic-variants-in-the-flour-beetle-tribolium
#7
Susanne Thümecke, Reinhard Schröder
RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown serves as an effective technique for the functional analysis of developmental genes that is well established in many organisms. In the beetle Tribolium castaneum, double-stranded RNA is applied by simple injection and distributes systemically within the tissue. Thus, systematic testing for RNAi specificity and efficiency is easily possible in this organism. Generally, the use of non-overlapping dsRNA fragments yielding qualitatively identical phenotypes is the method of choice to verify target-specific knockdown effects...
July 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802495/embryonic-expression-of-a-long-toll-loto-gene-in-the-onychophorans-euperipatoides-kanangrensis-and-cephalofovea-clandestina
#8
Ralf Janssen, Linushiya Lionel
Recent research has shown that Toll genes, and in particular a newly defined class of Toll genes, the so-called Long Toll Genes (Loto genes), are crucial factors in embryogenesis. In arthropods, they are involved in axis formation via a process called convergent extension (CE). A hallmark of Loto genes is their relatively (compared to other Toll genes) high number of leucine-rich repeat elements (LRRs) coupled with the fact that they are expressed in transverse stripes in all segments, or a subset of segments, patterns that are reminiscent of classical segmentation genes such as the pair-rule genes...
July 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728762/what-may-a-fussy-creature-reveal-about-body-cell-size-integration-under-stressful-conditions
#9
Aleksandra Walczyńska, Anna Maria Labecka, Mateusz Sobczyk
There is a growing amount of empirical evidence on the important role of cell size in body size adjustment in ambient or changing conditions. Though the adaptive significance of their correspondence is well understood and demonstrated, the proximate mechanisms are still in a phase of speculation. We made interesting observations on body/cell size adjustment under stressful conditions during an experiment designed for another purpose. We found that the strength of the body/cell size match is condition-dependent...
July 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666910/ontogeny-and-development-of-the-tritocerebral-commissure-giant-tcg-an-identified-neuron-in-the-brain-of-the-grasshopper-schistocerca-gregaria
#10
George Stephen Boyan, Leslie Williams, Tobias Müller, Jonathan P Bacon
The tritocerebral commissure giant (TCG) of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria is one of the best anatomically and physiologically described arthropod brain neurons. A member of the so-called Ventral Giant cluster of cells, it integrates sensory information from visual, antennal and hair receptors, and synapses with thoracic motor neurons in order to initiate and regulate flight behavior. Its ontogeny, however, remains unclear. In this study, we use bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cyclin labeling to reveal proliferative neuroblasts in the region of the embryonic brain where the ventral giant cluster is located...
July 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663064/asymmetric-pitx2-expression-in-medaka-epithalamus-is-regulated-by-nodal-signaling-through-an-intronic-enhancer
#11
Vladimir Soukup, Simona Mrstakova, Zbynek Kozmik
The epithalamic region of fishes shows prominent left-right asymmetries that are executed by nodal signaling upstream of the asymmetry-determining transcription factor pitx2. Previous reports have identified that nodal controls the left-sided pitx2 expression in the lateral plate mesoderm through an enhancer present in the last intron of this gene. However, whether similar regulation occurs also in the case of epithalamic asymmetry is currently unresolved. Here, we address some of the cis-regulatory information that control asymmetric pitx2 expression in epithalamus by presenting a Tg(pitx2:EGFP) 116-17 transgenic medaka model, which expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under control of an intronic enhancer...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651555/larval-neurogenesis-in-the-copepod-tigriopus-californicus-tetraconata-multicrustacea
#12
Hendrikje Hein, Gerhard Scholtz
Arthropod early neurogenesis shows distinct patterns that have been interpreted in an evolutionary framework. For instance, crustaceans and Hexapoda form the taxon Tetraconata and share the differentiation of specific neural precursors, the neuroblasts, a character which sets them apart from Chelicerata and Myriapoda. Neuroblasts are relatively large stem cells that generate ganglion mother cells by asymmetric divisions. Ganglion mother cells typically divide once to give rise to neurons and glia cells. In hexapods, neuroblasts segregate from the neuroectoderm before they begin their characteristic proliferative activity...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549427/analysis-of-hpf1-expression-and-function-in-early-embryonic-development-of-zebrafish
#13
Zhen Zhang, Hongwei Sun, Yu Chen, Tianqi Cao, Zhou Songyang, Junjiu Huang, Yan Huang
About 70% of zebrafish (Danio rerio) genes are orthologues of the human's, which are of great interests, but still largely unknown for their functions. Recently, a report on human histone PARylation factor 1 (HPF1/C4orf27) showed that it is involved in DNA damage response along with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). However, its function in living organism remains unclear. Given that zebrafish has showed its values in modeling human diseases and physiology, we characterized a zebrafish homolog of human HPF1 by sequence alignment...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511851/patterns-of-cell-death-in-the-embryonic-antenna-of-the-grasshopper-schistocerca-gregaria
#14
George Boyan, Philip Graf, Erica Ehrhardt
We have investigated the pattern of apoptosis in the antennal epithelium during embryonic development of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria. The molecular labels lachesin and annulin reveal that the antennal epithelium becomes subdivided into segment-like meristal annuli within which sensory cell clusters later differentiate. To determine whether apoptosis is involved in the development of such sensory cell clusters, we examined the expression pattern of the cell death labels acridine orange and TUNEL in the epithelium...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502185/expression-characteristics-and-functional-analysis-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-4-in-adductor-muscle-and-mantle-of-zhikong-scallop-chlamys-farreri
#15
Dandan Yang, Shaoshuai Liang, Qiankun Yang, Danwen Liu, Zhenkui Qin, Zhifeng Zhang
Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is an important transcription factor involving in formation and maintenance of muscles in mammals. However, no data are available on KLF4 function in shellfish muscles which play vital roles in the movement, stress response, and physiology in shellfish. In the present study, we revealed that the Klf4 mRNA of Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri was expressed in most tissues, which has high level in adductor muscle, mantle, kidney, and testis. Positive signals of the Klf4 mRNA and protein were visible in all skeletal muscle fibers of adductor muscle, and all the cells of C...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423654/the-evolution-of-relative-trait-size-and-shape-insights-from-the-genitalia-of-dung-beetles
#16
Harald F Parzer, P David Polly, Armin P Moczek
Insects show relatively little genital variation within species compared to extraordinary and often rapid diversification among species. It has been suggested that selection for reproductive isolation through differences in genital shape might explain this phenomenon. This hypothesis predicts that populations diverge faster in genital shape than in genital size. We tested this prediction in males from 10 dung beetle species with known phylogenetic relationships from the genus Onthophagus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), including four species for which we were able to sample multiple populations...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380035/the-ontogeny-of-limulus-polyphemus-xiphosura-s-str-euchelicerata-revised-looking-under-the-skin
#17
Carolin Haug, Marie A I N Rötzer
In recent years, methods for investigating the exo-morphology of zoological specimens have seen large improvements. Among new approaches, auto-fluorescence imaging offers possibilities to document specimens under high resolution without introducing additional artifacts as, for example, seen in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging. Additionally, while SEM imaging is restricted to the outer morphology of the current instar, auto-fluorescence imaging can be used to document changes of the outer morphology of the next instar underneath the cuticle of the current instar...
January 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362894/the-ontogeny-of-the-300-million-year-old-xiphosuran-euproops-danae-euchelicerata-and-implications-for-resolving-the-euproops-species-complex
#18
Carolin Haug, Marie A I N Rötzer
Xiphosurans have often been considered as archaic appearing cheliceratan arthropods, with a rich fossil record. We describe here parts of the post-embryonic ontogeny of the 300 million year old xiphosuran Euproops danae (Xiphosura sensu stricto, Euchelicerata), from the Mazon Creek Lagerstätte (Upper Carboniferous), USA. Recently, the ontogeny of a closely related species, Euproops sp. from the Upper Carboniferous Piesberg quarry, Osnabrück, Germany (informally called 'Piesproops'), has been reconstructed...
January 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353439/transgenesis-by-microparticle-bombardment-for-live-imaging-of-fluorescent-proteins-in-pristionchus-pacificus-germline-and-early-embryos
#19
Satoshi Namai, Asako Sugimoto
Pristionchus pacificus is a free-living nematode used as a model organism for evolutionary developmental and ecological biology. Although a transgenic technique to form complex arrays by microinjection has been established in P. pacificus, transgene expression from the array in the germline and early embryos tends to be silenced. Here, we established a method to integrate transgenes into the genome of P. pacificus using microparticle bombardment with hygromycin B selection. Additionally, we isolated a mutant exhibiting significantly lower autofluorescence in the germline and early embryos, facilitating visualization of transgene-derived fluorescent proteins for live imaging...
January 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297095/amphioxus-sycp1-a-case-of-retrogene-replacement-and-co-option-of-regulatory-elements-adjacent-to-the-parahox-cluster
#20
Myles G Garstang, David E K Ferrier
Retrogenes are formed when an mRNA is reverse-transcribed and reinserted into the genome in a location unrelated to the original locus. If this retrocopy inserts into a transcriptionally favourable locus and is able to carry out its original function, it can, in rare cases, lead to retrogene replacement. This involves the original, often multi-exonic, parental copy being lost whilst the newer single-exon retrogene copy 'replaces' the role of the ancestral parent gene. One example of this is amphioxus SYCP1, a gene that encodes a protein used in synaptonemal complex formation during meiosis and which offers the opportunity to examine how a retrogene evolves after the retrogene replacement event...
January 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
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