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Development Genes and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728762/what-may-a-fussy-creature-reveal-about-body-cell-size-integration-under-stressful-conditions
#1
Aleksandra Walczyńska, Anna Maria Labecka, Mateusz Sobczyk
There is a growing amount of empirical evidence on the important role of cell size in body size adjustment in ambient or changing conditions. Though the adaptive significance of their correspondence is well understood and demonstrated, the proximate mechanisms are still in a phase of speculation. We made interesting observations on body/cell size adjustment under stressful conditions during an experiment designed for another purpose. We found that the strength of the body/cell size match is condition-dependent...
May 4, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666910/ontogeny-and-development-of-the-tritocerebral-commissure-giant-tcg-an-identified-neuron-in-the-brain-of-the-grasshopper-schistocerca-gregaria
#2
George Stephen Boyan, Leslie Williams, Tobias Müller, Jonathan P Bacon
The tritocerebral commissure giant (TCG) of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria is one of the best anatomically and physiologically described arthropod brain neurons. A member of the so-called Ventral Giant cluster of cells, it integrates sensory information from visual, antennal and hair receptors, and synapses with thoracic motor neurons in order to initiate and regulate flight behavior. Its ontogeny, however, remains unclear. In this study, we use bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cyclin labeling to reveal proliferative neuroblasts in the region of the embryonic brain where the ventral giant cluster is located...
April 17, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663064/asymmetric-pitx2-expression-in-medaka-epithalamus-is-regulated-by-nodal-signaling-through-an-intronic-enhancer
#3
Vladimir Soukup, Simona Mrstakova, Zbynek Kozmik
The epithalamic region of fishes shows prominent left-right asymmetries that are executed by nodal signaling upstream of the asymmetry-determining transcription factor pitx2. Previous reports have identified that nodal controls the left-sided pitx2 expression in the lateral plate mesoderm through an enhancer present in the last intron of this gene. However, whether similar regulation occurs also in the case of epithalamic asymmetry is currently unresolved. Here, we address some of the cis-regulatory information that control asymmetric pitx2 expression in epithalamus by presenting a Tg(pitx2:EGFP) 116-17 transgenic medaka model, which expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under control of an intronic enhancer...
April 16, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651555/larval-neurogenesis-in-the-copepod-tigriopus-californicus-tetraconata-multicrustacea
#4
Hendrikje Hein, Gerhard Scholtz
Arthropod early neurogenesis shows distinct patterns that have been interpreted in an evolutionary framework. For instance, crustaceans and Hexapoda form the taxon Tetraconata and share the differentiation of specific neural precursors, the neuroblasts, a character which sets them apart from Chelicerata and Myriapoda. Neuroblasts are relatively large stem cells that generate ganglion mother cells by asymmetric divisions. Ganglion mother cells typically divide once to give rise to neurons and glia cells. In hexapods, neuroblasts segregate from the neuroectoderm before they begin their characteristic proliferative activity...
April 12, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549427/analysis-of-hpf1-expression-and-function-in-early-embryonic-development-of-zebrafish
#5
Zhen Zhang, Hongwei Sun, Yu Chen, Tianqi Cao, Zhou Songyang, Junjiu Huang, Yan Huang
About 70% of zebrafish (Danio rerio) genes are orthologues of the human's, which are of great interests, but still largely unknown for their functions. Recently, a report on human histone PARylation factor 1 (HPF1/C4orf27) showed that it is involved in DNA damage response along with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). However, its function in living organism remains unclear. Given that zebrafish has showed its values in modeling human diseases and physiology, we characterized a zebrafish homolog of human HPF1 by sequence alignment...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511851/patterns-of-cell-death-in-the-embryonic-antenna-of-the-grasshopper-schistocerca-gregaria
#6
George Boyan, Philip Graf, Erica Ehrhardt
We have investigated the pattern of apoptosis in the antennal epithelium during embryonic development of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria. The molecular labels lachesin and annulin reveal that the antennal epithelium becomes subdivided into segment-like meristal annuli within which sensory cell clusters later differentiate. To determine whether apoptosis is involved in the development of such sensory cell clusters, we examined the expression pattern of the cell death labels acridine orange and TUNEL in the epithelium...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502185/expression-characteristics-and-functional-analysis-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-4-in-adductor-muscle-and-mantle-of-zhikong-scallop-chlamys-farreri
#7
Dandan Yang, Shaoshuai Liang, Qiankun Yang, Danwen Liu, Zhenkui Qin, Zhifeng Zhang
Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is an important transcription factor involving in formation and maintenance of muscles in mammals. However, no data are available on KLF4 function in shellfish muscles which play vital roles in the movement, stress response, and physiology in shellfish. In the present study, we revealed that the Klf4 mRNA of Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri was expressed in most tissues, which has high level in adductor muscle, mantle, kidney, and testis. Positive signals of the Klf4 mRNA and protein were visible in all skeletal muscle fibers of adductor muscle, and all the cells of C...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423654/the-evolution-of-relative-trait-size-and-shape-insights-from-the-genitalia-of-dung-beetles
#8
Harald F Parzer, P David Polly, Armin P Moczek
Insects show relatively little genital variation within species compared to extraordinary and often rapid diversification among species. It has been suggested that selection for reproductive isolation through differences in genital shape might explain this phenomenon. This hypothesis predicts that populations diverge faster in genital shape than in genital size. We tested this prediction in males from 10 dung beetle species with known phylogenetic relationships from the genus Onthophagus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), including four species for which we were able to sample multiple populations...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380035/the-ontogeny-of-limulus-polyphemus-xiphosura-s-str-euchelicerata-revised-looking-under-the-skin
#9
Carolin Haug, Marie A I N Rötzer
In recent years, methods for investigating the exo-morphology of zoological specimens have seen large improvements. Among new approaches, auto-fluorescence imaging offers possibilities to document specimens under high resolution without introducing additional artifacts as, for example, seen in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging. Additionally, while SEM imaging is restricted to the outer morphology of the current instar, auto-fluorescence imaging can be used to document changes of the outer morphology of the next instar underneath the cuticle of the current instar...
January 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362894/the-ontogeny-of-the-300-million-year-old-xiphosuran-euproops-danae-euchelicerata-and-implications-for-resolving-the-euproops-species-complex
#10
Carolin Haug, Marie A I N Rötzer
Xiphosurans have often been considered as archaic appearing cheliceratan arthropods, with a rich fossil record. We describe here parts of the post-embryonic ontogeny of the 300 million year old xiphosuran Euproops danae (Xiphosura sensu stricto, Euchelicerata), from the Mazon Creek Lagerstätte (Upper Carboniferous), USA. Recently, the ontogeny of a closely related species, Euproops sp. from the Upper Carboniferous Piesberg quarry, Osnabrück, Germany (informally called 'Piesproops'), has been reconstructed...
January 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353439/transgenesis-by-microparticle-bombardment-for-live-imaging-of-fluorescent-proteins-in-pristionchus-pacificus-germline-and-early-embryos
#11
Satoshi Namai, Asako Sugimoto
Pristionchus pacificus is a free-living nematode used as a model organism for evolutionary developmental and ecological biology. Although a transgenic technique to form complex arrays by microinjection has been established in P. pacificus, transgene expression from the array in the germline and early embryos tends to be silenced. Here, we established a method to integrate transgenes into the genome of P. pacificus using microparticle bombardment with hygromycin B selection. Additionally, we isolated a mutant exhibiting significantly lower autofluorescence in the germline and early embryos, facilitating visualization of transgene-derived fluorescent proteins for live imaging...
January 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297095/amphioxus-sycp1-a-case-of-retrogene-replacement-and-co-option-of-regulatory-elements-adjacent-to-the-parahox-cluster
#12
Myles G Garstang, David E K Ferrier
Retrogenes are formed when an mRNA is reverse-transcribed and reinserted into the genome in a location unrelated to the original locus. If this retrocopy inserts into a transcriptionally favourable locus and is able to carry out its original function, it can, in rare cases, lead to retrogene replacement. This involves the original, often multi-exonic, parental copy being lost whilst the newer single-exon retrogene copy 'replaces' the role of the ancestral parent gene. One example of this is amphioxus SYCP1, a gene that encodes a protein used in synaptonemal complex formation during meiosis and which offers the opportunity to examine how a retrogene evolves after the retrogene replacement event...
January 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29264645/two-drosophilids-exhibit-distinct-egf-pathway-patterns-in-oogenesis
#13
Kenley N O'Hanlon, Rachel A Dam, Sophie L Archambeault, Celeste A Berg
Deciphering the evolution of morphological structures is a remaining challenge in the field of developmental biology. The respiratory structures of insect eggshells, called the dorsal appendages, provide an outstanding system for exploring these processes since considerable information is known about their patterning and morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster and dorsal appendage number and morphology vary widely across Drosophilid species. We investigated the patterning differences that might facilitate morphogenetic differences between D...
January 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249002/notch-mediated-lateral-inhibition-is-an-evolutionarily-conserved-mechanism-patterning-the-ectoderm-in-echinoids
#14
Eric M Erkenbrack
Notch signaling is a crucial cog in early development of euechinoid sea urchins, specifying both non-skeletogenic mesodermal lineages and serotonergic neurons in the apical neuroectoderm. Here, the spatial distributions and function of delta, gcm, and hesc, three genes critical to these processes in euechinoids, are examined in the distantly related cidaroid sea urchin Eucidaris tribuloides. Spatial distribution and experimental perturbation of delta and hesc suggest that the function of Notch signaling in ectodermal patterning in early development of E...
January 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188382/expression-patterns-of-duplicated-snail-genes-in-the-leech-helobdella
#15
Jin-Se Kim, Hee-Jin Kwak, Brenda Irene Medina Jiménez, Soon Cheol Park, Ping Xiao, David A Weisblat, Sung-Jin Cho
snail gene family members are zinc-finger transcription factors with key roles in morphogenesis. Involvement of snail family genes in mesoderm formation has been observed in insects and mammals. The snail genes are also involved in cell motility, neural differentiation, cell fate, survival decision, and left-right identity. The functions of snail genes have been studied primarily among ecdysozoans and deuterostomes, with relatively little work carried out in lophotrochozoans. In this study, we isolated two snail homologs (Hau-snail1 and Hau-snail2) from the leech Helobdella austinensis...
November 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188381/the-effect-of-wolbachia-on-diapause-fecundity-and-clock-gene-expression-in-trichogramma-brassicae-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae
#16
Somayeh Rahimi-Kaldeh, Ahmad Ashouri, Alireza Bandani, Kenji Tomioka
The short day lengths of late summer in moderate regions are used to induce diapause in various insects. Many studies have shown the maternal effect of photoperiod on diapause induction of Trichogramma wasps, but there is no study to show the relationship between photoperiodic regimes and clock genes in these useful biological control agents. Here, we investigated the role of photoperiods on diapause, fecundity, and clock gene expression (clk, cyc, cry2, per, and timeout) in asexual and sexual Trichogramma brassicae as a model insect to find any differences between two strains...
November 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170831/mutation-independently-affects-reproductive-traits-and-dauer-larvae-development-in-mutation-accumulation-lines-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Arthur J Hills, James W M Green, Simon C Harvey
Developmental decisions are important in organismal fitness. For the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is naturally found in the ephemeral food patches formed by rotting plant material, correctly committing to dauer or non-dauer larval development is key to genotype survival. To investigate the link between reproductive traits, which will determine how populations grow, and dauer larvae formation, we have analysed these traits in mutation accumulation lines of C. elegans. We find that reproductive traits of individual worms-the total number of progeny and the timing of progeny production-are highly correlated with the population size observed in growing populations...
November 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116381/expression-and-function-of-the-zinc-finger-transcription-factor-sp6-9-in-the-spider-parasteatoda-tepidariorum
#18
Tatiana Königsmann, Natascha Turetzek, Matthias Pechmann, Nikola-Michael Prpic
Zinc finger transcription factors of the Sp6-9 group are evolutionarily conserved in all metazoans and have important functions in, e.g., limb formation and heart development. The function of Sp6-9-related genes has been studied in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, but data from chelicerates (spiders and allies) was lacking so far. We have isolated the ortholog of Sp6-9 from the common house spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum and the cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides. We show that the Sp6-9 gene in these spider species is expressed in the developing appendages thus suggesting a conserved role in limb formation...
November 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105525/characterization-of-the-cell-polarity-gene-crumbs-during-the-early-development-and-maintenance-of-the-squid-vibrio-light-organ-symbiosis
#19
Suzanne M Peyer, Elizabeth A C Heath-Heckman, Margaret J McFall-Ngai
The protein Crumbs is a determinant of apical-basal cell polarity and plays a role in apoptosis of epithelial cells and their protection against photodamage. Using the squid-vibrio system, a model for development of symbiotic partnerships, we examined the modulation of the crumbs gene in host epithelial tissues during initiation and maintenance of the association. The extracellular luminous symbiont Vibrio fischeri colonizes the apical surfaces of polarized epithelia in deep crypts of the Euprymna scolopes light organ...
November 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894941/evolutionary-coincidence-of-adaptive-changes-in-exuperantia-and-the-emergence-of-bicoid-in-cyclorrhapha-diptera
#20
Janaina Lima de Oliveira, Iderval Silva Sobrinho-Junior, Samira Chahad-Ehlers, Reinaldo Alves de Brito
The great radiation in the infraorder Cyclorrhapha involved several morphological and molecular changes, including important changes in anterior egg development. During Drosophila oogenesis, exuperantia (exu) is critical for localizing bicoid (bcd) messenger RNA (mRNA) to the anterior region of the oocyte. Because it is phylogenetically older than bcd, which is exclusive to Cyclorrhapha, we hypothesize that exu has undergone adaptive changes to enable this new function. Although exu has been well studied in Drosophila, there is no functional or transcriptional information about it in any other Diptera...
September 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
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