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Development Genes and Evolution

George Boyan, Philip Graf, Erica Ehrhardt
We have investigated the pattern of apoptosis in the antennal epithelium during embryonic development of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria. The molecular labels lachesin and annulin reveal that the antennal epithelium becomes subdivided into segment-like meristal annuli within which sensory cell clusters later differentiate. To determine whether apoptosis is involved in the development of such sensory cell clusters, we examined the expression pattern of the cell death labels acridine orange and TUNEL in the epithelium...
March 6, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Dandan Yang, Shaoshuai Liang, Qiankun Yang, Danwen Liu, Zhenkui Qin, Zhifeng Zhang
Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is an important transcription factor involving in formation and maintenance of muscles in mammals. However, no data are available on KLF4 function in shellfish muscles which play vital roles in the movement, stress response, and physiology in shellfish. In the present study, we revealed that the Klf4 mRNA of Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri was expressed in most tissues, which has high level in adductor muscle, mantle, kidney, and testis. Positive signals of the Klf4 mRNA and protein were visible in all skeletal muscle fibers of adductor muscle, and all the cells of C...
March 3, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Harald F Parzer, P David Polly, Armin P Moczek
Insects show relatively little genital variation within species compared to extraordinary and often rapid diversification among species. It has been suggested that selection for reproductive isolation through differences in genital shape might explain this phenomenon. This hypothesis predicts that populations diverge faster in genital shape than in genital size. We tested this prediction in males from 10 dung beetle species with known phylogenetic relationships from the genus Onthophagus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), including four species for which we were able to sample multiple populations...
February 8, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Carolin Haug, Marie A I N Rötzer
In recent years, methods for investigating the exo-morphology of zoological specimens have seen large improvements. Among new approaches, auto-fluorescence imaging offers possibilities to document specimens under high resolution without introducing additional artifacts as, for example, seen in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging. Additionally, while SEM imaging is restricted to the outer morphology of the current instar, auto-fluorescence imaging can be used to document changes of the outer morphology of the next instar underneath the cuticle of the current instar...
January 29, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Carolin Haug, Marie A I N Rötzer
Xiphosurans have often been considered as archaic appearing cheliceratan arthropods, with a rich fossil record. We describe here parts of the post-embryonic ontogeny of the 300 million year old xiphosuran Euproops danae (Xiphosura sensu stricto, Euchelicerata), from the Mazon Creek Lagerstätte (Upper Carboniferous), USA. Recently, the ontogeny of a closely related species, Euproops sp. from the Upper Carboniferous Piesberg quarry, Osnabrück, Germany (informally called 'Piesproops'), has been reconstructed...
January 23, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Satoshi Namai, Asako Sugimoto
Pristionchus pacificus is a free-living nematode used as a model organism for evolutionary developmental and ecological biology. Although a transgenic technique to form complex arrays by microinjection has been established in P. pacificus, transgene expression from the array in the germline and early embryos tends to be silenced. Here, we established a method to integrate transgenes into the genome of P. pacificus using microparticle bombardment with hygromycin B selection. Additionally, we isolated a mutant exhibiting significantly lower autofluorescence in the germline and early embryos, facilitating visualization of transgene-derived fluorescent proteins for live imaging...
January 20, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Myles G Garstang, David E K Ferrier
Retrogenes are formed when an mRNA is reverse-transcribed and reinserted into the genome in a location unrelated to the original locus. If this retrocopy inserts into a transcriptionally favourable locus and is able to carry out its original function, it can, in rare cases, lead to retrogene replacement. This involves the original, often multi-exonic, parental copy being lost whilst the newer single-exon retrogene copy 'replaces' the role of the ancestral parent gene. One example of this is amphioxus SYCP1, a gene that encodes a protein used in synaptonemal complex formation during meiosis and which offers the opportunity to examine how a retrogene evolves after the retrogene replacement event...
January 2, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Kenley N O'Hanlon, Rachel A Dam, Sophie L Archambeault, Celeste A Berg
Deciphering the evolution of morphological structures is a remaining challenge in the field of developmental biology. The respiratory structures of insect eggshells, called the dorsal appendages, provide an outstanding system for exploring these processes since considerable information is known about their patterning and morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster and dorsal appendage number and morphology vary widely across Drosophilid species. We investigated the patterning differences that might facilitate morphogenetic differences between D...
December 20, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Eric M Erkenbrack
Notch signaling is a crucial cog in early development of euechinoid sea urchins, specifying both non-skeletogenic mesodermal lineages and serotonergic neurons in the apical neuroectoderm. Here, the spatial distributions and function of delta, gcm, and hesc, three genes critical to these processes in euechinoids, are examined in the distantly related cidaroid sea urchin Eucidaris tribuloides. Spatial distribution and experimental perturbation of delta and hesc suggest that the function of Notch signaling in ectodermal patterning in early development of E...
December 16, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Jin-Se Kim, Hee-Jin Kwak, Brenda Irene Medina Jiménez, Soon Cheol Park, Ping Xiao, David A Weisblat, Sung-Jin Cho
snail gene family members are zinc-finger transcription factors with key roles in morphogenesis. Involvement of snail family genes in mesoderm formation has been observed in insects and mammals. The snail genes are also involved in cell motility, neural differentiation, cell fate, survival decision, and left-right identity. The functions of snail genes have been studied primarily among ecdysozoans and deuterostomes, with relatively little work carried out in lophotrochozoans. In this study, we isolated two snail homologs (Hau-snail1 and Hau-snail2) from the leech Helobdella austinensis...
November 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Somayeh Rahimi-Kaldeh, Ahmad Ashouri, Alireza Bandani, Kenji Tomioka
The short day lengths of late summer in moderate regions are used to induce diapause in various insects. Many studies have shown the maternal effect of photoperiod on diapause induction of Trichogramma wasps, but there is no study to show the relationship between photoperiodic regimes and clock genes in these useful biological control agents. Here, we investigated the role of photoperiods on diapause, fecundity, and clock gene expression (clk, cyc, cry2, per, and timeout) in asexual and sexual Trichogramma brassicae as a model insect to find any differences between two strains...
November 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Arthur J Hills, James W M Green, Simon C Harvey
Developmental decisions are important in organismal fitness. For the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is naturally found in the ephemeral food patches formed by rotting plant material, correctly committing to dauer or non-dauer larval development is key to genotype survival. To investigate the link between reproductive traits, which will determine how populations grow, and dauer larvae formation, we have analysed these traits in mutation accumulation lines of C. elegans. We find that reproductive traits of individual worms-the total number of progeny and the timing of progeny production-are highly correlated with the population size observed in growing populations...
November 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Tatiana Königsmann, Natascha Turetzek, Matthias Pechmann, Nikola-Michael Prpic
Zinc finger transcription factors of the Sp6-9 group are evolutionarily conserved in all metazoans and have important functions in, e.g., limb formation and heart development. The function of Sp6-9-related genes has been studied in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, but data from chelicerates (spiders and allies) was lacking so far. We have isolated the ortholog of Sp6-9 from the common house spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum and the cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides. We show that the Sp6-9 gene in these spider species is expressed in the developing appendages thus suggesting a conserved role in limb formation...
November 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Suzanne M Peyer, Elizabeth A C Heath-Heckman, Margaret J McFall-Ngai
The protein Crumbs is a determinant of apical-basal cell polarity and plays a role in apoptosis of epithelial cells and their protection against photodamage. Using the squid-vibrio system, a model for development of symbiotic partnerships, we examined the modulation of the crumbs gene in host epithelial tissues during initiation and maintenance of the association. The extracellular luminous symbiont Vibrio fischeri colonizes the apical surfaces of polarized epithelia in deep crypts of the Euprymna scolopes light organ...
November 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Janaina Lima de Oliveira, Iderval Silva Sobrinho-Junior, Samira Chahad-Ehlers, Reinaldo Alves de Brito
The great radiation in the infraorder Cyclorrhapha involved several morphological and molecular changes, including important changes in anterior egg development. During Drosophila oogenesis, exuperantia (exu) is critical for localizing bicoid (bcd) messenger RNA (mRNA) to the anterior region of the oocyte. Because it is phylogenetically older than bcd, which is exclusive to Cyclorrhapha, we hypothesize that exu has undergone adaptive changes to enable this new function. Although exu has been well studied in Drosophila, there is no functional or transcriptional information about it in any other Diptera...
September 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Ricardo Lara-Ramírez, Guillaume Poncelet, Cédric Patthey, Sebastian M Shimeld
COE genes encode transcription factors that have been found in all metazoans examined to date. They possess a distinctive domain structure that includes a DNA-binding domain (DBD), an IPT/TIG domain and a helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain. An intriguing feature of the COE HLH domain is that in jawed vertebrates it is composed of three helices, compared to two in invertebrates. We report the isolation and expression of two COE genes from the brook lamprey Lampetra planeri and compare these to COE genes from the lampreys Lethenteron japonicum and Petromyzon marinus...
September 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Ariella Zehender, Melanie Bayer, Milena Bauer, Bettina Zeis, Anette Preiss, Dieter Maier
The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved in all animal metazoa: upon Notch receptor activation, transcription of Notch target genes is turned on by an activator complex that centers on the transcription factor CSL. In the absence of signal, CSL assembles transcriptional repression complexes that display remarkable evolutionary diversity. The major antagonist of Notch signaling in insects named Hairless was originally identified in Drosophila melanogaster. It binds to the Drosophila CSL homologue Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] and recruits the two general co-repressors, Groucho and C-terminal binding protein...
September 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Chong Pyo Choe, Frank Stellabotte, Susan J Brown
The pair-rule gene odd-paired (opa) is required for the patterning of alternate segment boundaries in the early Drosophila embryo. Mutant phenotypes of opa display a typical pair-rule phenotype in which most of each odd-numbered denticle belt is eliminated. However, among the nine Drosophila pair-rule genes, opa is the only gene that is not expressed in stripes with double segmental periodicity; its transcript and protein are expressed in a broad domain within segmenting embryos. While expression patterns of orthologs of opa have been analyzed in several arthropod species, their regulation and function in segmentation were largely unknown...
September 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Jean-Michel Gibert
Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a given genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to distinct environmental conditions, is widely observed in the wild. It is believed to facilitate evolution and, under the "flexible stem hypothesis", it is thought that an ancestral plastic species can be at the origin of sister lineages with divergent phenotypes fixed by genetic assimilation of alternative morphs. We review here the genetic mechanisms underlying such phenomenon. We show several examples in which the same gene shows transcriptional plasticity in response to environmental factors and divergence of expression within or between species...
September 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Takeshi A Onuma, Masaki Matsuo, Hiroki Nishida
The appendicularian Oikopleura dioica is a planktonic chordate that retains a tadpole shape throughout its life. Its simple and transparent body, invariant cell lineages, fast development and available genome and transcriptome resources make it a promising model organism for research in developmental biology. However, large-scale analysis of gene expression in O. dioica is limited owing to the laborious and time-consuming process of manual removal of the vitelline membrane, because devitellinisation of pre-hatching embryos causes failure of normal development...
September 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
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