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Acta Neuropsychiatrica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30404671/selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibition-increases-noise-burst-induced-unconditioned-and-context-conditioned-freezing
#1
S Melker Hagsäter, Johan Thorén, Robert Pettersson, Elias Eriksson
OBJECTIVE: Whereas long-term administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is effective for the treatment of anxiety disorders, acute administration of these drugs may exert a paradoxical anxiogenic effect. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible effect of an SSRI in situations of unconditioned or limited conditioned fear. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were administered a single dose of an SSRI, escitalopram, before acquisition or expression of context conditioned fear, where noise bursts were used as the unconditioned stimulus...
November 8, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30398129/reconsidering-the-seizure-threshold-a-retrospective-study-about-seizure-quality-among-patients-with-maintenance-ect
#2
Simon Taib, Anna Levy, Christophe Arbus, Laurent Schmitt, Antoine Yrondi
OBJECTIVES: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and validated technique used to treat various psychiatric conditions. It triggers an artificially-induced seizure. This seizure is defined using several parameters such as the amount of energy, duration, frequency, pulse width and intensity. Efficacy and adverse events depend on the amount of energy delivered. Due to technical control, the amount of energy delivered by our unit's ECT device was limited to 614 mC, 60% of the maximum possible output of the device...
November 6, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394240/associations-between-c-reactive-protein-levels-and-cognition-during-the-first-6-months-after-acute-psychosis
#3
Farivar Fathian, Else-Marie Løberg, Rolf Gjestad, Vidar M Steen, Rune A Kroken, Hugo A Jørgensen, Erik Johnsen
OBJECTIVE: Inverse relationships between the C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and cognitive performance in acute psychosis have been demonstrated. We aimed to investigate how the serum level and initial change of CRP in acutely admitted patients with psychosis was correlated with cognitive performance during a 6-months follow-up period. METHODS: The study is part of a pragmatic, randomised trial comparing four different second-generation antipsychotic drugs, and consists of 208 acute phase patients recruited at admittance for psychosis...
November 5, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311596/the-right-to-choose-treatment-without-treatment-respecting-civil-rights-or-an-unprecedented-manifestation-of-reverse-stigma
#4
Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Kyriakos Souliotis
Recently the Norwegian Health Minister ordered the creation of medication-free treatment wards as a result of the lobbying by patients' groups and activists. The idea behind this is that patients should have the right to choose their treatment, but for the first time, with this arrangement, the user/patient does not choose between treatment options; he literally determines by himself what efficacious treatment is. In our opinion this is another step towards a 'reverse stigma' which denies patients the right to be considered as such and eventually kicks them out of the health care system, deprives them of the right for proper treatment and care and instead puts them at the jurisdiction of the much cheaper and ineffective social services...
October 12, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223911/a-randomised-placebo-controlled-24-week-study-evaluating-adjunctive-brexpiprazole-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#5
Michael Bauer, Nanco Hefting, Annika Lindsten, Mette Krog Josiassen, Mary Hobart
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate brexpiprazole adjunctive to antidepressant therapies (ADTs) as maintenance treatment in patients with major depressive disorder with inadequate response to ADT, utilising a novel study design. METHODS: The study comprised an 8-week prospective treatment period with open-label ADT with double-blind placebo treatment and a 24-week randomised treatment period. Investigators and patients were blinded to treatment periods, randomisation criteria, and timing of randomisation...
September 18, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132427/vascular-risk-factors-and-the-relationships-between-cognitive-impairment-and-hypoperfusion-in-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Michio Takahashi, Yasunori Oda, Koichi Sato, Yukihiko Shirayama
OBJECTIVE: Our recent single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) study of patients with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) revealed that regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was reduced in the frontal, temporal, and limbic lobes, and to a lesser degree in the parietal and occipital lobes. Moreover, these patients' scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) were significantly correlated with rCBF in some gyri of the frontal, parietal, and limbic lobes...
August 22, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022741/katakam-and-co-workers-have-not-shown-ssris-to-be-harmful-and-ineffective-and-should-stop-claiming-that-they-have
#7
Fredrik Hieronymus, Alexander Lisinski, Jakob Näslund, Elias Eriksson
Funded by the Danish state to provide guidance in health-related matters, the Copenhagen Trial Unit (CTU) at Rigshospitalet may cause considerable societal harm if allowing their analyses to be influenced by bias and prejudice rather than rigor and impartiality. This is why we found it worthwhile to comment on a report from the CTU in which the authors invoked analyses marred by numerous errors and methodological mistakes to claim that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are harmful and ineffective...
October 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270247/gut-brain-actions-underlying-comorbid-anxiety-and-depression-associated-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Áine Abautret-Daly, Elaine Dempsey, Adolfo Parra-Blanco, Carlos Medina, Andrew Harkin
IntroductionInflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing and remitting disorder characterised by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. There is a growing consensus that IBD is associated with anxiety- and depression-related symptoms. Psychological symptoms appear to be more prevalent during active disease states with no difference in prevalence between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Behavioural disturbances including anxiety- and depression-like symptoms have also been observed in animal models of IBD...
October 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245891/do-not-blame-the-ssris-blame-the-hamilton-depression-rating-scale
#9
LETTER
Søren Dinesen Østergaard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079857/magnetic-resonance-mr-spectroscopic-measurement-of-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-in-major-depression-before-and-after-electroconvulsive-therapy
#10
Marie Krøll Knudsen, Jamie Near, Anne Bastholm Blicher, Poul Videbech, Jakob Udby Blicher
OBJECTIVE: Prior studies suggest that a dysregulation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in the pathophysiology of major depression. We aimed to elucidate changes in cortical GABA content in relation to depression and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). METHODS: In total, 11 patients with major depression or depressive episode of bipolar disorder (mean pre-ECT Ham-17 of 26) and 11 healthy subjects were recruited...
August 6, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565002/quality-of-life-among-parents-of-south-african-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Ayman Alhazmi, Reneva Petersen, Kirsten A Donald
OBJECTIVE: To describe the quality of life (QOL) of South African parents caring for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared with parents of typically developing (TD) children from the same community. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done evaluating the QOL of parents of 52 children (26 parents of children with ASD versus 26 parents of TD children) using a structured measure, (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-BREF). RESULTS: The mean age of the children with ASD was 64...
August 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564992/the-neuropathological-study-of-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-in-the-temporal-lobe-of-schizophrenia-patients
#12
Tomoyasu Marui, Youta Torii, Shuji Iritani, Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Chikako Habuchi, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Kenichi Oshima, Kazuhiro Niizato, Shotaro Hayashida, Katsuhisa Masaki, Junichi Kira, Norio Ozaki
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies based on the neuroimaging analysis, genomic analysis and transcriptome analysis of the postmortem brain suggest that the pathogenesis of schizophrenia is related to myelin-oligodendrocyte abnormalities. However, no serious neuropathological investigation of this protein in the schizophrenic brain has yet been performed. In this study, to confirm the change in neuropathological findings due to the pathogenesis of this disease, we observed the expression of myelin-oligodendrocyte directly in the brain tissue of schizophrenia patients...
August 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559020/gene-polymorphisms-and-response-to-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia
#13
Harleen Chhabra, Venkataram Shivakumar, Manjula Subbanna, Sunil V Kalmady, Anushree Bose, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Vanteemar S Sreeraj, Damodharan Dinakaran, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Monojit Debnath, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
OBJECTIVE: Recent observations demonstrate a significant ameliorative effect of add-on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia. Of the many SNPs, NRG1 rs35753505 and catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) rs4680 polymorphisms have shown to have a strong association with neuroplasticity effect in schizophrenia. METHODS: Schizophrenia patients (n=32) with treatment resistant auditory hallucinations were administered with an add-on tDCS...
August 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559016/differential-plastic-changes-in-synthesis-and-binding-in-the-mouse-somatostatin-system-after-electroconvulsive-stimulation
#14
Mikkel Vestergaard Olesen, Casper René Gøtzsche, Søren Hofman Christiansen, David Paul Drucker Woldbye
OBJECTIVE: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is regularly used to treat patients with severe major depression, but the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects remain uncertain. Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) regulates diverse neurotransmitter systems and induces anticonvulsant effects, properties implicated in mediating therapeutic effects of ECT. Somatostatin (SST) is a candidate for mediating these effects because it is upregulated by ECS and exerts seizure-suppressant effects...
August 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530104/the-association-between-school-exam-grades-and-subsequent-development-of-bipolar-disorder
#15
Steffie Damgaard Pedersen, Søren Dinesen Østergaard, Liselotte Petersen
OBJECTIVE: Prior studies have indicated that both high and low school grades are associated with development of bipolar disorder (BD), but these studies have not adjusted for parental history of mental disorder, which is a likely confounder. Furthermore, the association between school grades and bipolar I disorder (BD-I) has not been studied. Therefore, we aimed to study the association between school exam grades and subsequent development of BD and BD-I while adjusting for parental history of mental disorder...
August 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501075/clinical-validation-of-the-psychotic-depression-assessment-scale-pdas-against-independent-global-severity-ratings-in-older-adults
#16
Tom Vermeulen, Lieve Lemey, Linda Van Diermen, Didier Schrijvers, Yamina Madani, Bernard Sabbe, Maarten J A Van Den Bossche, Roos C van der Mast, Søren D Østergaard
OBJECTIVES: According to a recent study, ratings on the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) obtained via a dedicated semi-structured interview are valid measures of the severity of psychotic depression. This study aimed to further test the validity, scalability and responsiveness of the PDAS in older adults using independent ratings on the Clinical Global Impression Scale - Severity (CGI-S) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) as references. METHODS: Ratings were performed at admission and discharge at two old age psychiatric wards in Flanders, Belgium...
August 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409548/a-clinimetric-analysis-of-a-bprs-6-scale-for-schizophrenia-severity
#17
Per Bech, Stephen F Austin, Nina Timmerby, Thomas A Ban, Stine Bjerrum Møller
OBJECTIVE: A restricted Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-6) with the six schizophrenia specific items from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) has been investigated. These six items from the PANSS have recently been found to have both clinical validity and 'unidimensionality' in measuring the severity of schizophrenic states. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical validity of the BPRS-6. The secondary objective was to evaluate the 'unidimensionality' of the BPRS-6 by an 'item response theory' model...
August 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058525/observer-rated-retardation-but-not-agitation-corresponds-to-objective-motor-measures-in-depression
#18
Linda van Diermen, Sebastian Walther, Olivia Cools, Erik Fransen, Tom K Birkenhäger, Bernard C G Sabbe, Didier Schrijvers
OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlations between observer ratings and instrumental parameters across domains of psychomotor functioning in depression. METHOD: In total, 73 patients with major depressive disorder underwent extensive psychomotor and clinical testing. Psychomotor functioning was assessed with (i) an observer-rated scale (the CORE measure) and also objectively with (ii) 24-h actigraphy, and (iii) a fine motor drawing task. RESULTS: Observer ratings of retardation correlated with instrumental assessments of fine and gross motor functioning...
July 30, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008280/mediator-effects-of-parameters-of-inflammation-and-neurogenesis-from-a-n-acetyl-cysteine-clinical-trial-for-bipolar-depression
#19
Bruna Panizzutti, Chiara Bortolasci, Kyoko Hasebe, Srisaiyini Kidnapillai, Laura Gray, Ken Walder, Michael Berk, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, Seetal Dodd, Clarissa Gama, Pedro V Magalhães, Susan M Cotton, Flávio Kapczinski, Ashley I Bush, Gin S Malhi, Olivia M Dean
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore effects of adjunctive treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on markers of inflammation and neurogenesis in bipolar depression. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a placebo-controlled randomised trial. Serum samples were collected at baseline, week 8, and week 32 of the open-label and maintenance phases of the clinical trial to determine changes in interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) following adjunctive NAC treatment, and to explore mediation and moderator effects of the listed markers...
July 16, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909818/individual-responses-of-rodents-in-modelling-of-affective-disorders-and-in-their-treatment-prospective-review
#20
Haim Einat, Itamar Ezer, Nirit Z Kara, Catherine Belzung
IntroductionLack of good animal models for affective disorders, including major depression and bipolar disorder, is noted as a major bottleneck in attempts to study these disorders and develop better treatments. We suggest that an important approach that can help in the development and use of better models is attention to variability between model animals. RESULTS: Differences between mice strains were studied for some decades now, and sex differences get more attention than in the past...
June 18, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
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