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Acta Neuropsychiatrica

Shin-Eui Park, Nam-Gil Choi, Gwang-Woo Jeong
OBJECTIVE: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to evaluate metabolic changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: In total, 14 OCD patients (mean age 28.9±7.2 years) and 14 healthy controls (mean age 32.6±7.1 years) with no history of neurological and psychiatric illness participated in this study. Brain metabolite concentrations were measured from a localised voxel on the right DLPFC using a 3-Tesla 1H-MRS...
October 17, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Ana Luiza Zaninotto, Jessica Elias Vicentini, Davi Jorge Fontoura Solla, Tatiana Tateishi Silva, Vinicius Monteiro de Paula Guirado, Fabrício Feltrin, Mara Cristina Souza de Lucia, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Wellingson Silva Paiva
OBJECTIVE: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is prevalent in traumatic brain injury (TBI), and is often associated with poor outcomes and cognitive impairment, including memory deficits. Few studies have explored visual memory after TBI and its relationship to executive functioning. Executive functioning is crucial for remembering an object's location, operating devices, driving, and route finding. We compared visual memory performance via the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test 6 and 12 months after DAI...
October 11, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Sarel Jacobus Brand, Brian Herbert Harvey
OBJECTIVE: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) displays high co-morbidity with major depression and treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Earlier work demonstrated exaggerated depressive-like symptoms in a gene×environment model of TRD and an abrogated response to imipramine. We extended the investigation by studying the behavioural and monoaminergic response to multiple antidepressants, viz. venlafaxine and ketamine with/without imipramine. METHODS: Male Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rats, a genetic model of depression, were exposed to a time-dependent sensitisation (TDS) model of PTSD and compared with stress naive controls...
October 3, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Feyza Alyu, Miriş Dikmen
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease characterised with seizures. The aetiology of the most generalised epilepsies cannot be explicitly determined and the seizures are pronounced to be genetically determined by disturbances of receptors in central nervous system. Besides, neurotransmitter distributions or other metabolic problems are supposed to involve in epileptogenesis. Lack of adequate data about pharmacological agents that have antiepileptogenic effects point to need of research on this field...
October 3, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Wildéa Lice de Carvalho Jennings Pereira, Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche, Ana Paula Kallaur, Sayonara Rangel Oliveira, Andréa Name Colado Simão, Marcell Alysson Batisti Lozovoy, Lucas José Vaz Schiavão, Paula Raquel do Vale Pascoal Rodrigues, Daniela Frizon Alfieri, Tamires Flauzino, Damacio Ramón Kaimen-Maciel
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the frequency of autoimmune disorders and autoantibodies in 22 patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), as well as whether the seropositivity for autoantibodies differs between anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) positive and AQP4 negative NMO patients. METHODS: Demographic, medical records, and a profile of autoantibodies were evaluated in 22 NMO patients, including AQP4, anti-thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-thyroperoxidase (anti-TPO), anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg), anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic, anti-cyclic citrullinate peptide, rheumatoid factor, anti-SSA/Ro, anti-SSB/La, anti-Smith antibodies (anti-Sm), anti-ribonucleoprotein, anti-nucleosome, and anti-Scl70...
October 3, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Michiyo Yagi, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Michiko Nakazato, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Kazuhiro Ishikawa, Chihiro Sutoh, Haruko Miyata, Junko Matsumoto, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Takayuki Obata, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu, Akiko Nakagawa
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the severities of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and white matter alterations. METHODS: We applied tract-based spatial statistics for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquired by 3T magnetic resonance imaging. First, we compared fractional anisotropy (FA) between 20 OCD patients and 30 healthy controls (HC). Then, applying whole brain analysis, we searched the brain regions showing correlations between the severities of symptom dimensions assessed by Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised and FA in all participants...
September 13, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Sarel Jacobus Brand, Brian Herbert Harvey
OBJECTIVE: Co-morbid depression with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often treatment resistant. In developing a preclinical model of treatment-resistant depression (TRD), we combined animal models of depression and PTSD to produce an animal with more severe as well as treatment-resistant depressive-like behaviours. METHODS: Male Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rats, a genetic animal model of depression, were exposed to a stress re-stress model of PTSD [time-dependent sensitisation (TDS)] and compared with stress-naive controls...
August 30, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
J Pawlak, M Dmitrzak-Węglarz, M Maciukiewicz, P Kapelski, P Czerski, A Leszczyńska-Rodziewicz, D Zaremba, J Hauser
: Introduction The influence of personality traits on suicidal behaviour risk has been well documented. Personality traits and suicidal behaviour are partially genetically determined and personality has been described as an endophenotype of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between personality traits with suicidal behaviour and selected serotonergic gene polymorphisms. METHODS: In the study we included 156 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder (BP) and 93 healthy controls...
August 30, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Triptish Bhatia, Sati Mazumdar, Joel Wood, Fanyin He, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Smita N Deshpande
BACKGROUND: Yoga and physical exercise have been used as adjunctive intervention for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ), but controlled comparisons are lacking. Aims A single-blind randomised controlled trial was designed to evaluate whether yoga training or physical exercise training enhance cognitive functions in SZ, based on a prior pilot study. METHODS: Consenting, clinically stable, adult outpatients with SZ (n=286) completed baseline assessments and were randomised to treatment as usual (TAU), supervised yoga training with TAU (YT) or supervised physical exercise training with TAU (PE)...
August 12, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Sónia Martins, José Artur Paiva, Mário R Simões, Lia Fernandes
OBJECTIVE: Among cognitive reserve markers, educational attainment is the most widely studied, with several studies establishing a strong association with risk of dementia. However, it has not yet been fully examined in delirium. This study aims to analyse the relationship between educational attainment and delirium. METHODS: The study included elderly hospitalised patients admitted (≥48 h) into an intermediate care unit (IMCU) of Intensive Care Medicine Service...
August 9, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Shareefa Dalvie, Samantha J Brooks, Valerie Cardenas, George Fein, Raj Ramesar, Dan J Stein
OBJECTIVE: Brain structure differences and adolescent alcohol dependence both show substantial heritability. However, exactly which genes are responsible for brain volume variation in adolescents with substance abuse disorders are currently unknown. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether genetic variants previously implicated in psychiatric disorders are associated with variation in brain volume in adolescents with alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHODS: The cohort consisted of 58 adolescents with DSM-IV AUD and 58 age and gender-matched controls of mixed ancestry ethnicity...
August 8, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Anna Truzzi, Vincenzo Paolo Senese, Peipei Setoh, Cristian Ripoli, Gianluca Esposito
OBJECTIVE: We investigated how different levels of prenatal exposure to testosterone influence physiological reactions to dyadic interactions, hypothesising that higher levels of prenatal testosterone are linked to greater physiological responses. METHOD: Autonomic nervous system responses to dyadic interactions focussed on social or physical norms were measured. Physiological assessment of excitability (heart rate, facial temperature) and a behavioural assessment (Likert items judgements) were run on 25 neurotypical participants who had distinct testosterone exposure levels in utero...
October 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Marthe S Thagaard, Stephen V Faraone, Edmund J Sonuga-Barke, Søren D Østergaard
OBJECTIVE: ADHD is a prevalent and highly heritable mental disorder associated with significant impairment, morbidity and increased rates of mortality. This combination of high prevalence and high morbidity/mortality seen in ADHD and other mental disorders presents a challenge to natural selection-based models of human evolution. Several hypotheses have been proposed in an attempt to resolve this apparent paradox. The aim of this study was to review the evidence for these hypotheses. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on empirical investigations of natural selection-based evolutionary accounts for ADHD in adherence with the PRISMA guideline...
October 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Ronna Fried, Gagan Joshi, Pradeep Bhide, Amanda Pope, Maribel Galdo, Ariana Koster, James Chan, Stephen V Faraone, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: To examine the unique neuropsychological presentation in adults with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HF-ASD) by comparison with adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Adults with ASD referred to a specialty clinic (n=26) were compared to two non-ASD groups with (n=52) and without (n=52) ADHD of similar age and sex. RESULTS: No differences in IQ were found. Subjects with HF-ASD were significantly more impaired than both comparison groups in processing speed, cognitive flexibility and sight words...
October 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Michela Balconi, Roberta Finocchiaro
OBJECTIVE: The present research explored the cortical correlates of rewarding mechanisms and cortical 'unbalance' effect in internet addiction (IA) vulnerability. METHODS: Internet Addiction Inventory (IAT) and personality trait (Behavioural Inhibition System, BIS; Behavioural Activation System, BAS) were applied to 28 subjects. Electroencephalographic (EEG, alpha frequency band) and response times (RTs) were registered during a Go-NoGo task execution in response to different online stimuli: gambling videos, videogames or neutral stimuli...
October 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Ole André Solbakken, Allan Abbass
OBJECTIVE: The study investigated the effectiveness of an 8-week intensive residential treatment programme based on principles from intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy for patients with known treatment-resistant anxiety- and/or depressive disorders (mainly with comorbid personality disorders). METHODS: Patients (N=95) with prior repeated treatment failure were included. Changes in self-reported target complaints, symptom severity, and overall interpersonal problems have been presented for these patients in two previous articles...
October 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Yu-Chi Huang, Liang-Jen Wang, Mian-Yoon Chong
OBJECTIVE: The escalating tendency of elderly population aged 65 and over, which grown up to 9% since 2001 in Taiwan, remarks the important issue of mental health among ageing population. Depression in the elderly is frequently undetected or inadequately treated. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacotherapy of elderly patients with depression by comparing the patterns of prescribing psychotropic drugs (psychotropics) of psychiatrists and non-psychiatrists. METHODS: A random sampling of 5% of inpatients from the National Health Insurance (NHI) database in Taiwan from 2001 to 2003 was selected...
October 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Andrea E Cavanna, Stefano Seri
OBJECTIVE: The discipline of clinical neuropsychiatry currently provides specialised services for a number of conditions that cross the traditional boundaries of neurology and psychiatry, including non-epileptic attack disorder. Neurophysiological investigations have an important role within neuropsychiatry services, with video-electroencephalography (EEG) telemetry being the gold standard investigation for the differential diagnosis between epileptic seizures and non-epileptic attacks...
August 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Soumaya Bourgou, Soumeyya Halayem, Isabelle Amado, Racha Triki, Marie Chantal Bourdel, Nicolas Franck, Marie Odile Krebs, Karim Tabbane, Asma Bouden
OBJECTIVE: We examined Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and their correlation with clinical findings and Executive Functions (EF). METHODS: The ToM abilities of 12 adolescents with EOS were compared with those of healthy participants matched in age and educational level. The Moving Shapes Paradigm was used to explore ToM abilities in three modalities: random movement, goal-directed movement and ToM - scored on the dimensions of intentionality, appropriateness and length of each answer...
August 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Ana Belén Segarra, Joaquín Hernández, Isabel Prieto, Marc de Gasparo, Manuel Ramírez-Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of acute restraint stress (ARS) on plasma enkephalinase and oxytocinase activities. ARS modifies basal activities in cortico-limbic regions of rats and induces changes in the correlations observed between these regions. The interactions between plasma and cortico-limbic activities will be also evaluated. METHODS: Enkephalinase (AlaAP and LeuAP) and oxytocinase (P-LeuAP) activities were fluorometrically determined in plasma of control and stressed rats using aminoacyl-β-naphthylamides (aaNNap), AlaNNap and LeuNNap as substrates...
August 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
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