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Acta Neuropsychiatrica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938441/a-dual-inhibitor-of-faah-and-trpv1-channels-shows-dose-dependent-effect-on-depression-like-behaviour-in-rats
#1
Christian Kirkedal, Gregers Wegener, Fabricio Moreira, Sâmia Regiane Lourenco Joca, Nico Liebenberg
OBJECTIVE: The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) are proposed to mediate opposite behavioural responses. Their common denominator is the endocannabinoid ligand anandamide (AEA), which is believed to mediate antidepressant-like effect via CB1-R stimulation and depressive-like effect via TRPV1 activation. This is supposed to explain the bell-shaped dose-response curve for anandamide in preclinical models. METHODS: We investigated this assumption by administering the dual inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis and TRPV1 activation N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5HT) into the medial prefrontal cortex of rats...
December 12, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938419/increased-gabaa-receptor-binding-in-amygdala-after-prenatal-administration-of-valproic-acid-to-rats
#2
Freja Bertelsen, Arne Møller, Davide Folloni, Kim Ryun Drasbek, Jørgen Scheel-Krüger, Anne M Landau
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) enhances the risk for later development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). An altered gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system may be a key factor in ASD. Here we investigated possible changes in the GABA system in rats exposed to a low dose of prenatal VPA. METHOD: We performed autoradiography with [3H]muscimol, (a GABAA receptor agonist), and [11C]Ro15-4513 (a partial agonist of the GABAA α1+5 receptor subtypes), in brain sections containing amygdala, thalamus and hippocampus of rats treated prenatally with 20 mg/kg VPA or saline from the 12th day of gestation...
December 12, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923415/association-of-body-mass-index-related-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-with-psychiatric-disease-and-memory-performance-in-a-japanese-population
#3
Midori Ninomiya-Baba, Junko Matsuo, Daimei Sasayama, Hiroaki Hori, Toshiya Teraishi, Miho Ota, Kotaro Hattori, Takamasa Noda, Ikki Ishida, Shigenobu Shibata, Hiroshi Kunugi
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a risk factor for psychiatric diseases. Recently, a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to be related to body mass index (BMI). In this study, we investigated the association of BMI-related SNPs with psychiatric diseases and one of their endophenotypes, memory performance, in a Japanese population. METHODS: The subjects were 1624 patients with one of three psychiatric diseases (799 patients with major depressive disorder, 594 with schizophrenia, and 231 with bipolar disorder) and 1189 healthy controls...
December 7, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923413/impact-of-enriched-environment-on-production-of-tau-amyloid-precursor-protein-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-in-high-fat-and-high-sucrose-fed-rats
#4
Yavuz Selvi, Hasan Serdar Gergerlioglu, Nursel Akbaba, Mehmet Oz, Ali Kandeger, Enver Ahmet Demir, Fatma Humeyra Yerlikaya, Kismet Esra Nurullahoglu-Atalik
OBJECTIVE: The Western-type diet is associated with an elevated risk of Alzheimer's disease and other milder forms of cognitive impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the environmental enrichment on amyloid and tau pathology in high-fat and high-sucrose-fed rats. METHODS: In total, 40 adult male rats were categorised into two main groups according to their housing conditions: enriched environment (EE, n=16) and standard housing condition (n=24)...
December 7, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923411/reliability-of-basal-plasma-vasopressin-concentrations-in-healthy-male-adults
#5
Daniel S Quintana, Lars T Westlye, Knut T Smerud, Ramy A Mahmoud, Per G Djupesland, Ole A Andreassen
OBJECTIVE: The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important and interrelated roles in modulating mammalian social behaviour. While the OT system has received considerable research attention for its potential to treat psychiatric symptoms, comparatively little is known about the role of the AVP system in human social behaviour. To better understand the intraindividual stability of basal AVP, the present study assessed the reproducibility of basal plasma AVP concentrations...
December 7, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919302/exercise-and-depression-where-do-we-go-from-here-a-rebuttal-to-schuch-et-al
#6
Fabien David Legrand, Elise Neff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919300/a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial-of-transcranial-pulsed-electromagnetic-fields-in-patients-with-multiple-chemical-sensitivity
#7
Marie Thi Dao Tran, Sine Skovbjerg, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Karl Bang Christensen, Jesper Elberling
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of transcranially applied pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on functional impairments and symptom severity in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) patients. METHODS: The study was conducted as a nationwide trial in Denmark using a randomised, parallel-group, double-blind and placebo-controlled design. Sample size was estimated at 40 participants. Eligibility criteria were age 18-75 years and fulfilment of the MCS case criteria...
December 6, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876102/structural-functional-brain-changes-in-depressed-patients-during-and-after-electroconvulsive-therapy
#8
Antoine Yrondi, Patrice Péran, Anne Sauvaget, Laurent Schmitt, Christophe Arbus
OBJECTIVES: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a non-pharmacological treatment that is effective in treating severe and treatment-resistant depression. Although the efficacy of ECT has been demonstrated to treat major depressive disorder (MDD), the brain mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Structural-functional changes occur with the use of ECT as a treatment for depression based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For this reason, we have tried to identify the changes that were identified by MRI to try to clarify some operating mechanisms of ECT...
November 23, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866486/the-effects-of-cannabis-use-on-salience-attribution-a-systematic-review
#9
Surapi Bhairavi Wijayendran, Aisling O'Neill, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between cannabis use and the onset of psychosis is well established. Aberrant salience processing is widely thought to underpin many of these symptoms. Literature explicitly investigating the relationship between aberrant salience processing and cannabis use is scarce; with those few studies finding that acute tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration (the main psychoactive component of cannabis) can result in abnormal salience processing in healthy cohorts, mirroring that observed in psychosis...
November 21, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852343/pregnancy-and-bipolar-disorder-the-risk-of-recurrence-when-discontinuing-treatment-with-mood-stabilisers-a-systematic-review
#10
Erik Roj Larsen, Kristina Saric
OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder in pregnancy may be difficult to treat. The dilemma is whether the women should continue medication throughout pregnancy, and maybe accept a minor risk to harm their unborn child, or discontinue medication and increase the risk of recurrence, which can lead to maternal morbidity, thereby endangering themselves and their foetus. Design and methods In September 2016, three electronic search databases; PubMed, Scopus and PsycInfo, were used searching for clinical trials concerning this question...
November 17, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846922/brexpiprazole-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-overview-of-short-and-long-term-phase-3-controlled-studies
#11
Stephen R Marder, Mika Juhani Hakala, Mette Krog Josiassen, Peter Zhang, John Ouyang, Emmanuelle Weiller, Catherine Weiss, Mary Hobart
OBJECTIVE: Review efficacy, safety, and tolerability of brexpiprazole in patients with schizophrenia in short- and long-term phase 3 studies. METHODS: Patients experiencing a current exacerbation of schizophrenia received brexpiprazole in two fixed-dose (2 and 4 mg), 6-week, placebo-controlled studies, one flexible-dose (2-4 mg), 6-week, placebo-control and active reference study, and one fixed-dose (1-4 mg), 52-week, placebo-controlled maintenance study. RESULTS: The efficacy of brexpiprazole was demonstrated in the two short-term fixed-dose studies with statistically significant improvements from baseline in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score compared with placebo...
November 16, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819195/long-term-effects-of-pre-pubertal-fluoxetine-on-behaviour-and-monoaminergic-stress-response-in-stress-sensitive-rats
#12
Nico Johan Badenhorst, Linda Brand, Brian Herbert Harvey, Susanna Maria Ellis, Christiaan Beyers Brink
OBJECTIVE: Although prescription rates of antidepressants for children and adolescents have increased, concerns have been raised regarding effects on neurodevelopment and long-term outcome. Using a genetic animal model of depression, this study investigated the long-term effects of pre-pubertal administration of fluoxetine (FLX) on depressive-like behaviour in early adulthood, as well as on central monoaminergic response to an acute stressor. We postulated that pre-pubertal FLX will have lasting effects on animal behaviour and monoaminergic stress responses in early adulthood...
November 7, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776567/use-of-antidepressants-in-patients-with-depression-and-comorbid-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review
#13
Subethini Roopan, Erik Roj Larsen
OBJECTIVE: Depression may be difficult to treat and with comorbid diabetes mellitus (DM) it is an even bigger challenge. This article aims to evaluate antidepressants most suitable for patients with depression and comorbid DM. Design and methods Initially we searched for randomised, controlled double-blind trials of treatment with antidepressants in depressed with DM but there were only a few studies and many of them were small trials. Thus, we decided to include studies that were not only randomised-controlled trials...
October 25, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772538/proposing-the-short-neurological-evaluation-scale
#14
Akin Ojagbemi, Robin Emsley, Oye Gureje
OBJECTIVES: The time required in completing the 26 items of neurological examinations in the standard Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES) may limit its utility in pragmatic clinical situations. We propose the Short Neurological Evaluation Scale (S-NES) for use in busy clinical settings, and in research. METHODS: Using confirmatory factor analyses, we identified 12 items of neurological examination showing significant overlap with previously reported theoretical and empirical categories of neurological soft signs (NSS) in schizophrenia...
October 24, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772535/1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-evidence-for-occipital-involvement-in-treatment-naive-paediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#15
Maria Ljungberg, Marie K L Nilsson, Karin Melin, Lars Jönsson, Arvid Carlsson, Åsa Carlsson, Eva Forssell-Aronsson, Tord Ivarsson, Maria Carlsson, Göran Starck
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder leading to considerable distress and disability. Therapies are effective in a majority of paediatric patients, however, many only get partial response. It is therefore important to study the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. METHODS: 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to study the concentration of brain metabolites in four different locations (cingulate gyrus and sulcus, occipital cortex, thalamus and right caudate nucleus)...
October 24, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772534/glial-cells-as-key-elements-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-bipolar-disorder
#16
Mojtaba Keshavarz
OBJECTIVE: The exact pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is not yet fully understood, and there are many questions in this area which should be answered. This review aims to discuss the roles of glial cells in the pathophysiology of BD and their contribution to the mechanism of action of mood-stabilising drugs. METHODS: We critically reviewed the most recent advances regarding glial cell roles in the pathophysiology and treatment of BD and the neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of these cells...
October 24, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725006/visuospatial-memory-improvement-in-patients-with-diffuse-axonal-injury-dai-a-1-year-follow-up-study
#17
Ana Luiza Zaninotto, Jessica Elias Vicentini, Davi Jorge Fontoura Solla, Tatiana Tateishi Silva, Vinicius Monteiro de Paula Guirado, Fabrício Feltrin, Mara Cristina Souza de Lucia, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Wellingson Silva Paiva
OBJECTIVE: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is prevalent in traumatic brain injury (TBI), and is often associated with poor outcomes and cognitive impairment, including memory deficits. Few studies have explored visual memory after TBI and its relationship to executive functioning. Executive functioning is crucial for remembering an object's location, operating devices, driving, and route finding. We compared visual memory performance via the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test 6 and 12 months after DAI...
February 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692004/inflammatory-aspects-of-epileptogenesis-contribution-of-molecular-inflammatory-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Feyza Alyu, Miriş Dikmen
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease characterised with seizures. The aetiology of the most generalised epilepsies cannot be explicitly determined and the seizures are pronounced to be genetically determined by disturbances of receptors in central nervous system. Besides, neurotransmitter distributions or other metabolic problems are supposed to involve in epileptogenesis. Lack of adequate data about pharmacological agents that have antiepileptogenic effects point to need of research on this field...
February 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406788/decreased-levels-of-kynurenic-acid-in-prefrontal-cortex-in-a-genetic-animal-model-of-depression
#19
Xi-Cong Liu, Sophie Erhardt, Michel Goiny, Göran Engberg, Aleksander A Mathé
OBJECTIVE: There is a growing interest in the role of kynurenine pathway and tryptophan metabolites in the pathophysiology of depression. In the present study, the metabolism of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway was analysed in a rat model of depression. METHODS: Kynurenic acid (KYNA) and 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontal cortex (FC) in a rat model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) and their controls, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats...
February 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387606/serotonin-and-poor-neonatal-adaptation-after-antidepressant-exposure-in-utero
#20
Noera Kieviet, Vera van Keulen, Peter Marinus van de Ven, Koert Melchior Dolman, Martine Deckers, Adriaan Honig
OBJECTIVE: Infants exposed to selective antidepressants (SADs) in utero are at risk to develop poor neonatal adaptation (PNA) postpartum. As symptoms are non-specific and the aetiology of PNA is unknown, the diagnostic process is hampered. We hypothesised that the serotonin metabolism plays a role in the aetiology of PNA. METHODS: In this controlled study, infants admitted postpartum from February 2012 to August 2013 were included and followed for 3 days. Infants exposed to SADs during at least the last 2 weeks of fetal life were included in the patient group (n=63)...
February 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
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